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Sample records for betel quid chewing

  1. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour in Malaysian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani, W. M. N.; I. A. Razak; Yang, Y. H.; Talib, N. A.; Ikeda, N; Axell, T.; P C Gupta; Handa, Y.; N Abdullah; Zain, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Betel quid chewing is a common habit widely practiced in Southern Asian populations. However, variations are seen in the content of a betel quid across the different countries. Factors associated with commencement and cessation of this habit has been numerously studied. Unfortunately, data on Malaysian population is non-existent. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the inception and also cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour among Malaysian adults. Method....

  2. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour in Malaysian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Handa Yujiro; Gupta Prakash C; Axell Tony; Ikeda Noriaki; Talib Norain A; Yang Yi-Hsin; Razak Ishak A; Ghani Wan MN; Abdullah Norlida; Zain Rosnah B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Betel quid chewing is a common habit widely practiced in Southern Asian populations. However, variations are seen in the content of a betel quid across the different countries. Factors associated with commencement and cessation of this habit has been numerously studied. Unfortunately, data on Malaysian population is non-existent. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the inception and also cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour among Malaysian adults....

  3. Betel quid chewing in rural Bangladesh: prevalence, predictors and relationship to blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Heck, Julia E.; Marcotte, Erin L; Argos, Maria; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Sarwar, Golam; HASAN, Rabiul; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background Betel quid is chewed by 600 million people worldwide and it has been linked to obesity and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of our study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of betel quid chewing in a rural area of Bangladesh, and determine its effects on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure.

  4. Khmer dental and medical students' knowledge about the betel quid chewing habit in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, P A; Schmidtberg, W; Scheifele, C

    1997-08-01

    95 of 144 questionnaires submitted by volunteer Khmer medical and dental students on the betel quid chewing habit in Cambodia were evaluated (58 medical, 37 dental). Questions related to the composition of the betel quid, the physiological and oral effects as well as traditional and sociological aspects. Statistical tests showed that there were differences between dental and medical students, particularly relating to the knowledge about oral effects. While 81.1% of dental students knew that betel quid chewing causes oral cancer, only 31.0% of the medical students were adequately informed. Similarly, 51.4% of the dental students knew about the relation between betel quid chewing and submucous fibrosis compared to 8.6% of the medical students (P chewing strengthens the gum, while 56.9% of the medical students believed that betel quid chewing would have this effect (P chewing habit was also indicated by the fact that while 5.3% of students had parents chewing betel quid, in contrast 40% of students reported grandparents with this habit. There are deficiencies of knowledge about the most important effects of betel quid chewing, particularly in medical students. Since both medical and dental students will in their future professional life have an enormous impact on health and health education, it seems justified that the dental and medical curricula should focus on these traditional habits. Proper health education starting in the dental and medical school is warranted in Cambodia and probably also in other South and Southeast Asian countries where the betel quid chewing habit is prevalent so as ultimately to improve public knowledge on the oral and other effects of this habit. PMID:9567917

  5. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg-1) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg-1) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg-1), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg-1 (SD 0.02 mg kg-1). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg-1) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg-1), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  6. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I., E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg{sup -1}) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg{sup -1}) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg{sup -1}), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg{sup -1} (SD 0.02 mg kg{sup -1}). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg{sup -1}) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  7. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handa Yujiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid chewing is a common habit widely practiced in Southern Asian populations. However, variations are seen in the content of a betel quid across the different countries. Factors associated with commencement and cessation of this habit has been numerously studied. Unfortunately, data on Malaysian population is non-existent. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the inception and also cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour among Malaysian adults. Method This study is part of a nationwide survey on oral mucosal lesions carried out among 11,697 adults in all fourteen states in Malaysia. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information and details on betel quid chewing habit such as duration, type and frequency. The Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated and plotted to compare the rates for the commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios for factors related to commencement or cessation of this habit. Results Of the total subjects, 8.2% were found to be betel quid chewers. This habit was more prevalent among females and, in terms of ethnicity, among the Indians and the Indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak. Cessation of this habit was more commonly seen among males and the Chinese. Females were found to be significantly more likely to start (p Conclusion Factors that influence the development and cessation of this behaviour are gender, age, ethnicity, and also history of smoking habit while frequency and type of quid chewed are important factors for cessation of this habit.

  8. Prevalence of betel quid chewing habit in Taiwan and related sociodemographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Y C; Chiang, T A; Chang, S J; Hsieh, S F

    1992-07-01

    The prevalence of betel quid chewing habit in Taiwan was surveyed in a group of Chinese people from Kaohsiung city and in a second group from the aboriginal inhabitants of South Taiwan. In all 1299 participants constituted Group 1 (85.2% response rate) and 827 Group 2 (70.1% response rate). People were interviewed in their homes in house-to-house survey, according to a structured questionnaire developed and evaluated by the authors. Of the Kaohsiung inhabitants covering all ages and both sexes, 6% was a current betel chewer and 4% was an ex-chewer, whereas 42% of the aborigines aged over 15 yr was a current chewer and 1% an ex-chewer. Lifetime prevalence was 10%. Betel chewing enjoys islandwide popularity among the 20 million inhabitants of Taiwan; the number of current and ex-users was estimated at 2.0 million (95% CI 1.6-2.4 million). The betel quid was prepared in two different ways. In one, used mainly by aborigines, fresh areca nut was simply wrapped with betel leaf and in another, popular mainly among Chinese, a lengthwise piece of betel fruit and lime paste was sandwiched between two halves of an areca nut. A high proportion of chewers was also a smoker and drinker, but tobacco was not found to be chewed together with betel quid. Consumption varied between 14 to 23 portions per day, with individual frequencies ranging widely from 1 to over 200 portions a day. A statistical analysis of sociodemographic factors showed that lesser educated older men, blue collar workers, smokers and drinkers were the likeliest betel chewers. PMID:1501158

  9. Epidemiology of betel quid usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P C; Ray, C S

    2004-07-01

    Betel quid chewing is an ancient practice common in many countries of Asia and among migrated communities in Africa, Europe and North America. It enjoys complete social acceptance in many societies and is also popular among women. In its most basic form, betel quid consists of betel leaf (Piper betel), areca nut, the main psychoactive ingredient, and slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). Areca nut is said to be the fourth most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world, after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. There are a great variety of ingredients and ways of preparing betel quid in different countries. In some, particularly in India, tobacco is added to the quid. In recent years, commercially-manufactured non-perishable forms of betel quid (pan masala or betel quid mixtures and gutka), not containing betel leaf, have been marketed. Within a short period of about 2 decades, this industry has risen in value to several hundred US million dollars. Use of areca nut in any form is not safe for oral health; the use of commercially manufactured forms seems even riskier. PMID:15389304

  10. Betel quid-induced oral lichen planus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoopler, Eric T; Parisi, Ernesta; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2003-04-01

    The social use of betel nut is relatively common in certain geographic areas, especially India and Southeast Asia. The term betel nut does not truly describe the product that is chewed; rather, the term quid is more accurate because it refers to a substance or mixture of substances, including the areca nut, that are chewed and remain in contact with the mucosa. Betel quid is a type of quid that contains betel leaf. Chewer's mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis are clinical entities that have been associated with betel quid use. We report a case of oral lichen planus induced by betel quid use in a 79-year-old Cambodian woman. PMID:12729096

  11. Oral mucosal lesions associated with betel quid, areca nut and tobacco chewing habits: consensus from a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 25-27, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, R B; Ikeda, N; Gupta, P C; Warnakulasuriya, S; van Wyk, C W; Shrestha, P; Axéll, T

    1999-01-01

    A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that "quid" be defined as "a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or both of the two basic ingredients, tobacco and/or areca nut, in raw or any manufactured or processed form." Clear delineations on contents of the quid (areca nut quid, tobacco quid, and tobacco and areca nut quid) are recommended as absolute criteria with finer subdivisions to be added if necessary. The betel quid refers to any quid wrapped in betel leaf and is therefore a specific variety of quid. The workshop proposed that quid-related lesions should be categorized conceptually into two categories: first, those that are diffusely outlined and second, those localized at the site where a quid is regularly placed. Additional or expanded criteria and guidelines were proposed to define, describe or identify lesions such as chewer's mucosa, areca nut chewer's lesion, oral submucous fibrosis and other quid-related lesions. A new clinical entity, betel-quid lichenoid lesion, was also proposed to describe an oral lichen planus-like lesion associated with the betel quid habit. PMID:9890449

  12. Betel quid chewing and the risk of oral and oropharyngeal cancers: a meta-analysis with implications for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt

    2014-09-15

    We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of 50 publications assessing the relationship between oral/oropharyngeal cancer and chewing betel quid, with (BQ+T) or without added tobacco (BQ-T), a common practice in many parts of Asia and globally among Asian immigrants. Exposure-response, by daily amount and years of BQ chewed, was assessed using spline models. Attributable fractions (PAF%) were calculated to estimate the public health impact if BQ were no longer chewed. The meta-relative risk (mRR) for oral/oropharyngeal cancer in the Indian subcontinent was 2.56 (95%CI, 2.00-3.28; 15 studies) for BQ-T and 7.74 (95%CI, 5.38-11.13; 31 studies) for BQ+T; in Taiwan, China, the mRR for BQ-T was 10.98 (95%CI, 4.86-24.84; 13 studies). Restricting to studies that adjusted for tobacco and alcohol use had only a small effect on the risk estimates. For BQ+T in the Indian subcontinent, the mRR was much higher in women (mRR, 14.56; 95%CI, 7.63-27.76) than in men. Exposure-response analyses showed that the risk of oral/oropharyngeal cancer increased with increasing daily amount and duration (years) of chewing BQ in India and Taiwan, China. Roughly half of oral cancers in these countries could be prevented if BQ were no longer chewed (PAF%=53.7% for BQ-T in Taiwan, China; PAF%=49.5% for BQ+T in India). We demonstrate that betel quid chewing, with or without added tobacco, increases the risk of oral/oropharyngeal cancer in an exposure-dependent manner, independently of tobacco and alcohol use. Further work is needed to explain the higher risks associated with chewing BQ-T in Taiwan, China. PMID:24302487

  13. Areca nut and betel quid chewing among South Asian immigrants to Western countries and its implications for oral cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Auluck, A; Hislop, G; Poh, C; Zhang, L.; Rosin, MP

    2009-01-01

    The South Asian community is the largest and one of the fastest growing minority groups in Canada, according to the 2006 census. These immigrants bring to Canada talents and skills that can promote Canada’s economy and cultural diversity, but they also bring lifestyle habits that may lead to serious health issues. Chewing areca nut and betel quid (paan, with and without tobacco) is a known risk factor for oral cancer. This habit is common in the Indo-Canadian population, as evidenced by its s...

  14. Ortho- and meta-tyrosine formation from phenylalanine in human saliva as a marker of hydroxyl radical generation during betel quid chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U J; Nair, J; Friesen, M D; Bartsch, H; Ohshima, H

    1995-05-01

    The habit of betel quid chewing, common in South-East Asia and the South Pacific islands, is causally associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. Reactive oxygen species formed from polyphenolic betel quid ingredients and lime at alkaline pH have been implicated as the agents responsible for DNA and tissue damage. To determine whether hydroxyl radical (HO.) is generated in the human oral cavity during chewing of betel quid, the formation of o- and m-tyrosine from L-phenylalanine was measured. Both o- and m-tyrosine were formed in vitro in the presence of extracts of areca nut and/or catechu, transition metal ions such as Cu2+ and Fe2+ and lime or sodium carbonate (alkaline pH). Omission of any of these ingredients from the reaction mixture significantly reduced the yield of tyrosines. Hydroxyl radical scavengers such as ethanol, D-mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide inhibited the phenylalanine oxidation in a dose-dependent fashion. Five volunteers chewed betel quid consisting of betel leaf, areca nut, catechu and slaked lime (without tobacco). Their saliva, collected after chewing betel quid, contained high concentrations of p-tyrosine, but no appreciable amounts of o- or m-tyrosine. Saliva samples from the same subjects after chewing betel quid to which 20 mg phenylalanine had been added contained o- and m-tyrosine at concentrations ranging from 1010 to 3000 nM and from 1110 to 3140 nM respectively. These levels were significantly higher (P < 0.005) than those of subjects who kept phenylalanine in the oral cavity without betel quid, which ranged from 14 to 70 nM for o-tyrosine and from 10 to 35 nM for m-tyrosine. These studies clearly demonstrate that the HO. radical is formed in the human oral cavity during betel quid chewing and is probably implicated in the genetic damage that has been observed in oral epithelial cells of chewers. PMID:7767985

  15. P53 and bak mutations as a predictive factor for radiotherapy of oral cancer associated with betel quid chewing in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betel quid chewing is very common in India and Southeast Asian countries, where oral cancer comprises up to 40% of the total malignancies. Radiotherapy is usually adopted for oral cancer, but the prognosis is very poor. Therefore, identifying predictive parameters for radiotherapy is utmost important

  16. Effects of arecoline on adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake of adipocytes-A possible role of betel-quid chewing in metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the possible involvement of betel-quid chewing in adipocyte dysfunction, we determined the effects of arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, on adipogenic differentiation (adipogenesis), lipolysis, and glucose uptake by fat cells. Using mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we showed that arecoline inhibited adipogenesis as determined by oil droplet formation and adipogenic marker gene expression. The effects of arecoline on lipolysis of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were determined by the glycerol release assay, indicating that arecoline induced lipolysis in an adenylyl cyclase-dependent manner. The diabetogenic effects of arecoline on differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were evaluated by the glucose uptake assay, revealing that ≥ 300 μM arecoline significantly attenuated insulin-induced glucose uptake; however, no marked effect on basal glucose uptake was detected. Moreover, using 94 subjects that were randomly selected from a health check-up, we determined the association of betel-quid chewing with hyperlipidemia and its related risk factors. Hyperlipidemia frequency and serum triglyceride levels of betel-quid chewers were significantly higher than those of non-betel-quid chewers. In this study, we demonstrated that arecoline inhibits adipogenic differentiation, induces adenylyl cyclase-dependent lipolysis, and interferes with insulin-induced glucose uptake. Arecoline-induced fat cell dysfunction may lead to hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia/insulin-resistance. These findings provide the first in vitro evidence of betel-quid chewing modulation of adipose cell metabolism that could contribute to the explanation of the association of this habit with metabolic syndrome disorders.

  17. Oral mucosal lesions associated with betel quid, areca nut and tobacco chewing habits: Consensus from a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 25-27, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, R. B.; Ikeda, N.; P C Gupta; Warnakulasuriya, S; C. DE W. van Wyk; Shrestha, P.; Axéll, T.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that 'quid' be defined as 'a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or bot...

  18. Cheilitis granulomatosa associated with allergic contact dermatitis to betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cheng-Sheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun

    2008-04-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare disorder of unknown origin, which is characterized clinically by painless, recurrent or persistent swelling of 1 or both lips. Betel quids, composed of betel nuts (seeds of the Areca catechu), slake lime, and Piper betel leaf/or Piper betel inflorescence, are widely used in Asia and strongly associated with oral mucosal disease. It has also been found to be a cause of contact leukomelanosis because of its ingredients of various chemicals. We describe a case of CG induced by betel quid chewing. PMID:18353040

  19. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Sazwi, Nordin; Nalina, Thurairajah; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Background Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Methods Five ...

  20. Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Road Hung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing (BQC) aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM).METHODS: Male Wistar rats were challenged intravenously with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) to induce DM. Rats were fed with regular pellet food or BQC-containing diets. After 90 d, rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with normal saline or simulated gastric juice. Rats were killed and gastric specimens were harvested.RESULTS: An enhancement of various gastric ulcerogenic parameters, including acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, as well as decreased glutathione levels and mucus content, were observed in DM rats. After feeding DM rats with BQC, an exacerbation of these ulcerogenic parameters was achieved. Gastric juice caused a further aggravation of these ulcerogenic parameters. Daily intragastric lysozyme chloride dose-dependently inhibited exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters in those BQC-fed DM rats.CONCLUSION: (1) Gastric juice could aggravate both DM and BQC-fed DM rat hemorrhagic ulcer; (2) BQC exacerbated gastric hemorrhagic ulcer in DM rats via enhancing oxidative stress and reducing defensive factors; (3) lysozyme chloride effectively protected BQC aggravated gastric damage in DM rats.

  1. 我国嚼食槟榔地区居民槟榔使用问题及对策探讨的研究现况%The problems of betel quid usage and coping strategies among residents from popular region of betel quid chewing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启文; 符永健; 许开宁; 杨庆雄; 黄胜

    2013-01-01

    对我国嚼食槟榔流行地区居民的槟榔使用现状、与嚼食槟榔相关健康问题以及对策探讨的研究现况进行综述.%The paper analyzed the state of betel quid usage among residents from popular region of chewing betel in China, further , analyzed the main problems, and on this basis, we suggested three coping strategies.

  2. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Adrian A.; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F.; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut (‘BN’), nut + Piper betle leaf (‘BL’), and betel quid (‘BQ’) consisting of nut+lime+tobacco+Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis invo...

  3. Consumption of guava (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) may protect betel quid-chewing Papua New Guineans against diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Patrick L; Martineau, Louis C; Caves, Dayna; Haddad, Pierre S; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Johns, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Papua New Guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (BQ) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing DM2. We investigated the dietary habits of Kalo residents from coastal Central Province who are avid BQ chewers yet have a relatively low incidence of DM2 compared to the ethnically similar and adjacent Wanigelans who abstain from BQ yet have an unusually high incidence of DM2. In Kalo, guava bud (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) were consumed much more frequently than in Wanigela, whereas the inverse was observed for mangrove bean (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L) Lam.). These plants, along with BQ and its component ingredients areca nut (Areca catechu L) and Piper betle L inflorescence, were assessed for their ability to mediate insulin-dependent and insulin-independent glucose transport in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A dose-dependent inhibition of glucose uptake from methanolic extracts of BQ, areca nut and P. betle inflorescence supports previous reports of prodiabetic activity. Conversely, guava bud extract displayed significant insulin-mimetic and potentiating activity. Noni fruit, noni leaf, commercial noni juice and mangrove bean all displayed insulin-like activity but had little or no effect on insulin action. Habitual intake of guava and noni is proposed to offer better protection against DM2 development and/or betel quid diabetogenicity than cooked mangrove bean. These findings provide empirical support that DM2 risk reduction can be accomplished using traditional foods and medicines. PMID:19114402

  4. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL AND SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF INGREDIENTS OF BETEL QUID ON ORAL AND ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj A Ghanwate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial and synergistic activity of ingredients of betel quid i.e. kattha, lime, betel leaf, betel nut, cardamom, clove and fennel seeds was tested against microbial population of oral cavity and four enteric pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri. For this purpose two methods were used. Pour plate method was used for calculating the reduction in microbial population in oral cavity and disk diffusion method was used for detecting the effect of ingredients of betel quid on enteric pathogens. In the first method, microbial population of saliva before and after chewing above ingredients individually and in different combinations was compared. It was found that the each ingredient of betel quid separately and in different combination shows reduction in microbial population by different percentage. The highest percentage of reduction in microbial population was shown by the combination of betel leaf, lime and kattha (Blk followed by betel leaf, cardamom etc. In the second experiment it was found that the bacteria investigated showed most susceptibility against kattha followed by clove and then combination of betel leaf, lime and kattha. From the study it was concluded that chewing of betel quid after every meal reduces the population of oral micro flora which may be responsible for dental carries and bad breath. It was also seen that enteric pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri could be inhibited by ingredients of beetle quid.

  6. Genomic alterations in breast cancer patients in betel quid and non betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Mishi; Mishra, Ashwani K; Sharma, Jagannath; Zomawia, Eric; Kataki, Amal; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    Betel Quid (BQ) chewing independently contributes to oral, hepatic and esophageal carcinomas. Strong association of breast cancer risk with BQ chewing in Northeast Indian population has been reported where this habit is prodigal. We investigated genomic alterations in breast cancer patients with and without BQ chewing exposure. Twenty six BQ chewers (BQC) and 17 non BQ chewer (NBQC) breast cancer patients from Northeast India were analyzed for genomic alterations and pathway networks using SNP array and IPA. BQC tumors showed significantly (PETS2 etc in BQC and two networks "Molecular Transport, Nucleic Acid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry" and "Cellular Development, Embryonic Development, Organismal Development" including genes RPN2, EMR3, VAV1, NNAT and MUC16 etc were seen in NBQC. Common alterations (>30%) were seen in 27 regions. Three networks were significant in common regions with key roles of PTK2, RPN2, EMR3, VAV1, NNAT, MUC16, MYC and YWHAZ genes. These data show that breast cancer arising by environmental carcinogens exemplifies genetic alterations differing from those observed in the non exposed ones. A number of genetic changes are shared in both tumor groups considered as crucial in breast cancer progression. PMID:22937096

  7. The magnitude of tobacco smoking-betel quid chewing-alcohol drinking interaction effect on oral cancer in South-East Asia. A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Petti

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol drinking are oral cancer risk factors. Observational studies unanimously report that oral cancer risk in smoking-drinking-chewing exposed subjects is exceptionally high. However, none of them assessed the fractions of this risk attributable to the three individual risk factors and to the smoking-drinking-chewing interaction. The present study sought to assess the magnitude of the smoking-drinking-chewing interaction effect on oral cancer. A meta-analysis of observational South-East Asian studies which reported oral cancer odds ratios (ORs stratified for smoking-drinking-chewing exposures was performed. The pooled ORs were estimated and controlled for quality, heterogeneity, publication bias and inclusion criteria. The smoking-drinking-chewing interaction effect was estimated through the pooled Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction (RERI, excess risk in smoking-drinking-chewing exposed individuals with respect to the risk expected from the addition of the three individual risks of smoking, drinking and chewing. Fourteen studies were included with low between-study heterogeneity. The pooled ORs for smoking, drinking, chewing, smoking-drinking-chewing, respectively were 3.6 (95% confidence interval -95% CI, 1.9-7.0, 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6-3.0, 7.9 (95% CI, 6.7-9.3, 40.1 (95% CI, 35.1-45.8. The pooled RERI was 28.4 (95% CI, 22.9-33.7. Among smoking-drinking-chewing subjects, the individual effects accounted for 6.7% (smoking, 3.1% (drinking, 17.7% (chewing of the risk, while the interaction effect accounted for the remaining 72.6%. These data suggest that 44,200 oral cancer cases in South-East Asia annually occur among smoking-drinking-chewing exposed subjects and 40,400 of these are exclusively associated with the interaction effect. Effective oral cancer control policies must consider concurrent tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, betel quid chewing usages as a unique unhealthy lifestyle.

  8. Inhibitory effect of betel quid on the volatility of methyl mercaptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Chen, S L; Wu, M G

    2001-04-01

    Betel quid, a popular natural masticatory in Taiwan, is mainly composed of fresh areca fruit, Piper betle (leaf or inflorescence), and slaked lime paste. People say that halitosis disappears during betel quid chewing. In this study, the removal of mouth odor during betel quid chewing was discussed by using a model system which measured its inhibition on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Results showed that crude extracts of betel quid (the mixture of areca fruit, Piper betle, and slaked lime paste) and extracts of the mixture of areca fruit and slaked lime paste exhibited marked effects on the volatility of methyl mercaptan, and the inhibition function increased when increasing amounts of slaked lime paste were added. The same condition (increased inhibition) was also found by replacing the slaked lime paste with alkaline salts (calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or sodium hydroxide). Areca fruit, the major ingredient of betel quid, contained abundant phenolics. However, the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit did not show any inhibitory activity on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Great inhibitory activity occurred only when the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit was treated with alkali. Further studies by using gel filtration determined that the effect probably came from the oxidative polymerization of phenolics of areca fruit after alkaline treatment. PMID:11308356

  9. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J

    2015-06-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans, including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut ('BN'), nut + Piper betle leaf ('BL'), and betel quid ('BQ') consisting of nut + lime + tobacco + Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p areca-specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. PMID:25797484

  10. Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid and Oral Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-An Liu; Fun-Jou Chen; Shang-Heng Wu; Rong-San Jiang; Wen-Jiun Lin

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between smoking, alcoholic consumption, and betel quid chewing with oral cancer in a prospective manner. All male patients age ≥18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosa inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 10,657 participants were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings we...

  11. MicroRNA-17-5p post-transcriptionally regulates p21 expression in irradiated betel quid chewing-related oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.Y. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; HungKuang Univ., Taichung (China). Dept. of Biotechnology; Lin, K.C. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Chiou, J.F. [Taipei Medical Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiology; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Hospice and Palliative Center; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Cancer Center; Jeng, S.C. [Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Cheng, W.H.; Chang, C.I. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Hemato-Ongology; Lin, W.C. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Thoracic Surgery; Wu, L.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Lee, H.L. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; Chen, R.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital and National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: Betel nut chewing is associated with oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. OC3 is an oral carcinoma cell line that was established from cells collected from a long-term betel nut chewer who does not smoke. After we found that microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is induced in OC3 cells, we used this cell line to examine the biological role(s) of this microRNA in response to exposure to ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: A combined SYBR green-based real-time PCR and oligonucleotide ligation assay was used to examine the expression of the miR-17 polycistron in irradiated OC3 cells. The roles of miR-17-5p and p21 were evaluated with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODN) that were designed and used to inhibit their expression. Expression of the p21 protein was evaluated by Western blotting. The clonogenic assay and annexin V staining were used to evaluate cell survival and apoptosis, respectively. Cells in which miR-17-5p was stably knocked down were used to create ectopic xenografts to evaluate in vivo the role of miR-17-5p. Results: A radiation dose of 5 Gy significantly increased miR-17-5p expression in irradiated OC3 cells. Inhibition of miR-17-5p expression enhanced the radiosensitivity of the OC3 cells. We found that miR-17-5p downregulates radiation-induced p21 expression in OC3 cells and, by using a tumor xenograft model, it was found that p21 plays a critical role in increasing the radiosensitivity of OC3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: miR-17-5p is induced in irradiated OC3 cells and it downregulates p21 protein expression, contributing to the radioresistance of OC3 cells. (orig.)

  12. MicroRNA-17-5p post-transcriptionally regulates p21 expression in irradiated betel quid chewing-related oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Betel nut chewing is associated with oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. OC3 is an oral carcinoma cell line that was established from cells collected from a long-term betel nut chewer who does not smoke. After we found that microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is induced in OC3 cells, we used this cell line to examine the biological role(s) of this microRNA in response to exposure to ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: A combined SYBR green-based real-time PCR and oligonucleotide ligation assay was used to examine the expression of the miR-17 polycistron in irradiated OC3 cells. The roles of miR-17-5p and p21 were evaluated with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODN) that were designed and used to inhibit their expression. Expression of the p21 protein was evaluated by Western blotting. The clonogenic assay and annexin V staining were used to evaluate cell survival and apoptosis, respectively. Cells in which miR-17-5p was stably knocked down were used to create ectopic xenografts to evaluate in vivo the role of miR-17-5p. Results: A radiation dose of 5 Gy significantly increased miR-17-5p expression in irradiated OC3 cells. Inhibition of miR-17-5p expression enhanced the radiosensitivity of the OC3 cells. We found that miR-17-5p downregulates radiation-induced p21 expression in OC3 cells and, by using a tumor xenograft model, it was found that p21 plays a critical role in increasing the radiosensitivity of OC3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: miR-17-5p is induced in irradiated OC3 cells and it downregulates p21 protein expression, contributing to the radioresistance of OC3 cells. (orig.)

  13. The increased risk of urinary stone disease in betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Siân E; Singh, Sadmeet; Robertson, William G

    2006-08-01

    The chewing of betel quid is a common practice in many countries of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia. The quid consists of a preparation of areca nut, betel leaf and calcium hydroxide "lime" paste ("chuna"). For the first time, we present a study that links its use to urinary stone disease. Eight patients (seven male and one female) who presented to our Stone Unit with recurrent urinary stones were included in the study. All were from the Indian subcontinent and were found to regularly chew betel. The patients underwent metabolic screening including blood, random urine and 24-h urine tests, quantitative chemical analysis of their calculi (where possible) and each completed a 7-day Diet Diary on his/her free, home diet. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hypercalciuria, a tendency to pass an alkaline urine and low urinary citrate excretion among the patients. Together these urinary risk factors increase the probability of developing both calcium phosphate-containing and calcium oxalate-containing stones. In support of this hypothesis, the patients were found to form stones consisting mainly of calcium phosphate but mixed with calcium oxalate. It is concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide "chuna" in the betel quid is the major contributor to the cause of urinary stones in its users. Moreover, the development of urinary lithiasis in such patients may be a precursor to milk-alkali syndrome in those individuals whose chewing habit is more extensive than in the patients in this study and who do not seek to decrease their habit over the long term. PMID:16534642

  14. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids

    OpenAIRE

    Emily E Hammerl; Melissa A Baier; Reinhard, Karl J.

    2015-01-01

    Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids r...

  15. 食用槟榔及其与口腔癌间的关系%Betel-quid chewing and its relationship with oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵小钧; 席庆

    2015-01-01

    Betel-quid chewing is common in South Asia, South-east Asia, and the Pacific Islands, especially in our country. Betel-quid contains various ingredients, including areca-nut, tobacco, betel leaf, betel vine, inflorescence, slaked lime, and some special flavored substances. The composition and processing of betel-quid vary in different countries. However, areca-nut and tobacco are consistent main components. Areca-nut contains betel alkaloid, tannin betel nut, betel nut-specific nitrosamines, and reactive oxygen, which exerts cytotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogen effects. Previous studies showed that betel-quid chewing is a significant factor contributing to oral submucous fibrosis and is related to the incidence of oral cancer, leukoplakia, lichen planus, and so on. This paper presents the prevalence of areca-nut consumption, ingredients, and carcinogenic mechanism to provide a scientific basis for oral cancer prevention and awareness.%食用槟榔在南亚和东南亚以及环太平洋地区的岛屿非常普遍,在中国亦有蔓延扩大的趋势。槟榔咀嚼块一般由槟榔、烟草、槟榔叶、蒌叶、花序和熟石灰以及一些特殊的调味剂组成,不同国家和地区的槟榔咀嚼块的组成及加工方法不一,但槟榔和烟草等是槟榔咀嚼块中最主要的组成部分。食用槟榔是导致口腔黏膜下纤维化的最主要原因,可增加口腔癌发病率且与口腔白斑和口腔扁平苔藓等癌前病变密切相关。食用槟榔之所以会导致口腔癌,是因为槟榔中的多种活性成分和代谢产物有细胞毒性、遗传毒性甚至直接致癌性,这些物质包括槟榔生物碱、槟榔鞣质、槟榔特异性亚硝胺和活性氧等。本文

  16. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Emily E; Baier, Melissa A; Reinhard, Karl J

    2015-01-01

    Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present. PMID:26230855

  17. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Hammerl

    Full Text Available Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.

  18. The mutagenicities of alkaloids and N-nitrosoguvacoline from betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Peng, C H

    1996-08-01

    In Taiwan, betel quid is a natural masticatory, which is composed of fresh green areca fruit, Piper betle and slaked lime paste. Areca fruit contains some alkaloids, of which arecoline is the major one. N-Nitrosoguvacoline (NG), one of the N-nitrosation products of arecoline, is the only one N-nitrosamine found in Taiwanese betel quid chewing saliva. The mutagenic studies in Ames Salmonella microsome test showed that crude alkaloid extracts of areca fruit and arecoline were active in Salmonella typhimurium TA100, and NG was weakly active in TA98 and TA100. The activities in both arecoline and NG decreased further in the presence of rat liver S9 mix. Nitrite was significantly consumed during the N-nitrosation of arecoline and sodium nitrite at acidic condition (pH 3), whereas the formation of NG was favored at neutral condition (pH 7). Crude phenolic extracts of leaf and inflorescence of Piper betle inhibited the formation of NG by blocking the nitrite. However, a high amount of crude phenolic extracts of areca fruit enhanced the formation of NG. PMID:8692215

  19. Developing a Betel Quid Cessation Program on the Island of Guam

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, John; Kawamoto, Crissy; Pokhrel, Pallav; Paulino, Yvette; Herzog, Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    Betel quid is a psychoactive drug preparation typically made up of a combination of areca quid, slaked lime, piper betel leaf and tobacco. It is the fourth most commonly consumed drug in the world with global use concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region (Boucher and Mannan, 2002; Warnakulasuriya and Peters, 2002). The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified betel quid as a Group 1 carcinogen (IARC, 2004; Lin et al., 2006), and its use has been associated with oral and oropha...

  20. Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: a review of agents and causative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Urmila; Bartsch, Helmut; Nair, Jagadeesan

    2004-07-01

    In south-east Asia, Taiwan and Papua New Guinea, smoking, alcohol consumption and chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco or areca nut with or without tobacco are the predominant causes of oral cancer. In most areas, betel quid consists of a mixture of areca nut, slaked lime, catechu and several condiments according to taste, wrapped in a betel leaf. Almost all habitual chewers use tobacco with or without the betel quid. In the last few decades, small, attractive and inexpensive sachets of betel quid substitutes have become widely available. Aggressively advertised and marketed, often claimed to be safer products, they are consumed by the very young and old alike, particularly in India, but also among migrant populations from these areas world wide. The product is basically a flavoured and sweetened dry mixture of areca nut, catechu and slaked lime with tobacco (gutkha) or without tobacco (pan masala). These products have been strongly implicated in the recent increase in the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis, especially in the very young, even after a short period of use. This precancerous lesion, which has a high rate of malignant transformation, is extremely debilitating and has no known cure. The use of tobacco with lime, betel quid with tobacco, betel quid without tobacco and areca nut have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As gutkha and pan masala are mixtures of several of these ingredients, their carcinogenic affect can be surmised. We review evidence that strongly supports causative mechanisms for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of these substitute products. Although some recent curbs have been put on the manufacture and sale of these products, urgent action is needed to permanently ban gutkha and pan masala, together with the other established oral cancer-causing tobacco products. Further, education to reduce or eliminate home-made preparations needs to be accelerated. PMID:15215323

  1. Induction of micronuclei in buccal mucosa on chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Balakrishnan, Mythili; Raman, Sangeetha; Palanisamy, Subashini

    2009-06-01

    Betel quid containing areca nut and chewing tobacco is used in many parts of India. In this study we evaluated the micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosa of healthy individuals from southern India, who were regularly chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco. A total of 44 subjects were examined. The study population included 15 chewers, 14 chewers with smoking habit and 15 controls with the mean age of 38.57 +/- 0.54, 34.50 +/- 0.95, and 33.28 +/- 0.89 years, respectively. The mean percentage of MN was 1.90 +/- 1.03 in chewers, 2.00 +/-1.12 in chewers with smoking habits and 0.81 +/- 0.66 in controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentages of the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, and tobacco is unsafe for oral health. PMID:19550099

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Gupta

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.Studies (case control and/or cohort were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias.Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls and four cohort studies (15,342 which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, P<0.001, (adjusted main-effect summary for cohort studies RR = 5.48; 95% CI = 2.56-11.71, P<0.001. Furthermore, meta-analysis of fifteen case control studies (4,648 cases; 7,847 controls has shown betel quid without tobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, P<0.001. This is presumably due to the carcinogenicity of areca nut. There was no significant publication bias.There is convincing evidence that smokeless (aka chewing tobacco, often used as a component of betel quid, and betel quid without tobacco

  3. Effects of Betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N S

    2001-01-01

    Betel chewing has been claimed to produce a sense of well-being, euphoria, heightened alertness, sweating, salivation, a hot sensation in the body and increased capacity to work. Betel chewing also leads to habituation, addiction and withdrawal. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of Areca nut, has been extensively studied, and several effects of betel chewing are thought to be related to the actions of this parasympathomimetic constituent. However, betel chewing may produce complex reactions and interactions. In the presence of lime, arecoline and guvacoline in Areca nut are hydrolyzed into arecaidine and guvacine, respectively, which are strong inhibitors of GABA uptake. Piper betle flower or leaf contains aromatic phenolic compounds which have been found to stimulate the release of catecholamines in vitro. Thus, betel chewing may affect parasympathetic, GABAnergic and sympathetic functions. Betel chewing produces an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and body temperature. In addition, EEG shows widespread cortical desynchronization indicating a state of arousal. In autonomic function tests, both the sympathetic skin response and RR interval variation are affected. Betel chewing also increases plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These results suggest that betel chewing mainly affects the central and autonomic nervous systems. Future studies should investigate both the acute and chronic effects of betel chewing. Such studies may further elucidate the psychoactive mechanisms responsible for the undiminished popularity of betel chewing since antiquity. PMID:11385294

  4. High α - radioactivity level in betel leaf (Piper Betel) and chewing tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on alpha emitting radionuclides in tobacco samples is of significant importance as the interaction of alpha particles with cells chromosomes in different organs of tobacco eaters causes to carcinogenic changes in those organs. Apart from smoking, the tobacco products that are smokeless, like ghutka, chewing tobacco, etc., that are directly consumed through orally also contribute to carcinogenic health hazards. They can increase the internal radiation dose and thereby enhance the case of cancer in human population. Another important sample is betel leaf which is largely consumed by people. Since betel leaf is cultivated in lands using fertilizers having high alpha activity. Regular use of betel leaf may cause health hazards if alpha radioactivity is present in harmful quantities. In view of this the present work betel leafs and different type of tobacco products have been collected from the local market in and around Kolkata and alpha activity of those samples have been measured using CR-39 (SSNTD) detectors and dose has been estimated. (author)

  5. Expression of a Splice Variant of CYP26B1 in Betel Quid-Related Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ is a psychostimulant, an addictive substance, and a group 1 carcinogen that exhibits the potential to induce adverse health effects. Approximately, 600 million users chew a variety of BQ. Areca nut (AN is a necessary ingredient in BQ products. Arecoline is the primary alkaloid in the AN and can be metabolized through the cytochrome P450 (CYP superfamily by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Full-length CYP26B1 is related to the development of oral pharyngeal cancers. We investigated whether a splice variant of CYP26B1 is associated with the occurrence of ROS related oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cytotoxicity assays were used to measure the effects of arecoline on cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant. The CYP26B1 splice variant exhibited lower expression than did full-length CYP26B1 in the human gingival fibroblast-1 and Ca9-22 cell models. Increased expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant was observed in human oral cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue, and increased expression was observed in patients at a late tumor stage. Our results suggested that the CYP26B1 splice variant is associated with the occurrence of BQ-related oral cancer.

  6. Effects of aqueous extracts of "Betel quid" and its constituents on testosterone production by dispersed mouse interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Kaphle, Krishna; Wang, Pei-Hwa; Jong, De-Shien; Wu, Leang-Shin; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2004-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a favorite chewing item among many communities in different parts of Asia where it is popular by different names. BQ is a unique combination of nut or fruit from the Areca catechu Linn. (AN) tree, leaf from the Piper betle Linn. (BL) vine, slaked lime, paste of bark from the Acacia catechu tree and other spices. AN has been used successfully in various traditional medicines by different civilizations over several ages. Initially condemned by the medical communities for its health hazards, identification and application of potent pharmacologically bioactive compounds from different constituents of BQ have rekindled growing interest in related investigations. Curious about the stimulating role of BQ, we investigated the potential steroidogenic activity of hot water extract from BQ and its constituents and arecoline on testosterone producing ability in an in vitro experiment. Enzyme dissociated interstitial cells from adult mouse testes (ICR strain) were cultured with/without different doses of the extracts and the level of testosterone produced was assayed by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique. It was found that at lower doses of arecoline, AN and BL extracts had significantly stimulated testosterone production over the basal level (p < 0.05). BQ extract, on the other hand, did not show any significant effect on testosterone production. Combinations of arecoline at low doses with 10 ng/ml ovine leutinizing hormone (oLH) showed increases in testosterone produced, while cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) co-culture showed dose-related inhibition. Our current finding hints at the possible dose-dependent dualistic role of AN and BL extracts and arecoline for testosterone production employing possible non-cAMP-dependent pathway of steroidogenesis. However, the identity of the active compounds besides arecoline and the exact mechanism involved remains to be further investigated. PMID:15633806

  7. Changes in plasma steroids and cytokines levels in betel chewing patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sindy; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Hwang, Guey-Shyang; Chen, Szu-Tah; Kuo, Song-Bor; Chen, Yifen; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    Betel nut is the second largest economic food product in Taiwan. In Southeast Asia, the habit of chewing betel nut seems to be highly correlated with oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral submucous fibrosis is characterized by abnormal accumulation of oral submucous collagen fibers and limitation of mouth opening. Although the mechanism responsible for tissue damage is still unknown, prolonged irritation caused by betel nut and tobacco is considered to be a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. The effect of betel nut chewing on immune system remains unknown. Present study aims to investigate the change of plasma hormones including cortisol, testosterone, and inflammatory cytokine concentrations in male chewing betel nut compared with normal subjects. Heparinized blood was obtained from control group (normal young+mid-aged individuals), betel nut-chewing, and oral cancer male subjects. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital. Written informed consent was granted by the patients. Plasma cortisol and testosterone concentrations were detected by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-15, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were analyzed by ELISA with commercial monoclonal capture antibodies and polyclonal detection antibodies. The median concentrations of plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α were 3.14pg/ml, 3.14pg/ml, and 6.85pg/ml, respectively, in patients with oral cancer, compared with median plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α concentration of 2.64pg/ml, 5.86pg/ml, and 5.38pg/ml, respectively, in patients with betel nut-chewing habit. In contrast, the median concentrations of plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α in mid-aged males (aged 30-50) were 7.00pg/ml, 10.64pg/ml, and 31.73pg/ml, respectively, compared with median plasma concentration of IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α of 4.48pg/ml, 33.36pg

  8. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in betel chewers and non betel chewers with and without oral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarasingha Indranee

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel chewing has been shown to predispose to periodontal disease and oral cancer. Studies show that people with gum disease are more likely to test positive for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. It is not known if the lesions produced by betel quid and the resulting, chemical changes predispose to colonization by H. pylori. Further the role of this organism in oral cancer is not known. Our objective was to determine the presence of H. pylori in oral lesions of thirty oral cancer patients and to determine the presence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori in oral cancer patients who are betel chewers and non betel chewers, healthy betel chewers and healthy non-betel chewers and to compare the presence of H. pylori in these four groups. This case control study was conducted at the Cancer Institute Maharagama and the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Methods One hundred and seventy three subjects, of whom fifty three were patients presenting with oral cancer to the Cancer Institute Maharagama, sixty healthy betel chewers and sixty healthy non-betel chewers from the Religious and Welfare Service Centre Maharagama were tested for H. pylori by serology. Thirty oral biopsies from oral cancer patients were cultured under microaerophilic condition to isolate H. pylori. The statistic used was Chi-square test. Results Of the fifty-three oral cancer patients, forty-four were betel chewers. Among the 53 oral cancer patients examined, ten of forty-four (10/44 = 22.7% patients who are betel chewers and four of nine (4/9 = 44.4% patients who are non-betel chewers were detected positive for IgG antibody against H. pylori. In the healthy group (betel chewers and non betel chewers ten (16.7% of the healthy betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori by serology. None of the healthy non-betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori Fourteen [26.4%] of oral cancer patients tested positive for H

  9. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Betel Quid Dependence: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Zhong-Yan; Yang, Guo-Shuai; Pan, Meng-Jie; Li, Chang-Qing; Pan, Su-Yue; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested by the first voxel-based morphometry investigation that betel quid dependence (BQD) individuals are presented with brain structural changes in previous reports, and there may be a neurobiological basis for BQD individuals related to an increased risk of executive dysfunction and disinhibition, subjected to the reward system, cognitive system, and emotion system. However, the effects of BQD on neural activity remain largely unknown. Individuals with impaired cognitive control of behavior often reveal altered spontaneous cerebral activity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and those changes are usually earlier than structural alteration.Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control participants (n = 32) in an resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study to observe brain function alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) values were both evaluated to stand for spontaneous cerebral activity. Gray matter volumes of these participants were also calculated for covariate.In comparison with healthy controls, BQD individuals demonstrated dramatically decreased ALFF and ReHo values in the prefrontal gurus along with left fusiform, and increased ALFF and ReHo values in the primary motor cortex area, temporal lobe as well as some regions of occipital lobe. The betel quid dependence scores (BQDS) were negatively related to decreased activity in the right anterior cingulate.The abnormal spontaneous cerebral activity revealed by ALFF and ReHo calculation excluding the structural differences in patients with BQD may help us probe into the neurological pathophysiology underlying BQD-related executive dysfunction and disinhibition. Diminished spontaneous brain activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex may, therefore, represent a biomarker of BQD individuals. PMID:26844480

  10. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Association of Smokeless Tobacco and of Betel Quid without Tobacco with Incidence of Oral Cancer in South Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W

    2014-01-01

    Aim This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific. Methods Studies (case control and/or cohort) were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewi...

  11. The Influence of Monoamine Oxidase Variants on the Risk of Betel Quid-Associated Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ and areca nut (AN (major BQ ingredient are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS.

  12. The Effects of Chewing Betel Nut with Tobacco and Pre-pregnancy Obesity on Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Palauan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katherine E; Masterson, James; Mascardo, Joy; Grapa, Jayvee; Appanaitis, Inger; Temengil, Everlynn; Watson, Berry Moon; Cash, Haley L

    2016-08-01

    The small Pacific Island nation of Palau has alarmingly high rates of betel nut with tobacco use and obesity among the entire population including pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the effects of betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity on adverse birth outcomes. This study used retrospective cohort data on 1171 Palauan women who gave birth in Belau National Hospital in Meyuns, Republic of Palau between 2007 and 2013. The exposures of interest were pre-pregnancy obesity and reported betel nut with tobacco use during pregnancy. The primary outcomes measured were preterm birth and low birth weight among full-term infants. A significantly increased risk for low birth weight among full-term infants was demonstrated among those women who chewed betel nut with tobacco during pregnancy when other known risk factors were controlled for. Additionally, pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with a significantly increased risk for preterm birth when other known risk factors were controlled for. Both betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity were associated with higher risks for adverse birth outcomes. These findings should be used to drive public health efforts in Palau, as well as in other Pacific Island nations where these studies are currently lacking. PMID:26994610

  13. Betel: consumption and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S A

    1998-01-01

    Betel is a compound of natural substances chewed for its psychostimulating effects. Betel is composed of the nut of the areca palm (Areca catechu), the leaf of the betel pepper (Piper betle), and lime (calcium hydroxide). Approximately 200 million persons chew betel regularly throughout the western Pacific basin and south Asia. Only three drugs (nicotine, ethanol, and caffeine) are consumed more widely than betel. When betel is chewed, it produces mild psychoactive and cholinergic effects. There is copious production of a blood-red saliva that can stain oral structures. After years of chewing, the teeth may become red-brown to nearly black. Betel use is associated with oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, and squamous cell carcinoma. Use of betel is discouraged in Western countries because of its alleged carcinogenic and perceived dysesthetic properties; nevertheless, betel is widely available in the West. PMID:9448210

  14. Oral mucosal lesions associated with use of quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avon, Sylvie Louise

    2004-04-01

    Quid is a mixture of substances that is placed in the mouth or actively chewed over an extended period, thus remaining in contact with the mucosa. It usually contains one or both of 2 basic ingredients, tobacco and areca nut. Betel quid or paan is a mixture of areca nut and slaked lime, to which tobacco can be added, all wrapped in a betel leaf. The specific components of this product vary between communities and individuals. The quid habit has a major social and cultural role in communities throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and locations in the western Pacific. Following migration from these countries to North America, predominantly to inner city areas, the habit has remained prevalent among its practitioners. Many dentists are unaware of the prevalence of the quid or paan habit in the Asian patient population. The recognition of the role of such products in the development of oral precancer and cancer is of great importance to the dental practitioner. A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions have been reported in association with quid and tobacco use, and the association of these conditions with the development of oral cancer emphasizes the importance of education to limit the use of quid. In most cases, cessation of the habit produces improvement in mucosal lesions as well as in clinical symptoms. PMID:15120019

  15. Cytochrome P450 Metabolism of Betel Quid-Derived Compounds: Implications for the Development of Prevention Strategies for Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Yi Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ products, with or without tobacco, have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC as group I human carcinogens that are associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. There are estimated 600 million BQ users worldwide. In Taiwan alone there are 2 million habitual users (approximately 10% of the population. Oral and pharyngeal cancers result from interactions between genes and environmental factors (BQ exposure. Cytochrome p450 (CYP families are implicated in the metabolic activation of BQ- and areca nut-specific nitrosamines. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge base regarding CYP genetic variants and related oral disorders. In clinical applications, we focus on cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and OPMDs associated with CYP gene polymorphisms, including CYP1A1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, and CYP26B1. Our discussion of CYP polymorphisms provides insight into the importance of screening tests in OPMDs patients for the prevention of oral and pharyngeal cancers. Future studies will establish a strong foundation for the development of chemoprevention strategies, polymorphism-based clinical diagnostic tools (e.g., specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP “barcodes”, and effective treatments for BQ-related oral disorders.

  16. Areca nut and tobacco chewing habits in Durban, KwaZulu Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessur, S; Naidoo, S

    2009-11-01

    Areca nut/quid chewing is a habit that is commonly practiced in the Indian subcontinent and this age-old social habit is still being practiced by the Indians in South Africa. The areca nut/quid is prepared in a variety of ways. The quid may be prepared with or without tobacco. This habit is said to be associated with the development of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a premalignant lesion, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of areca nut/quid chewing (with or without tobacco), associated habits (smoking and alcohol consumption) as well as the awareness of the risks. The study was cross-sectional in design and used administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to collect the data. A convenience sample of 101 respondents was interviewed. More than three quarter were born in South Africa and the rest were migrant communities from Pakistan, India and Dubai. All respondents from the migrant community were males. Slightly more females than maleschewed areca nut/quid. Popular ingredients that were chewed included areca nut, betel leaf, lime and paan masala. Enjoyment and special functions were the most important reasons for chewing areca nut. Family influence was a reason for chewing. Nearly 60% did not know whether areca nut chewing is harmful to their health. The majority have not attempted to give up the habit. It is recommended that aggressive awareness programmes on the hazardous effects of areca nut/quid chewing be developed similar to those for smoking cessation. Government health warnings need to be written on paan packaging. Taxes need to be imposed on the areca nut and condiments. Age restrictions need to be imposed on purchasing of the areca nut/quid thus making access difficult for the children. PMID:20306864

  17. Association Study between Novel CYP26 Polymorphisms and the Risk of Betel Quid-Related Malignant Oral Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Jong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BQ chewing may produce significant amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS, resulting in oral mucosa damage, and ROS may be metabolized by CYP26 families. Because the CYP26 polymorphisms associated with malignant oral disorders are not well known, we conducted an association study on the associations between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of CYP26 families and the risks of malignant oral disorders. BQ chewers with the CYP26A1 rs4411227 C/C+C/G genotype and C allele showed an increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.30 and 1.93, respectively. The CYP26B1 rs3768647 G allele may be associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer (aOR = 3.12 and OPMDs (aOR = 2.23. Subjects with the rs9309462 CT genotype and C allele had an increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer (aOR = 9.24 and 8.86, respectively and OPMDs (aOR = 8.17 and 7.87, respectively. The analysis of joint effects between the CYP26A1 rs4411227 and CYP26B1 rs3768647/rs9309462 polymorphisms revealed statistical significance (aOR = 29.91 and 10.03, respectively. Additionally, we observed a significant mRNA expression of CY26A1 and CYP26B1 in cancerous tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Our findings suggest that novel CYP26 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of malignant oral disorders, particularly among BQ chewers.

  18. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Amy L; Carrara, Verena I; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-09-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai-Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse effects of areca nut use routinely recorded on enrolment. Of 7685 women, 2284 (29.7%) never used areca or smoked (cheroots), 2484 (32.3%) only used areca, 438 (5.7%) only smoked cheroots and 2479 (32.3%) used both areca and cheroots. Pieces of ripe areca nut in a leaf with lime, without tobacco, were used particularly among older multigravid women. Adverse pregnancy effects were not observed in areca nut users compared with non-users. Smoking, but not areca nut use, had a dose-related effect on miscarriage. Areca nut use in conjunction with smoking reduced the adverse effects of smoking on birth weight, further supporting a lack of effect of areca nut. Areca (betel) nut-related adverse pregnancy outcomes were not observed in this population, whereas smoking was clearly harmful. Differences from previous reports may result from the amount or types of areca nut, or quid content, consumed between countries. Smoking, but not areca nut, reduction is likely to improve pregnancy outcomes on the Thai-Myanmar border. PMID:24029401

  19. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers. PMID:9363996

  20. Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the Pacific region (e.g., Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand). 1,2,3,5 ... Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 ...

  1. Lack of Correlation of Betel Nut Chewing, Tobacco Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Telomerase Activity and the Severity of Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-Ling Hsieh; Hung-Ming Wang; Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang; I-How Chen; Chun-Ta Liao; Ann-Joy Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is one of the most frequent cancers. A strong association hasbeen found between oral cancer incidence and the use of betel nut, alcohol,and tobacco. Telomerase activity (TA) has also been shown to play a role incarcinogenesis. We therefore surveyed the consumption habits of betel nutchewing, alcohol drinking, and tobacco smoking in oral cancer patients andevaluated the association of these habits with TA level and clinical stage.Methods: In total, 154 oral cancer patie...

  2. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai–Myanmar border

    OpenAIRE

    Chue, Amy L; Verena I. Carrara; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Sue J Lee; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai–Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse...

  3. [Tooth wear in Hindu betel nut chewers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerreth, Karolina

    2006-01-01

    Literature data describe the impact of certain factors on oral health. Very well known is habitual chewing of different plant products, including tobacco, which depending on the geographical area and the substances used, have various names. It has been estimated that approximately 200 million residents of the West Pacific Rim and South-East Asia indulge in betel chewing. Betel is composed of a leaf of the betel pepper, lime, tobacco and the nut of the areca palm. This study aimed to assess the degree of abrasive changes in residents of the Korunalaya Leprosy Care Center. The examinations were carried out on 85 patients (45 females and 40 males), aged 35-95 years, at the local dental surgery. Patients had their teeth assessed and they were further interviewed as to the duration of their habit with regard to their sex and age (35-44; 45-64 and > or = 65 years). The abrasive changes were evaluated using Gerasimov's 7-degree scale. Interview data indicate that 71.76% of the patients were habitual betel chewers. Among female patients, third-degree abrasion was the most frequent change while among males--fifth degree (53.3% and 45.0%, respectively). The abrasive changes, increasing with age, can be attributed to the duration of betel chewing. It is worth noticing that a vegetarian diet can be a contributing factor to abrasion as most of the food consumed by Hindus are plants. PMID:17288176

  4. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  5. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  6. Constituents of areca chewing related to esophageal cancer risk in Taiwanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M-T; Wu, D-C; Hsu, H-K; Kao, E-L; Lee, J-M

    2004-01-01

    Two most common types of areca chewing are noted in Taiwan: raw betel fruit with Piper betle inflorescence or folded in betel leaf. Piper betle inflorescence contains carcinogens, whereas betel leaf includes anticarcinogenic agents. One hundred and twenty-six esophageal squamous-cell-carcinoma patients and 279 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. Areca chewers were 4.4 times (95% CI, 2.2-8.8) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than non-chewers. Sixty-five of the patients were areca chewers, of which, 61 (93.9%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, none chewed it with betel leaf and four (6.1%) chewed both. Of the 24 controls who were chewers, 10 (41.7%), three (12.5%) and 11 (45.8%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, betel leaf, and both, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects who chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence were 24.4 times (95% CI 3.9-154.4) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than those who chewed areca with betel leaf or with both leaf and inflorescence. Our epidemiologic findings suggest parts of the same Piper plant contains carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic substances. PMID:15361101

  7. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption ...

  8. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.T.Jayasree

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim of the study was to evaluate the local anesthetic activity of betel leaf extract after autoclaving the extract of betel leaf. Materials and methods: Extract of plain betel leaf, was tested for surface anesthetic activity using rabbits. Aqueous extraction of Piper betel leaf (AEPBL done by Soxhelts apparatus .Twenty male Rabbit’s were taken and divided in to four groups each group contain 5 animals, Group I - Standard (2% xylocaine, Group II - Test 0.3% (AEPBL, Group III - Test 0.6 % (AEPBL,Group IV - Test 12 % (AEPBL was instilled in conjunctival sac of right eyes. Standard protocol was followed to elicit light reflex, corneal reflex and to measure pupillary size after instilling the test drugs in the eye. There was dose dependent increase in onset and duration of local anesthetic activity with 6% and 12% doses of alcoholic extract of Piper betel leaf. Results: Betel leaf showed significant surface anesthetic activity comparable to that of Xylocaine. Conclusion: As a surface anesthetic, the onset was as quick as xylocaine and the duration was shorter than xylocaine

  9. Effect of habitual arecanut chewing on resting whole mouth salivary flow rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooban T

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resting whole mouth salivary flow rate (SFR and pH play a significant role in pathogenesis of various oral diseases and conditions. AIM: To observe the effect of habitual use of arecanut and various arecanut containing products (AN on SFR and pH. DESIGN: Cross sectional. SETTING: Outpatient Department of Dental College. PARTICIPANTS: AN chewers and non-chewers attending Dental college. MEASUREMENTS: SFR and pH. VARIABLES: Type, frequency, duration and exposure time of AN, Smoking and Alcohol habit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects study was divided into chewers (n=110 and non- chewers (n=50. The SFR (expressed in mL/10min and pH measured. RESULTS: The difference between the mean SFR for chewers and non-chewers was not statistically significant. The difference between mean pH of chewers and non-chewers was statistically significant. (P=0.02. Difference in pH was statistically significant among the different types of AN chewers (P=0.024. With chewing raw AN, an increase in frequency and exposure time increased SFR and pH respectively. In processed AN chewers, increase in duration and frequency of consumption increased SFR and decreased pH respectively. For chewers with betel quid with tobacco, increase in duration was significantly associated with decrease in salivary pH. CONCLUSION: SFR and pH are altered in AN chewers, rendering the oral mucosa vulnerable to the toxic effects of AN.

  10. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.

    1999-11-14

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  11. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

  12. Ingredients contribute to variation in production of reactive oxygen species by areca quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Lin, Ying-Chu; Ko, Ying-Chin; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Ho, Pei-Shan; Li, Chien-Ming; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Chen, Chung-Ho

    2006-06-01

    Areca quid (AQ) chewing has been implicated an independent risk factor for the development of oral cancer. Taiwanese areca quid (AQ) refers to a combination of areca nut (AN), lime, and inflorescence of Piper betle Linn. (IPB) or Piper betle leaf (PBL). Studies of AQ in other countries reported that AN extract combined with lime generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl radical (HO.), known to be a contributing factor in oral mucosa damage. To determine whether HO. is formed in the oral cavity during AQ chewing, the formation of meta-tyrosine (m-Tyr) and ortho-tyrosine (o-Tyr) from l-phenylalanine (Phe) was confirmed. It was demonstrated that combined aqueous extracts of AN, lime, metal ions (such as Cu2+ and Fe2+), and IPB or PBL produced HO.. Thus, the yield of HO. significantly increases when higher amounts of IPB or lime are added and also when Cu2+ and Fe2+ are increased. Further, the omission of any one of these ingredients significantly reduces the formation of HO.. Our results found that chewing AQ with IPB generated significantly higher HO. than chewing AQ with PBL, and may result in greater oxidative damage to the surrounding oral mucosa. PMID:16840253

  13. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  14. Analysis of various risk factors affecting potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer patients of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Kadashetti

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Chewing tobacco/betel quid is a strong risk factor in the development of PMD and oral cancer. Also age, gender, SES, education, and occupation influence the development of PMD and oral cancer.

  15. Developmental Strategies of Betel nut Industry in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jun; Han, Xuan; Liu, Li-Yun; Feng, Mei-li; Li, Zhuan; Qin, Hai-tang

    2010-01-01

    The developmental status of the betel nut industry is introduced, including cultivation situation, processing and development situation, and consumer market situation. The result shows that the cultivation of betel nut in Hainan Province develops rapidly and the primary processing of betel nut has formed certain scale, but the deep processing of betel nut is backward. Except for the minority of the betel nuts consumed by Hainan Island, a large majority of the betel nuts are processed into dry...

  16. Incidence of oral cancer in relation to nickel and arsenic concentrations in farm soils of patients' residential areas in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu Yun-Ying; Chung Jian-An; Chiang Chi-Ting; Chang Tsun-Kuo; Lin Yo-Yu; Su Che-Chun; Lian Ie-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To explore if exposures to specific heavy metals in the environment is a new risk factor of oral cancer, one of the fastest growing malignancies in Taiwan, in addition to the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing. Methods This is an observational study utilized the age-standardized incidence rates of oral cancer in the 316 townships and precincts of Taiwan, local prevalence rates of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, demographic fact...

  17. Plasma fibrinogen degradation products in betel nut chewers - with and without oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF has a multifactorial etiology. Recent studies have shown that there is an increased level of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP in plasma of OSMF patients suggesting its possible role in etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Aims: To detect the presence of FDP in the plasma of betel nut chewers with and without OSMF and in normal subjects without any habits, to correlate these levels with respect to the clinical and histological grading of OSMF and whether it can be used as a nonsurgical diagnostic aid in detection of suspected OSMF cases. Materials and Methods: Study comprised of 35 cases of betel nut chewers with OSMF, 10 patients with betel nut chewing habit but having apparently normal oral mucosa, and 10 normal patients without any habits. The patients were evaluated for plasma FDP levels. Results: All the betel nut chewers with OSMF showed the presence of plasma FDP. However, controls and subjects with habit, but without OSMF did not show FDP in the plasma. Spearman′s rank correlation was used to find the association between the clinical and histological grades and it was not statistically significant (P = 0.910 and the correlation being 0.020. Conclusion: Since only those patients with OSMF have showed the presence of FDP in plasma, we suggest that our test can be utilized as a nonsurgical diagnostic aid in suspected OSMF patients.

  18. Hydroxyl radical formation and oxidative DNA damage induced by areca quid in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Lan; Chi, Chin-Wen; Liu, Tsung-Yun

    2002-02-01

    Chewing areca quid (AQ) has been implicated as a major risk factor for the development of oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies have suggested that AQ-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the contributing factors for oral carcinogenesis. However, the AQ used in Taiwan is different from that used in other countries. This study is designed to test whether ROS are generated and the consequent effects in locally prepared AQ in vivo. We measured the hydroxyl radical formation, as represented by the presence of o- and m-tyrosine in saliva from volunteers who chewed AQ containing 20 mg phenylalanine. Their saliva contained significantly higher amounts (p leaf. We further tested the oxidative DNA damaging effect of the reconstituted AQ, as evidenced by the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels, in hamster buccal pouch. Following daily painting for 14 d, the 8-OH-dG level in hamster buccal pouch is significantly elevated (p < .05) in the AQ-treated group versus the controls. These findings demonstrate that ROS, such as hydroxyl radical, are formed in the human oral cavity during AQ chewing, and chewing such prepared AQ might cause oxidative DNA damage to the surrounding tissues. PMID:11911495

  19. Widespread tannin intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J F

    1992-01-01

    Tannins are increasingly recognized as dietary carcinogens and as antinutrients interfering with the system's full use of protein. Nevertheless, certain tannin-rich beverages, masticatories, and folk remedies, long utilized in African, Asiatic, Pacific, and Latin American countries, are now appearing in North American sundry shops and grocery stores. These include guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK.) from Brazil, kola nut (Cola nitida Schott & Endl. and C. acuminata Schott & Endl.) from West Africa, and betel nut (Areca catechu L.) from Malaya. The betel nut, or arecanut, has long been associated with oral and esophageal cancer because of its tannin content and the tannin contributed by the highly astringent cutch from Acacia catechu L. and Uncaria gambir Roxb. and the aromatic, astringent 'pan' (leaves of Piper betel L.) chewed with it. In addition to the constant recreational/social ingestion of these plant materials, they are much consumed as aphrodisiacs and medications. Guarana and kola nut enjoy great popularity in their native lands because they are also rich in caffeine, which serves as a stimulant. Research and popular education on the deleterious effects of excessive tannin intake could do much to reduce the heavy burden of early mortality and health care, especially in developing countries. PMID:1417698

  20. Developmental Strategies of Betel Nut Industry in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The developmental status of the betel nut industry is introduced, including cultivation situation, processing and development situation, and consumer market situation. The result shows that the cultivation of betel nut in Hainan Province develops rapidly and the primary processing of betel nut has formed certain scale, but the deep processing of betel nut is backward. Except for the mino amount of the betel nuts consumed by Hainan Island, a large majority of the betel nuts are processed into dry fruit to sell to Hunan Province to reprocess. The problems exist in the development of betel nut industry in Hainan Province are analyzed, covering blind cultivation, extensive management, backward processing, lagged new product development and the single and concentrated consumer market. The strategic choice of developing the betel nut industry of Hainan Province is analyzed as well. Hainan Province should carry out the green, sustainable, diversified, cooperative and export-oriented industrial developmental strategy.

  1. A review of the systemic adverse effects of areca nut or betel nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut is widely consumed by all ages groups in many parts of the world, especially south-east Asia. The objective of this review is to systematically review and collate all the published data that are related to the systemic effects of areca nut. The literature search was performed by an electronic search of the Pubmed and Cochrane databases using keywords and included articles published till October 2012. We selected studies that covered the effect of areca nut on metabolism, and a total of 62 studies met the criteria. There is substantial evidence for carcinogenicity of areca nut in cancers of the mouth and esophagus. Areca nut affects almost all organs of the human body, including the brain, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and reproductive organs. It causes or aggravates pre-existing conditions such as neuronal injury, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, hepatotoxicity, asthma, central obesity, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, etc. Areca nut affects the endocrine system, leading to hypothyroidism, prostate hyperplasia and infertility. It affects the immune system leading to suppression of T-cell activity and decreased release of cytokines. It has harmful effects on the fetus when used during pregnancy. Thus, areca nut is not a harmless substance as often perceived and proclaimed by the manufacturers of areca nut products such as Pan Masala, Supari Mix, Betel quid, etc. There is an urgent need to recognize areca nut as a harmful food substance by the policy makers and prohibit its glamorization as a mouth freshener. Strict laws are necessary to regulate the production of commercial preparations of areca nut.

  2. MEDICATED CHEWING GUMS- UPDATED REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Naik Heema

    2010-01-01

    Chewing gums are mobile drug delivery systems. It is a potentially useful means of administering drugs either locally or systemically via, the oral cavity. The medicated chewing gum has through the years gained increasing acceptance as a drug delivery system. Several ingredients are now incorporated in medicated chewing gum, e.g. Fluoride for prophylaxis of dental caries, chlorhexidine as local disinfectant, nicotine for smoking cessation, aspirin as an analgesic, and caffeine as a stay alert...

  3. Chlorhexidine-containing chewing gum. Clinical documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Imfeld, T

    2006-01-01

    A clinical documentation on chlorhexidine containing chewing gum is presented on the occasion of the launch of CHewX, a chewing gum containing 5 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate in Switzerland. Following an overview on functional chewing gum, the mechanism of action of chlorhexidine (CHX), its toxicity and safety are summarized and a review of clinical studies performed with CHX-containing chewing gum given. Indication, dosage, precautions and benefits of CHX chewing gum are described.

  4. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans. PMID:25159859

  5. Availability and characteristics of betel products in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L

    2008-09-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/ sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the availability and characteristics of these products outside of this region. Thus, a representative sample of betel products and additives was purchased in the Richmond, Virginia area. Five venues were visited between March and May, 2006. Products successfully purchased were those containing betel alone (seven), betel/tobacco (three), tobacco alone (four), and additives (four). Most betel products listed ingredients on the packaging, though some did not explicitly distinguish between those with versus without tobacco. Importantly, seven of seven betel alone and one of three betel/tobacco products omitted any health-related warnings. All products were inexpensive and relatively obtainable in the groceries visited. More research is warranted in order to accurately estimate product emergence into the U.S. and other world markets, and the consequent impact on public health. PMID:19004423

  6. Chewing gums for optimal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on the general aspects and health benefits of chewing gum. Chewing gums have been used since the time of prehistoric man as a source of entertainment and relaxation. It has also become a trendsetter with the teenagers. Currently, the health benefits of chewing gums are being studied and used in the treatment of various diseases. Certain medications have also been included in gums to act as an alternative drug delivery system. These gums have been found to be successful for the treatment of diseases, such as peptic ulcers, upper digestive tract cancer, oral candidiasis, and so on. It helps to relieve symptoms of xerostomia, Parkinsonism, tooth sensitivity after bleaching, and oral malodor. It helps in maintaining oral health, relieves stress, helps in weight loss, and improves alertness. Chewing gum may be distracting and irritating in numerous social environments, including schools, colleges, and the workplace. Research into the social effects of chewing gums is also necessary to further our knowledge into the psychosocial aspects of these gums.

  7. Modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betel leaf ingredients: roles of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Chen, Shiao-Yun; Liao, Chang-Hui; Tung, Yuan-Yii; Lin, Bor-Ru; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2002-05-01

    There are 2 to 6 billion betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. Areca nut (AN), a BQ component, modulates arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, which is crucial for platelet function. AN extract (1 and 2 mg/ml) stimulated rabbit platelet aggregation, with induction of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production. Contrastingly, Piper betle leaf (PBL) extract inhibited AA-, collagen-, and U46619-induced platelet aggregation, and TXB2 and prostaglandin-D2 (PGD2) production. PBL extract also inhibited platelet TXB2 and PGD2 production triggered by thrombin, platelet activating factor (PAF), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), whereas little effect on platelet aggregation was noted. Moreover, PBL is a scavenger of O2(*-) and *OH, and inhibits xanthine oxidase activity and the (*)OH-induced PUC18 DNA breaks. Deferoxamine, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) and neomycin prevented AN-induced platelet aggregation and TXB2 production. Indomethacin, genistein, and PBL extract inhibited only TXB2 production, but not platelet aggregation. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and dimethylthiourea (DMT) showed little effect on AN-induced platelet aggregation, whereas catalase and DMT inhibited the AN-induced TXB2 production. These results suggest that AN-induced platelet aggregation is associated with iron-mediated reactive oxygen species production, calcium mobilization, phospholipase C activation, and TXB2 production. PBL inhibited platelet aggregation via both its antioxidative effects and effects on TXB2 and PGD2 production. Effects of AN and PBL on platelet aggregation and AA metabolism is crucial for platelet activation in the oral mucosa and cardiovascular system in BQ chewers. PMID:11978487

  8. AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BETEL PRODUCTS IN THE U.S.†

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the avail...

  9. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Phenolic Compounds of Areca Nut(Areca catechu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xing; WU Jiao; HAN Zhuang; MEI Wen-li; DAI Hao-fu

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Areca catechu L.(Palmae),commonly known as an important economical seed crop,is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas,including India,Southeast Asia,East Africa and New Guinea.Areca nut(frequently known as betel nut) is the ripe fruit of the tree A.catechu.Areca nut can be chewed and it is a common masticatory in tropical and subtropical countries.It was estimated in the early 1990s that 10% to 20% of the world's population chewed betel quid daily.

  10. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.

  11. EXPLORATION OF BETEL LEAF WASTE FOR ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKANTA K. SEN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to reuse agrowaste, betel leaf stalk extract was found as potent antimicrobial agent. The principalcompound showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The MIC determinedbetween 25µg/mL to 250µg/mL and was supported by time kill experiment. The potentiality of the active principalwas measured against ciprofloxacin as a standard. The active compound tentatively identified as phenolic.

  12. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, T; Swe, T; Toe, M M; Zaw, K K; Sein, T O

    2014-12-01

    Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed. PMID:25526245

  13. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.

  14. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution. PMID:15183924

  15. Gum Chewing and Cognition: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Tucha; Janneke Koerts

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there was a debate about the effects of gum chewing on various aspects of cognitive functioning. In this review, the results of previous studies are presented and summarized. There is a clear indication that gum chewing can improve various aspects of cognitive functioning including memory, attention and both executive and intellectual functioning. However, there is also clear evidence that chewing gum during cognitive tasks can adversely affect task performance. Therefore, it...

  16. Effect of Excessive Chewing on Pain Thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, Johan; Rohlin, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Pain and dysfunction in the jaw region may be related to fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following overstrain. The aim was to investigate development and course of subjective muscle fatigue, pain intensity, together with pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the masseter and temporalis muscles during a 24-hour period in healthy men and women after an intense chewing task. Twenty healthy subjects (ten males and ten females) chewed seven pieces of hard chewing gum (ELMA) for 10 m...

  17. Quid Pro Quo: Tobacco Companies and the Black Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Phyra M.; Yerger, Valerie B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the relationship between tobacco companies and the Black press, which plays an important role in conveying information and opinions to Black communities. Methods. In this archival case study, we analyzed data from internal tobacco industry documents and archives of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), the trade association of the Black press. Results. In exchange for advertising dollars and other support, the tobacco industry expected and received support from Black newspapers for tobacco industry policy positions. Beginning in the 1990s, resistance from within the Black community and reduced advertising budgets created counterpressures. The tobacco industry, however, continued to sustain NNPA support. Conclusions. The quid pro quo between tobacco companies and the Black press violated journalistic standards and represented an unequal trade. Although numerous factors explain today's tobacco-related health disparities, the Black press's service to tobacco companies is problematic because of the trust that the community placed in such media. Understanding the relationship between the tobacco industry and the NNPA provides insight into strategies that the tobacco industry may use in other communities and countries. PMID:21852652

  18. Research on Tobacco in India (including the Betel Quid and Areca Nut) : An Annotated Bibliography of Research on Use, Health Effects, Economics, and Control Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Ray, Cecily; Gupta, Prakash; de Beyer, Joy

    2003-01-01

    This report is a compilation of references and abstracts of all research on tobacco in India from 1985 to 2003. Studies are organized by subject matter, and within each sub-topic, are arranged by year of publication with most recent studies listed first, and for studies published in the same year, alphabetically by author's last name. The studies include tobacco use surveys, studies on tob...

  19. Gum chewing affects academic performance in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewing gum may have an impact on improved memory during specific tasks of recognition and sustained attention. Research objective was to determine the effect of gum chewing on standardized test scores and math class grades of eighth grade students. Four math classes, 108 students, were randomized i...

  20. Precipitants of oral cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjith Raveendran; Nath, Sameera G

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancers are malignant neoplasms that affect the mouth. Oral cancer remains a major personal tragedy and public health problem. There is a very high incidence of oral cancer in Southern Asia. In India, the oral cavity is the most common site for cancer. The majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas are related to tobacco, areca nut / betel quid chewing, alcoholism. Control of oral potentially malignant diseases will only be achieved by effective and comprehensive primary and secondary pre...

  1. Clinical pathological evaluation and risk factors of oral cancer cases of east coast of peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Farini, M. S.; Azlina, A.; Rushdan, I.; Manoharan, M; Zain, R. B.; Samsudin, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Oral cancer is one of the common cancers m Malaysia. Tile population of east coast of Peninsular Malaysia has a different hfestyle and Malay is the predominant race. Oral cancer research in this area started since the Malaysian National Oral Cancer group was established. The am: of this study is to evaluate the clinical pathological findings and to investigate the role of tobacco smoking, alcohol consurnption and betel quid chewing as tile risk factors among oral cancer cases m ...

  2. Brief Report: Gum Chewing Affects Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…

  3. 26 CFR 1.6115-1 - Disclosure requirements for quid pro quo contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure requirements for quid pro quo contributions. 1.6115-1 Section 1.6115-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.6115-1 Disclosure...

  4. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  5. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials. Herein, the focus is on oral bacteria and the oral biofilm, or dental plaque, which is a sticky layer of bacteria that forms on the teeth. Oral bacteria can be divided into good and bad bacteria, ...

  6. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  7. Oral health: Role of chewing gum.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnuswamy MANIKANDAN; Menaga VENTATACHALAM; Rajappan Raja Rajesh KUMAR

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in Brunei Darussalam is highly alarming and dental anxiety in general leads to avoidance of dental care. Since this is an era of preventive dentistry utilising a holistic approach, excellent results could be achieved if preventative methods are regularly used by people in day-to-day life. Gum chewing is increasing dramatically despite racial, cultural and religious taboos against them. Many previously considered chewing sugared gum might increase the cariogenic...

  8. Oral health: Role of chewing gum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnuswamy MANIKANDAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in Brunei Darussalam is highly alarming and dental anxiety in general leads to avoidance of dental care. Since this is an era of preventive dentistry utilising a holistic approach, excellent results could be achieved if preventative methods are regularly used by people in day-to-day life. Gum chewing is increasing dramatically despite racial, cultural and religious taboos against them. Many previously considered chewing sugared gum might increase the cariogenic load. However with better understanding of cariology, it is now perceived by many that chewing sugared gum after meals is safe. Sugarless gum has an important role in preventive dentistry. Chewing gum with incorporation of anti-plaque agents and various drug delivery systems is distinctive as a special confectionary item. This article reviews the historical background of gum chewing, the role of various chewing gums in preventing oral diseases like dental caries and periodontal diseases, its role in the management of xerostomia, hypersensitive teeth and as an alternate to cigarette smoking habit.

  9. Hypolipidemic activity ofPiper betel in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Ernest David

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect ofPiper betel(P. betel) in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia rat.Methods:The methanol leaf extract was tested for hypolipidemic effect in the albino rats at the selected optimum dosage of250 mg/kg body weight and administered orally.Adult male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken study and evaluated. Results:In groupII animals, the activity levels of serum total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein(LDL) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(VLDL) were significantly enhanced when compared to that of normal rat.Conclusion:It could be said that the methanolic leaf extract ofP. betel exhibited a significant hypolipidemic effect.

  10. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems′ researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We′ve reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmented through years. The advantages and therapeutic benefits of chewing gum support its development as we can see new formulations with new drugs contained have been produced from past and are going to find a place in market by formulation of new medicated chewing gums. Potential applications of medicated chewing gums are highly widespread as they will be recognized in future. Nowadays standards for qualifying chewing gums are the same as tablets. Patient-centered studies include medicated chewing gums as a delivery system too which creates compliance for patients.

  11. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rostami, Farnaz

    2015-04-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems' researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We've reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmented through years. The advantages and therapeutic benefits of chewing gum support its development as we can see new formulations with new drugs contained have been produced from past and are going to find a place in market by formulation of new medicated chewing gums. Potential applications of medicated chewing gums are highly widespread as they will be recognized in future. Nowadays standards for qualifying chewing gums are the same as tablets. Patient-centered studies include medicated chewing gums as a delivery system too which creates compliance for patients. PMID:26109999

  12. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyuki Hirano; Minoru Onozuka

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  13. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-...

  14. Relationships Between Gum-Chewing and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Michiyo; Takeda, Tomotaka; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Kazunori; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi; Takemura, Naohiro; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that chewing is thought to affect stress modification in humans. Also, studies in animals have demonstrated that active chewing of a wooden stick during immobilization stress ameliorates the stress-impaired synaptic plasticity and prevents stress-induced noradrenaline release in the amygdala. On the other hand, studies have suggested that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) dominates the regulation of the stress response system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The International Affective Digitized Sounds-2 (IADS) is widely used in the study of emotions and neuropsychological research. Therefore, in this study, the effects of gum-chewing on physiological and psychological (including PFC activity measured by NIRS) responses to a negative stimulus selected from the IADS were measured and analyzed. The study design was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tokyo Dental College (No. 436). We studied 11 normal adults using: cerebral blood oxygenation in the right medial PFC by multi-channel NIRS; alpha wave intensity by EEG; autonomic nervous function by heart rate; and emotional conditions by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test and the 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Auditory stimuli selected were fewer than 3.00 in Pleasure value. Sounds were recorded in 3 s and reproduced at random using software. Every task session was designed in a block manner; seven rests: Brown Noise (30 s) and six task blocks: auditory stimuli or auditory stimuli with gum-chewing (30 s). During the test, the participants' eyes were closed. Paired Student's t-test was used for the comparison (Pphysiological and psychological responses including PFC activity. This PFC activation change might influence the HPA axis and ANS activities. In summary, within the limitations of this study, the findings suggest that gum-chewing reduced stress-related responses. Gum-chewing might have a possible effect on stress coping. PMID:26782231

  15. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and r

  16. Combinations of FUT2 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors are associated with oral cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuo-Jung; Ho, Chuan-Chen; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Su, Shih-Chi; Yu, Yung-Luen; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2016-05-01

    In humans, fucosyltransferase-2 (FUT2) plays an important role in α1,2- linkage of fucose and participates in complex cellular processes such as fertilization, embryogenesis, and immune responses. However, little information is available concerning the FUT2 expression in tumorigenesis. The aim of this work was to investigate the combined effect of FUT2 gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinic pathological characteristics of oral cancer. Four SNPs of the FUT2 gene (rs281377, rs1047781, rs601338, and rs602662) from 1200 non-cancer controls and 700 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The samples were further analyzed to clarify the associations between these gene polymorphisms and the risk of OSCC, and the impact of these SNPs on the susceptibility and clinic pathological characteristics of OSCC. After adjusting for other covariant, we observed that betel quid chewing among 1255 smokers who carrying at least one C genotype (TC and CC) at rs281377 and least one T genotype (TA and TT) at rs1047781 were exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and cigarette use) on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Taken together, our results support gene-environment interactions of FUT2 polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid chewing habits possibly altering oral cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first study of association between FUT2 gene variants and OSCC risk. PMID:26646561

  17. Interactions between environmental factors and melatonin receptor type 1A polymorphism in relation to oral cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yan Lin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the combined effect of melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of oral cancer.Three polymorphisms of the MTNR1A gene from 618 patients with oral cancer and 560 non-cancer controls were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The CTA haplotype of the studied MTNR1A polymorphisms (rs2119882, rs13140012, rs6553010 was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, MTNR1A gene polymorphisms exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and tobacco use on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Finally, oral-cancer patients with betel quid-chewing habit who had T/T allele of MTNR1A rs13140012 were at higher risk for developing an advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis.These results support gene-environment interactions of MTNR1A polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid-chewing habits possibly altering oral-cancer susceptibility and metastasis.

  18. The oral health benefits of chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Michael W J

    2012-01-01

    The use of sugar-free gum provides a proven anti-caries benefit, but other oral health effects are less clearly elucidated. Chewing sugar-free chewing gum promotes a strong flow of stimulated saliva, which helps to provide a number of dental benefits: first, the higher flow rate promotes more rapid oral clearance of sugars; second, the high pH and buffering capacity of the stimulated saliva help to neutralise plaque pH after a sugar challenge; and, lastly, studies have shown enhanced remineralisation of early caries-like lesions and ultimately prospective clinical trials have shown reduced caries incidence in children chewing sugar-free gum. This paper reviews the scientific evidence for these functional claims and discusses other benefits, including plaque and extrinsic stain reduction, along with the possibility of adding specific active agents, including fluoride, antimicrobials, urea and calcium phosphates, to enhance these inherent effects. The evidence for a specific effect of xylitol as a caries-therapeutic agent is also discussed. In conclusion, it is asserted that chewing gum has a place as an additional mode of dental disease prevention to be used in conjunction with the more traditional preventive methods. PMID:23573702

  19. Brief Encounter: The Girl Chewing Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Brydon, Lavinia

    2012-01-01

    When discussing his concept of literary chronotopes and that of the ‘encounter’, Mikhail Bahktin uses the road as an example where ‘the spatial and temporal paths of the most varied people intersect’. Using this framework, this paper will examine the narrative, aesthetic and thematic concerns of The Girl Chewing Gum.

  20. [Recommended or forbidden: focus on chewing gum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonesco-Benaiche, N; Muller, M; Jasmin, J R

    1990-03-01

    The use of chewing-gum may be beneficial to oral hygiene and become part of an anti-cavity prevention protocol. The conditions of use must be well defined: the sweetener should not be used by the bacterial plaque and fluoride, an anti-cavity agent, must enter into its composition. PMID:2386101

  1. Polymorphisms and Plasma Levels of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3: Impact on Genetic Susceptibility and Clinical Outcome of Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Wen; Huang, Yi-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Su, Shih-Chi; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Chiao-Wen

    2015-11-01

    Oral cancer, the fourth most common cancer among men in Taiwan, is associated with environmental carcinogens. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3), a member of the TIMP family, is the only protein that binds to the extracellular matrix for suppressing cancer cell growth, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion. The association of TIMP3 polymorphism with oral cancer susceptibility, however, has not yet been reported. In this study, 1947 participants-1200 healthy male controls and 747 male patients with oral cancer-were recruited. Allelic discrimination of TIMP3 -1296 T > C (rs9619311), TIMP3 C > T (rs9862), and TIMP3 C > T (rs11547635) polymorphisms were assessed through real-time polymerase chain reaction. The authors discovered that individuals carrying the polymorphic rs9862 allele are more susceptible to oral cancer [odds ratio (OR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-1.9; adjusted OR (AOR), 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1] after adjustment for betel quid chewing, alcohol, and tobacco consumption. Among 601 betel quid chewers, the TIMP3 polymorphism rs9862 T/T carriers had a 32.2-fold (95% CI, 20.2-51.3) increased oral cancer risk compared with those carrying C/C and not chewing betel quid. In addition, the authors observed a significant association between rs9862 variants and large tumors (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3) development. Moreover, TIMP3 plasma levels significantly increased in oral cancer patients who have large tumor or carry T allele rs9862 polymorphism. In conclusion, these results suggest that gene-environment interactions between the TIMP3 rs9862 polymorphisms and betel quid may alter oral cancer susceptibility and tumor growth in Taiwanese men. PMID:26579821

  2. Oral submucous fibrosis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Shyam B Verma,2 Fareedi Mukram Ali,3 Kishor Patil4 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Nirvana Skin Clinic, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; 3Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India; 4Departments of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India Abstract: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments. Keywords: betel nut, betel quid, oral disease, squamous cell carcinoma, tobacco, fibrosis

  3. Chewing-side determination of three food textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paphangkorakit, J; Thothongkam, N; Supanont, N

    2006-01-01

    Food texture affects chewing movement but it is not known if it also affects the chewing-side pattern. This study determined the chewing sides of three test foods with different textures during habitual chewing. Twenty healthy dental students (aged 20-24 years) chewed pieces of pork jerky, fresh asparagus and almonds on two separate sessions (1 week apart). In each session, each subject chewed 30 food specimens, 10 of the same food type, until swallowing while a video camera recorded the displacement of the chin with respect to the other two reference points vertically marked along the facial midline. A slow-speed video playback was used to identify the chewing side of each cycle. The chewing-side pattern (right preference, left preference, no preference) in each individual was determined statistically. The results showed that overall, 11 subjects did not have any side preference whereas six and three subjects preferred to chew on right or left sides respectively. The chewing-side pattern remained unchanged between three food types in about half of the subjects. When the same food was compared between 2 days, the chewing-side pattern of almonds was shown to be most reproducible (18 subjects). Unidentified cycles with little or no lateral displacement, labelled as bilateral, were observed more frequently near the end of the chewing sequence with more occurrences in almonds and jerky than asparagus (P < 0.01). It was suggested that chewing-side preference is not a fixed characteristic. Food texture seemed to influence the side preference and also the occurrence of bilateral cycles. PMID:16409510

  4. Financial viability and conservation role of betel leaf based agroforestry: an indigenous hill farming system of Khasia community in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mizanur Rahman; Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman; Mahmuda Islam

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the cultural and financial management techniques of betel leaf based agroforestry system practiced in or near homegardens of Khasia community in Jaintapur Upazila in the district of Sylhet, Bangladesh. The Khasia is an educated community where 100% of Khasia people were literate, a stunning fact for this ethnic community in Bangladesh. The average family size in the study area was 7.68, with a ration of male and females of 141:100. The homegardens of the Khasia are rich in species composition, which 15 timber species, 22 horticultural species, six medicinal species, 13 annual crops including leafy vegetables, seven species of spices and five species of bamboo were identified along with betel leaf. The Khasia is an economically prosperous community with the minimum family incomes of Tk 4000 per month (Tk. 70=1 US Dollar). Betel leaf based agroforestry is very common being a prevalent source of income. About 95.45% of the households are involved in betel leaf husbandry. The mean annual income from one hectare of betel leaf plantation was estimated to be Tk. 80979. This practice was proven to be a profitable business where the benefit cost ratio was calculated to be 4.47. Moreover, the species composition in the betel leaf plantation area (the forest area once utilized by Khasia for shifting cultivation) was found to be very promising to play the significant role in conservation of biological diversity making the practice a sustainable agroforestry system.

  5. Incorporation of Cellulose into a Chew Treat for Dogs Increases Elasticity and Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Beynen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We have reported earlier that administration of a treat containing a special cellulose preparation (Arbocel BWW40®, instead of a control treat without cellulose, diminishes the clinical signs of periodontal disease in dogs. Based on the physical characteristics of the cellulose preparation, we hypothesized that treats with cellulose have greater elasticity and induce longer chewing time, leading to more mechanical dental cleansing. Approach: Treats without or with cellulose were subjected to bending and pulling tests in which the threshold before fragmentation, expressed as required force, was determined. The treats were also used in an experiment with dogs to determine chewing times. Results: The addition of cellulose to the treats raised the forced needed for bending and pulling until fragmentation by 12 and 99%. The inclusion of cellulose into the treats raised chewing by dogs of medium-sized and large breeds by 16 and 11%. However, in small-breed dogs chewing time was not affected by cellulose. Conclusion: The inclusion of the cellulose preparation into the treats induces a resistant and elastic texture which promotes chewing. It is suggested that the cellulose-containing treats maintain contact with the tooth surface which provides effective mechanical cleansing, explaining the observed improvement of periodontal disease in dogs.

  6. Quantification and qualification of bacteria trapped in chewed gum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W Wessel

    Full Text Available Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR, yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 10(8 bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing

  7. Quantification and qualification of bacteria trapped in chewed gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Stefan W; van der Mei, Henny C; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE)-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR), yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 10(8) bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing of gum can trap

  8. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Aslani; Farnaz Rostami

    2015-01-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems′ researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We′ve reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmen...

  9. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rostami, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems’ researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We’ve reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmen...

  10. The effect of chewing gum on dental plaque accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Karami Nogourani M.; Banihashemi M

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground and Aims: Studies show that sucrose containing chewing gums are cariogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial chewing gums with and without sucrose on dental plaque accumulation compared with the control group. "nMaterials and Methods: In this clinical study, plaque accumulation during three 7-day periods (with two weeks interval) was recorded (Sillness & Loe Index) in a group of 23 volunteer male dental students who chewed in th...

  11. Betel leaf toothpastes inhibit dental plaque formation on fixed orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizka Amelia Mayasari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brackets, archwires, ligatures, and other fixed orthodontic appliance components complicate the use of conventional oral-hygiene measures. This often results in significant plaque accumulation around the bracket bases. The addition of betel leaf extract in toothpaste is expected to inhibit the growth of dental plaque. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of betel leaf toothpaste in inhibiting plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Methods: This study was done on dental student of Airlangga University aged 18–24 years, have been wearing fixed orthodontic appliances for 1–2 years, have no systemic diseases. The samples were divided into two groups, consisting of 20 samples. First group of samples brushed their teeth with betel group of samples brushed their teeth with betel brushed their teeth with betel leaf toothpaste and the second using placebo. The subjects were instructed to brush their teeth using Scrub method until reaching zero (0 scor of orthodontic plaque index (OPI. Plaque scores were taken again 4 hours after brushing. The statistical analysis was done by using paired t test. Results: The average of accumulated plaque on group that use betel leaf toothpaste was 25.54 and placebo was 41.09. The result showed that there was significant difference in plaque accumulation between the group with betel leaf toothpaste and placebo 4 hours after brushing (p = 0.001. Conclusion: In conclusion, betel leaf toothpaste is effective in inhibiting the dental plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Latar belakang: Bracket, kawat busur, kawat ligatur dan komponen peranti ortodonti cekat yang lain mempersulit pembersihan gigi secara konvensional. Hal ini sering menyebabkan terjadinya akumulasi plak di sekitar dasar braket. Penambahan ekstrak daun sirih yang mempunyai efek bakterisid pada pasta gigi diharapkan dapat menghambat pertumbuhan plak. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk

  12. Antimicrobial Property of Piper betel Leaf against Clinical Isolates of Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arani Datta,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Piper betel (locally known as Paan have long been in use in the Indian local system of medicine for its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In the present work, the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Piper betel leaves was evaluated against human pathogenic bacteria (both gram-positive and gram-negative. The leaf powder was subjected to phytochemical screening and was found to contain carbohydrate, protein,polyphenolic compounds, flavonoid, alkaloids and total antioxidant. The ethanol extract showed strong free radical scavenging activity as seen by DPPH model. The extract confirmed significant antimicrobial activity against all bacterial strains tested. The effect of the extract was almost proportional to the concentration of the extract tested. The MIC for the bacterial strains was in the range of 25 μg to 40 μg. Concurring with the disc diffusion results, the MIC of the Proteus vulgaris was found to be least 25 μg while for Staphylococcus aureus it was approximately 40 μg. Time-kill kinetics of the ethanol extract treated bacterial strains demonstrated similar results, showing decline in the growth curve after six hour in most of the strains. Crude ethanol extract of Piper betel showed strong antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic bacterial strains. The results also indicate that scientific studies carried out commonly use herbs having traditional claims of effectiveness might warrant fruitful results.

  13. Forest-based betel leaf and betel nut farming of the Khasia indigenous People in Bangladesh:approach to biodiversity conservation in Lawachara National Park (LNP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Jahirul Islam; Tapan Kumar Nath

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory survey was conducted among the Khasia living in Lawachara National Parkt (LNP) to investigate their depend-ency on the protected area (PA) for livelihoods, betel leaf hill farming, traditional forest conservation and perceptions of the PA. Field data were collected by interviewing 48 household heads from two villages (punjis) located inside the LNP and visiting their farms. The economy of the Khasia was forest-based. They were largely dependent on betel leaf hill farming in LNP and nearly 71% of their mean annual income was de-rived from this irrespective of farmer category. On average, about 14%of the incomes of the poorer farmers came from forest produce followed by 10%and 6%for medium and rich farmers respectively. Hills and forests were the foundations of their lives and livelihoods, and LNP was the life-blood of Khasia survival. As a sustainable production system, this farming practice plays a vital role in conserving biodiversity in LNP and might be replicated elsewhere.

  14. The effect of chewing gum on dental plaque accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Nogourani M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Studies show that sucrose containing chewing gums are cariogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial chewing gums with and without sucrose on dental plaque accumulation compared with the control group. "nMaterials and Methods: In this clinical study, plaque accumulation during three 7-day periods (with two weeks interval was recorded (Sillness & Loe Index in a group of 23 volunteer male dental students who chewed in the first two periods sugar-free or sugar-containing chewing gums (Olips and Orbit, respectively and in the last period did not chew any gum. Participants were asked to chew daily five gum sticks after meals for about twenty minutes. The data were statistically analyzed using Repeated Measure ANOVA and paired-T test. "nResults: The results showed that chewing any gum even sucrose-containing gum decreased the level of dental plaque accumulation (P<0.001. However, the decreasing effect of sugar-free gums was significantly higher (P<0.001. "nConclusion: Although sugar free gum was more effective than sugar containing gum on reducing dental plaque accumulation, chewing even sugar containing gums could decrease the level of dental plaque.

  15. Molecular screening of lysyl oxidase G473A polymorphism in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Thorawat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the presence of lysyl oxidase (LOX G473A polymorphism in group 1 {Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients}, group 2 (betel quid chewers without OSMF and group 3 (healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were taken for the study, which included 20 OSMF patients (group 1, 20 betel quid chewers without OSMF (group 2 and 20 healthy individuals without OSMF and betel quid chewing habit (group 3. DNA was isolated using Qiagen kit. The isolated DNA was quantified using spectroscopic methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out at annealing temperature of 67 o C. PCR amplification was checked on 2% agarose gel. Further, the amplified PCR products were subjected to automated DNA sequencer, to assess LOX G473A polymorphism. Results: The gene sequence data generated from the automated DNA sequencer was received as colored electropherograms. These gene-sequencing results did not show LOX G473A polymorphism in any of the 3 groups. Conclusion: In our study, gene-sequencing results did not show LOX G473A polymorphism in OSMF patients. Since only one study in the literature has shown the association of LOX gene polymorphism and OSMF patients, we conclude that further studies are required to unveil the role of LOX gene polymorphism in OSMF.

  16. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    Beside the efficient effect on masking cetirizine bitter taste, the cyclodextrins (CDs) as well could have influence on the release from the formulation. In vitro release profiles of cetirizine from compressed chewing gums containing α-, β- and γ-CD were investigated using a three cell chewing...... apparatus. Different cetirizine/CD formulations were produced and analysed with respect to type of CD (α-, β- and γ-CD), the molar ratio between cetirizine and CD and the formulation of cetirizine (complex or physical mixture). Release experiments from all compressed chewing gum formulations gave similar...... release patterns, but with variations in the total amount released. Chewing gum formulated with cetirizine alone, demonstrated a release of 75% after 8 min of chewing. The presence of CDs resulted in increased cetirizine release. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that parameters with the most...

  17. THE USE OF TOBACCO AND BETEL LEAF AND ITS EFFECT ON THE NORMAL MICROBIAL FLORA OF ORAL CAVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Saini S; Saini SR; Katiyar R; Bhalerao DS; Munde A

    2009-01-01

    The use of tobacco, betel nut, betel leaf (pan) and chillies cause certain changes in the oral cavity because of different chemicals they contain. A total of twenty five patients were examined, both male and females,ranging between 10-70 years. Oral examination was carried out and most of them presented with, submucus fibrosis or blanched mucosa. Samples from oral cavity were collected with sterile swabs, swabbing it all round in the oral cavity and carried to the laboratory for both aerobic ...

  18. The effective concentration of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion as root canal irrigant solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Pangabdian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smear layer is a debris consisting of organic and inorganic particles of calcified tissue, necrotic tissue, pulp tissue, and dentinoblast and microorganism processes that can close the entrance to the dentin tubuli. Smear layer, will not only inhibit the penetration of disinfection materials and sealers to the dentin tubuli, but will also reduce the attachment of root canal filling material so that root canal irrigation solution is needed to dissolve the smear layer. Red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion, on the other hand, contains saponin characterized as “surfactants” which can dissolve smear layer. Nevertheless, the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion has still not been known clearly. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion for cleaning root canal walls from smear layer. Methods: Fiveteen extracted human teeth with straight single roots were randomized into 5 groups (n=3. The specimens were then shaped by using rotary instruments up to a size of 25/.07. During instrumentation, each canal was irrigated with 10, 20, 30 and, 40% red betel leaf infusion for treatment groups, while another was irrigated with aquadest for the control group. Root canal cleanliness was observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results: There were significant differences among treatment groups (p<0.05, except in the treatment groups irrigated with red betel leaf infusion with concentrations of 30% and 40% (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that red betel leaf infusion with a concentration of 30% is effective for cleaning the root canal walls from the smear layer.Latar belakang: Smear layer adalah suatu debris yang mengandung partikel organik dan anorganik dari jaringan terkalsifikasi, jaringan nekrotik, proses dentinoblas, jaringan pulpa dan mikroorganisme yang dapat menutup jalan masuk ke tubuli dentin. Smear layer akan menghalangi penetrasi dari bahan

  19. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA copy number and risk of oral cancer: a report from Northeast India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosy Mondal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the sixth most common cancer globally. Tobacco consumption and HPV infection, both are the major risk factor for the development of oral cancer and causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes modify the effect of environmental exposures, thereby playing a significant role in gene-environment interactions and hence contributing to the individual susceptibility to cancer. Here, we have investigated the association of tobacco - betel quid chewing, HPV infection, GSTM1-GSTT1 null genotypes, and tumour stages with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content variation in oral cancer patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study comprised of 124 cases of OSCC and 140 control subjects to PCR based detection was done for high-risk HPV using a consensus primer and multiplex PCR was done for detection of GSTM1-GSTT1 polymorphism. A comparative ΔCt method was used for determination of mtDNA content. The risk of OSCC increased with the ceased mtDNA copy number (Ptrend  = 0.003. The association between mtDNA copy number and OSCC risk was evident among tobacco - betel quid chewers rather than tobacco - betel quid non chewers; the interaction between mtDNA copy number and tobacco - betel quid was significant (P = 0.0005. Significant difference was observed between GSTM1 - GSTT1 null genotypes (P = 0.04, P = 0.001 respectively and HPV infection (P<0.001 with mtDNA content variation in cases and controls. Positive correlation was found with decrease in mtDNA content with the increase in tumour stages (P<0.001. We are reporting for the first time the association of HPV infection and GSTM1-GSTT1 null genotypes with mtDNA content in OSCC. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the mtDNA content in tumour tissues changes with tumour stage and tobacco-betel quid chewing habits while low levels of mtDNA content suggests invasive thereby serving as a biomarker in

  1. To Study the Prevalence of Premalignancies in Teenagers having Betel, Gutkha, Khaini, Tobacco Chewing, Beedi and Ganja Smoking Habit and Their Association with Social Class and Education Status

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Srivastava, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Premalignant oral lesions are usually associated with noxious oral addiction habits. These habits are common in both, high as well as low socioeconomic status but education status of parent and patients significantly affects the development of noxious oral addictions. A total of 872 patients (cases and controls) were included in the study. Social class was determined as per modified Prasad’s classification (1970) with price index correction of 2004. Prevalence of lichen planus, to be...

  2. Efficacy of vinegar, sorbitol and sodium benzoate in mitigation of Salmonella contamination in betel leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmaul Husna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to mitigate Salmonella from betel leaf in Mymensingh. A total of 35 betel leaf samples were collected from 2 baroujes and 5 local markets in Mymensingh. The samples were sub-divided into two groups: (i phosphate buffer solution (PBS washed, and (ii grinded sample. There was control and treated (with 1.5% vinegar, sorbitol, and sodium benzoate sub-groups in both groups. Mitigation of Salmonella was determined by comparing Total Viable Count (TVC and Total Salmonella Count (TSAC of control with treated groups. No bacterial growth was observed in the betel leaf samples collected directly from barouj level. At market level, when grinded, there was no growth of bacteria in Plate Count Agar (PCA and Salmonella- Shigella (SS or Xylose Lysine De-oxy-chocolate (XLD in both treated and untreated groups. But when the PBS washed samples were used, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL of betel leaf ranged from 5.16±0.82 to 5.96±1.11, whereas the TSAC value ranged from 4.87±0.58 to 5.56±1.00 for untreated group. In vinegar, there was no growth, but when treated with sorbitol, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.00±0.54 to 5.66±1.09, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.28±0.71 to 4.78±0.64. When treated with sodium benzoate, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.06±0.53 to 5.75±1.02, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.34±0.79 to 4.92±0.64. Data of this study indicates that all the three chemicals were effective in terms of reducing bacterial load but vinegar (1.5% was found to be the most effective against Salmonella as well as some other bacteria when treated for 10 min.

  3. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

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    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  4. Antacid activity of Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Charlotte Bremer; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2015-01-01

    of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). RESULTS: Both CaCO3 and L. aestuans had a significant better ability than water to neutralise an artificial stomach acid. 666mg plant material together with CaCO3 compared to CaCO3 alone showed approximately the same neutralisation time. When mixing 1332mg plant material......ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew (Urticaceae) was historically ingested together with chalk by pregnant women in Ghana when suffering from heartburn. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antacid activity of the aerial parts of L. aestuans. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... with CaCO3 the neutralisation time was significantly higher than for CaCO3 alone and exhibited an antacid profile that was able to maintain the neutralising activity one pH-unit higher for an extended period of time. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that L. aestuans showed an antacid activity when...

  5. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order. PMID:10917840

  6. Gummed-up memory: Chewing gum impairs short-term recall

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Michail D; Robert W Hughes; Jones, Dylan M.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity...

  7. Areca Nut Components Affect COX-2, Cyclin B1/cdc25C and Keratin Expression, PGE2 Production in Keratinocyte Is Related to Reactive Oxygen Species, CYP1A1, Src, EGFR and Ras Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Chi Chang; Yi-Jane Chen; Hsiao-Hua Chang; Chiu-Po Chan; Chien-Yang Yeh; Yin-Lin Wang; Ru-Hsiu Cheng; Liang-Jiunn Hahn; Jiiang-Huei Jeng

    2014-01-01

    Aims Chewing of betel quid (BQ) increases the risk of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), possibly by BQ-induced toxicity and induction of inflammatory response in oral mucosa. Methods Primary gingival keratinocytes (GK cells) were exposed to areca nut (AN) components with/without inhibitors. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl- thiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. mRNA and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain r...

  8. Precipitants of oral cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Raveendran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancers are malignant neoplasms that affect the mouth. Oral cancer remains a major personal tragedy and public health problem. There is a very high incidence of oral cancer in Southern Asia. In India, the oral cavity is the most common site for cancer. The majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas are related to tobacco, areca nut / betel quid chewing, alcoholism. Control of oral potentially malignant diseases will only be achieved by effective and comprehensive primary and secondary prevention by recognizing that the risk factors are common to most other diseases.

  9. Pressure production in oral vestibule during gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, M; Ono, T; Yoshinaka, M; Fujiwara, S; Yoshinaka, M; Maeda, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to record oral vestibule pressure (OVP) by the lip and cheek contraction during gum chewing, to examine the characteristics of these pressures and coordination between the OVP and jaw movement. The subjects were eight healthy adult men (mean age of 29·3 ± 3·3 years). An experimental plate that incorporated four pressure sensors on the midline of the upper jaw (Ch. 1), upper right canine (Ch. 2), upper right first molar (Ch. 3) and upper left first molar (Ch. 4) was used for measuring OVP. The right masseter electromyogram (EMG) was recorded simultaneously. Subjects chewed gum on the right side 20 times, and eight consecutive strokes were used for the analysis of the sequential order, maximal magnitude and duration of each OVP. Onset of OVP was observed at the molar on the non-chewing side (Ch. 4) before chewing side (Ch. 3), and offset was largely simultaneous at each site. On the chewing side (Chs. 1-3), OVP onset during the interval of EMG activity reached to the peak around the end of interval and offset in the duration of EMG activity. The maximal pressure was significantly larger at Chs. 1-3 than at Ch. 4, but no significant differences were observed in duration of pressure among each site. These results suggest that OVP is coordinated with jaw movement during gum chewing, and larger pressure is produced on the chewing side than on the non-chewing side. Our findings are quantitative indices for the evaluation of lip and cheek function during mastication. PMID:26147313

  10. Medicated Chewing Gum: A Novel Oral Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Hitesh Jain*1, Mansi Shah1, Bhoomi Shah1, T. Y. Pasha2

    2010-01-01

    The selection of right drug delivery system is critical to the success of a pharmaceutical product.A novel drug delivery system creates additional patient benefits that will add new competitiveadvantages for a drug . Oral route is most convenient for the patient that’s why it is very popularin the society. Chewing gum delivery system is convenient, easy to administer - anywhere,anytime - and is pleasantly tasting making it patient acceptable. Medicated chewing gum offers awide range of advant...

  11. Design, formulation and evaluation of green tea chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Aslani; Alireza Ghannadi; Zeinab Khalafi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study is to design, formulate and evaluate the green tea gums with a suitable taste and quality in order to produce an anti-oxidant chewing gum. Materials and Methods: Fresh green tea leaves obtained from Northern Iran for extraction. Maceration is the extraction method that is used in this study. The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoids of the hydro alcoholic extract were measured. Various formulations of the 120 mg green tea extract chewing ...

  12. Effect of Chewing Xylitol Containing and Herbal Chewing Gums on Salivary Mutans Streptococcus Count among School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Sangeeta; Lakashminarayan, Nagesh; Kemparaj, Umesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to assess and compare the reduction in salivary Mutans Streptococci counts after chewing Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums among high school children. Methods: The study was conducted among 72 school children (12–15 years) from 3 randomly selected schools (blocks). Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums were randomly allocated to 3 blocks. Subjects were instructed to chew one pellet four times a day for 21 days. The mean reduction in salivary Streptococcus mutans count was assessed. Results: The 100% Xylitol sweetened chewing gum “Xylitol”has shown statistically significant reduction in salivary Mutans Streptococci colony forming units at the end of 21 days (P Mutans Streptococci count when compared to herbal and placebo chewing gums. PMID:26097673

  13. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences. PMID:22150606

  14. Effect of Chewing Xylitol Containing and Herbal Chewing Gums on Salivary Mutans Streptococcus Count among School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Chavan; Nagesh Lakashminarayan; Umesh kemparaj

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to assess and compare the reduction in salivary Mutans Streptococci counts after chewing Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums among high school children. Methods: The study was conducted among 72 school children (12-15 years) from 3 randomly selected schools (blocks). Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums were randomly allocated to 3 blocks. Subjects were instructed to chew one pellet four times a day for 21 days. The mean reduction in salivary Streptococcus muta...

  15. Effect of Chewing Xylitol Containing and Herbal Chewing Gums on Salivary Mutans Streptococcus Count among School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chavan, Sangeeta; Lakashminarayan, Nagesh; Kemparaj, Umesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to assess and compare the reduction in salivary Mutans Streptococci counts after chewing Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums among high school children. Methods: The study was conducted among 72 school children (12–15 years) from 3 randomly selected schools (blocks). Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums were randomly allocated to 3 blocks. Subjects were instructed to chew one pellet four times a day for 21 days. The mean reduction in salivary Streptococcus mutans c...

  16. Effect of chewing xylitol containing and herbal chewing gums on salivary mutans streptococcus count among school children

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Chavan; Nagesh Lakashminarayan; Umesh kemparaj

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to assess and compare the reduction in salivary Mutans Streptococci counts after chewing Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums among high school children. Methods: The study was conducted among 72 school children (12-15 years) from 3 randomly selected schools (blocks). Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums were randomly allocated to 3 blocks. Subjects were instructed to chew one pellet four times a day for 21 days. The mean reduction in salivary Streptococcus muta...

  17. Effect of chewing speed on the detection of a foreign object in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paphangkorakit, J; Ladsena, V; Rukyuttithamkul, T; Khamtad, T

    2016-03-01

    Accidentally biting hard on a piece of hard foreign object in food is among the causes of tooth fracturing and could be associated with oral sensibility. This study has investigated the effect of chewing speed on the ability to detect a foreign object in food in human. Fourteen healthy subjects were asked to randomly chew one of 10 cooked rice balls, five of which containing a foreign object made from a tiny uncooked rice grain, until they detected the rice grain. Each subject chewed the test foods both at 50 (slow) and 100 (fast) chews min(-1) . The accuracy of detection and the number of chews before detection (CBD) were recorded and compared between the two chewing speeds using paired t-tests. The results showed that almost all subjects detected the foreign object by biting. The accuracy of detection was more than 90% and not significantly different between slow and fast chewing but the mean CBD in slow chewing (11·7 ± 1·3 chews) was significantly different from that in fast chewing (20·7 ± 1·9 chews; P < 0·001). The study showed that slow chewers required less number of chews before a foreign object in food could be detected and was, presumably, more effective in detecting the object compared to fast chewers. If each chew bears equal probability of teeth encountering the foreign object, slow chewing might also reduce the chance of accidentally biting hard on the foreign object and fracturing the tooth. PMID:26462611

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopic study on the effects of chewing on short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mayumi; Hoshi, Yoko; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kida, Ikuhiro

    2011-12-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy, we examined whether chewing gum improves performance in a short-term memory task - immediate recall of random eight-digit numbers - by assessing cerebral hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. We found that the oxyhemoglobin concentration during and after chewing gum was higher than that before chewing; further, the concentration increased during the task, and this increase was reduced with chewing, although non-significantly. Chewing did not improve task performance. Therefore, chewing-induced hemodynamic responses were unrelated to the performance in short-term memory tasks. PMID:21911018

  19. Impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on chewing efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Bessadet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Removable partial denture prostheses are still being used for anatomic, medical and economic reasons. However, the impact on chewing parameters is poorly described. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on masticatory parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen removable partial denture prosthesis (RPDP wearers participated in the study. Among them, 10 subjects were Kennedy Class III partially edentulous and 9 with posterior edentulism (Class I. All presented a complete and full dentate opposing arch. The subjects chewed samples of carrots and peanuts with and without their prosthesis. The granulometry of the expectorated boluses from carrot and peanuts was characterized by median particle size (D50, determined at the natural point of swallowing. Number of chewing cycles (CC, chewing time (CT and chewing frequency (CF=CC/CT were video recorded. RESULTS: With RPDP, the mean D50 values for carrot and peanuts were lower [Repeated Model Procedures (RMP, F=15, p<0.001] regardless of the type of Kennedy Class. For each food, mean CC, CT and CF values recorded decreased (RMP, F=18, F=9, and F=20 respectively, p<0.01. With or without RPD, the boluses' granulometry values were above the masticatory normative index (MNI determined as 4,000 µm. CONCLUSION: RPDP rehabilitation improves the ability to reduce the bolus particle size, but does not reestablish fully the masticatory function. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study encourages the clinical improvement of oral rehabilitation procedure.

  20. [Tooth protecting chewing gum tablets for lessening caries risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, A G; Brösch, C; Riethe, P

    1991-12-01

    This study examines whether the regular use of sugar-free chewing gum can improve oral hygiene and therefore reduce the risk of caries. During a four-week test, twenty subjects chewed a piece of gum twice a day for thirty minutes after meals. At the start, after two weeks, and at the end of the test period, the plaque and gingiva indices were recorded and the buffer capacity and secretion rate of the saliva determined. At the end of the test, a substantial reduction in the plaque and gingiva indices, an increase in the secretion rate and an improvement in buffer capacity were found, in comparison with the start levels. The changes were statistically significant. Sugar-free chewing gum alone is no substitute for regular dental care, but its use can be recommended as a way of supplementing traditional methods of oral hygiene. PMID:1818604

  1. The Research and Development on Simulation of Oral Cavity Food Chewing System

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoming Zhang; Min Hui

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to dig the destruction effect of change rules of oral cavity chewing system for food and the significance of relationship between chewing movement and chewing effect for the understanding of food quality and structure features. The process and effect of chewing movement for crushing food was stimulated and analyzed by reverse engineering technology combined with modern dental theory. The experiment results of uniform motion model and variable motion model showed that in grind...

  2. The Efficacy of Green Tea Chewing Gum on Gingival Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfarnia, Parichehr; Aslani, Ahmad; Jamshidian, Foroogh; Noohi, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem According to previous studies, the components of green tea extracts can inhibit the growth of a wide range of gram-pos-itive and -negative bacterial species and might be useful in controlling oral infections. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effect of green tea chewing gum on the rate of plaque and gingival inflammation in subjects with gingivitis. Materials and Method In this double-blind randomize controlled clinical trial, 45 patients with generalized marginal gingivitis were selected and divided into two groups of green tea (23) and placebo (22) chewing gum. The patients chewed two gums for 15 minutes daily for three weeks. Sulcus bleeding index (SBI) and approximal plaque index (API) were studied at the baseline, 7 and 21 days later. Saliva sampling was conducted before and after 21 days for evaluation of IL-1β. The results were analyzed and compared by using repeated measures ANOVA, paired t test, and independent two-sample t test (α=0.05). Result The results showed that chewing gum significantly affected the SBI and API (p< 0.001). Paired t test showed that the two groups were significantly different regarding the mean changes of SBI and API at different periods of 1-7, 1-21, and 7-21 (p< 0.001). Concerning IL-1β, the repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the effect of chewing gum was significant (p<0.001). Moreover, paired t-test represented no significant difference between the mean changes of IL-1β within 1-21 day (p= 0.086). Conclusion The green tea chewing gum improved the SBI and API and effectively reduced the level of IL-1β. PMID:27284561

  3. Chewing gum increases energy expenditure before and after controlled breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresge, Daniel L; Melanson, Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    Chewing has been associated with improved satiation and satiety, but little is known about the metabolic impact of gum chewing. We tested the hypothesis that gum chewing would increase energy expenditure (EE) and reduce respiratory exchange ratio (RER) before and after a controlled test meal. Seventeen males and 13 females (age 21.5 ± 6.6 years, body mass index 23.9 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum for a total of 1 h (3 sessions of 20 min) on the test day (GC) and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). EE and RER were measured by indirect calorimetry after an overnight fast. Subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured energy needs, and then postprandial EE and RER were measured for 3 h. Blood glucose (GLC) was measured in the fasting and postprandial states at regular intervals. Fasting EE was higher during GC (1.23 ± 0.04 kcal/min; 1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) than during NG (1.17 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p = 0.016). Postprandial EE was also higher during GC (1.46 ± 0.05 kcal/min) than during NG (1.42 ± 0.05 kcal/min; p = 0.037). Fasting and postprandial RER and GLC did not differ between GC and NG. The findings demonstrate that GC is associated with higher fasting and postprandial EE without altering blood glucose or substrate oxidation as measured by RER. These data suggest that gum chewing potentially could influence short-term energy balance in this population; however, longer-term research is needed. PMID:25794237

  4. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-01-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The result

  5. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation : evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing

  6. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.;

    1991-01-01

    Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free...... base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...

  7. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kotb El-Sayed, Mohamed-I; Amin, Hatem-K

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients. Patients and methods In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10) or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10). Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment i...

  8. Exoproteome and secretome derived broad spectrum novel drug and vaccine candidates in Vibrio cholerae targeted by Piper betel derived compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Barh

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.

  9. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Yamin; A. Sudarman; D. Evvyernie

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM) addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity be...

  10. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.; Jensen, S.B.; Nauntofte, B.; Bakke, M.; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Bredie, W.L.P.

    masseter muscle activity (MMA), chewing force (CFO), and saliva flow rate (SFR), may also play a role. In 10 healthy young males, the retronasal expired air of menthol and menthone from peppermint-flavoured (2%) chewing gum was determined as functions of CF, SFR, MMA, and CFO. The experimental setup......During chewing, the oral cavity functions like a bellow, forcing volatile flavour compounds into the exhaling air to the nasal compartment. Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like...

  11. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Nigerian chewing sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, O; Xu, H X; Lee, S F

    1999-12-01

    Ten aqueous extracts from wooden chewing sticks widely used in Nigeria for teeth cleaning were studied for antibacterial activities against 25 different bacteria using an agar diffusion assay. The extracts from five sticks, namely Garcinia kola, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens, Sorindeia warneckei and Vitex doniana, exhibited strong activities against a wide spectrum of bacteria including medically and dentally relevant bacteria. Notably, these five chewing stick extracts showed potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and multidrug-resistant Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from Vernonia amygdalina, Fagara zanthoxyloides and Massularia acuminata also showed activities against bacteria significant to periodontal disease. Methanol extracts prepared from G. kola, A. leiocarpus and V. doniana were further fractionated by solvent extraction. Results showed that the antibacterial activities were distributed into different fractions suggesting that the sticks contain different active antibacterial principles. In conclusion, the results showed that most of the Nigerian chewing sticks do contain antibacterial activities which may contribute to the reported anticaries effect of chewing sticks. These sticks may be sources for new lead antibacterial agents for therapeutic or preventive applications. PMID:10594937

  12. Effect of experimental chewing on masticatory muscle pain onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Rodrigues Conti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a chewing exercise on pain intensity and pressure-pain threshold in patients with myofascial pain. METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive women diagnosed with myofascial pain (MFP according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria comprised the experimental group and 15 healthy age-matched female were used as controls. Subjects were asked to chew a gum stick for 9 min and to stay at rest for another 9 min afterwards. Pain intensity was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS every 3 min. At 0, 9 and 18 min, the pressure-pain threshold (PPT was measured bilaterally on the masseter and the anterior, medium, and posterior temporalis muscles. RESULTS: Patients with myofascial pain reported increase (76% and no change (24% on the pain intensity measured with the VAS. A reduction of the PPT at all muscular sites after the exercise and a non-significant recovery after rest were also observed. CONCLUSION: The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. there are at least two subtypes of patients with myofascial pain that respond differently to experimental chewing; 2. the chewing protocol had an adequate discriminative ability in distinguishing patients with myofascial pain from healthy controls.

  13. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal. PMID:26899014

  14. Identification from a bitemark in a wad of chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Nambiar, P.; Carson, G; Taylor, J.A.; Brown, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    A wad of used chewing gum recovered from the scene of a burglary contained impressions of human teeth. Casts of these impressions displayed unique morphological characteristics which were found to show concordance with corresponding features present on casts of the posterior teeth of a suspect.

  15. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.;

    2004-01-01

    During chewing, the oral cavity functions like a bellow, forcing volatile flavour compounds into the exhaling air to the nasal compartment. Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like...... masseter muscle activity (MMA), chewing force (CFO), and saliva flow rate (SFR), may also play a role. In 10 healthy young males, the retronasal expired air of menthol and menthone from peppermint-flavoured (2%) chewing gum was determined as functions of CF, SFR, MMA, and CFO. The experimental setup...... comprised three separate series of a 4-min chewing period. These series differed only with respect to CF, i.e., habitual frequency, and 60 and 88 strokes/min. Results showed that more than 50% of the released menthol and menthone could be retrieved in the expired air and saliva. After 2-min of chewing, the...

  16. Oral submucous fibrosis: a review article on etiopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, J; Gupta, N; Bali, R

    2014-01-01

    Areca quid chewing related oral mucosal lesions are potential hazard to a large population worldwide. Commercially freeze dried products such as pan masala, guthka and mawa have high concentration of areca nut per chew and appear to cause OSMF more rapidly than by self prepared conventional betel quid that contain smaller amounts of areca nut. The basic constituent of areca nut is either raw or dried or boiled or baked. Diverse agents including lime, tobacco, catechu, cloves, saffron and leaf of piper betel leaves may form a part of formulation. Many of the undesirable aspects of areca nut have been attributed to arecoline. These chemical appear to interfere with the molecular processes of deposition and or degradation of extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen, causing imbalance in the normal process. The most likely events that take place with regards to the above imbalance may be reduced phagocytosis of collagen by fibroblasts, up or down regulation of copper dependent enzyme lysyl oxidase, matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases . It has been postulated that areca nut may also induce the development of the disease by increased levels of cytokines in the lamina propria. Current evidence implicates collagen related genes in susceptibility and pathogenesis of OSMF. The individual mechanisms operating at various stages of the disease--initial, intermediate and advanced--need further study in order to propose appropriate therapeutic interventions. PMID:25552225

  17. Detection of Human Papillomavirus 16-Specific IgG and IgM Antibodies in Patient Sera: A Potential Indicator of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerishnan, Jesinda P.; Gopinath, Subash C.B.; Kai, Sia Bik; Tang, Thean-Hock; Ng, Helen Lee-Ching; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Hashim, Uda; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and oral cancer has been widely reported. However, detecting anti-HPV antibodies in patient sera to determine risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been well studied. In the present investigation, a total of 206 OSCC serum samples from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database & Tissue Bank System, with 134 control serum samples, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to detect HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. In addition, nested PCR analysis using comprehensive consensus primers (PGMY09/11 and GP5+/6+) was used to confirm the presence of HPV. Furthermore, we have evaluated the association of various additional causal factors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel quid chewing) in HPV-infected OSCC patients. Statistical analysis of the Malaysian population indicated that OSCC was more prevalent in female Indian patients that practices betel quid chewing. ELISA revealed that HPV16 IgG, which demonstrates past exposure, could be detected in 197 (95.6%) OSCC patients and HPV16-specific IgM was found in a total of 42 (20.4%) OSCC patients, indicating current exposure. Taken together, our study suggest that HPV infection may play a significant role in OSCC (OR: 13.6; 95% CI: 3.89-47.51) and HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies could represent a significant indicator of risk factors in OSCC patients. PMID:27279791

  18. The Antibacterial Effect of CMCTS-Containing Chewing Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagang Miao; Dan Blom; Hongmei Zhao; Xuefei Luan; Tongzhi Chen; Xiaohui Wu; Ning Song

    2009-01-01

    Objective:This paper was designed to confirm the efficacy of chewing carboxymethyl chitosan(CMCTS)-containing gum in suppressing the growth of oral bacteria when compared to a CMCTS-containing mouth rinse.Methods:Fourteen healthy subjects were recruited from among the staff and students of Qingdao University Dentistry Department.Before the experiments saliva was collected from all subjects and bacteria counts determined.For the gum study,the subjects chewed CMCTS-containing gum for 5 rain and then rested for 5 min.When testing the CMCTS mouth rinse,the subjects gargled with 10 mL of solution for 30 s,followed by resting for 9min 30 s.These protocols were repeated five times over a 50 rain period on the same day.Post-experiment saliva samples were then collected at the following times:0,30 and 60 min.Results:Chewing gum containing CMCTS or rinsing with a CMCTS-containing rinse significantly decreased oral bacteria counts.The total bacteria counts,total Streptococci counts,and mutans streptococci counts of saliva from subjects who chewed CMCTS-containing gum were significantly lower than saliva from subjects in the rinse group in all three sampling periods,except in the case of the total bacteria count in the 60 min samples.Conclusion:CMCTS-containing gum chewing has a greater antibac-terial effect than using a CMCTS-containing mouth rinse.The present findings strongly indicate that the application of natural materials such as chitosan and its derivatives is useful for better oral health.

  19. Use of xylitol chewing gum among Finnish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, S; Honkala, E; Tynjälä, J; Kannas, L

    1999-12-01

    The preventive, and partly the remineralizing, effect of xylitol was shown in Finland in the Turku Sugar Studies in 1971-73. Since then, several clinical trials in many countries have confirmed these results. In Finland, oral health personnel have recommended daily use of xylitol chewing gum in their dental health education. Moreover, commercial companies have advertised xylitol, emphasizing in particular its caries preventive effects. All Nordic dental associations have given their recommendations for xylitol use. The aim of this study was to describe how this health habit has been adopted by Finnish schoolchildren. The study was part of the comprehensive cross-national survey on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC Study)--a WHO Collaborative Study. The data were collected using standardized questionnaires to which pupils in grades 5 (11 years), 7 (13 years) and 9 (15 years) responded anonymously in school classrooms during the spring term 1998. The response rate varied between 87% (15-year-old boys) and 94% (11- and 13-year-old girls). Among boys, the percentages of daily users of xylitol chewing gum were 47% (11 years), 46% (13 years), and 44% (15 years), and among girls, 57% (11 years), 65% (13 years), and 69% (15 years), respectively. Use of sugar-sweetened chewing gum was very rare (1%), as also was use of chewing gum with other artificial sweeteners (1%). It may be concluded that since 1991 the use of xylitol chewing gum has further increased in Finland and currently more than a half of all schoolchildren benefit from it. PMID:10777132

  20. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children's Chewing Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nanae; Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children's chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes' daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children's chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians. PMID:27382638

  1. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  2. Assessment of chewing stick (miswak use in a Muslim community in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Agbor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and reasons for chewing stick use among adult Muslim′s inhabitants of Banyo in the Adamawa region of Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study aimed at determining the prevalence and reasons for chewing stick use among Muslims was conducted between November 2010 and April 2011. Results: Of the 220 participants in this study, 187 (85.0% of them reported chewing stick use for teeth cleaning, and this was higher among males than females. Chewing stick use increased with ageing and varied among participants of different professions. Chewing stick users accented that the chewing stick use has a relationship with religion, and believed that chewing stick has a positive effect in the mouth than the non-users. Chewing stick users were less likely to have visited the dentist and experienced mouth odor but more likely to report oral health problems than non-users. The majority of the participants used chewing stick alone while a few used chewing stick with salt, charcoal and toothpaste The reasons for chewing stick use were religious advice, treatment of oral diseases, imitation of others and pleasure. Conclusion: Chewing stick use was common among participants with religious advice being the most dominant reason for the usage. Chewing stick users were less likely to visit the dentist, experience mouth odor but are more likely to report oral health problem than the non-users. This study information will serve as a useful guide in community oral health interventional development programme among Muslims.

  3. CHEWING GUM: A MODERN ERA OF DRUG DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaliya Pratik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum as a drug delivery system has many advantages over other oral dosage forms and oral route is the most preferred route amongst the patient and clinicians because the first pass metabolism can be avoided by the absorption of drug through buccal mucosa in the systemic circulation. It can be applied to cure and prevent the dental caries, pain, smoking cessation, obesity, xerostomia, motion sickness, acidity and specially diabetes. It has many advantages like fast onset of action, no first pass metabolism, patient compliance, taste masking, reduced risk of erosion of gastric mucosa, overdose and some marketing advantages. This review indicates that further study on medicated chewing gum can be used to improve it as a modern drug delivery.

  4. The Efficacy of Green Tea Chewing Gum on Gingival Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Behfarnia; Ahmad Aslani; Foroogh Jamshidian; Soheil Noohi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: According to previous studies, the components of green tea extracts can inhibit the growth of a wide range of gram-pos-itive and -negative bacterial species and might be useful in controlling oral infections. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of green tea chewing gum on the rate of plaque and gingival inflammation in subjects with gingivitis. Materials and Method: In this double-blind randomize controlled clinical trial, 45 patients wit...

  5. Antioxidant capacity of chewing stick miswak Salvadora persica

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Saleh A.; Jalaluddin A. Khan

    2013-01-01

    Background Chewing stick (miswak Salvadora persica L.) is an effective tool for oral hygiene. It possessed various biological properties including significant antibacterial and anti-fungal effects. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant compounds in miswak. Method Miswak root was extracted with 80% methanol. Methanol extract as antioxidant was evaluated by using DPPH, ABTS and phosphomolybdenum complex assays and analysis by GC-MS. Peroxidase, catalase and polyphenoloxidase assays...

  6. CHEWING GUM: A MODERN ERA OF DRUG DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Savaliya Pratik; Karigar Asif; Ramana MV; Patel Mitul; Kalathiya Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Chewing gum as a drug delivery system has many advantages over other oral dosage forms and oral route is the most preferred route amongst the patient and clinicians because the first pass metabolism can be avoided by the absorption of drug through buccal mucosa in the systemic circulation. It can be applied to cure and prevent the dental caries, pain, smoking cessation, obesity, xerostomia, motion sickness, acidity and specially diabetes. It has many advantages like fast onset of action, no f...

  7. Cryoextraction: A novel approach to remove aspirated chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of aspirated foreign bodies can prove challenging at times, requiring even rigid bronchoscopy. Cryotherapy probes have been reported to help with extraction of foreign bodies. We present a case where successful "cryoextraction" was performed on an aspirated chewing gum. The case highlights the fact that this technique is useful to extract all materials that have water content. This technique can be performed through flexible bronchoscopy and can save patients from more aggressive approaches.

  8. Cryoextraction: A novel approach to remove aspirated chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo Rubio; Prag Gupta; Susanti Ie; Michael Boyd

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of aspirated foreign bodies can prove challenging at times, requiring even rigid bronchoscopy. Cryotherapy probes have been reported to help with extraction of foreign bodies. We present a case where successful "cryoextraction" was performed on an aspirated chewing gum. The case highlights the fact that this technique is useful to extract all materials that have water content. This technique can be performed through flexible bronchoscopy and can save patients from more aggressi...

  9. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydra...

  10. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p,p'γ)19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  11. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Makanju, O.V. [Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U.), Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Haque, A.M.I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Cherubini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the {sup 19}F(p,p`{gamma}){sup 19}F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.).

  12. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  13. Effect of chewing gum on the bowel motility after cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadije Yazdi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative ileus is common after cholecystectomy, causes gas retension, distention, nausea, vomiting, and even pain. Chewing gum is a type of sham feeding that may reduce the duration of postoperative ileus. This study determines the effect of chewing gum in the immediate postoperative period to facilitate ileus recovery following cholecystectomy. Material & Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial in 2009. Twenty-four patients undergoing cholecystectomy and they divided in to two equal groups (n=12. Patients in group A chewed sugarless gum there time after surgery, each time 20 miniutes in 4, 10 and 18 hours after finishing sugery. Demographics, intraoperative, and postoperative care data did not reveal any significant difference between two groups. The data resending the first passage of flatus, defecation and bowel sound in every 2 hours for each patient completed in questioning. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version-13.5 and student t-test. Results: The first bowel sound heard 3 ±1.3 and 2.8 ±1.3 hours post-operatively in cases and controls, respectively. The above findings were not significant between two groups. Furthermore gas passing reported at 18.3±10.5 and 36.28±12.6 hours post-operation in case and control groups respectively. The first defecation was occured at 36.8 ±21.7 and 69.5 ±19.2 hours after operation in case and control groups, respectively

  14. The Research and Development on Simulation of Oral Cavity Food Chewing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to dig the destruction effect of change rules of oral cavity chewing system for food and the significance of relationship between chewing movement and chewing effect for the understanding of food quality and structure features. The process and effect of chewing movement for crushing food was stimulated and analyzed by reverse engineering technology combined with modern dental theory. The experiment results of uniform motion model and variable motion model showed that in grinding mode, a higher chewing rate had good effect on the destruction of the food and influence of acceleration change on chewing effect was relatively weak, in which uniform acceleration and deceleration motion was more suitable for grinding the elasticity and toughness of food.

  15. Effect of Regular Gum Chewing on Levels of Anxiety, Mood, and Fatigue in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki-Otomaru, Akiyo; Sakuma, Yumiko; Mochizuki, Yoshiko; Ishida, Sadayo; Kanoya, Yuka; Sato, Chifumi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The effect of regular gum chewing on psychological status is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gum chewing for fourteen days on psychological status and physical and mental fatigue in healthy young adults. Methods: We assigned 50 volunteers randomly to an intervention group (n = 26) and a control group (n = 24). Participants in the intervention group were requested to chew the gum twice per a day for fourteen days. The volunteers were required to co...

  16. Effect of Gum Chewing on the Recovery From Laparoscopic Colorectal Cancer Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Duk Yeon; Kim, Ho Young; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, In Gyu; Kim, Jun Ki; Oh, Seung Taek; Lee, Yoon Suk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to examine the effect of gum chewing after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery in Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine. We divided the patients into 2 groups: group A consisted of 67 patients who did not chew gum; group B consisted of 65 patients who chewed gum. We analyzed the short-term clinical outcomes between the two gro...

  17. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Andrew P; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on w...

  18. Antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of Indian chewing sticks on dental plaque: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Dola Srinivasa Rao; Tanuja Penmatsa; Alapati Kranthi Kumar; M Narendra Reddy; Nalam Sai Gautam; Nalam Radhika Gautam

    2014-01-01

    The anti-microbial efficacy of aqueous extracts of Indian chewing sticks against different kinds of plaque bacteria in vitro was investigated. Supra-gingival plaque is cultured and subjected to the antibacterial activity of the aqueous extracts of chewing sticks (Neem, Acacia, Pongamia glabra, Achyranthes aspera, Streblus asper) separately. The results of the study demonstrate that all the five chewing sticks under study possess inhibitory potential against bacteria present in dental plaque m...

  19. Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Abolfazl Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Metfornin chewing gum had suitable appearance and appropriate invitro characteristics that fallow the pharmacopeia suggestions. This chewable gum showed bitterness suppression with a suitable release rate.

  20. Conserved host-pathogen PPIs. Globally conserved inter-species bacterial PPIs based conserved host-pathogen interactome derived novel target in C. pseudotuberculosis, C. diphtheriae, M. tuberculosis, C. ulcerans, Y. pestis, and E. coli targeted by Piper betel compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Debmalya; Gupta, Krishnakant; Jain, Neha;

    2013-01-01

    were predicted to inhibit Ack activity. One of these Piper betel compounds found to inhibit E. coli O157:H7 growth similar to penicillin. The target specificity of these betel compounds, their effects on other studied pathogens, and other in silico results are currently being validated and the results...... generate a conserved host-pathogen interaction (HP-PPI) network considering human, goat, sheep, bovine, and horse as hosts. The HP-PPI network was validated, and acetate kinase (Ack) was identified as a novel broad spectrum target. Ceftiofur, penicillin, and two natural compounds derived from Piper betel...

  1. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship. PMID:26243908

  2. Mutans Streptococci Dose Response to Xylitol Chewing Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, P.; Ly, K.A.; Roberts, M C; Rothen, M; Mueller, G.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Xylitol is promoted in caries-preventive strategies, yet its effective dose range is unclear. This study determined the dose-response of mutans streptococci in plaque and unstimulated saliva to xylitol gum. Participants (n = 132) were randomized: controls (G1) (sorbitol/maltitol), or combinations giving xylitol 3.44 g/day (G2), 6.88 g/day (G3), or 10.32 g/day (G4). Groups chewed 3 pellets/4 times/d. Samples were taken at baseline, 5 wks, and 6 mos, and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivari...

  3. Chewing Gum Can Help in Weight Loss, Study Says

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小兰

    2000-01-01

    杭州的陈小兰把这篇稿子寄给我们,意欲刊登在“难句会诊”专栏。因为她对文章的第一句(非主题句也)感到莫名其妙。我们觉得本文的信息不乏新意,现将此文刊登在注释读物栏。 语言与文化岂可随便割裂?两者的关系是:你中有我,我中有你,水乳交融一般。陈小兰对文章的首句(Maybe this s why the Doublemint Twins are soskinny.)感到头疼。问题不在文字,而在文化。语言打着文化烙印,其丰润的文化内涵往往不是查阅词典、阅读书籍所能够解决的,需要长期地生活在该语言文化环境之中。陈小兰的问题,我们编辑部也感到头疼,只得求助美国教授。E-mail上午发往美国,下午回音即到! Dorine/Rosemary两教授分别居住在美国的东/西海岸。她们的解答几乎如出一辙。本刊将她们的E-mail附在文后。有兴趣的读者不妨一读,从中也许还可以感受到电视商业广告是何等深入人心! 本文还有一句话的理解值得注意: The effect of chewing gum on weight control,they said,“should not bediscounted.” Discount一词的含义是“打折扣”,翻译时似不宜照译,恐怕只能改译“低估”。 我们向读者推荐此文,并不是为Chewing Gum作广告,也不可能为ChewingGum作广告。因为,文章的末尾写道: But they warned that a person would have to chew e

  4. Placebo controlled trial of nicotine chewing gum in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamrozik, K; Fowler, G; Vessey, M; Wald, N

    1984-01-01

    Of 2110 adult cigarette smokers originally recruited to a study of the effect of antismoking advice in general practice, 429 who reported at follow up after one year that they had tried unsuccessfully to stop smoking were offered "a special antismoking chewing gum," either nicotine gum or a placebo gum, in a double blind study. Of 200 who were willing to try the gum, 101 were randomly allocated to the nicotine gum and 99 to the placebo gum. They were followed up at six months by an unannounce...

  5. Bolus materials mainly made of chewing gum base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors preliminarily report useful bolus materials for therapy with high energy electrons and photons. The substances are made of mainly chewing gum base (CGB), and have thermoplasticity around 400C. Two bolus materials (CGB-3 and -4) are available, and these radiological properties are as follows (1) effective atomic number -7.51 for both, (2) electron density relative to water -1.05 for CGB-3, 1.00 for CGB-4. The basic studies, process to make bolus, clinical uses and indications are described. The characteristics of these bolus materials in radiotherapy planning with CT scanner and in high energy electron beam therapy are discussed. (author)

  6. Randomised controlled trial of nicotine chewing-gum.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, M. J.; Raw, M.; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of 2 mg nicotine chewing-gum as an aid to stopping smoking was compared with a placebo containing 1 mg nicotine, but unbuffered, in a double-blind randomised trial. Of 58 subjects given the active gum, 27 (47%) were not smoking at one-year follow-up compared with 12 (21%) of the 58 subjects treated with placebo (p less than 0.025). By the most stringent criterion of outcome, 18 (31%) subjects in the active treatment group and eight (14%) in the placebo group had not smoked a...

  7. Insulin chewing gum: Need of the day for diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mateti, Uday Venkat; Adla, Nagesh; Rajakannan, Thiyagu; Valakkathala, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Chewing gum is an excellent drug delivery system for self medication as it is convenient, can be administered discreetly without water and offers the removal of ‘needle fear’ for the patients. As it releases insulin orally, it helps in tackling of the deprivation of insulin by digestive enzyme without adding digestive enzyme inhibitor. This can be done by binding of vitamin B12 and insulin. The vitamin B12 is protected with haptocorrin which is a salivary protein. Another chemical pathway tak...

  8. Fluoride and urea chewing gums in an intra-oral experimental caries model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjogren, K; Ruben, J; Lingstrom, P; Lundberg, AB; Birkhed, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing fluoride (F) and urea in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Placebo chewing gums (without any active ingredient) and no gum served as controls. Fifteen subjects participated in a cross-over, s

  9. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.

  10. Gum chewing improves adolescents’ math performance in an SAT preparatory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of gum chewing on students’ performance in a preparatory course for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A total of 182 adolescents enrolled in an SAT preparatory class were randomized into one of two treatments: 1) gum chewing condition (G...

  11. Gum-Chewing and Headache: An Underestimated Trigger of Headache Pain in Migraineurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Tension-type headache and migraine are currently considered the second and third most frequent human diseases. Since a variety of conditions that involve the temporomandibular joint and chewing muscles are frequent causes of orofacial pain, the aim of this article was to review current published evidence about the potential relationship between gum-chewing and headache. A systematic electronic search performed on Medline, Scopus and Web of Science using the keywords "headache" or "migraine" and "chewing" allowed to finally identify 1 cross-sectional, 1 observational and 3 randomized studies, along with 3 case reports about the potential association between gum-chewing and headache. Despite the limited evidence, it seems reasonable to suggest that headache attacks may be triggered by gum-chewing in migraineurs and in patients with tension-type headache. Opposite results were obtained in non-migraineurs, since in none of these studies an increased prevalence of headache pain was reported after gum-chewing. Although larger randomized studies will be necessary to definitely establish the relationship between gum-chewing and headache across different populations, it seems cautionary to suggest that subjects with migraine or tension-type headache should avoid or limit gum-chewing in their lifestyle. PMID:25714969

  12. Chewing gum: cognitive performance, mood, well-being, and associated physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Smith, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  13. A generating function for a class of effective Chew-Mandelstam functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained the generating function for a class of effective Chew-Mandelstam functions for arbitrary integral angular momentum. From this a closed formula for the Chew-Mandelstam functions themselves is derived in both the simple equal mass case and in the more complicated case of unequal masses

  14. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Mukkavilli, Rao [Advinus Therapeutics, Karnataka (India); Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Reid, Michelle D. [Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Aneja, Ritu, E-mail: raneja@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ∼ 72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. - Highlights: • HC perturbs cell-cycle progression by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). • HC mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to

  15. Smoothness of chewing jaw movements in adults with mandibular prognathism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, K; Takagi, M; Takada, K

    2012-02-01

    Indices such as smoothness, movement time, peak velocity, and symmetry of the velocity profile have been shown to be effective in explaining the degree of skilfulness of human saccadic eye, limb, and jaw motions. We investigated whether adult subjects with mandibular prognathism show impaired smoothness of the masticatory jaw movements. Forty-nine adults with skeletal Class III malocclusions and 52 healthy adults with acceptably good occlusions were selected respectively as Test and Control subjects. Subjects of the Test Group were subdivided into two groups: Class III(closed) showed full occlusal contact between the upper and lower teeth at the habitual intercuspal position, whereas Class III(open) showed inability of occlusal contact between the upper and lower anterior teeth. Each subject was asked to chew a piece of chewing gum. The normalised jerk-cost (NJC), movement duration, and tangential velocity profile during jaw-closing movements were compared between groups. Test Groups showed greater NJC (P Group did. Class III(closed) showed greater NJC (P Groups exhibit lower skilfulness than those made by the Control Group. The jaw movement skilfulness of the prognathic patients decreases most drastically with existence of malocclusal contact between upper and lower anterior teeth. PMID:21923891

  16. Radioactivity and trace element contents of commercial chewing tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive elements uranium, thorium and their daughters are present ubiquitously in the environment and are transferred to man through various pathways. Both, U and Th can cause radiological and toxic hazards. The ingestion dose pathway calculations involve analysis of all kinds of food or edible materials. A large population in India and Asian subcontinent are addicted to commercially available chewing tobacco. This practice is reported to have lead to increased consequences of cancer. Trace elements (Fe, Co, Mn, Zn etc.) are essential but may also prove to be toxic if present in excess. Besides these the hazards of heavy elements like Pb and Cd have also increased in the current polluted environment. In this study most of the commercially available brands of gutkha and chewing tobacco were collected. The radioactive elements U and Th were analyzed in them by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Trace elements Fe, Co, Mn, Zn, and toxic heavy elements Pb, Cd, Ni etc. were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The levels of Th and U were in the range 0.02-0.11 mg/g and 0.02-0.08 mg/g respectively. The cancer risk due to U, Th, Pb and Cd were calculated and are found to be low. (author)

  17. Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

    2014-06-01

    Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy. PMID:24932820

  18. Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Jahan Mumu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years, diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%, exercise (25%, routine blood glucose testing (32%, foot care (70%, smoking (6% and betel quid chewing habit (25%. Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013, rural area (P = 0.013 and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043 showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014, older age (P = 0.037 are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045 than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037 and business occupation group (P = 0.039 showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively.

  19. Analysis of various risk factors affecting potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer patients of Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya Kadashetti; Minal Chaudhary; Swati Patil; Madhuri Gawande; K M Shivakumar; Snehal Patil; R C Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Context: The use of tobacco/betel quid can alone lead to death. India is the fourth largest consumer of tobacco/betel quid in the world and the third-largest producer of tobacco/betel quid after China and Brazil. Aims: A case-control study was carried out to assess the prevalence and various risk factors among potentially malignant disorders (PMD) and oral cancer patients of central India. Settings and Design: A total of 100 clinically and histopathologically diagnosed PMD and oral can...

  20. The effect of chewing gum on physiological and self-rated measures of alertness and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher; Haddrell, Ben; Harrison, Emily; Osborne, Liam; Wilson, Nigel; Jenks, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    The proposition that chewing gum can improve alertness was investigated via both physiological and self-rated measures. The Pupillographic Sleepiness Test (PST) provided a measure of pupillary unrest (PUI); a physiological index of daytime sleepiness. Chewing gum reduced the extent of sleepiness as measured by both PUI and self-rated sleepiness. Specifically, in comparison with sham chewing and no chewing controls, the chewing gum condition significantly limited the increase in pupillary unrest following the 11-minute PST within a darkened laboratory: a finding indicating moderation of the daytime sleepiness increase for the chewing gum condition. In addition, there was some evidence that chewing gum (relative to the no-chewing condition only) moderated the increase in a self-rated measure of sleepiness (Stanford Sleepiness Scale). However, there was no evidence that chewing gum moderated the decrease in self-rated alertness (Bond-Lader Visual Analogue Mood Scale). Although the precise mechanism underpinning the effect of chewing gum is unclear, the reduction in daytime sleepiness may be underpinned via heightened cerebral activity following the chewing of gum or the arousing effects of mint flavour. PMID:22061430

  1. Compliance with Xylitol and Sorbitol Chewing Gum Regimens in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRETZ, WALTER A.; ROSA, ODILA P. S.; SILVA, SALETE M. B.; CORBY, PATRICIA M. A.; MILANDA, MARCELO; LOESCHE, WALTER J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate compliance of long-term xylitol and sorbitol chewing gum regimens in adult women participating in a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Design The participants included 122 mothers (age range: 16–35 years) residing in the city of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Compliance with the xylitol and sorbitol chewing gum regimens was assessed by weighing, with a precision balance, all used gums returned in zip-lock bags during the study period of 33 months. The total number of returned bags in both chewing gum groups was computed and the differences between groups were determined by one-way ANOVA. Compliance was further categorized into excellent, good, fair or poor based on the distribution of the combined data for both groups by quartiles. These distributions for the xylitol and sorbitol groups were subjected to chi-square analysis. Results Compliance was always superior for the xylitol group in all categories. These distributions were, however, not significantly different in statistical terms. Average compliance in the xylitol chewing gum group was significantly higher when compared to the sorbitol chewing gum group (p=0.0481). Conclusions The results suggest that compliance, and possibly acceptance in this population, was superior for xylitol chewing gum than for sorbitol chewing gum. PMID:22241940

  2. Effects of chewing gum on responses to routine painful procedures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowski, M D; Barr, R G; Sherrard, A; Lessard, J; Harris, A R; Young, S N

    2003-07-01

    In infants, sweet taste and sucking on a pacifier both have analgesic effects. Animal studies suggest that sweet taste may involve opioids, while rhythmic oral movements, as with a pacifier, increase the release of serotonin, which is involved in the gating of nociceptive afferents. The present study was designed to see if these effects produce an analgesic effect in children. Two studies were performed, during blood draws in a pediatric test center in 7- to 12-year-old children, and during vaccination at school in 9- to 11-year-old children. Using unsweetened or sweetened chewing gum, there were four groups: control, sweet, chew, and sweet plus chew. Overall, there was no effect of either sweet taste or chewing on pain responses. However, in boys sweet taste tended to increase pain ratings, but only in conjunction with chewing, while in girls sweet taste tended to decrease pain ratings in conjunction with chewing and increased them in the absence of chewing. Ratings of pain intensity and affective state were correlated. Affective state before the painful stimulus was related to pain response in the girls and in the boys in the test center, but not in the schools. In the schools, the presence of peers may have influenced the ratings. PMID:12834797

  3. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established treatments. Further treatment options are needed since available treatments are often time consuming, expensive and limited regarding their external validity. Recent research demonstrated that gum chewing has beneficial effects on cognition including certain aspects of attention. Therefore, gum chewing may benefit children with ADHD in situations requiring particular cognitive efforts. In a crossover study, attentional functioning of 32 children with ADHD and 32 children without the condition was examined. All participants were assessed with chewing gum and without chewing gum. A computerized test was used for the assessment of vigilance and sustained attention. The findings of the present study suggest that gum chewing during task execution has detrimental effects on vigilance of both healthy children and children with ADHD. Sustained attention was not affected by gum chewing. Chewing gum, therefore, appears not to improve attentional performance in children with ADHD. PMID:20933558

  4. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake. PMID:26201971

  5. Cheval et territoire : les équidés et les formes de loisirs équestres dans les territoires ruraux et périurbains

    OpenAIRE

    Vial, Celine

    2008-01-01

    Le nombre d’équidés est en forte croissance en France mais on ne sait pas quelles sont les caractéristiques locales des territoires qui sont susceptibles d’expliquer leur plus ou moins grande présence. D’autre part, on connaît mal les différentes formes et les implications économiques des bouleversements sociaux et culturels que connaissent actuellement les loisirs équestres, avec le développement du tourisme équestre et des cavaliers et propriétaires de chevaux dits «hors structures ». Ce pr...

  6. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.;

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum and...... tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  7. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  8. Khat Chewing Habits in the Population of the Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Rahim, Bahaa-eldin E. A.; Solan, Yahya M. H.; Makeen, Anwar M.; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The use of khat (Catha edulis) is a major public health and social problem that is believed to be growing globally. The khat chewing habit is prevalent in all areas of the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). However, few studies have been conducted at the community level to investigate the khat chewing habits in this area. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among the Jazan community population. A cross-sectional study was ...

  9. The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC--MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to measure concentration of Photophysical Characterization(BHT) and determine percent recovery in chewing gum is described. The results demonstrated that over time, the concentration of BHT in the extract decreased owing to aerial oxidation.

  10. Social Networking Media: A Newer Approach to Increase Awareness Against Tobacco Chewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Gajera, Shivangi Malaviya, Umang Patel, Neha Bavarva, Manan Patel, Shreyash Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Facebook has been found highly effective in transmitting messages to health consumers, especially among the youngsters. So information regarding tobacco addiction and outcomes of tobacco chewing can be communicated effectively through Facebook through intense messages.

  11. Effect of chewing gum on the postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei; Chen, Gang; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction remains a source of morbidity and the major determinant of length of stay after abdominal operation. There are many different reasons for postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction such as stress response, perioperative interventions, bowel manipulation and so on. The mechanism of enhanced recovery from postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction with the help of chewing gum is believed to be the cephalic-vagal stimulation of digestion which increases the promotability of neural and humoral factors that act on different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, there were a series of randomized controlled trials to confirm the role of chewing gum in the recovery of gastrointestinal function. The results suggested that chewing gum enhanced early recovery of bowel function following abdominal surgery expect the gastrointestinal surgery. However, the effect of chewing gum in gastrointestinal surgery was controversial. PMID:26550107

  12. Effect of Chewing Gum on the Acid-Base and Mineral Balance in the Oral Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Vaido; Elena Raspolina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite chewing gum (CG) is widespread, discussion about its harm and benefits is still in progress. It is unknown whether the CG effect on the teeth depends on the type of sugar substitute. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of chewing gums containing aspartame and sucralose on the acidbase balance and content of mineral components in mixed saliva after carbohydrate-containing food. METHODS The oral fluid, or “mixed” saliva had been ...

  13. The effect of Propolis and Xylitol chewing gums on salivary Streptococcus mutans count: A clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sneha Girdhari Tulsani; Nagarathna Chikkanarasaiah; Shakuntala Bethur Siddaiah; Navin H Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus mutans is one of the most common cariogenic microorganisms. Use of natural anticariogenic agents, such as Xylitol has been well-established in the literature. On the other hand, there is a scarcity of studies that have reported the antimicrobial potential of Propolis as an anticariogenic chewing agent; hence, the present study was designed. Aims: To evaluate and compare the anticariogenic action of two commercial chewing gums Propolis and Xylitol on the salivary ...

  14. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes; William Custodio; Fernanda Faot; Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury; Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1) mesofacial, (2) brachyfacial and (3) dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was eval...

  15. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children's Chewing Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Nanae; Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children’s chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes’ daily curriculum for five we...

  16. Report of a patient chewing fentanyl patches who was titrated onto methadone

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Eric; Ashby, Fleur; Seelam, Kalyan

    2009-01-01

    This case report discusses the clinical presentation and management of a patient presenting to substance misuse services reporting chewing fentanyl patches in addition to wearing them transdermally. The patient was successfully titrated onto methadone 30 mg. Only one previously reported case of an individual chewing fentanyl patches was found in the literature; no case reports were found where treatment involved titrating the patient onto methadone. The pharmacology and illicit use of fentany...

  17. Development of a new instrument for determining the level of chewing function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, S; Demir, N; Barak Dolgun, A; Karaduman, A A

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a chewing performance scale that classifies chewing from normal to severely impaired and to investigate its validity and reliability. The study included the developmental phase and reported the content, structural, criterion validity, interobserver and intra-observer reliability of the chewing performance scale, which was called the Karaduman Chewing Performance Scale (KCPS). A dysphagia literature review, other questionnaires and clinical experiences were used in the developmental phase. Seven experts assessed the steps for content validity over two Delphi rounds. To test structural, criterion validity, interobserver and intra-observer reliability, two swallowing therapists evaluated chewing videos of 144 children (Group I: 61 healthy children without chewing disorders, mean age of 42·38 ± 9·36 months; Group II: 83 children with cerebral palsy who have chewing disorders, mean age of 39·09 ± 22·95 months) using KCPS. The Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) was used for criterion validity. The KCPS steps arranged between 0-4 were found to be necessary. The content validity index was 0·885. The KCPS levels were found to be different between groups I and II (χ(2) = 123·286, P < 0·001). A moderately strong positive correlation was found between the KCPS and the subscales of the BPFAS (r = 0·444-0·773, P < 0·001). An excellent positive correlation was detected between two swallowing therapists and between two examinations of one swallowing therapist (r = 0·962, P < 0·001; r = 0·990, P < 0·001, respectively). The KCPS is a valid, reliable, quick and clinically easy-to-use functional instrument for determining the level of chewing function in children. PMID:27043312

  18. Mutanase-containing chewing gum: A new potential approach for prevention of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Kolahi; Mohamadreza Abrishami

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Study on the effect of topically applied mutanase on plaque formation and caries in rats showed strong inhibition of dental caries. Furthermore, it has been shown that the presence of mutanase in dental plaque may affect the synthesis and structure of sticky, extracellular glucans. The Hypothesis: Mutanase can be easily added to gum base. After chewing of mutanase-containing chewing gum, the enzyme will be released into the oral cavity. Mutanase will hydrolyze sticky, extracellu...

  19. Effects of chewing gum against postoperative ileus after pancreaticoduodenectomy – a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Thomas; Bjerså, Kristofer; Falk, Kristin; Fagevik Olsén, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative ileus is common after surgery. One non-pharmacological intervention that has shown promising results in reducing the duration of postoperative ileus is chewing gum after surgery. However, this has not been investigated in upper gastrointestinal surgery such as pancreatic surgery. Hence the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chewing gum treatment on patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy ad modum whipple due to pancreatic or periampullary cancer. ...

  20. Formulation of Eco-friendly Medicated Chewing Gum to Prevent Motion Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Shete, Rahul B.; Muniswamy, Vimalkumar J.; Ashlesha P. Pandit; Khandelwal, Kishanchandra R.

    2015-01-01

    An attempt was made to formulate medicated chewing gum to prevent motion sickness using natural gum base for faster onset of action and easy administration, anywhere and anytime, without access to water. To avoid the discard issue of gum cud, natural gum base of Triticum aestivum (wheat grain) was explored because of its biodegradable and biocompatible nature and easy availability. Prolamin, extracted from wheat, showed good chewing capacity, elasticity, high water retention capacity, antifun...

  1. CHEWING GUM AS A TREATMENT FOR RUMINATION IN A CHILD WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Rhine, Denise; Tarbox, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Rumination involves regurgitation of previously ingested food, rechewing the food, and reswallowing it. In the current study, a child with autism displayed chronic rumination, resulting in the decay and subsequent removal of several teeth. After several treatments failed, including thickened liquids and starch satiation, the participant was taught to chew gum. His rumination decreased significantly when gum was made available. Results suggest that access to chewing gum may be an effective tre...

  2. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kotb, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgr...

  3. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kotb El-Sayed MI; Amin HK

    2015-01-01

    Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: ei...

  4. Chewing-stick practices using plants with anti-streptococcal activity in a Ugandan rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Okot Odongo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high dental disease burden in developing countries has created a need to explore and develop cheap and accessible methods of dental disease prevention. Traditional toothbrushes (chewing-sticks prepared from specific plants have been used for dental hygiene for generations. When properly used, chewing sticks may be as effective as synthetic toothbrushes. This study set out to describe traditional chewing-stick practices in a Ugandan rural community, and evaluate the antibacterial activity of two most commonly used plants. Methods: Interviews were done to identify chewing-stick plants and obtain socio-cultural information relating to the practice in two villages in rural Uganda. Field walks were done to pick and voucher the plants, for taxonomical identification and storage. For the two most reported plants, aqueous extracts were prepared and tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using the agar-well diffusion method. Results: Of the 21 key informants interviewed, all were using or had used chewing sticks in the past. A total of eight plants were identified as sources of chewing sticks, with Rhus vulgaris and Lantana trifolia most commonly mentioned. Chewing sticks were preferred over synthetic tooth brushes because they were less likely to traumatize the gums. Their use has been limited of recent due to scarcity of some plants. Rhus vulgaris and Lantana trifolia aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans with mean diameters of inhibition of 24.33 ± 0.58 mm and 14.17 ± 0.29 mm on Blood agar respectively, compared to benzyl penicillin control 30.67 ± 0.29 mm. Conclusions: Rhus vulgaris and Lantana trifolia are the most common sources of chewing sticks for cleaning teeth in this community. The plants contain compounds that are active against Streptococcus mutans. These plants merit further studies as they are possible sources of cheap dental health care for the rural poor.

  5. Low-cost in vitro Screening Method for Digestibility of Pet Chews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Bowser

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four pet chew treats from four different manufacturers were tested for digestibility using in vitro tests in artificial gastric (stomach and intestinal juices. In vitro tests were selected to determine the digestibility of dog chews for humane reasons and were conducted under conditions that were designed to simulate the digestive system of dogs. The purpose of the tests was to rapidly and inexpensively determines the rate of degradation of a dog chew in the canine digestive tract to assess product safety for dogs. Dog chew pet treats that are swallowed whole, or in part, should degrade rapidly in the canine digestive system to prevent potentially dangerous blockage. Tests were conducted on one cm and one-half cm cubes of dog chew products. Results of the tests clearly indicated that one product outperformed all others in short-term (under 4 hrs digestive tests. The Bone-A-Mint Wheat Free formula degraded more rapidly than all other products in tests simulating canine gastric and intestinal juices. Tests conducted in this study will form the basis of an in vitro procedure that can be used as an industry standard to asses the safety of pet chew treats.

  6. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior.WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum, sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum, and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum. Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored.We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum.These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.

  7. Chewing Sugar-Free Gum Reduces Ileus After Cesarean Section in Nulliparous Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsenzadeh Ledari, Farideh; Barat, Shanaz; Delavar, Mouloud Agajani; Banihosini, Seyed Zahra; Khafri, Soriya

    2013-01-01

    Background Gum chewing after cesarean section may stimulate bowel motility and decrease duration of postoperative ileus. Objectives The current study assessed the effect of chewing sugar-free gum on the return of bowel function, where cesarean section had been performed in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods In a randomized clinical trial, 60 patients, scheduled for cesarean section were randomly divided in to 2 groups gum-chewing group (n = 30) and control group (n = 30) postoperatively...

  8. Regular Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is associated with elevated diastolic blood pressure among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Gedif Teferi; Getahun Workineh; Tesfaye Fikru

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Fresh leaves and buds of the Khat plant (Catha edulis) contain Cathinone, an amphetamine like alkaloid responsible for its pharmacological action. Chewing of Khat has been associated with a transient rise in blood pressure and heart rate in experimental studies. Few studies examined the effect of regular or frequent Khat chewing on blood pressure at the population level. This study was conducted to examine the association of regular Khat chewing with blood pressure among a...

  9. Khat chewing, cardiovascular diseases and other internal medical problems : The current situation and directions for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Al-Habori, M.; Broadley, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) are chewed as a social habit for the central stimulant action of their cathinone content. This review summarizes the prevalence of the habit worldwide, the actions, uses, constituents and adverse health effects of khat chewing. There is growing concern about the health hazards of chronic khat chewing and this review concentrates on the adverse effects on health in the peripheral systems of the body, including the cardiovascular system and gastrointesti...

  10. Qat Chewing and Risk of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Oral Disorders: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    S El-Zaemey; Schüz, J; ME Leon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Qat (also known as Khat, Kat and Miraa) is a green-leaved plant (Catha edulis). It is a shrub indigenous to Yemen and certain parts of eastern Africa. Chewing the leaves, which have sympathomimetic and euphoric effects, has been documented in many countries and increased with worldwide migration. The effect of long-term chewing Qat on the oral cavity is unknown.Objective: A systematic review was performed to identify any associations between Qat chewing and the occurrence of poten...

  11. Mutans Streptococci Dose Response to Xylitol Chewing Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, P.; Ly, K.A.; Roberts, M.C.; Rothen, M.; Mueller, G.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Xylitol is promoted in caries-preventive strategies, yet its effective dose range is unclear. This study determined the dose-response of mutans streptococci in plaque and unstimulated saliva to xylitol gum. Participants (n = 132) were randomized: controls (G1) (sorbitol/maltitol), or combinations giving xylitol 3.44 g/day (G2), 6.88 g/day (G3), or 10.32 g/day (G4). Groups chewed 3 pellets/4 times/d. Samples were taken at baseline, 5 wks, and 6 mos, and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci and on blood agar for total culturable flora. At 5 wks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque were 10x lower than baseline in G3 and G4 (P = 0.007/0.003). There were no differences in saliva. At 6 mos, mutans streptococci in plaque for G3 and G4 remained 10x lower than baseline (P = 0.007/0.04). Saliva for G3 and G4 was lower than baseline by 8 to 9x (P = 0.011/0.038). Xylitol at 6.44 g/day and 10.32 g/day reduces mutans streptococci in plaque at 5 wks, and in plaque and unstimulated saliva at 6 mos. A plateau effect is suggested between 6.44 g and 10.32 g xylitol/day. PMID:16434738

  12. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yamin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity before and after fermentation. After four hours fermentation, supernatant of each samples were analyzed for VFA, NH3, number of bacteria and protozoa. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were analyzed after 48 h fermentation. The results showed that before fermentation, 8% BLM addition caused the bigest (P<0.05 inhibition diameter of Staphylococcus spp. growth compared to other lower levels. However after fermentation there were no significant differences among the addition levels of BLM. Two per cent of BLM addition produced higher VFA (P<0.05 than the other addition levels. Ammonia concentration, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were not different among the treatments. Addition of BLM significantly (P<0.01 decreased protozoa number, but did not affect bacterial count. It is concluded that the addition of 2% BLM in concentrate feed can be used effectively to inhibit the growth of mastitis causing bacteria (Staphylococcus spp. and does not disturb rumen fermentation condition.

  13. A critical review of arsenic exposures for Bangladeshi adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Tijo; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward A

    2015-09-15

    Groundwater, the most important source of water for drinking, cooking, and irrigation in Bangladesh, is a significant contributor to the daily human intake of arsenic. Other arsenic intake pathways, established as relevant for Bangladeshi adults through this review, include consumption of contaminated edible plant parts and animal-origin food, inhalation of contaminated air, soil ingestion, betel quid chewing, and tobacco smoking. This review qualifies and quantifies these arsenic intake pathways through analysis of the range of arsenic levels observed in different food types, water, soil, and air in Bangladesh, and highlights the contributions of dietary intake variation and cooking method in influencing arsenic exposures. This study also highlights the potential of desirable dietary patterns and intakes in increasing arsenic exposure which is relevant to Bangladesh where nutritional deficiencies and lower-than-desirable dietary intakes continue to be a major concern. PMID:26004539

  14. Isolation and structural characterization of antioxidant activity compounds from betel nut seed%槟榔籽中抗氧化活性物质的分离与结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩林; 王兆丹; 张海德; 罗仕数

    2012-01-01

    为了研究槟榔籽中的抗氧化活性物质,通过柱色谱法分离纯化槟榔籽乙醇提取物,结合抗氧化活性筛选,分离得到槟榔籽中主要的抗氧化活性物质Fr-4。利用高效液相色谱分析其纯度,经波谱分析确定该物质为表儿茶素。%In order to research the antioxidant activity compounds of the betel nut seed,the ethanol extract of betel nut seed was isolated and purified by column chromatography.Combined with antioxidant activity screening,Fr-4 was isolated as the main antioxidant activity compounds of betel nut seed.HPLC was used to analyze its purity and epicatechin was identified by spectrum analysis.

  15. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astatkie A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods: We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%. After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01], and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74] were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion: Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Supplemented-Chewing Candy Against Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD ENDANG ZAINAL HASAN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is considered to play a major etiological role in development of human dental plaque believed to related to dental caries, the most prevalent disease of the human oral cavity. The objectives of the present study were to formulate and produce propolis supplemented-chewing candy and to investigate its antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Propolis is a natural resinous bee-hive product thought to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating activities. Propolis was extracted from hives of bees of Trigona spp. using ethanol. The extract was coated with maltodextrine and homogenized to generate propolis microparticles. The particles were introduced into chewing candy preparations for the production of propolis supplemented-chewing candy. The candy was then subjected to in vitro antibacterial assays to test its activity against S. mutans isolated from human dental plaque. Results showed that the ethanol extracted propolis of Trigona spp. bee-hives can be homogenized to form propolis microparticles. The propolis microparticles could be used as a supplement in the formulation of chewing candy preparations. The propolis supplemented-chewing candy showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans. The candy, therefore, has the potential to be used as an antiplaque agent for prevention of dental caries.

  17. Effects of caffeinated chewing gum on muscle pain during submaximal isometric exercise in individuals with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Masataka; Kempka, Laura; Weatherby, Amy; Greenlee, Brennan; Mansion, Kimberly

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity is important to manage symptom of fibromyalgia (FM); however, individuals with FM typically experience augmented muscle pain during exercise. This study examined the effects of caffeinated chewing gum on exercise-induced muscle pain in individuals with FM. This study was conducted with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Twenty-three patients with FM completed a caffeine condition where they consumed a caffeinated chewing gum that contains 100mg of caffeine, and a placebo condition where they consumed a non-caffeinated chewing gum. They completed isometric handgrip exercise at 25% of their maximal strength for 3min, and muscle pain rating (MPR) was recorded every 30s during exercise. Clinical pain severity was assessed in each condition using a pain questionnaire. The order of the two conditions was randomly determined. MPR increased during exercise, but caffeinated chewing gum did not attenuate the increase in MPR compared to placebo gum. Clinical pain severity was generally associated with the average MPR and the caffeine effects on MPR, calculated as difference in the average MPR between the two conditions. The results suggest that more symptomatic individuals with FM may experience greater exercise-induced muscle pain, but benefit more from caffeinated chewing gum to reduce exercise-induced muscle pain. PMID:26855267

  18. Formulation of Eco-friendly Medicated Chewing Gum to Prevent Motion Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shete, Rahul B; Muniswamy, Vimalkumar J; Pandit, Ashlesha P; Khandelwal, Kishanchandra R

    2015-10-01

    An attempt was made to formulate medicated chewing gum to prevent motion sickness using natural gum base for faster onset of action and easy administration, anywhere and anytime, without access to water. To avoid the discard issue of gum cud, natural gum base of Triticum aestivum (wheat grain) was explored because of its biodegradable and biocompatible nature and easy availability. Prolamin, extracted from wheat, showed good chewing capacity, elasticity, high water retention capacity, antifungal activity, and compatibility with the drug. Formulations were prepared based on a two-factor and three-level factorial design. Amount of calcium carbonate (texturizer) and gum base were selected as independent variables. Elasticity and drug release were considered as the dependent variables. All batches were evaluated for the content uniformity, elasticity study, texture study, in vitro drug release study, and chewiness study. Results revealed that medicated chewing gum containing 80 mg of calcium carbonate and 500 mg of gum base showed good elasticity and more than 90% drug release within 16 min. Thus, this study suggested that both good elasticity and chew ability and abundant availability of wheat grain can act as a potential gum base for medicated chewing gum. PMID:25652732

  19. Qat Chewing and Risk of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Oral Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S El-Zaemey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Qat (also known as Khat, Kat and Miraa is a green-leaved plant (Catha edulis. It is a shrub indigenous to Yemen and certain parts of eastern Africa. Chewing the leaves, which have sympathomimetic and euphoric effects, has been documented in many countries and increased with worldwide migration. The effect of long-term chewing Qat on the oral cavity is unknown.Objective: A systematic review was performed to identify any associations between Qat chewing and the occurrence of potentially malignant and malignant oral disorders.Methods: Medline and the Web of Science were searched for articles published before May 2014 without limits with regard to publication date and language.Results: From a total of 890 papers identified, 17 English papers reported potentially malignant or malignant oral disorders and Qat chewing. One additional paper in Arabic language was identified from reviewing the list of references of eligible papers. It was found that exposure to Qat may be associated with potentially malignant and malignant oral disorders, but methodological issues, such as inadequate study design, sample size, selection of study subjects, clinical evaluations of outcome and limited adjustment for confounders, limit the strength of the evidence base in this area.Conclusion: The association between Qat chewing and potentially malignant and malignant oral disorders remains debatable and requires further investigations.

  20. Disseny d'un sistema d'emmagatzematge d'energia fent ús de nitrogen líquid a partir d'una font renovable

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Sanahuja, Albert; Laguna Benet, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Aquest document presenta un projecte d’innovació dins de l’àmbit energètic. Consisteix en el disseny d’un sistema d’emmagatzematge d’energia mitjançat nitrogen líquid, emprant una font renovable per a la generació. La principal finalitat és substituir la producció elèctrica d’origen no renovable evitant així emissions. La proposta que es presenta per a dur-ho a terme és la construcció d’un parc eòlic que permet liquar nitrogen i emmagatzemar-lo en un dipòsit criogènic fins que ...

  1. Impacts of CA9 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors on oral-cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic characteristics in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Chien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, oral cancer has causally been associated with environmental carcinogens. Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9 is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas and is generally considered a marker of malignancy. The current study explored the combined effect of CA9 gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the CA9 gene from 462 patients with oral cancer and 519 non-cancer controls were analyzed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. While the studied SNPs (CA9 rs2071676, rs3829078, rs1048638 and +376 Del were not associated with susceptibility to oral cancer, the GAA haplotype of 3 CA9 SNPs (rs2071676, rs3829078, and rs1048638 was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, the four CA9 SNPs combined with betel quid chewing and/or tobacco consumption could robustly elevate susceptibility to oral cancer. Finally, patients with oral cancer who had at least one G allele of CA9 rs2071676 were at higher risk for developing lymph-node metastasis (p = 0.022, compared to those patients homozygous for AA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the haplotype of rs2071676, rs3829078, and rs1048638 combined has potential predictive significance in oral carcinogenesis. Gene-environment interactions of CA9 polymorphisms, smoking, and betel-quid chewing might alter oral cancer susceptibility and metastasis.

  2. Dose response of xylitol and sorbitol for epr retrospective dosimetry with applications to chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal in sweeteners xylitol and sorbitol for use in retrospective dosimetry. For both sweeteners and chewing gum, the signal changed at an interval of 1-84 d after irradiation with minimal changes after 4-8 d. A dependence on storage conditions was noticed and the exposure of the samples to light and humidity was therefore minimised. Both the xylitol and sorbitol signals showed linearity with dose in the measured dose interval, 0-20 Gy. The dose-response measurements for the chewing gum resulted in a decision threshold of 0.38 Gy and a detection limit of 0.78 Gy. A blind test illustrated the possibility of using chewing gums as a retrospective dosemeter with an uncertainty in the dose determination of 0.17 Gy (1 SD). (authors)

  3. Xylitol Gum Chewing to Achieve Early Postoperative Restoration of Bowel Motility After Laparoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunhui; Zhang, Qianwen; Qiao, Lin; Lv, Donghao; Ruan, Jiaying; Chen, Hongqin; Gong, Junming; Shi, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of postoperative xylitol gum chewing on gastrointestinal functional recovery after laparoscopy. Altogether, 120 patients undergoing elective gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly divided into 2 groups of 60 each (final numbers: 53 controls, 56 patients). Controls underwent a routine postoperative regimen. Starting 6 hour after surgery, study patients chewed mint-flavored, sugarless xylitol gum until flatus occurred thrice a day. Other postoperative management was routine. First bowel sounds, first flatus, first bowel movement, and discharge times were recorded. Symptoms included abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting. First flatus and first bowel sounds occurred significantly (P0.05). Thus, xylitol gum chewing after laparoscopy can effectively shorten the time to first flatus and helps with postoperative gastrointestinal functional recovery. It is simple, convenient, and well tolerated. PMID:26121546

  4. In-vivo determination of chewing patterns using FBG and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegorini, Vinicius; Zen Karam, Leandro; Rocha Pitta, Christiano S.; Ribeiro, Richardson; Simioni Assmann, Tangriani; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos; Bertotti, Fábio L.; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.; Cardoso, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the process of pattern classification of the chewing process of ruminants. We propose a simplified signal processing scheme for optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors based on machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical forces during jaw movements and an artificial neural network is responsible for the classification of the associated chewing pattern. In this study, three patterns associated to dietary supplement, hay and ryegrass were considered. Additionally, two other important events for ingestive behavior studies were monitored, rumination and idle period. Experimental results show that the proposed approach for pattern classification has been capable of differentiating the materials involved in the chewing process with a small classification error.

  5. Mutanase-containing chewing gum: A new potential approach for prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Study on the effect of topically applied mutanase on plaque formation and caries in rats showed strong inhibition of dental caries. Furthermore, it has been shown that the presence of mutanase in dental plaque may affect the synthesis and structure of sticky, extracellular glucans. The Hypothesis: Mutanase can be easily added to gum base. After chewing of mutanase-containing chewing gum, the enzyme will be released into the oral cavity. Mutanase will hydrolyze sticky, extracellular glucans, e.g., mutan inhibiting cariogenic bacteria to cohere/adhere and form plaque. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The main challenge with this hypothesis is the source of mutanase. It can be obtained from Paenibacillus sp. MP-1 or Trichoderma harzianum F-340. Directly compressible medicated chewing gum bases can be used to avoid inactivation of mutanase during the manufacturing process.

  6. Effect of grass silage chop length on chewing activity and digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garmo, T.H.; Randby, Å.T.; Eknæs, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Round bale grass silage harvested early (D-value 757 g kg-1 DM) or at a normal (D-value 696 g kg-1 DM) time was used to study the effect of harvesting time, chop length and their interaction on chewing activity and digestibility by dairy cows. Six early lactating Norwegian Red cows were used in a 6...... x 6 Latin square with 3-week periods. Chewing activity was measured using IGER Behaviour recorders, and digestibility was measured by total collection of faeces. The two silages were fed long (170 mm), coarsely chopped (55 mm), or finely chopped (24 mm median particle length). Cows were fed silage...... ad libitum and supplemented with 6 kg concentrate. Early harvested silage significantly decreased total ration eating (ET), rumination (RT) and chewing time (CT) per kg silage DM compared with normal harvested silage (CT = 38 vs. 46 min kg-1 DM). Chopping of silage reduced CT significantly, mainly...

  7. The effect of gum chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration in fasted, healthy, non-obese men

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jianping; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Yuxiu; Zheng, Jia; Li, Wenhui; Qian ZHANG; Wang, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration by having volunteers to chew sugarless gum. Our intention was to explore the neural mechanisms regulating the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1). After fasting for 12 h, 12 healthy male, non-obese volunteers (18 

  8. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  9. A new concept in orthodontics: faster and healthier tooth movement by regularly consuming xyilitol chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol was first discovered in the 19th century, it wasn’t until the 1960’s that commercial production was first implemented. Recent studies showed that xylitol chewing gum is beneficial for preventing caries and periodontal disease. Therefore, it is also advantageous for orthodontic treatment, especially the fixed orthodontics patients who have difficulties in acquiring optimal oral health, particularly periodontal health which important in remodeling. However, how consuming xylitol chewing gum may stimulate tooth movement and preventing root resorption is still unclear. It is suggested that chewing activities may stimulate tooth movement, since jaw hypofunction leads to lower mineral apposition and bone function; and narrow periodontal ligament (PDL. These conditions may lead to impaired remodeling process, and increases the susceptibility of root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Moreover, since stimulation of the PDL could be mechanoreceptive (i.e. chewing action or nociceptive (i.e. painful stimulation, periodontal nerve fibers are supposed to play an important role in bone remodeling. It is supported by a study which revealed that during tooth movement, the galanin-containing immunoreactive nerve fibers, a part of primary sensory neurons in the PDL is increasing. Galanin is able to induce osteoclast differentiation that needed for bone resorption in orthodontic treatment. The objective of this study is to elucidate a new concept in using xylitol chewing gum as an excellent media to have a faster and healthier orthodontic movement. Since continuous chewing stimulates the PDL which enhances tooth movement, improves oral health, and prevents root resorption; it is concluded that this concept is possible.

  10. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone-conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free-living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprising sensors, related hardware and software for multi-modal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in 21 volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of five subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior

  11. Multielement analysis of Nigerian chewing sticks by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nigeria, various parts of various species of native plants have long been used for dental hygiene, with reportedly considerable effectiveness. These materials are known as 'chewing sticks'. This study was an effort to ascertain whether any unusual trace element concentrations might be present in Nigerian chewing sticks. Results are presented for 17 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Cs, La, Sm, Au) detected and measured in 12 species of such plants, via instrumental thermal-neutron activation analysis. (author)

  12. Chew the Pain Away: Oral Habits to Cope with Pain and Stress and to Stimulate Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane Anthea Francesca Weijenberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations for these discrepancies by incorporating knowledge derived from studies into oral habits and bruxism. Both stress and cerebral functional specialization (i.e., the involvement of specific brain structures in distinctive cognitive processes are hypothesized to play a major role in the underlying physiological mechanisms of the diverse effects of chewing gum on cognition, stress, and pain.

  13. Use of chewing gum containing 15% of xylitol and reduction in mutans streptococci salivary levels

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Perez Trindade Fraga; Márcia Pinto Alves Mayer; Célia Regina Martins Delgado Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Frequent use of Xylitol may decrease the S. mutans levels. However, very little is known about whether this effect on the levels of cariogenic bacteria is maintained after the interruption of short-term usage of xylitol. This study aimed at evaluating changes in mutans streptococci (MS) salivary levels after using a chewing gum containing xylitol. Twelve volunteers harboring > 10(5) CFU MS/ml saliva levels were asked to chew Happydent-xylit® for 5 minutes, 5 X/day, for 30 days. Saliva samples...

  14. Influence of Khat Chewing on Periodontal Tissues and Oral Hygiene Status among Yemenis

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kholani, Abdulwahab I.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Khat chewing is popular among Yemenis. This study was performed to investigate the effects of khat chewing on periodontal tissue and oral hygiene status. Methods: A total of 730 subjects (336 chewers and 394 non-chewers with a mean age of 31.5 ± 0.8 and 29.4 ± 0.9 years, respectively) were involved. Clinical data on periodontal tissues, oral hygiene sta-tus, gingival bleeding, burning sensation in the soft tissues, halitosis, ulcers in the oral cavity, difficulty in opening the...

  15. The effect of grain type and processing on chewing activity in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Nørgaard, Peder; Eriksen, Lis; Søland, Tine Louise Mangart.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the present experiment were to study the effect of grain type and processing on chewing activity in horses. Three adult trotters (Exp.I) and 3 adult Icelandic horses (Exp.II) were fed 3 daily meals during 3 consecutive days in two 3 x 3 completely randomized block design experiments...... rate (PBCR, JM/s) and the standard deviation of time interval between JM (SPDDT), which indicate chewing regularity, were estimated. The mean EPTIME was 24 and 15 min for the Icelandic and trotter horses, respectively. The EPTIME for whole grain was 20 min and shorter than for ground grain (P = 0...... horses perhaps due to decreased palatability....

  16. The effect of chronic khat chewing on liver enzyme levels ( a Yemenian study)

    OpenAIRE

    Iman Ramzy; Mohammad Abdelbary; Hanan Abdelhafez; Dalia Omran; Mansour Al-Amrany; Aqeel M. Al-Shami

    2013-01-01

    Background Khat is a natural stimulant from the Catha edulis plant, which grows mainly in Yemen. The liver has been suspected to be vulnerable to the harmful effects of khat use. AimThe aim of the study was to investigate the effect of khat chewing on the liver function in healthy Yemeni individuals. MethodsLiver function tests were performed on 30 chronic khat chewers (group I) and 20 individuals who did not chew khat (group II). Results Twenty percent of group I and only 5% of grou...

  17. Acute Toxicity Test of Betel Nut Seed on KM Mice%槟榔仁对KM小鼠的急性毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书伟; 王燕; 胡劲召; 赵牧秋; 史云峰

    2015-01-01

    The acute oxicity was tested in mice in order to study the oral toxicity of the juice of betel nut seeds.According to preliminary experiments to determine the range of the official test administered dose,KM mice were selected and administered drug by intragastric infusion at single dose,the toxic effect and death condition of the mice were observed for 7 days after being administered, and the method of korbor was used to determine LD50 and 95% confidence level.The results showed that the high dose of betel nut juice to mice appeared toxic reactions and death, and the main reason was gastrointestinal and lung disease after autopsy;low dose group was no pathological change in viscera in mice.The LD50 of betel nut juice in mice was 12.425 g/kg and its 95% confidence level was 10.610~14.551 g/kg,which indicated that the betel nut juice was actual non-toxic substances.The LD50 of dry matter of betel nut juice was 1.349 g/kg and its 95% confidence level was 1.152~1.580 g/kg and it was considered the drug of low toxicity.%为研究口服槟榔(Areca catechu Linnaeus)仁汁液的毒性,进行了小鼠的经口急性毒性试验. 根据预试验确定正式试验给药剂量的范围,选用KM小鼠经口灌胃,一次给药,给药后连续观察7 d,记录小白鼠的中毒反应及死亡情况,采用寇氏法计算 LD50及LD50的95%可信限.结果表明,高剂量给药组小白鼠出现中毒反应并死亡,解剖后检查发现主要原因是胃肠和肺部的病变,测得槟榔仁汁液的LD50及LD50的95%可信限分别为12.425 g/(kg.bw)﹑10.610~14.551 g/(kg.bw), 表明槟榔仁汁液可以被认为是实际无毒物质. 槟榔仁原液干物质的LD50及LD50的95%可信限分别为1.349 g/(kg.bw)﹑1.152~1.580 g/(kg.bw),属于低毒物质.

  18. Immediate effect of xylitol chewing gum and mouth rinse on salivary levels of mutans streptococci in adults with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Bandyopadhyay; Justin DeGarmo; Caroline Westwater; Hon Keung Yuen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the immediate effect of xylitol chewing gum and xylitol mouth rinse on mutans streptococci (MS) levels in the saliva of adults with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods: Thirteen female adults with SSc were assigned randomly to either the xylitol chewing gum or xylitol mouth rinse groups. Participants in the chewing gum group were given 2 pellets (2.12g) of commercial xylitol chewing gum to chew for 10 min; whereas participants in the mouth rinse group were given 10 ml (10%...

  19. The Effects of Chewing Cinnamon Flavored Gum on Mood, Feeling and Spelling Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew; Kim, Wonsun; Raudenbush, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate if the effects of chewing cinnamon flavored gum can increase mood, feeling and spelling acquisition. 5th grade students (n = 22) at Ilshin elementary school in South Korea served as participants. The same students were required to take 4 spelling tests with 1 given every day over the course of 4 days. For…

  20. Activities of Nigerian chewing stick extracts against Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides melaninogenicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rotimi, V. O.; Laughon, B E; Bartlett, J. G.; Mosadomi, H A

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro activities of extracts of Nigerian chewing sticks against Bacteroides gingivalis and B. melaninogenicus are presented. The greatest inhibitory action was produced by Serindeia werneckei, whereas Fagara zanthoxyloides produced no appreciable inhibitory effect. A generally good correlation was found between the killing curves and MICs. Only extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus showed acute toxicity in mice.

  1. Activities of Nigerian chewing stick extracts against Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides melaninogenicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotimi, V O; Laughon, B E; Bartlett, J G; Mosadomi, H A

    1988-04-01

    The in vitro activities of extracts of Nigerian chewing sticks against Bacteroides gingivalis and B. melaninogenicus are presented. The greatest inhibitory action was produced by Serindeia werneckei, whereas Fagara zanthoxyloides produced no appreciable inhibitory effect. A generally good correlation was found between the killing curves and MICs. Only extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus showed acute toxicity in mice. PMID:2897830

  2. Effect of chewing gums containing the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on oral malodour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette K; Bardow, Allan; Jensdottir, Thorbjörg;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotic bacteria on oral malodour. The null hypothesis was that no difference would be displayed compared with placebo gums. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy young adults with self-reported malodorous morning breath complete...

  3. The efficacy of two prototype chewing gums for the removal of extrinsic tooth stain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Kulak, Y; Kazazoglu, E

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare the potential efficacy of two prototype chewing gums in extrinsic stain removal on natural teeth. Setting: Dental school clinics. Design: Double-blind, two groups, parallel design. Participants: 76 adult volunteers (32m, 44f, mean age: 20.6 years old). Methods: Oral hard and soft tis

  4. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.F. Weijenberg; E.J.A. Scherder; C.M. Visscher; T. Gorissen; E. Yoshida; F. Lobbezoo

    2013-01-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital a

  5. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis : comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, CP; Brand, HS; Veerman, ECI; Valentijn-Benz, M; Van Amerongen, BM; Amerongen, AVN; Valentijn, RM; Vos, PI; Bijlsma, JA; ter Wee, PM

    2005-01-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White(TM)) and a xa

  6. [Chewing-lice (Phtihiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) occurring on birds in the Konya zoo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 25 birds belonging to 15 different species at the zoo in Konya were inspected for the presence of chewing-lice. Three Long-legged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus), one Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) and one Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) were found to be infested by chewing-lice. Two hundred and eleven chewing-lice specimens were collected from the birds and seven species were identified. They were mounted on slides separately in Faure forte medium or Canada balsam after clearing in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the chewing-lice were examined and measured under the light microscope. Laemobothrion maximum (Scopoli, 1763), Craspedorrhynchus platystomus (Burmeister, 1838) and Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874) were detected on Long-legged buzzards; Craspedorrhynchus fraterculus (Eichler & Zlotorzycka, 1975), Degeeriella aquilarum (Eichler, 1943) and Colpocephalum impressum (Rudow, 1866) on the Imperial Eagle; and Degeeriella fusca (Denny, 1842), on the Mars Harrier. C. fraterculus, D. aquilarum, C. impressum and D. fusca were found for the first time on these raptors in Turkey and information about these species were given in this paper. PMID:19367546

  7. Stuck on You: Chewing Gum Adherent to the Oral Airway in Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Charles H; Bryson, Ethan O; Aloysi, Amy S; Pasculli, Rosa M; Briggs, Mimi C

    2015-06-01

    We present a case in which a piece of chewing gum was discovered adhering to the oral airway when it was removed after an ECT procedure. We suggest that careful examination of the patient's mouth for foreign objects be a standard part of the pre-ECT protocol. PMID:25268044

  8. Effects of chewing gum on driving performance as evaluated by the STISIM driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ingyu; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Joo-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chewing gum on driving performance in a driving simulator. [Subjects] In total, 26 young licensed drivers participated. [Methods] The driving scenario was typical of an urban environment: a single-carriageway, two-way road consisting of a mix of curved and straight sections, with considerable levels of traffic, pedestrians, and parked cars. Mean distance driven above the speed limit, lane position, mean distance driven across the center line, and mean distance driven off the road were used as estimates of brake, accelerator, and steering control. The results were compared with those of a non-chewing gum control condition. [Results] The driving performance while chewing gum was significantly better: the mean distance driven above the speed limit was 26.61% shorter, and the mean distance driven off the road was 31.99% shorter. Lane position and mean distance driven across the center line did not differ significantly between the two conditions. [Conclusion] Chewing gum appears to enhance driving performance during a sustained attention driving task. PMID:26180329

  9. "JCE" Classroom Activity #105. A Sticky Situation: Chewing Gum and Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.

    2010-01-01

    In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify the…

  10. Salivary phosphate-binding chewing gum reduces hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Monardo, Paolo; Davis, Paul A; Granata, Antonio; Santoro, Domenico; Savica, Rodolfo; Musolino, Rosa; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2009-03-01

    In uremic patients, hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular calcification and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite the use of phosphate binders, only half of hemodialysis (HD) patients achieve recommended serum phosphate levels. A hyperphosphoric salivary content, which correlates linearly with serum phosphate, has been reported in HD patients. We hypothesized that binding salivary phosphate during periods of fasting in addition to using phosphate binders with meals could improve the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. We assessed the phosphate-binding capacity of the natural polymer chitosan by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and established that 10 and 20% (wt/vol) middle viscosity chitosan solutions bind 30 and 50% of the phosphate contained in PBS, respectively. Thirteen HD patients with serum phosphate levels >6.0 mg/dl despite treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride chewed 20 mg of chitosan-loaded chewing gum twice daily for 2 wk at fast in addition to their prescribed phosphate-binding regimen. Salivary phosphate and serum phosphate significantly decreased during the first week of chewing; by the end of 2 wk, salivary phosphate decreased 55% from baseline (73.21 +/- 19.19 to 33.19 +/- 6.53; P chewing gum, whereas serum phosphate levels took 30 d to return to baseline. Parathyroid hormone and serum calcium concentrations were not affected by the gum. In conclusion, adding salivary phosphate binding to traditional phosphate binders could be a useful approach for improving treatment of hyperphosphatemia in HD patients. PMID:19020004

  11. Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW): Development and Measurement Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Brian; Sallis, James F.; Harris, David; Owen, Neville

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and administration of the Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW), which measures health-promoting characteristics of the workplace environment by direct observation (physical characteristics, information environment, and immediate neighborhood). Findings illustrate the type of data on environmental…

  12. Khat Chewing Habits in the Population of the Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Rahim, Bahaa-eldin E A; Solan, Yahya M H; Makeen, Anwar M; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The use of khat (Catha edulis) is a major public health and social problem that is believed to be growing globally. The khat chewing habit is prevalent in all areas of the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). However, few studies have been conducted at the community level to investigate the khat chewing habits in this area. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among the Jazan community population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample (n = 4,500) of the Jizani population who attended primary heath care centers in Jazan region. The participants were selected using a two-stage cluster random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The overall lifetime prevalence of khat chewing was 33.2% (95% CI 31.8-34.7) and was significantly higher for males 42.2% (95% CI 40.4-43.9) than for females 11.3% (95% CI 9.6-13.1) (P < 0.001). Current khat chewers accounted for 28.7% (95% CI 27.4-30.1) of the population sampled; 36.9% (95% CI 35.2-38.6) of whom were males, which is a significantly higher percentage than the 8.7% (95% CI 7.3-10.4) of current khat chewers who were females (P < 0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggests that the most important independent predictors of khat chewing were having a friend who chewed khat (OR = 20.1, P < 0.001), participant's smoking status (OR) = 3.9, P < 0.001), friend's smoking status (OR = 2.2, P < 0.001), gender (OR = 2.2, P < 0.001) and educational level (OR = 1.5, P < 0.05). A large proportion of the Jizani populations chew khat. Government and non-governmental organizations NGOs should design and strengthen community prevention programs to curb the high prevalence of khat use. PMID:26247471

  13. Khat Chewing Habits in the Population of the Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Salih Mahfouz

    Full Text Available The use of khat (Catha edulis is a major public health and social problem that is believed to be growing globally. The khat chewing habit is prevalent in all areas of the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. However, few studies have been conducted at the community level to investigate the khat chewing habits in this area. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among the Jazan community population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample (n = 4,500 of the Jizani population who attended primary heath care centers in Jazan region. The participants were selected using a two-stage cluster random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The overall lifetime prevalence of khat chewing was 33.2% (95% CI 31.8-34.7 and was significantly higher for males 42.2% (95% CI 40.4-43.9 than for females 11.3% (95% CI 9.6-13.1 (P < 0.001. Current khat chewers accounted for 28.7% (95% CI 27.4-30.1 of the population sampled; 36.9% (95% CI 35.2-38.6 of whom were males, which is a significantly higher percentage than the 8.7% (95% CI 7.3-10.4 of current khat chewers who were females (P < 0.001. The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggests that the most important independent predictors of khat chewing were having a friend who chewed khat (OR = 20.1, P < 0.001, participant's smoking status (OR = 3.9, P < 0.001, friend's smoking status (OR = 2.2, P < 0.001, gender (OR = 2.2, P < 0.001 and educational level (OR = 1.5, P < 0.05. A large proportion of the Jizani populations chew khat. Government and non-governmental organizations NGOs should design and strengthen community prevention programs to curb the high prevalence of khat use.

  14. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches

  15. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroea Geoffrey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C and human saliva (D. Methods Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*, red-green (a and yellow-blue (b. Results Medicated chewing gums (A and B removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. Conclusion The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking.

  16. Chewing gum in the preoperative fasting period: an analysis of de-identified incidents reported to webAIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, S; Goulding, G; Gibbs, N M; Taraporewalla, K; Culwick, M

    2016-03-01

    The role of preoperative fasting is well established in current anaesthetic practice with different guidelines for clear fluids and food. However, chewing gum may not be categorised as either food or drink by some patients, and may not always be specified in instructions given to patients about preoperative fasting. The aim of this paper was to review anaesthesia incidents involving gum chewing reported to webAIRS to obtain information on the risks, if any, of gum chewing during the preoperative fasting period. There were nine incidents involving chewing gum reported between late 2009 and early 2015. There were no adverse outcomes from the nine incidents other than postponement of surgery in three cases and cancellation in one. In particular, there were no reports of aspiration or airway obstruction. Nevertheless, there were five cases in which the gum was not detected preoperatively and was found in the patient's mouth either intraoperatively or postoperatively. These cases of undetected gum occurred despite patient and staff compliance with their current preoperative checklists. While the risk of increased gastric secretions related to chewing gum preoperatively are not known, the potential for airway obstruction if the gum is not detected and removed preoperatively is very real. We recommend that patients should be specifically advised to avoid gum chewing once fasting from clear fluids is commenced, and that a specific question regarding the presence of chewing gum should be added to all preoperative checklists. PMID:27029662

  17. Development of an Ultra-Miniaturized Inertial Measurement Unit for Jaw Movement Analysis during Free Chewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuohua Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Jaw movement analysis, as a clinical aid, can provide an objective basis for understanding and diagnosing jaw musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, the use and development of devices for quantitatively measuring and analyzing jaw movement have become more common and popular in the clinic. Many types of jaw tracking devices have been developed, but most of them are still not handy and easy to be used. Approach: To improve the handiness and utility of the jaw movement analysis devices, we developed a simple to be used jaw tracking prototype by using a new ultra-miniaturized Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU named WB-3. The WB-3 IMU was composed by 3-axis gyroscope, 3-axis accelerometer and 3-aixs magnetometer, which can not only measure the acceleration and angular speed of jaw movement, but also can measure mouth opening angle. The IMU’s extremely reduced weight and size allowed it to be easily adhered to mandible during normal tests without physical restriction to the subjects. A preliminary experiment for jaw movement analysis during free chewing of three types of food with different shapes and hardness was evaluated. A group of 15 healthy subjects aged from 21-36 years old kindly participated in the experiment. Results: The parameters of chewing time, chewing frequency, power spectrum density of jaw’s angular speed and acceleration, cumulative distribution function of jaw’s acceleration and mouth opening angle were presented. The experimental results clearly showed that the subjects used less chewing time, less chewing frequency, less acceleration cumulative distribution and energy to eat soft food; higher values were found in the case of hard food and there was no significant difference in mouth opening angle while eating these three foods. Conclusion: Our jaw movement analysis prototype using IMU WB-3 was proved to be a valid and handy method for jaw movement and pattern analysis which may be used clinically as an

  18. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  19. Sugar-free chewing gum and dental caries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To appraise existing evidence for a therapeutic / anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum for patients. METHOD: 9 English and 2 Portuguese databases were searched using English and Portuguese keywords. Relevant articles in English, German, Portuguese and Spanish were included for review. Trials were excluded on lack of randomisation, control group, blinding and baseline data, drop out rate >33%, no statistical adjustment of baseline differences and no assessment of clinically important outcomes. Reviews were excluded on lack of information, article selection criteria, search strategy followed, search keywords, searched databases or lack of study-by-study critique tables. In cases of multiple reports from the same study, the report covering the longest period was included. Two reviewers independently reviewed and assessed the quality of accepted articles. RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were included for review. Thirty were excluded and 9 accepted. Of the 9 accepted, 2 trials of reasonable and good evidence value did not demonstrate any anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum. However, 7 articles, with 1 of strong, and 6 of good evidence value, demonstrated anti-cariogenic effects of chewing Sorbitol, Xylitol or Sorbitol/Xylitol gum. This effect can be ascribed to saliva stimulation through the chewing process, particularly when gum is used immediately after meals; the lack of sucrose and the inability of bacteria to metabolize polyols into acids. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that sugar-free chewing gum has a caries-reducing effect. Further well-designed randomised trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. Gum chewing inhibits the sensory processing and the propagation of stress-related information in a brain network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Yu

    Full Text Available Stress is prevalent in human life and threatens both physical and mental health; stress coping is thus of adaptive value for individual's survival and well-being. Although there has been extensive research on how the neural and physiological systems respond to stressful stimulation, relatively little is known about how the brain dynamically copes with stress evoked by this stimulation. Here we investigated how stress is relieved by a popular coping behavior, namely, gum chewing. In an fMRI study, we used loud noise as an acute stressor and asked participants to rate their feeling of stress in gum-chewing and no-chewing conditions. The participants generally felt more stressful when hearing noise, but less so when they were simultaneously chewing gum. The bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS and the left anterior insula (AI were activated by noise, and their activations showed a positive correlation with the self-reported feeling of stress. Critically, gum chewing significantly reduced the noise-induced activation in these areas. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis showed that the functional connectivity between the left AI and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC was increased by noise to a lesser extent when the participants were chewing gum than when not chewing gum. Dynamic causality modeling (DCM demonstrated that gum chewing inhibited the connectivity from the STS to the left AI. These findings demonstrate that gum chewing relieves stress by attenuating the sensory processing of external stressor and by inhibiting the propagation of stress-related information in the brain stress network.

  1. Healing property of the Piper betel phenol, allylpyrocatechol against indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration and mechanism of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Bhattacharya; D Banerjee; AK Bauri; S Chattopadhyau; SK Bandyopadhyay

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective activity of allylpyrocatechol (APC), the major antioxidant constituent of Piper betel,against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in the rat model and correlates with its antioxidative and mucin protecting properties.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Normal control rats (group Ⅰ ) were given the vehicle oral dose of gum acacia in distilled water (1 mL per rat); ulcerated control and treated rats (groups Ⅱ-Ⅴ) were given a single dose of indomethacin (30 mg/kg body wt.); group Ⅱ rats were sacrificed 4 h after indomethacin administration; groups Ⅲ-Ⅴ rats were given the vehicle (1 mL per rat) or APC (2 mg/kg body wt.) or misoprostol (1.43 μg/kg body wt.) once daily by oral intubation for 7 d starting from 4 h after the indomethacin administration. After 7 d, the stomach tissues were excised for histological examination and biochemical analysis.RESULTS: Treatment with APC (2 mg/kg body wt per day) and misoprostol (1.43 μg/kg body wt per day) for 7 d could effectively heal the stomach ulceration as revealed from the ulcer index and histopathological studies. Compared to the zero day ulcerated group,treatment with APC and misoprostol reduced the ulcer index by 93.4% and 85.4% respectively (P<0.05). Both APC and misoprostol accelerated ulcer healing observed in natural recovery (P<0.05), their respective healing capacities not being significantly different. The healing capacities of APC and misoprostol could be attributed to their antioxidant activity as well as the ability to enhance the mucin content of the gastric tissues. Compared to the ulcerated untreated rats, those treated with APC and misoprostol showed near normal MDA levels, while the protein levels were 86% and 78% of the normal value respectively (P<0.05). Likewise, both APC and misoprostol increased the SOD, catalase, and mucin levels significantly (P<0.05), the effect of APC being better.CONCLUSION: APC can protect

  2. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) on chickens (Gallus gallus) from small backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychra, O; Harmat, P; Literák, I

    2008-04-15

    One hundred and sixty chickens (Gallus gallus) from 31 small, private backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera). At least one species of chewing lice was found on every bird examined. Seven species of chewing lice were identified in all; they had the following prevalences and mean intensities: Goniocotes gallinae (100%; 110 lice), Menopon gallinae (88%; 50), Menacanthus stramineus (48%; 17), Lipeurus caponis (35%; 12), Menacanthus cornutus (12%; 9), Cuclotogaster heterographus (1%; 4) and Goniocotes microthorax (1%; 3). Just two birds from a single flock were heavily infested with the ischnoceran species G. gallinae. PMID:18280661

  3. Additional foraging elements reduce abnormal behaviour – fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Svendsen, Pernille Maj;

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether provision of additional appetitive and consummatory elements of foraging reduces baseline stress and abnormal behaviour – in terms of fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink. We studied 200 juveniles (n = 100 females and 100 males) during the 5-month growth......; (iii) CONS, chunky feed (parts up to 42 mm), replacing conventional feed; (iv) BOTH, access to both biting ropes and chunky feed. In growing mink, biting ropes reduced fur-chewing (P = 0.044) and chunky feed reduced stereotypic behaviour (P = 0.038) and fur-chewing in female mink (P = 0.019). During......, stereotypic behaviour was reduced by provision of chunky feed, increasing the consummatory element in daily foraging. Fur-chewing was reduced upon access to either biting ropes or chunky feed in female mink throughout the study. Our findings support frustrated foraging, mainly consummatory, behind abnormal...

  4. Biogeography of chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea with notes on the new louse-host associations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Kounek, F.; Najer, T.; Hung, N. M.; Haljian, A.; Procházka, Petr; Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.

    Park City: International Society of Phthirapterists, 2014. s. 64-65. [International Conference on Phthiraptera /5./. 02.08.2014-07.08.2014, Park City] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : chewing lice Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  5. Site-specific and synergistic stimulation of methylation on the bacterial chemotaxis receptor Tsr by serine and CheW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis Robert M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific glutamates in the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs of Escherichia coli are modified during sensory adaptation. Attractants that bind to MCPs are known to increase the rate of receptor modification, as with serine and the serine receptor (Tsr, which contributes to an increase in the steady-state (adapted methylation level. However, MCPs form ternary complexes with two cytoplasmic signaling proteins, the kinase (CheA and an adaptor protein (CheW, but their influences on receptor methylation are unknown. Here, the influence of CheW on the rate of Tsr methylation has been studied to identify contributions to the process of adaptation. Results Methyl group incorporation was measured in a series of membrane samples in which the Tsr molecules were engineered to have one available methyl-accepting glutamate residue (297, 304, 311 or 493. The relative rates at these sites (0.14, 0.05, 0.05 and 1, respectively differed from those found previously for the aspartate receptor (Tar, which was in part due to sequence differences between Tar and Tsr near site four. The addition of CheW generated unexpectedly large and site-specific rate increases, equal to or larger than the increases produced by serine. The increases produced by serine and CheW (added separately were the largest at site one, ~3 and 6-fold, respectively, and the least at site four, no change and ~2-fold, respectively. The rate increases were even larger when serine and CheW were added together, larger than the sums of the increases produced by serine and CheW added separately (except site four. This resulted in substantially larger serine-stimulated increases when CheW was present. Also, CheW enhanced methylation rates when either two or all four sites were available. Conclusion The increase in the rate of receptor methylation upon CheW binding contributes significantly to the ligand specificity and kinetics of sensory adaptation. The synergistic effect of

  6. The effects of extracts of chewing sticks (Salvadora persica) on healthy and periodontally involved human dentine : a SEM study.

    OpenAIRE

    Almas K

    2001-01-01

    The popularity and availability of chewing sticks (Salvadora persica) in the Asia, Middle East and Africa make them a commonly used oral hygiene tool in those societies. Salvador persica chewing stick called miswak is frequently used in Saudi Arabia. The antimicrobial effects of miswak has been well documented. The aim of this study is to find our the effect of aqueous extracts of miswak on healthy and periodontally involved human dentine with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in vitro. 25&#...

  7. The effect of two types chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Shila Emamieh; Yosra Khaterizadeh; Hossein Goudarzi; Amir Ghasemi; Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban; Hasan Torabzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 dental students of 20-25 years old, who volunteered after checking their health condition and signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A) Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP; (B) containing xylitol. Subjects within the ...

  8. Process development for spray drying of sticky pharmaceuticals; case study of bioadhesive nicotine microparticles for compressed medicated chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Henrik Stillhof; Søgaard, Susanne Roslev;

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying of pharmaceutical compounds with sticky properties is a challenging task and may require substantial time and resources. By including small-scale studies of single droplet drying kinetics a relatively high number of experiments with less material is allowed. This means one can constr...... chewing gum. By illustration of initial studies on single droplet drying kinetics, subsequent characterization of microparticles, and final characterization of compressed chewing gum this paper summarizes the entire development process....

  9. Pyramids of QTLs enhance host–plant resistance and Bt-mediated resistance to leaf-chewing insects in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, María A.; All, John N.; Boerma, H. Roger; Parrott, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Key message QTL-M and QTL-E enhance soybean resistance to insects. Pyramiding these QTLs with cry1Ac increases protection against Bt-tolerant pests, presenting an opportunity to effectively deploy Bt with host–plant resistance genes. Abstract Plant resistance to leaf-chewing insects minimizes the need for insecticide applications, reducing crop production costs and pesticide concerns. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], resistance to a broad range of leaf-chewing insects is found in PI 22935...

  10. Dental status and self-assessed chewing ability in 70- and 80-year-old subjects in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unell, L; Johansson, A; Ekbäck, G; Ordell, S; Carlsson, G E

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to compare two cohorts of elderly people, 70 and 80 years old, with respect to dental status and self-assessed chewing ability. The hypotheses were as follows: (i) dental status is associated with self-assessed chewing ability; (ii) chewing ability is poorer among the 80- than the 70-year-old subjects. Identical questionnaires were in 2012 sent to all subjects born in 1942 and 1932, living in two Swedish counties. The response rate was 70.1% resulting in samples of 5697 70- and 2922 80-year-old subjects. Answers to questions on self-assessed chewing ability, dental status and some other factors have been analysed. Dental status varied but was in general good; 72% of the 70- and 60% of the 80-year-old subjects reported that they had all or only few missing teeth. Rate of edentulism was 3% and 7%, respectively. Removable partial dentures were reported by 6% and 10%, respectively, implant treatment by 13% in both cohorts. Self-assessed chewing ability was mostly good and correlated with the number of teeth (Spearman rho = 0.46). A majority of the edentulous subjects assessed their chewing ability as very or fairly good. Logistic regression showed that self-assessed chewing ability was significantly associated with a number of dental variables but also with general health. In conclusion, dental status was relatively good at both ages but somewhat poorer in the older cohort. Dental status, some other dental variables and being healthy were in both age groups significantly associated with self-assessed chewing ability. PMID:25882481

  11. Association between Hardness (Difficulty of Chewing) of the Habitual Diet and Premenstrual Symptoms in Young Japanese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaro Murakami; Satoshi Sasaki; Yoshiko Takahashi; Kazuhiro Uenishi; Tomoko Watanabe; Toshiyuki Kohri; Mitsuyo Yamasaki; Reiko Watanabe; Keiko Baba; Katsumi Shibata; Toru Takahashi; Hitomi Hayabuchi; Kazuko Ohki; Junko Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that voluntary rhythmic movements such as chewing may increase blood serotonin and subsequently brain serotonin, which in turn acts to alleviate premenstrual symptoms. In this observational cross-sectional study, we tested the hypothesis that hardness (difficulty of chewing) of the habitual diet (i.e. dietary hardness) is associated with decreased premenstrual symptoms. Subjects were 640 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18–22 years. Dietary hardness was assessed...

  12. The optimum time to initiate habitual xylitol gum-chewing for obtaining long-term caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, P P; Mäkinen, K K; Bennett, C A; Isotupa, K P; Isokangas, P J; Allen, P; Mäkinen, P L

    1999-03-01

    Habitual xylitol gum-chewing may have a long-term preventive effect by reducing the caries risk for several years after the habitual chewing has ended. The goal of this report was (1) to determine if sorbitol and sorbitol/xylitol mixtures provide a long-term benefit, and (2) to determine which teeth benefit most from two-year habitual gum-chewing - those erupting before, during, or after habitual gum-chewing. Children, on average 6 years old, chewed gums sweetened with xylitol, sorbitol, or xylitol/sorbitol mixtures. There was a "no-gum" control group. Five years after the two-year program of habitual gum-chewing ended, 288 children were re-examined. Compared with the no-gum group, sorbitol gums had no significant long-term effect (relative risk [RR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [c.i.], 0.39 to 1.07; p Xylitol gum and, to a lesser extent, xylitol/sorbitol gum had a long-term preventive effect. During the 5 years after habitual gum-chewing ended, xylitol gums reduced the caries risk 59% (RR, 0.41; 95% c.i., 0.23 to 0.75; p Xylitol-sorbitol gums reduced the caries risk 44% (RR, 0.56; 95% c.i., 0.36 to 0.89; p xylitol strongly depended on when teeth erupted (p xylitol gum-chewing should be started at least one year before permanent teeth erupt. PMID:10096456

  13. Chewing ability in an urban and rural population over 40 years in Shandong Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian; Witter, Dick J; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess chewing ability related to dental status. Material and methods One thousand four hundred sixty-two Chinese subjects over 40 years, dentate in both jaws, were categorized in a hierarchical functional classification system with and without tooth replacements. Chewing ability was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression including five dental conditions (≥10 teeth in each jaw’; ‘complete anterior regions’; “sufficient premolar regions’ (≥3 posterior o...

  14. The Effectiveness of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) As Compatibilizer on the Preparation of Betel Nut Fiber (BNF) and Polypropylene (PP) /Polystyrene (PS) Wood Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as compatibilizing agent in producing wood composites of betel nut fiber/ polypropylene (BNF/ PP) and betel nut fiber/ polystyrene (BNF/ PS). Wood composite was prepared by blending 40 % of matrix polymer and 60 % of treated and untreated BNF using internal mixer Brabender Plasticoder at 170 degree Celsius with 50 rpm rotor speed for 13 minutes. The treatment was done prior to blending the materials by immersing the BNF in PDMS and HMDSO solutions with 1 %, 3 % and 5 % of concentrations for 24 hours. The effects of 1 % HMDSO treatment on BNF/ PP composite contributed to high flexure strength and impact strength which are 19.2 MPa and 7.9 kJ/M2 respectively while the percentage of water absorption showed the minimum value of 6.7%. The impact strength of BNF/ PS composite treated with 3% HMDSO showed maximum value that is 4.7 kJ/ M2 and minimum percentage of water absorption, 6.8 %. However, the flexure strength of untreated BNF/ PS composite is higher than treated BNF/ PS composite with value of 4.7 MPa. The morphology of treated BNF/ PP composites from SEM micrographs showed better interface interaction between fibers and matrices. FTIR spectra showed the presence of siloxane groups such as Si-O, Si-CH3, Si-(CH3) and Si(CH3) as a result of HMDSO and PDMS treatment. Based on the characterization analysis, HMDSO treated composite of BNF/ PP showed more effective interfacial interaction between BNF and matrices. (author)

  15. Chewing Beedis: A Case of Cross-Tobacco use in a Patient with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindappa Lakshmana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While tobacco use occurs in many forms all over the world, there is little information on cross-tobacco use. Authors report an unusual case of tobacco use in the form of chewing beedies which are normally smoked (cross-tobacco use. A 22-year-old single female, diagnosed with schizophrenia for the last 6 years, started chewing beedies from the age of 15 years and was using it in a dependent pattern since 7 years. After 3 years of treatment for her schizophrenia, patient′s family pressured her to seek tobacco cessation treatment. Initial treatment with nicotine gum replacement and behavioral counseling did not prove useful. Subsequently she was treated with bupropion 300 mg/day and able to successfully abstain. Cross-tobacco use is relatively rare, and merits further study, especially in the mentally ill population.

  16. Effect of probiotic chewing tablets on early childhood caries--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedayati-Hajikand, Trifa; Lundberg, Ulrika; Eldh, Catarina;

    2015-01-01

    .8 (p close to five. No differences were displayed between the groups concerning presence of visible plaque or bleeding-on-brushing. No side effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that early......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of probiotic chewing tablets on early childhood caries development in preschool children living in a low socioeconomic multicultural area. METHODS: The investigation employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design. The study group consisted of 138...... healthy 2-3-year-old children that were consecutively recruited after informed parental consent. After enrollment, they were randomized to a test or a placebo group. The parents of the test group were instructed to give their child one chewing tablet per day containing three strains of live probiotic...

  17. Does chewing gum improve recovery after an abdominal surgery?--First update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Gabriel; Viñuela, José

    2015-01-01

    This Living FRISBEE (Living FRIendly Summary of the Body of Evidence using Epistemonikos) is an update of the summary published in November 2014, based on four new systematic reviews published since then. Postoperative ileus is common condition that delays recovery after an abdominal surgery. Early use of sham feeding with chewing gum stimulates peristalsis and would allow an earlier nutrition. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified 18 systematic reviews including 81 randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded that chewing gum probably reduces the length of hospital stay after an abdominal surgery. PMID:25627680

  18. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P improved the whitened appearance of teeth (P Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth. PMID:11913307

  19. In vitro aroma release from model cheeses varying in composition using a chewing simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Syarifuddin, Adiansyah, T. Thomas-Danguin, C.Septier, E. Semon and C. Salles

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, due to increased health consciousness, worldwide health authorities recommend a reduction of salt and fat in daily food consumption. Therefore, the formulation of low salt-fat foods that still match consumer acceptability has led to an increased demand for knowledge on the multifunctional role of fat and salt in food. Here we set out to examine whether variations in food matrix composition can explain the dynamic of aroma release during in vitro chewing. To do...

  20. Tobacco chewing and female oral cavity cancer risk in Karunagappally cohort, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jayalekshmi, P A; Gangadharan, P.; Akiba, S; Nair, R R K; Tsuji, M.; Rajan, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined oral cancer in a cohort of 78 140 women aged 30–84 years in Karunagappally, Kerala, India, on whom baseline information was collected on lifestyle, including tobacco chewing, and sociodemographic factors during the period 1990–1997. By the end of 2005, 92 oral cancer cases were identified by the Karunagappally Cancer Registry. Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, taking into account age and income, showed that oral cancer incidence was strongly related to daily fre...

  1. Hookah smoking, nass chewing, and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dar, N A; G.A. Bhat; Shah, I. A.; Iqbal, B; Kakhdoomi, M A; Nisar, I; Rafiq, R; Iqbal, S T; Bhat, A B; Nabi, S; Shah, S A; Shafi, R; A. Masood; Lone, M M; Zargar, S A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), there is little information about the association between other smoking and smokeless tobacco products, including hookah and nass, and ESCC risk. We conducted a case–control study in Kashmir Valley, India, where hookah smoking, nass chewing, and ESCC are common, to investigate the association of hookah smoking, nass use, and several other habits with ESCC. Methods: We recruited...

  2. Social Networking Media: A Newer Approach to Increase Awareness Against Tobacco Chewing

    OpenAIRE

    Chirag Gajera, Shivangi Malaviya, Umang Patel, Neha Bavarva, Manan Patel, Shreyash Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Facebook is the most famous social networking website with more than 1.6 billion active users. This study which involves active participation and evaluation of responses to see it’s usefulness in planning advertisement for future media campaigns and intervention using social networking sites. Method: This was an interventional study, where intervention was done by providing health related message about tobacco chewing. The study was designed in two phases: 1) involvement phase ...

  3. Sugar-free chewing gum and dental caries: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Mickenautsch; Soraya Coelho Leal; Veerasamy Yengopal; Ana Cristina Bezerra; Vanessa Cruvinel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To appraise existing evidence for a therapeutic / anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum for patients. Method: 9 English and 2 Portuguese databases were searched using English and Portuguese keywords. Relevant articles in English, German, Portuguese and Spanish were included for review. Trials were excluded on lack of randomisation, control group, blinding and baseline data, drop out rate >33%, no statistical adjustment of baseline differences and no assessment of clinica...

  4. Insect Leaf-Chewing Damage Tracks Herbivore Richness in Modern and Ancient Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Mónica R.; Peter Wilf; Héctor Barrios; Windsor, Donald M.; Currano, Ellen D.; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Jaramillo, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The fossil record demonstrates that past climate changes and extinctions significantly affected the diversity of insect leaf-feeding damage, implying that the richness of damage types reflects that of the unsampled damage makers, and that the two are correlated through time. However, this relationship has not been quantified for living leaf-chewing insects, whose richness and mouthpart convergence have obscured their value for understanding past and present herbivore diversity. We hypothesize...

  5. Insect leaf-chewing damage tracks herbivore richness in modern and ancient forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica R Carvalho

    Full Text Available The fossil record demonstrates that past climate changes and extinctions significantly affected the diversity of insect leaf-feeding damage, implying that the richness of damage types reflects that of the unsampled damage makers, and that the two are correlated through time. However, this relationship has not been quantified for living leaf-chewing insects, whose richness and mouthpart convergence have obscured their value for understanding past and present herbivore diversity. We hypothesized that the correlation of leaf-chewing damage types (DTs and damage maker richness is directly observable in living forests. Using canopy access cranes at two lowland tropical rainforest sites in Panamá to survey 24 host-plant species, we found significant correlations between the numbers of leaf chewing insect species collected and the numbers of DTs observed to be made by the same species in feeding experiments, strongly supporting our hypothesis. Damage type richness was largely driven by insect species that make multiple DTs. Also, the rank-order abundances of DTs recorded at the Panamá sites and across a set of latest Cretaceous to middle Eocene fossil floras were highly correlated, indicating remarkable consistency of feeding-mode distributions through time. Most fossil and modern host-plant pairs displayed high similarity indices for their leaf-chewing DTs, but informative differences and trends in fossil damage composition became apparent when endophytic damage was included. Our results greatly expand the potential of insect-mediated leaf damage for interpreting insect herbivore richness and compositional heterogeneity from fossil floras and, equally promisingly, in living forests.

  6. Dose response of xylitol and sorbitol for EPR retrospective dosimetry with applications to chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsson, Axel; Gustafsson, Håkan; Lund, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal in sweeteners xylitol and sorbitol for use in retrospective dosimetry. For both sweeteners and chewing gum, the signal changed at an interval of 1–84 d after irradiation with minimal changes after 4–8 d. A dependence on storage conditions was noticed and the exposure of the samples to light and humidity was therefore minimised. Both the xylitol and sorbitol signals showed linearity with...

  7. Facilitating Return of Bowel Function after Colorectal Surgery: Alvimopan and Gum Chewing

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Deborah; Stein, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative ileus is common after colorectal surgery, and has a huge impact on hospital LOS. With the impeding cost crisis in the United States, safely reducing length of stay is essential. Chewing gum and pharmacological treatment with alvimopan are safe, simple tools to reduce postoperative ileus and its associated costs. Future research will determine if integrating these tools with laparoscopic procedures and enhanced recovery pathways is a best practice in colorectal surgery.

  8. Determination of trace elements in chewing gum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (Al, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na and Sr) were determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  9. Effect of chewing gum on the postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Wei; Chen, Gang; Ding, Yi-tao

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction remains a source of morbidity and the major determinant of length of stay after abdominal operation. There are many different reasons for postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction such as stress response, perioperative interventions, bowel manipulation and so on. The mechanism of enhanced recovery from postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction with the help of chewing gum is believed to be the cephalic-vagal stimulation of digestion which increases...

  10. Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Abolfazl Mostafavi; Jaleh Varshosaz; Saber Arabian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicated gums are intended to be chewed and act either locally, absorbed via the buccal mucosa or swallowed with saliva. We prepared the metformin gum to overcome its side effects including vomiting, diarrhea, and abdomen discomfort. Furthermore, it could be useful for those who have swallowing problems. Materials and Methods: Metformin hydrochloride (250 mg) with suitable sweeteners was mixed manually for 5 min. This mixture was spray dried, freeze dried, or directly mixed w...

  11. Effects of chewing gum on driving performance as evaluated by the STISIM driving simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Ingyu; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Joo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chewing gum on driving performance in a driving simulator. [Subjects] In total, 26 young licensed drivers participated. [Methods] The driving scenario was typical of an urban environment: a single-carriageway, two-way road consisting of a mix of curved and straight sections, with considerable levels of traffic, pedestrians, and parked cars. Mean distance driven above the speed limit, lane position, mean distance driven across...

  12. Comparison of nicotine chewing-gum and psychological treatments for dependent smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Raw, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Feyerabend, C; Russell, M A

    1980-01-01

    The results of using nicotine chewing-gum to treat dependent smokers attending a withdrawal clinic were compared with the results of psychological treatment. At one-year follow-up 26 (38%) out of 69 people who received nicotine gum were abstinent compared with seven (14%) out of 49 who received psychological treatment (p < 0.01). Abstinence was confirmed by the measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations or expired air carbon monoxide. Blood nicotine concentrations when patients used the...

  13. The effect of chewing gum on oral mucositis in children receiving chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ocakcı, Ayşe Ferda; Ayverdi, Didem; Ekim, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oral mucositis is an important clinical problem, resulting in significant patient morbidity, a change in health-related quality of life, and supportive care. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of chewing gum on children, who are receiving chemotherapy regimens, for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Method and Material: The study sample consisted of 60 children (30 study group-30 control group) between the ages 6-...

  14. Association Between Khat Chewing and Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nigussie, Tadele; Gobena, Teshome; Mossie, Andualem

    2013-01-01

    Background Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is a psycho-stimulant substance grown in East Africa. But its adverse effects and its prevalence are not well studied. The main aim of the present study is thus to assess the association between khat chewing and GI problems among students in Ambo University. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2010 on 1005 Ambo University students. Study subjects were selected using systematic random sampling technique, and data were collected using se...

  15. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Astatkie, Ayalew

    2015-01-01

    Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis) is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsul...

  16. Khat Chewing Habit among School Students of Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of Khat leaves (Catha edulis) in Jazan, southwest of KSA, is prevalent among all segments of the population. Objective This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of Khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students of Jazan region. Methodology A cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011 in Jazan region. A random sample of 3923 students was selected from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools representing the different education...

  17. Khat Chewing and Mental Distress: A Community Based Study, in Jimma City, Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Damena, Tekalign; Mossie, Andualem; Tesfaye, Markos

    2011-01-01

    Background Khat (Catha edulis) contains a psychoactive substance, cathinone, which produces central nervous system stimulation analogous to amphetamine. It is believed that khat chewing has a negative impact on the physical and mental health of individuals as well as the socioeconomic condition of the family and the society at large. There is lack of community based studies regarding the link between khat use and poor mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association ...

  18. Chewing side preference in first and all mastication cycles for hard and soft morsels

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanlu, Masumeh; Khamnei, Saeed; Salarilak, Shaker; Oskoee, Siavash Savadi; Shakouri, Seyed Kazem; Houshyar, Yousef; Salekzamani, Yaghoub

    2012-01-01

    Preferred chewing side is a still controversial matter and various methods used have yielded some inconsistencies. The aim of this study is to compare the preference determined in different conditions. Nineteen healthy subjects were offered hard (walnut) and soft (cake) foods, while the electromyography was recorded from their masseter muscles, in 2009 in the Research Center of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Four occurrences were det...

  19. Genetic diversity analysis of chewing sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. varieties by using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sarid Ullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an efficient and easy method was followed for the isolation of DNA from meristem cylinder in five chewing sugarcane varieties, namely Amrita, Bomaby, Babulal (Co.527, Q83 and Misrimala. The quality and quantity of DNA were assured by visual estimation using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV spectrophotometry. The highest amount of DNA was retrieved from the Amrita (3250 ng/ml and the lowest amount was attained from the variety Q83 (1450 ng/ml. The amount of recovered DNA was enough for PCR amplification and marker studies such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. Using RAPD markers, bands obtained from fingerprinting (190 bp to 1200 bp showed 73.5% polymorphism. The dendrogram, based on linkage distance using unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA, indicated segregation of the five chewing varieties of sugarcane into two main clusters. Amrita, Bombay and Misrimala were grouped in cluster 1 (C1 followed by sub-clusters. Babulal and Q83 were grouped in cluster 2 (C2. The results of the present investigation also revealed that the twenty RAPD primers were able to identify and classify the chewing sugarcane varieties based on their genetic relationship.

  20. Provenance Analysis of Surface Sediments in the Chew Bahir Basin (Ethiopia) using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesche, N.; Trauth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Provenance analysis is an essential discipline for describing the generation and dispersal of sediments and yields a fundamental understanding of hydrological and sedimentological processes. Chew Bahir basin is a hardly accessible terrain in southern Ethiopia, which is barely investigated by sedimentological studies until today. In this work, those studies were conducted via remotely sensed digital image analysis (ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Worldview-1 and SRTM) combined with a climatological approach through precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Besides remote sensing, sedimentological investigations were achieved from a highly resolved paleo-climate record through a short drill-core from Chew Bahir basin. In order to identify and localize potential source areas and to describe the dispersal of sediments, different processing methodologies were applied (achievement of sediment composition, land-surface classification, digital terrain analysis and generation of remote sensing time series). The result of this work demonstrates two different source rocks, which belong to two distinct source localities. Hence, the analysis of remote sensed digital imaginary provides an effective tool for studying the provenance of sediments, especially in remote regions such as Chew Bahir basin. Moreover, remotely sensed time series provide important insights into climatologically induced variations in the uppermost sediment-layer. However, fully automated analysis of remotely sensed imaginary cannot replace fieldwork, but provides outstanding contributions to interdisciplinarity.

  1. Erosive effects of acidic center-filled chewing gum on primary and permanent enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolan M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The higher incidence of dental erosion in children and teenagers possibly reflects a high intake of acidic food and beverages as well as a more frequent diagnosis on this condition. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the erosive potential of acidic filling of chewing gum in primary and permanent enamel. Methods and Materials: Eighty enamel blocks (40 primary and 40 permanent teeth were used and randomly distributed into eight groups. Groups were divided according to types of dental substrates (permanent or primary, frequency of exposure to the acidic substance (2X or 4X/day, and concentration (pure or diluted. Exposure time to the acidic content of the chewing gum was five minutes under agitation, during five days. Results: All groups showed a significant decrease in surface microhardness (P < 0.001. There was neither any significant difference in the frequency of exposure to the acidic content nor to the types of dental substrates. There was a statistically significant difference between D1 (pure, 2X/day and D2 (diluted, 2X/day (P = 0.002, D3 (pure, 4X/day and D4 (diluted, 4X/day (P = 0.009 regarding the concentration, then the diluted acid content was associated with a greater decrease in microhardness. Conclusion: It is concluded that the acidic filling of a chewing gum reduced the microhardness of primary and permanent enamel.

  2. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01286363.

  3. Post-operative optimization of gum-chewing kinematics in a prognathic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, K; Takada, K

    2004-02-01

    Smooth jaw movements during gum chewing, which are defined as those driven by optimally smooth patterns of temporal change in acceleration/deceleration, have been quantified in subjects with acceptable occlusions. This paper reports a case in which significant improvement of the smoothness of masticatory jaw movement was observed following surgical-orthodontic treatment. A patient, who demonstrated a mandibular prognathism, underwent the treatment. The irregularity in acceleration/deceleration of jaw closing movement during gum chewing was quantified by the movement jerk-cost, where the jerk is rate of change in movement acceleration/deceleration. The normalized jerk-costs and results of maximum-smoothness model simulation were compared between jaw movements at pre- and post-treatment stages. The correction of mandibular prognathism and crossbite allowed the patient to close the jaw with wider lateral excursion. Furthermore, smoothness of the jaw closing movements increased significantly and the velocity profile was characterized as similar to that predicted by the kinematic model after treatment. These findings for achievement of 'functional occlusion' that allows the patient to perform smooth and economical jaw closing movements during chewing demonstrate necessity of orthodontic treatment of mandibular prognathism to improve jaw motor function. PMID:14989755

  4. Comparative effectiveness of chewing stick and toothbrush: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeeza S Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increasing rate of oral diseases, the global necessity of effective and economical products for its prevention and treatment has intensified. Aim: This study was to compare the effectiveness of two oral hygiene aids: Chewing stick and manual toothbrush, for plaque removal and gingival health after one month of a randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Dental students (age 18-22 years of a public sector dental hospital were recruited. Sample size was determined using the American Dental Association guidelines. Participants were randomized into two interventional groups and provided with either chewing sticks or toothbrushes. Pre- and post-intervention examinations were executed by two blind and calibrated examiners using plaque and gingival dental indices. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and two sample independent t-tests. Results: Fifty subjects were recruited with mean age 20 ± 0.66 years (80% were females and 20% were males. Except for the mean plaque scores of toothbrush users (which increased at post-intervention examination, all other scores showed reduction. In contrast to the final mean gingival scores, a significant difference (P = < 0.0001 in the final mean plaque score was observed for the two respective interventional groups. Conclusion: Chewing stick has revealed parallel and at times greater mechanical and chemical cleansing of oral tissues as compared to a toothbrush.

  5. Change of Gastric Emptying With Chewing Gum: Evaluation Using a Continuous Real-Time 13C Breath Test (BreathID System)

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Yasunari; Kato, Shingo; Sekino, Yusuke; Sakai, Eiji; Uchiyama, Takashi; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Fujita, Koji; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yoneda, Masato; Tokoro, Chikako; Goto, Ayumu; Abe, Yasunobu

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims There are few reports on the correlation between chewing gum and the gastrointestinal functions. But previous report showed use of chewing gum to be an effective method for controlling gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between chewing gum and gastric emptying using the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system). Methods Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 2-way crossover study. The subjects fa...

  6. Immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and depression of antioxidant status by arecoline in albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: There are about 600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Betal quid chewing is one of the major risk factors of hepatocarcinoma, oropharyngeal and esophagus cancers. Arecoline, the main Areca alkaloid of the betel nut is reported to have cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects in various cells. It shows strong correlation to the incidence of oral submucosal fibrosis, leukoplakia and oral cancer, and has also been found to impose toxic manifestations in immune, hepatic and other defense systems of the recipient. Aim: The precise molecular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of arecoline deserve investigation. To clarify the action of arecoline on defense systems, immune, hepatic and detoxification system were studied in mice. Method: Cell count and cell cycle of the splenocytes were studied for evaluating cell immunity. Liver function test (LFT) was followed by assaying different enzyme systems from serum (SGPT, SGOT and ALP) and liver (GST for detoxication enzyme, SOD and catalase for antioxidant enzymes and GSH for non-enzymatic antioxidant) and by ultrastructural studies of hepatocytes. Results: Here we report that arecoline arrested splenic lymphocyte cell cycle at lower concentration with induced apoptosis at higher concentration thereby causing immunosuppression in arecoline recipients. Besides, it resulted in hepatotoxicity in arecoline recipient mice by disrupting the hepatocyte ultrastructure, as judged by liver ultrastructural studies that showed decreased nuclear size, RER with profusely inflated cysternae and abundance of lipid droplets, and by up regulating hepatotoxic marker enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) in serum. Arecoline also caused depression of antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) that are known to neutralize reactive oxygen species. Conclusion: All these above-mentioned results led us to conclude that arecoline attacks multiple targets to finally

  7. Effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorus: An in-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Santhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP containing sugar-free chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorous. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva from each 24 selected subjects was collected. Then each subject was given two pellets of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and asked to chew for a period of 20 min, after which saliva samples were collected from each individual. Once all the samples were collected they were assessed for calcium and phosphorous concentration using affiliated reagent kits and photometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using student′s paired t test. Results: Significant difference was found in the calcium and phosphorus concentration of saliva before and after chewing CPP-ACP containing chewing gum. Conclusions: Chewing of CPP-ACP containing chewing gum showed a significant increase in the salivary concentration of calcium for a prolonged period of time hence it may help in the remineralization of tooth surfaces.

  8. The effect of gum chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration in fasted, healthy, non-obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Yuxiu; Zheng, Jia; Li, Wenhui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Zhixin

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration by having volunteers to chew sugarless gum. Our intention was to explore the neural mechanisms regulating the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1). After fasting for 12 h, 12 healthy male, non-obese volunteers (18 chew sugarless gum at a frequency of 80 times every 2 min for a total of 30 min. Blood samples were collected before the start of chewing and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min after the start of chewing. Satiety and hunger were evaluated on a scale from 0 to 100 at each time point. Compared with the control group, the test group's satiety was increased at 15, 25, and 30 min (p = 0.043, p = 0.014 and p = 0.018, respectively) after they began chewing sugarless gum 80 times every 2 min. The blood GLP-1 level of the test group at 30 min was 49.6 ± 20.3 pmol/l, significantly higher than that of the control group (38.9 ± 20.9 pmol/l; p = 0.031). There was no significant difference in the test group's GLP-1 concentration at each time point. In the control group, compared to baseline, the GLP-1 concentrations at 15, 25, and 30 min were significantly decreased (p = 0.042, p = 0.0214 and p = 0.012, respectively). No significant differences in the blood concentration of glucose, insulin and GIP or hunger were observed between groups. Our study suggests that fasting sugarless gum chewing can increase satiety and reduce the decrease in GLP-1 concentration. PMID:25758865

  9. Regular Khat (Catha edulis chewing is associated with elevated diastolic blood pressure among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia: A comparative study

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    Gedif Teferi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fresh leaves and buds of the Khat plant (Catha edulis contain Cathinone, an amphetamine like alkaloid responsible for its pharmacological action. Chewing of Khat has been associated with a transient rise in blood pressure and heart rate in experimental studies. Few studies examined the effect of regular or frequent Khat chewing on blood pressure at the population level. This study was conducted to examine the association of regular Khat chewing with blood pressure among adults. Methods We compared systolic and diastolic blood pressure of adults 35-65 years of age who reported regular chewing of Khat during the preceding five years to those who never chewed Khat during the same period. Study participants were recruited from purposively selected urban and rural villages of Butajira District in Ethiopia. The comparative groups, chewers (334 and non-chewers (330, were identified from among the general population through a house-to-house visit using a screening questionnaire. They were frequency-matched for sex and age within a five-year range. Data were collected through structured interviews and physical measurements including blood pressure, weight and height. Results The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher among Khat chewers (13.4% than non-chewers (10.7%, odds ratio (OR = 1.66 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.05, 3.13. A considerably high proportion of chewers (29.9% than non-chewers (20.6% had sub-optimal diastolic blood pressure (> 80 mmHg. The mean (sd diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher among Khat chewers [75.0 (11.6] than non-chewers [72.9 (11.7], P Conclusion Regular chewing of Khat is associated with elevated mean diastolic blood pressure, which is consistent with the peripheral vasoconstrictor effect of Cathinone. Regular Khat chewing may have sustained effects on the cardiovascular system that can contribute to elevated blood pressure at the population level.

  10. Prevalence of oral lesions in relation to habits : Cross-sectional study in South India.

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    Saraswathi T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking, drinking and chewing tobacco product, common habits in India have been positively associated with oral lesions. No study has been conducted in this part of Tamilnadu regarding the prevalence of oral lesions in relation to habits. METHODS: A hospital based cross-sectional study was carried out at Ragas Dental College, Chennai. Already existing data of two thousand and seventeen consecutive patients from sub-urban areas of Chennai, who attended the outpatient department, at Ragas Dental College, for dental complaints during a period of three months in 2004, who underwent oral examination and interviewer based questionnaire was used. RESULTS: Oral soft tissue lesions were found in 4.1% of the study subjects. The prevalence of leukoplakia, OSF and oral lichen planus was 0.59%, 0.55%, and 0.15% respectively. The prevalence of smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages and chewing was 15.02%, 8.78% and 6.99% respectively. Smoking and chewing were significant predictors of leukoplakia in this population. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of leukoplakia, OSF and oral lichen planus in our study population is similar to those found in other populations. The prevalence of consumption of alcoholic beverages in our study population was higher when compared to the Indian National Sample Survey study. However the prevalence of smoking and chewing was found to be lower. Smokers were more likely to develop smoker′s melanosis compared to other lesions. Among those who consumed alcoholic beverages alone, the prevalence of leukoplakia was higher compared to other lesions. OSF was the most prevalent lesion among those who chewed panmasala or gutkha or betel quid with or without tobacco.

  11. 新型口香糖清除器的设计%Design of New Chewing Gum Removal Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁杰; 艾书义

    2012-01-01

    口香糖残留物粘着力强,易吸附灰尘和细菌,被丢弃后经日晒、踩踏,残留物与路面粘结,难以清除,严重影响城市的美观与卫生.因此口香糖残渣清理已成为环卫工作面临的重大难题.本文分析了国内口香糖残留清除方法及清除机械的现状,本着高效节能的理念,设计出一种新型半自动口香糖清除器.%Strong adhesion of chewing gum residues, easy to absorb the on the city's appearance and health, in particular, after the sun and trampl dust and bacteria, serious impact e, chewing gum residues are even more difficult to remove. Therefore, chewing gum residue removal has become a major problem facing public places. This paper analyses the domestic chewing gum residue removal methods and the current situation of removal machines, and designs a new type of chewing gum residue removal equipment.

  12. Khat chewing, cardiovascular diseases and other internal medical problems: the current situation and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Motarreb, A; Al-Habori, M; Broadley, K J

    2010-12-01

    The leaves of khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) are chewed as a social habit for the central stimulant action of their cathinone content. This review summarizes the prevalence of the habit worldwide, the actions, uses, constituents and adverse health effects of khat chewing. There is growing concern about the health hazards of chronic khat chewing and this review concentrates on the adverse effects on health in the peripheral systems of the body, including the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. Comparisons are made with amphetamine and ecstasy in particular on the detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. The underlying mechanisms of action of khat and its main constituent, cathinone, on the cardiovascular system are discussed. Links have been proposed between khat chewing and the incidence of myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, vascular disease such as hypertension, cerebrovascular ischaemia and thromboembolism, diabetes, sexual dysfunction, duodenal ulcer and hepatitis. The evidence, however, is often based on limited numbers of case reports and only few prospective controlled studies have been undertaken. There is therefore an urgent need for more thorough case-control studies to be performed. This review outlines the current knowledge on the adverse health effects of khat chewing on the cardiovascular system and other internal medical problems, it assesses the evidence and the limitations of the studies and identifies the questions that future studies should address. PMID:20621179

  13. Evaluation of jaw and neck muscle activities while chewing using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Narita, Noriyuki; Endo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to quantitatively clarify the physiological features in rhythmically coordinated jaw and neck muscle EMG activities while chewing gum using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in 20 healthy subjects. The chewing side masseter muscle EMG signal was used as the reference signal, while the other jaw (non-chewing side masseter muscle, bilateral anterior temporal muscles, and bilateral anterior digastric muscles) and neck muscle (bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles) EMG signals were used as the examined signals in EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses. Chewing-related jaw and neck muscle activities were aggregated in the first peak of the power spectrum in rhythmic chewing. The gain in the peak frequency represented the power relationships between jaw and neck muscle activities during rhythmic chewing. The phase in the peak frequency represented the temporal relationships between the jaw and neck muscle activities, while the non-chewing side neck muscle presented a broad range of distributions across jaw closing and opening phases. Coherence in the peak frequency represented the synergistic features in bilateral jaw closing muscles and chewing side neck muscle activities. The coherence and phase in non-chewing side neck muscle activities exhibited a significant negative correlation. From above, the bilateral coordination between the jaw and neck muscle activities is estimated while chewing when the non-chewing side neck muscle is synchronously activated with the jaw closing muscles, while the unilateral coordination is estimated when the non-chewing side neck muscle is irregularly activated in the jaw opening phase. Thus, the occurrence of bilateral or unilateral coordinated features in the jaw and neck muscle activities may correspond to the phase characteristics in the non-chewing side neck muscle activities during rhythmical chewing. Considering these novel findings in healthy subjects, EMG

  14. Role of Salvadora persica chewing stick (miswak): A natural toothbrush for holistic oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Fayez; Naseem, Mustafa; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Almas, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    From an ancient tool to a modern way of improving oral health, miswak (chewing stick) has proven to be an effective tool for oral health. The miswak removes the bacterial plaque by mechanical and chemical actions. It provides a cheap and easily accessible way of improving oral health of the individuals and populations. The use of miswak was promoted centuries ago by Prophet Muhammad (Peace be Upon Him). In the modern era, the beneficial role of using miswak such as antiseptic, antimicrobial, anticariogenic and analgesic effects have been proven scientifically. This article reviews the various oral health benefits of miswak in the light of religious, scientific and social evidences. PMID:27095914

  15. Measurement of alpha activity of Indian chewing tobacco samples using track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha activity produced by eight different brands of chewing tobaccos have been measured using LR-115 type II plastic detector in the sandwiched pellet technique. Maximum value of alpha activity, 9.43 tracks cm-2 d-1 has been found in the raw tobacco leaves (Sample No. 8) while the minimum value 0.84 tracks cm-2 d-1 was shown by Sample No. 1. Other brands showed intermediate values which are also reported in this paper. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  16. Xylitol chewing gum in prevention of acute otitis media: double blind randomised trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Uhari, M.; Kontiokari, T; Koskela, M.; Niemelä, M. (Mika)

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether xylitol, which reduces the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae, might have clinical importance in the prevention of acute otitis media. DESIGN: A double blind randomised trial with xylitol administered in chewing gum. SETTING: Eleven day care nurseries in the city of Oulu. Most of the children had had problems with recurrent acute otitis media. SUBJECTS: 306 day care children: 149 children in the sucrose group (76 boys; mean (SD) age 4.9 (1.5) years) and 157 in th...

  17. Effects of Nicotine Chewing Gum on UPDRS Score and P300 in Early-onset Parkinsonism

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuoka, Takako; Kaseda, Yumiko; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Kawakami, Hideshi; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2002-01-01

    It has been reported that nicotine shows some beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease. The purpose of the present study is to assess the therapeutic effects of nicotine chewing gum in patients with early-onset parkinsonism (EOP). The subjects were 8 patients with early-onset parkinsonism (male/ female = 4/ 4, mean age; 51.3 years). Four out of 8 patients had a history of smoking (smokers). To estimate the effects of nicotine gum, the scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (U...

  18. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Sakagami, Joe; Zhang, Min; Urade, Masahiro; Ono, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior. Methods We tested cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the frontal lobes bilaterally while subjects chewed three types of gum with different combinations of taste and odor: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum), sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum), and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum). Simultaneo...

  19. The role of family background on adolescent khat chewing behavior in Jazan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel

    2013-01-01

    Background Khat is a well-known natural stimulant from the Catha edulis plant and is widely used in certain Red Sea countries, including Yemen and the province of Jazan in Saudi Arabia. Jazan is located in the southwestern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia adjacent to Yemen, where the practice of khat chewing is deeply rooted throughout the entire population. The main objective of this paper was to assess the association between family background, i.e., parent and sibling khat use, and adol...

  20. Chewing insect predation on artificial caterpillars is related to activity density of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrante, M.; Lövei, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    In cultivated landscapes, predatory arthropods play an important role for pest control. Traditionally, monitoring their effect on pests was done using indirect measures (e.g. characterising predator activity by the numbers of predators caught). However, the contribution of predators to predation is...... traps in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Forty-six percent (n=756/1637) of the artificial sentinel prey were attacked after 24 h, mostly by chewing insects (88%, n=665/756), and 1102 carabids with a size of ≥15mm were collected. Ground beetles were also the most common predatory group, followed by...

  1. THE COMPARISON OF REDUCING PLAQUE INDEX BEFORE AND AFTER USING CHEWING GUM AND TOOTH BRUSHING IN PERTIWI JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Natamiharja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Up to present, plaque control is the most effective method to maintain oral hygiene. Using chewing gum after eating food and snacks can stimulate saliva, promote remineralization and reduce potential dental plaque. To know whether using chewing gum can reduce plaque index as good as toothbrushing, thus an experimental study was performed. Sample was the first grade of junior high school students. After selection according to the requirements, the sample size was 35 students. Each sample got two different treatments, In the first day, they used chewing gum and the next day they were instructed to brush their teeth. Before and after using chewing gum and toothbrushing their dental plaque was scored. The mean of plaque score before using chewing gum was 2.24 and after using chewing gum was 1.28, statistically there was a significant difference (t = 33: df – 34; p<0,001. The mean of plaque score before toothbrushing was 2.26 and after toothbrushing 1.10, statistically there was a significant difference. Using chewing gum and toothbrushing can reduce plaque score, though the reduction of plaque score by toothbrushing was greater compared with using chewing gum.

  2. ANALYSIS OF CLINICAL OUTCOME OF EFFECT OF CHEWING GUM ON BOWEL MOTILITY IN POST - OPERATIVE PATIENTS FOLLOWING ABDOMINAL SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : One very important complication of abdominal surgeries is postoperative ileus which results in severe patient discomfort, prolonged hospitalization, and enhanced treatment cost. This study was conducted with an aim to analyze the clinical outcome of effe ct of chewing gum mainly to avoid post - operative paralytic ileus in post - operative patients of abdominal surgeries . MATERIAL AND METHODS : In this study total 200 patients were included, 100 were cases and remaining were controls. The cases were given chewing gum to chew after the surgery while the controls were allowed to heal without chewing gums in conventional style and both were observed hourly for clinical outcome. RESULTS : Among cases the mean duration of first sound heard was 26.3 hours while am ong controls this was 38.8 hours [p<0.001], the mean duration of first flatus passed among cases was 50.7 hours while that among controls was 68.5 hours, the mean duration of first Bowel passed among cases was 92.4 hours while that among controls was 128.3 hours [p<0.001]. On comparing cases of routine with emergency surgeries, gastric with small bowel surgeries, and traumatic with pathological bowel surgeries it was observed that the first bowel sound, first flatus and first bowel passed appears significan tly earlier in routine surgeries, gastric surgeries and traumatic surgeries respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that chewing gum has significant effect over bowel motility as bowel sounds appeared significantly earlier in cases than control and tim e for first flatus passed and first bowel passed were also noted significantly earlier in cases than controls. Hospital stay of cases were found significantly lesser than control hence simple intervention like chewing can decrease the burden of disease of paralytic ileus from community.

  3. Immediate effect of xylitol chewing gum and mouth rinse on salivary levels of mutans streptococci in adults with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Bandyopadhyay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the immediate effect of xylitol chewing gum and xylitol mouth rinse on mutans streptococci (MS levels in the saliva of adults with systemic sclerosis (SSc. Methods: Thirteen female adults with SSc were assigned randomly to either the xylitol chewing gum or xylitol mouth rinse groups. Participants in the chewing gum group were given 2 pellets (2.12g of commercial xylitol chewing gum to chew for 10 min; whereas participants in the mouth rinse group were given 10 ml (10% [w/v] of xylitol solution to rinse orally for 2 min. MS samples were collected using Dentocult® SM Strip mutans before and after xylitol exposure. Results: No significant difference in the change scores of MS levels between the two groups was observed at post xylitol exposure. Conclusion: Mouth rinse may provide an alternative mode of xylitol delivery for this population. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 89-92

  4. Immediate Effect of Xylitol Chewing Gum and Mouth Rinse on Salivary Levels of Mutans Streptococci in Adults with Systemic Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K.; Westwater, Caroline; DeGarmo, Justin; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the immediate effect of xylitol chewing gum and xylitol mouth rinse on mutans streptococci (MS) levels in the saliva of adults with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Thirteen female adults with SSc were assigned randomly to either the xylitol chewing gum or xylitol mouth rinse groups. Participants in the chewing gum group were given 2 pellets (2.12g) of commercial xylitol chewing gum to chew for 10 min; whereas participants in the mouth rinse group were given 10 ml (10% [w/v]) of xylitol solution to rinse orally for 2 min. MS samples were collected using Dentocult® SM Strip mutans before and after xylitol exposure. Results No significant difference in the change scores of MS levels between the two groups was observed at post xylitol exposure. Conclusions Mouth rinse may provide an alternative mode of xylitol delivery for this population. PMID:24532975

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the safety of ―Methyl Vinyl Ether-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer‖ (chewing gum base ingredient) as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    safety concerns. An estimated daily intake (EDI) for Gantrez SF associated with its use in chewing gum may be calculated based on the maximum concentration (2 %) of Gantrez SF in finished chewing gum, and on the level at which chewing gum is consumed. Based on data from the United Kingdom, a high intake...

  6. Effect of conservation and maturity of primary growth grass/clover on chewing activity and fecal particle size in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    The study evaluated structural effectiveness of NDF from of spring harvest grass/clover forages of primary growth by assessing chewing activity and feces particles >1.0 mm in heifers. Two batches of mixed ryegrass, red and white clover harvested in 2009 on May 9 and 25 were conserved as either...... level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake, divided in two daily meals at 0800 and 1530 h. Jaw movements oscillations (JMO) were recorded for 96 h continuously using Hall sensor fitted chewing halters. Jaw movements (JM) were identified from JMO, clustered into cycles and periods of rumination and...

  7. The Effect of Chewing Sugar Free Gum after Elective Cesarean-Delivery on Return of Bowel Function in Primiparous Women:

    OpenAIRE

    Safdari Dehcheshmeh F; Salehian T; Gangi F; Beigi M

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: An important cause of delayed recovery from abdominal surgery is delay in return of bowel Function. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chewing sugar free gum after elective Cesarean-delivery on return of bowel function in primiparous women in Hajar hospital of Shahrekord.Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 120 patients, who were scheduled for elective cesarean were randomly allocated to 2 groups of gum-chewing group (n=60) and control gro...

  8. Estimation of salivary and tongue coating pH on chewing household herbal leaves: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Madhusudan, A. S.; Sandesh, Nagarajappa; Batra, Mehak; Sharma, Ashish; Patel, Srikant Ashwin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate saliva and tongue coating pH and also to assess the degree of tongue coating in healthy subjects before and after chewing herbal leaves (tulsi, mint, and curry leaf). Materials and Methods: A double-blind, randomized, concurrent, parallel-group study was conducted among 60 volunteer subjects, who were randomly assigned into three groups of 20 each (tulsi, mint, and curry leaf) and were asked to chew five to six fresh leaves of the respectiv...

  9. Chewing sandpaper: grit, plant apparency, and plant defense in sand-entrapping plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresti, Eric F; Karban, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Sand entrapment on plant surfaces, termed psammophory or sand armor, is a phylogenetically and geographically widespread trait. The functional significance of this phenomenon has been poorly investigated. Sand and soil are nonnutritive and difficult for herbivores to process, as well as visually identical to the background. We experimentally investigated whether this sand coating physically protected the plant from herbivores or increased crypsis (e.g., decreased apparency to herbivores). We tested the former hypothesis by removing entrapped sand from stems, petioles, and leaves of the sand verbena Abronia latifolia and by supplementing natural sand levels in the honeyscented pincushion plant Navarretia mellita. Consistent with a physical defensive function, leaves with sand present or supplemented suffered less chewing herbivory than those with sand removed or left as is. To test a possible crypsis effect, we coated some sand verbena stems with green sand, matching the stem color, as well as others with brown sand to match the background color. Both suffered less chewing herbivory than controls with no sand and herbivory did not significantly differ between the colors, suggesting crypsis was not the driving resistance mechanism. Strong tests of plant apparency are rare; this experimental approach may be possible in other systems and represents one of few manipulative tests of this long-standing hypothesis. PMID:27220199

  10. Dystrophic changes in masticatory muscles related chewing problems and malocclusions in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, L; de Groot, I J M; Sie, L T; van Bruggen, H W; de Groot, S A F; Erasmus, C E; van Alfen, N

    2016-06-01

    Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) worsens with age, with increasingly effortful mastication. The aims of this study were to describe mastication problems in consecutive stages in a group of patients with DMD and to determine related pathophysiological aspects of masticatory muscle structure, tongue thickness, bite force and dental characteristics. Data from 72 patients with DMD (4.3 to 28.0 years), divided into four clinical stages, were collected in a cross sectional study. Problems with mastication and the need for food adaptations, in combination with increased echogenicity of the masseter muscle, were already found in the early stages of the disease. A high percentage of open bites and cross bites were found, especially in the later stages. Tongue hypertrophy also increased over time. Increased dysfunction, reflected by increasingly abnormal echogenicity, of the masseter muscle and reduced occlusal contacts (anterior and posterior open bites) were mainly responsible for the hampered chewing. In all, this study shows the increasing involvement of various elements of the masticatory system in progressive Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To prevent choking and also nutritional deficiency, early detection of chewing problems by asking about feeding and mastication problems, as well as asking about food adaptations made, is essential and can lead to timely intervention. PMID:27132120

  11. Study of the compressibility of chewing gum and its applicability as an oral drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jójárt, I; Kása, P; Kelemen, A; Pintye-Hódi, K

    2016-01-01

    Medicated chewing gum tablets were prepared and evaluated as an oral drug delivery system. The morphology and surface free energy of the components were characterized, and the tablets were prepared by direct compression with an instrumented eccentric tableting machine. The compressibility, the porosity and the texture of the tablets were investigated and the dissolution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (caffeine) from them was tested with a specially-developed method. Cafosa gum base is a co-processed product which is compressible. Because of the sticking of the tablets to the punches and the high friction that arises during ejection from the die, the use of lubricants and suitable (e.g. Teflon-coated) punches is necessary on a production scale. For this purpose, magnesium stearate with high specific surface area was applied. The release of caffeine in response to the mechanical effect applied proved to be rapid and quantitative and the profile closely obeyed the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation, which is valid in the case of matrix systems. Medicated chewing gum tablets can be used as matrix tablets for oral pharmaceutical administration. PMID:25673279

  12. Tobacco habit in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Upendra; Bala, Nidhi; Tewar, Varsha; Oanh, Khuat Thi Hai

    2006-01-01

    To study tobacco consumption practices in north-Indian population, a community-based, stratified sampling survey using validated interview schedule was performed in rural/urban areas of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. There were 432 tobacco users (385 men, 47 women; 276 urban, 156 rural) taken as subjects. Tobacco use practices ie, chewing/smoking/rubbing/snuffing, frequency, starting age, supply, place/context of use, quid habit, affect, facilitating conditions/barriers, tobacco users' opinion on control measures were all taken into consideration. Single mode of tobacco use was reported by 277 subjects (64.1%) and the rest had a plethora of tobacco practices. Chewing was prevalent in 322(74.5%), smoking in 256(59.3%), rubbing in 32(7.4%) and snuffing in 4 subjects (0.9%). Of the 10 preparations in the questionnaire, the "top 5" preferences ranked as tobacco-betel, gutka, cigarette, bidi and khaini that remained unchanged between sexes, rural/urban people and age groups. Women significantly (palcohol was consumed by 82(19%) and with opium by 33 subjects (7.6%). Social barrier to tobacco use was perceived by 231 subjects (53.5%), especially by smokers. Majority users (355; 82.2%) did not have negative feelings or embarrassment in using tobacco. Most users (351; 81.4%) said they would welcome legislative control on tobacco use. PMID:16850862

  13. Faktor Risiko Kanker Rongga Mulut di Divisi Bedah Onkologi RSUP Haji Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrunnisa’, Mutia Fri

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing trend in oral cancer incidence each year. This cancer is caused by many factors. One main factor is the habit of chewing betel in Batak society which is still exists today. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors, such as smoking, chewing tobacco, chewing betel, and alcohol consumption in patients with oral cancer in RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan. This study was descriptive with cross-sectional approach. The samples were taken by total sampling met...

  14. Difficulty Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or pain medications may cause this. Gum disease, tooth decay, or tooth loss. These are possible long-term ... For example, radiation therapy may increase risk of tooth decay or gum disease. A fluoride gel or mouth ...

  15. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  16. The effect of two types chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and xylitol on salivary Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Emamieh

    2015-01-01

    Materials and Methods: A total of 60 dental students of 20-25 years old, who volunteered after checking their health condition and signing an informed consent, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following interventions: (A Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP; (B containing xylitol. Subjects within the experimental groups were taken the gums 3 times daily, after each meal for a period of 3 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention unstimulated saliva samples were quantified for S. mutans counts. Results: A statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans was displayed in both groups A and B after the intervention when compared with baseline (P < 0.001, and group A shows more statistically significant reduction of salivary S. mutans than group B (P = 0.011. Conclusion: Daily consumption of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and xylitol significantly reduces the level of salivary S. mutans, but chewing gum containing CPP-ACP can reduce the level of salivary S. mutans in more than xylitol chewing gum.

  17. The effect of sugar-free chewing gum on plaque and clinical parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Keukenmeester; D.E. Slot; M.S. Putt; G.A. van der Weijden

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review the current literature on the clinical effects of sugar-free chewing gum on plaque indices and parameters of gingival inflammation. Material and methods The MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to 20 April

  18. EFFECT OF XYLITOL AND SORBITOL IN CHEWING-GUMS ON MUTANS STREPTOCOCCI, PLAQUE PH AND MINERAL LOSS OF ENAMEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WENNERHOLM, K; ARENDS, J; BIRKHED, D; RUBEN, J; EMILSON, CG; DIJKMAN, AG

    1994-01-01

    Seventeen subjects with more than 3 x 10(5) mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva completed this randomised, cross-over study. Four different chewing-gums, containing: (1) 70% xylitol, (2) 35% xylitol + 35% sorbitol, (3) 17.5% xylitol + 52.5% sorbitol, and (4) 70% sorbitol, were tested. The p

  19. 口香糖及其发其趋势和思考%Development trend and thinking of chewing gums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁靖一; 卢咏来; 王润国; 刘全勇

    2011-01-01

    从口香糖的发展历史出发,介绍了口香糖的功能、类别、组成、制备原理、工艺以及质量评价方法.传统口香糖功能简单,常采用难于生物降解的弹性体和树脂作为胶基,残基被丢弃后,既难除去,也污染环境.在保证口香糖具有特定功能的基础上,采用可生物降解弹性体和树脂作为胶基制备口香糖,是其重要的发展趋势.最后,结合口香糖的研究现状,提出了一些看法.%Starting from the history of chewing gums,their function,category,composition,preparation principle and technique,and method of quality assessment were introduced.Traditional chewing gums present simple functions, and hardly biodegradable elastomers and resins are often used as their gums,so the residues are difficult to be cleared up and pollute the environment after they are thrown away.Adopting biodegradable elastomers and resins as gums to prepare chewing gums with special functions is an important development trend.Finally, some ideas were put forward based on the current study on chewing gums.

  20. Fighting Against Disuse of the Masticatory System in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Pilot Study Using Chewing Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, H.W. van; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Steenks, M.H.; Bilt, A. van der; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Kalaykova, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients report masticatory problems. The aim was to determine the efficacy of mastication training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using chewing gum for 4 weeks. In all, 17 patients and 17 healthy age-matched males participated. The masticatory performance was assessed us

  1. The effect of medicated, sugar-free chewing gum on plaque and clinical parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Keukenmeester; D.E. Slot; M.S. Putt; G.A. van der Weijden

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to systematically review the present literature to establish the clinical effect of medicated, sugar-free chewing gum on plaque indices and parameters of gingival inflammation. Materials and methods MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to

  2. Khat Chewing among Students of Higher Education in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern, and Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2 to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. Results. The overall current Khat chewing prevalence among higher education students was found to be 23.1%, significantly higher among males at 38.5% than among females at 2.1% . Lifetime Khat chewer students were 24.8% for males at 40.5%, significantly higher compared with females at 3.7% . Univariate analysis revealed that the gender of student, smoking status of student, a friend’s smoking, and Khat chewing were associated with a significant high risk of Khat chewing (   for all. Conclusions. The use of Khat trend is increasing among higher education students in Jazan region. A multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plan is needed. The comprehensive plan may include social interventions geared by creating recreations alternatives and opportunities for youth and a critical review for current authorities’ interventions and services.

  3. Study on Ripening Technology for Autumn Planting Chewing Cane%秋植果蔗催熟技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李和平; 张树河; 潘世明; 林一心

    2015-01-01

    以2014年8月种植的闽引黄皮果蔗为材料,在2015年7月进行催熟处理,探讨秋植果蔗的催熟技术.结果表明:0.05%乙烯利处理可以提高果蔗糖分,但抑制果蔗植株生长,且对蔗茎侧芽有促进萌发作用,影响了商品性;0.05%乙烯利+宇花灵2号处理可以显著提高果蔗糖分,且能够保持良好的商品性.%Using 'Minyin Huangpi Chewing-cane' which plant in August in 2014 as material,ripening treatment in July,2015,the ripening technology for autumn planting chewing-cane was discussed. Results showed that 0.05%ethephon treatment could improve the sugar content,but it had inhibitory effect on plant growth and promoting stem bud germinate,influence chewing-cane commodity.0.05% ethephon+Yuhualing 2 could significantly improve the sugar content of autumn planting chewing-cane,and able to keep a good commodity.

  4. Chewing areca nut increases the risk of coronary artery disease in taiwanese men: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Wei-Chung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut chewing has been reported to be associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular mortality in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether chewing areca nut increases the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD in Taiwanese men. Methods This study is a hospital-based case-control study. The case patients were male patients diagnosed in Taiwan between 1996 and 2009 as having a positive Treadmill exercise test or a positive finding on the Thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging. The case patients were further evaluated by coronary angiography to confirm their CAD. Obstructive CAD was defined as a ≥ 50% decrease in the luminal diameter of one major coronary artery. The patients who did not fulfill the above criteria of obstructive CAD were excluded. The potential controls were males who visited the same hospital for health check-ups and had a normal electrocardiogram but no history of ischemic heart disease or CAD during the time period that the case patients were diagnosed. The eligible controls were randomly selected and frequency-matched with the case patients based on age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratio of areca nut chewing and the risk of obstructive CAD. Results A total of 293 obstructive CAD patients and 720 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. Subjects who chewed areca nut had a 3.5-fold increased risk (95% CI = 2.0-6.2 of having obstructive CAD than those without, after adjusting for other significant covariates. The dose-response relationship of chewing areca nut and the risk of obstructive CAD was also noted. After adjusting for other covariates, the 2-way additive interactions for obstructive CAD risk were also significant between areca nut use and cigarette smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Conclusions Long-term areca nut chewing was an independent risk factor of

  5. Assessment of risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma in Chidambaram, Southern India: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subapriya, Rajamanickam; Thangavelu, Annamalai; Mathavan, Bommayasamy; Ramachandran, Chinnamanoor R; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2007-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma, the fifth most common cancer worldwide, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India. The effect of lifestyle factors, including tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol drinking, diet and dental care, on the risk of oral cancer was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalainagar, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India during the period 1991-2003. The study included 388 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases and an equal number (388) of age and sex-matched controls. All participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that contained data on demographic factors, family history of cancer, tobacco habits, use of alcohol, frequency, duration, cessation of these habits, dietary practices and oral hygiene. The data were analysed using multiple logistic regression model. Among people with chewing habits, those who chewed betel quid with tobacco [odds ratio (OR) 3.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-2.13] and tobacco alone (OR 2.89) showed a greater risk than controls. Bidi smoking (OR 4.63) and alcohol drinking (OR 1.65) emerged as significant risk factors for oral cancer. These three habits showed increasing risk with increasing frequency and increase in duration of habits. Addition of alcohol to other habits also enhanced the risk for oral cancer. The combination of chewing and smoking together with alcohol drinking showed very high relative risk (OR 11.34). A positive association was observed between non-vegetarian diet, poor oral hygiene and poor dentition with the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The fact that these risk factors are modifiable emphasizes the need for increasing awareness among the general public and policy makers as a first step in the prevention and control of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:17415096

  6. Effect of chewing gums with xylitol, sorbitol and xylitol-sorbitol on the remineralization and hardness of initial enamel lesions in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Duygu; Önen, Alev; Yazici, A. Rüya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three chewing gums and paraffin on the remineralization and the hardness of demineralized enamel. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 subjects wore intraoral palatal appliances with two demineralized bovine enamel slabs. The study consisted of four experimental periods each lasting 21-days, during which subjects were assigned to one of three gum-chewing regimens: gum containing sorbitol, xylitol and a mixture of sorbitol and xylitol and with paraffin as control. The appliances were worn during gum-chewing for 20 min and then retained for 20 min 4 times/day. The slabs were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and surface microhardness measurements before in setting into the appliance and after the experimental period. The data were subjected to analysis of variance for repeated measures. A P 0.05). No significant difference was found among the groups either for the baseline measurements or after chewing periods (P > 0.05). All groups showed higher microhardness values after the chewing periods than the baseline except for the Vivident Xylit group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The chewing of gum had no effect on the Ca/P ratio of demineralized enamel surfaces. The hardening of the demineralized enamel surfaces may vary according to the type of chewing gum. PMID:25426142

  7. Effect of chewing gums with xylitol, sorbitol and xylitol-sorbitol on the remineralization and hardness of initial enamel lesions in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Tuncer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three chewing gums and paraffin on the remineralization and the hardness of demineralized enamel. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 subjects wore intraoral palatal appliances with two demineralized bovine enamel slabs. The study consisted of four experimental periods each lasting 21-days, during which subjects were assigned to one of three gum-chewing regimens: gum containing sorbitol, xylitol and a mixture of sorbitol and xylitol and with paraffin as control. The appliances were worn during gum-chewing for 20 min and then retained for 20 min 4 times/day. The slabs were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and surface microhardness measurements before in setting into the appliance and after the experimental period. The data were subjected to analysis of variance for repeated measures. A P 0.05. No significant difference was found among the groups either for the baseline measurements or after chewing periods (P > 0.05. All groups showed higher microhardness values after the chewing periods than the baseline except for the Vivident Xylit group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The chewing of gum had no effect on the Ca/P ratio of demineralized enamel surfaces. The hardening of the demineralized enamel surfaces may vary according to the type of chewing gum.

  8. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating

  9. Evaluation and Comparison of Changes in Microhardness of Primary and Permanent Enamel on Exposure to Acidic Center-filled Chewing Gum: An in vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mudumba, Vijaya Lakshmi; Muppa, Radhika; Srinivas, NCH; Kumar, Duddu Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The study is to evaluate changes in microhardness of enamel after exposure to acidic center filled chewing gum on primary and permanent teeth. Methods: Thirty primary and 30 permanent molar extracted teeth were painted with acid resistant varnish except a small window over buccal surface. Teeth were divided into four groups according to type of teeth and type of chewing gum (Center fresh and Bubbaloo) (D1, P1, D2 and P2); each tooth was exposed to whole chewing gum mashed...

  10. Relationship between energy intake and chewing index of diets fed to pregnant ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Vestergaard; Nadeau, E.; Markussen, Bo; Eknæs, M.; Nørgaard, Peder

    2015-01-01

    .001), with different within-experiment intercepts in relation to week before lambing (P < 0.001), supporting the existence of a linear relationship between MEI and CIcor for pregnant ewes in the last 4 weeks before lambing. CTmax could be calculated for the ewes and had a mean of 1066 min/d. The model......The objective was to determine whether a linear relationship exists between the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of pregnant ewes and a dietary chewing index (CI). The relationship was studied using five feeding trials with intake data from 108 pregnant ewes, 4 to 1 weeks before lambing, giving a...... total of 324 observations. All ewes were fed grass silage ad libitum, supplemented with concentrates either separately or in a total mixed ration (TMR). The ewes were of different breeds, were between 2 and 7 years old, had a mean body weight (BW) in the 4th week before lambing of 95.1 kg (SD = 9...

  11. Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Fandos Esteruelas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In April 2014 and 2015, we noted localized alopecia (neck, forelimbs, and chest and hyperpigmentation on two adult brown bears (Ursus arctos captured in central-south Sweden for ecological studies under the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project. In spring 2015, a brown bear was shot because of human-wildlife conflict in the same region. This bear also had extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation. Ectoparasites were collected from the affected skin areas in all three individuals and preserved in ethanol for identification. Based on morphological characteristics, the lice were identified as Trichodectes spp. and Trichodectes pinguis pinguis. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of chewing lice in free-ranging brown bears in Scandinavia.

  12. Trace quantities of uranium in some indian chewing tobaccos as determined by fission track analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sandwiched pellet technique using Makrofol-E plastic track detectors has been employed to determine trace quantities of uranium in nine brands of flavored chewing tobaccos consumed by the Indian population. In this technique the nuclear reaction, 235U(n,f), is used for the quantitative estimation of uranium. The maximum value of uranium (1.88 ppm) has been found in raw tobacco leaves (Surti), while the minimum (0.13 ppm) in Tulsi (Double Zero brand). Other seven brands showed intermediate values of U-contents which are also reported in this paper. These values are compared with the U-contents reported in the literature for other forms of tobaccos. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteruelas, Núria Fandos; Malmsten, Jonas; Bröjer, Caroline; Grandi, Giulio; Lindström, Anders; Brown, Paul; Swenson, Jon E; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M

    2016-08-01

    In April 2014 and 2015, we noted localized alopecia (neck, forelimbs, and chest) and hyperpigmentation on two adult brown bears (Ursus arctos) captured in central-south Sweden for ecological studies under the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project. In spring 2015, a brown bear was shot because of human-wildlife conflict in the same region. This bear also had extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation. Ectoparasites were collected from the affected skin areas in all three individuals and preserved in ethanol for identification. Based on morphological characteristics, the lice were identified as Trichodectes spp. and Trichodectes pinguis pinguis. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of chewing lice in free-ranging brown bears in Scandinavia. PMID:27330984

  14. Toxicity of essential and non-essential oils against the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, R; Wall, R

    2012-10-01

    The toxicity of six plant essential oils to the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys, was examined in laboratory bioassays. The oils examined were: tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora). All except camphor oil showed high levels of toxicity, with significant dose-dependent mortality and an LC(50) at concentrations of below 2% (v/v). Hundred percent mortality was achieved at concentrations of 5-10% (v/v). Two essential oil components: eugenol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol showed similar levels of toxicity. The data suggest that these botanical products may offer environmentally and toxicologically safe, alternative veterinary pediculicides for the control of ectoparasitic lice. PMID:22177577

  15. Potential Use of Cinnamomum burmanii Essential Oil-based Chewing Gum as Oral Antibiofilm Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutma Inna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral biofilm contributed to oral problem since it cause oral and teeth diseases such as caries, calculus, gingivitis and pe-riodontitis. Actions for overcoming these problems are needed. Currently, formation of oral biofilm is usually prevented by using mouthwash or toothpaste derived from synthetic materials. Increasing research on the use of natural resources has led to the innovation of finding antibiofilm product. Cinnamon is one of herb plants originated from Indonesia that has been known for its antibacterial and antibiofilm activities. These activities are owned by its essential oil. This review fo-cused on potential use of Cinnamomum burmanii’s essential oil as oral antibiofilm agent and looking at the possibility of its usage in chewing gum.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i3.40

  16. Radionuclides detected in lime samples that consumed with tobacco and betel nuts by people of Northeast India where head and neck squamous cells cancer (HNSCC) is prevalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is a very predominant type of cancer amongst the population of northeastern states of India than the rest of the world. Epidemiological and other data suggest consumption of betel nuts with/without tobacco and lime or tobacco alone with lime is a probable cause of high cancer incidence. The fundamental question arises that why this particular cancer is induced more in this region while people follow the similar habits elsewhere. Here we report the results on analysis of lime samples, collected from 12 different locations spectrophotometrically by high-purity germanium detector. The calculated activity of radionuclides showed to an average of 2.68, 0.10 and 0.83 Bq/gm for 238U, 235U and 232Th series respectively for ten samples which are about 8 times higher than the normal background level of 0.37, 0.02 and 0.02 Bq/gm for 238U, 235U and 232Th series found in control samples, collected from outside of northeast. The results conclusively showed for the first time that the lime samples almost throughout the northeastern India contain high proportion of radionuclides of uranium, thorium and actinides series. Further, annual effective dose of gamma radiation calculations from these results of earth's crust in northeast showed that gamma rays emitted at an average dose of up to 2.5 mSv/year/consumer approximately. This dose calculation in the oral cavity is underestimated as short range radiations by decay of alpha, beta and electron-capture etc are not considered in the present study. Continuous exposure of such low dose radiations emitting from different radionuclides to the sensitive squamous cells of the oral cavity for a long twenty years or more amounting to a total minimum dose of at least 50 mSv evidently contributes towards excessive HNSCC to the people of northeast than other parts of India.

  17. silencing COI1 in rice increases susceptibility to chewing insects and impairs inducible defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    Full Text Available The jasmonic acid (JA pathway plays a key role in plant defense responses against herbivorous insects. CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1 is an F-box protein essential for all jasmonate responses. However, the precise defense function of COI1 in monocotyledonous plants, especially in rice (Oryza sativa L. is largely unknown. We silenced OsCOI1 in rice plants via RNA interference (RNAi to determine the role of OsCOI1 in rice defense against rice leaf folder (LF Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, a chewing insect, and brown planthopper (BPH Nilaparvata lugens, a phloem-feeding insect. In wild-type rice plants (WT, the transcripts of OsCOI1 were strongly and continuously up-regulated by LF infestation and methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, but not by BPH infestation. The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI, and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation, but the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX was only induced by LF. The RNAi lines with repressed expression of OsCOI1 showed reduced resistance against LF, but no change against BPH. Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content, but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content, POD and PPO activity by 62.3%, 48.5% and 27.2%, respectively. In addition, MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57.2% and 48.2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants. These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component, controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect (LF in rice plants, and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI, POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation.

  18. Use of chewing gum containing 15% of xylitol and reduction in mutans streptococci salivary levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Perez Trindade Fraga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent use of Xylitol may decrease the S. mutans levels. However, very little is known about whether this effect on the levels of cariogenic bacteria is maintained after the interruption of short-term usage of xylitol. This study aimed at evaluating changes in mutans streptococci (MS salivary levels after using a chewing gum containing xylitol. Twelve volunteers harboring > 10(5 CFU MS/ml saliva levels were asked to chew Happydent-xylit® for 5 minutes, 5 X/day, for 30 days. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, at 30 days after xylitol usage began, and at 30 days beyond its interruption. MS salivary levels were estimated. The average salivary levels of MS in the ten subjects who completed the study were 13.17 (NL-CFU at baseline (A. After the 30 days experimental period (B, this average decreased to 9.45 (NL-CFU. Nine of ten subjects studied showed a reduction in MS salivary levels in relation to baseline, whereas salivary levels were maintained in the remaining subject. At thirty days beyond the interruption of xylitol usage (C, the average levels of MS were still reduced to 10.31 (NL-CFU. Multiple sample comparison using the Bonferroni test revealed that the decrease in MS levels observed from baseline (A to the time immediately after 30 days of xylitol usage (B was statistically significant (p < 0.05, and those levels were still decreased between baseline and 30 days beyond the interruption of xylitol usage (C. So, the use of xylitol induced a reduction in MS salivary levels after a short period of usage which persisted beyond its interruption.

  19. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi Kazerani G

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste"nseems necessary."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine"nto achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance."nMaterials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were"ninvestigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the"nbitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of"ndrug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of"nchewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were"nidentical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used"nevery 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index"nwas used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were"nassessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test."nResults: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque"nscore between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which"nwas statistically significant (P<0.001. Subjective

  20. Effect of chewing gums with xylitol, sorbitol and xylitol-sorbitol on the remineralization and hardness of initial enamel lesions in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Tuncer; Alev Önen; A Rüya Yazici

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three chewing gums and paraffin on the remineralization and the hardness of demineralized enamel. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 subjects wore intraoral palatal appliances with two demineralized bovine enamel slabs. The study consisted of four experimental periods each lasting 21-days, during which subjects were assigned to one of three gum-chewing regimens: gum containing sorbitol, xylitol and a mixture of sorbito...

  1. Efficacy and safety of gum chewing in adjunct to high-dose senna for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy: A single-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ergül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Inadequate bowel cleaning leads to a suboptimal colonoscopic examination. Gum chewing has been reported to have a favorable effect on postoperative bowel functions. We conducted this study to establish if gum chewing added to high-dose senna before colonoscopy promotes bowel cleaning. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled study, consecutive outpatients scheduled for elective colonoscopy were randomized into two groups. Group 1 patients (n = 65 used senna solution 150 mL (300 mg senna the night before colonoscopy. The patients also used sennoside tablet 80 mg daily for 3 days before the colonoscopy. Patients in group 2 (n = 64 were additionally advised to chew sugarless gum half an hour three-times daily after meals for these 3 days. The overall quality of colonoscopy cleaning was evaluated using the Aronchick scale by a single endoscopist who was blinded to the intervention. Difficulty of procedure, patients′ tolerance, and adverse events were also evaluated. Results: A total 129 patients were enrolled in the study. Superior cleaning was found in gum chewing group when compared with other group particularly in the cecum and ascending colon. Cecal intubation time was significantly shorter in the gum-chewing group (8.6 ± 5.1 and 7.1 ± 2.8 min, P = 0.03. Adverse events were more common in group 1 compared to the gum-chewing group. Conclusions: Gum chewing enhances colonoscopy bowel preparation quality. Moreover, it is a physiologically sound, safe, and an inexpensive part of the colonoscopy bowel preparation. Gum chewing could be advised in addition to high-dose senna containing bowel preparation.

  2. Comparing the efficacy of xylitol-containing and conventional chewing gums in reducing salivary counts of Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Haghgoo, Rosa; Afshari, Elahe; Ghanaat, Tahere; Aghazadeh, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is among the most common chronic diseases in humans. Streptococcus mutans is generally responsible for most cases of dental caries. The present study sought to compare the effects of xylitol-containing and conventional chewing gums on salivary levels of S. mutans. Materials and Methods: This study adopted a crossover design. Two type of chewing gums (one containing 70% xylitol and approved by the Iranian Dental Association, and another containing sucrose) were purchas...

  3. Effect of chewing gums with xylitol, sorbitol and xylitol-sorbitol on the remineralization and hardness of initial enamel lesions in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncer, Duygu; Önen, Alev; Yazici, A. Rüya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three chewing gums and paraffin on the remineralization and the hardness of demineralized enamel. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 subjects wore intraoral palatal appliances with two demineralized bovine enamel slabs. The study consisted of four experimental periods each lasting 21-days, during which subjects were assigned to one of three gum-chewing regimens: gum containing sorbitol, xylitol and a mixture of sorbitol an...

  4. Effect of casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate containing chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorus: An in-vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    B P Santhosh; P Jethmalani; K K Shashibhushan; Subba Reddy, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So thi...

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Gum Chewing in Adjunct to High-Dose Senna for Bowel Cleansing Before Colonoscopy: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Ergül; Levent Filik; Erdem Koçak; Zeynal Doğan; Murat Sarıkaya

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inadequate bowel cleaning leads to a suboptimal colonoscopic examination. Gum chewing has been reported to have a favorable effect on postoperative bowel functions. We conducted this study to establish if gum chewing added to high-dose senna before colonoscopy promotes bowel cleaning. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled study, consecutive outpatients scheduled for elective colonoscopy were randomized into two groups. Group 1 patients (n = 65) used senna soluti...

  6. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Saroea Geoffrey; Hasler-Nguyen Nathalie; Moore Michael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B) on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whi...

  7. THE COMPARISON OF REDUCING PLAQUE INDEX BEFORE AND AFTER USING CHEWING GUM AND TOOTH BRUSHING IN PERTIWI JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Natamiharja; Oktavia Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Up to present, plaque control is the most effective method to maintain oral hygiene. Using chewing gum after eating food and snacks can stimulate saliva, promote remineralization and reduce potential dental plaque. To know whether using chewing gum can reduce plaque index as good as toothbrushing, thus an experimental study was performed. Sample was the first grade of junior high school students. After selection according to the requirements, the sample size was 35 students. Each sample got t...

  8. Improved Prefrontal Activity and Chewing Performance as Function of Wearing Denture in Partially Edentulous Elderly Individuals: Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kazunobu; Narita, Noriyuki; Iwaki, Sunao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of wearing a denture on prefrontal activity during chewing performance. We specifically examined that activity in 12 elderly edentulous subjects [63.1±6.1 years old (mean ± SD)] and 12 young healthy controls (22.1±2.3 years old) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in order to evaluate the quality of prefrontal functionality during chewing performance under the conditions of wearing a denture and tooth loss, and then compared the findings with those of young healthy controls. fNIRS and electromyography were used simultaneously to detect prefrontal and masticatory muscle activities during chewing, while occlusal force and masticatory score were also examined by use of a food intake questionnaire. A significant increase in prefrontal activity was observed during chewing while wearing a denture, which was accompanied by increased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the tooth loss condition. Prefrontal activation during chewing while wearing a denture in the elderly subjects was not much different from that in the young controls. In contrast, tooth loss in the elderly group resulted in marked prefrontal deactivation, accompanied by decreased masticatory muscle activity, occlusal force, and masticatory score, as compared with the young controls. We concluded that intrinsic prefrontal activation during chewing with a denture may prevent prefrontal depression induced by tooth loss in elderly edentulous patients. PMID:27362255

  9. Usefulness of chewing gum for recovering intestinal function after cesarean delivery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hua-Ping; He, Mei

    2015-04-01

    Chewing gum has been reported to enhance bowel function. However, the efficacy remains unclear for women undergoing cesarean delivery. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of chewing gum for recovering intestinal function following cesarean delivery in the early postoperative period. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library were searched to identify English language randomized controlled trials comparing chewing gum with other procedures for promoting the recovery of intestinal function after cesarean delivery. Two of the authors independently extracted data from the eligibility studies, and Review Manager Version 5.2 was used to pool the data. Finally, five randomized controlled trials involving 882 patients were included and all the trials were considered as at high risk of bias. The pooled findings showed that chewing gum after cesarean delivery can significantly shorten the time to first flatus [standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.01 to -0.14; p chewing gum group; however, these results were not statistically significant. The current evidence suggests that chewing gum has a positive effect on intestinal function recovery following cesarean delivery in the early postoperative period. However, more large-scale and high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25951713

  10. Consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing gum to prevent dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2009-01-01

    DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified using searches with Medline, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were screened independently and were included if they evaluated the effect of one or more chewing gums containing at least one polyol (xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol or...... [six randomised controlled trials (RCT) of which four were cluster RCT, nine controlled clinical trials (CCT) and four cohort studies]. Two RCT had a Jadad score of three or higher. The mean preventive fraction for the four main gum types are shown in the table 1, results of all except the sorbitol...... -mannitol blend were statistically significant. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Although research gaps exist, particularly on optimal dosing and relative polyol efficacy, there is consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing...

  11. 口香糖的养生保健价值%Chewing Gum on Health-care Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵聪; 赵兵; 崔超; 姚默; 巩江; 倪士峰

    2011-01-01

    Since the chewing gum came out,it has became the favourite food in the worldwide,the value of gum health care,harm and announcement were generalized,which aimed to make people have a more detailed knowledge of chewing gum.%口香糖自问世以来,受到全世界的广泛喜爱。文章对口香糖的养生保健价值、危害及食用注意事项做了概括,旨在使人们对口香糖有详细了解,也为全民养生提供科学资料。

  12. Association between Hardness (Difficulty of Chewing of the Habitual Diet and Premenstrual Symptoms in Young Japanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Murakami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that voluntary rhythmic movements such as chewing may increase blood serotonin and subsequently brain serotonin, which in turn acts to alleviate premenstrual symptoms. In this observational cross-sectional study, we tested the hypothesis that hardness (difficulty of chewing of the habitual diet (i.e. dietary hardness is associated with decreased premenstrual symptoms. Subjects were 640 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18–22 years. Dietary hardness was assessed as an estimate of masticatory muscle activity for the habitual diet (i.e. the difficulty of chewing the food. The consumption of a total of 107 foods was estimated by means of a self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire, and masticatory muscle activity during the ingestion of these foods was estimated according to published equations. Menstrual cycle symptoms were assessed using the retrospective version of the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, from which total score and subscale scores (i.e. pain, concentration, behavioral change, autonomic reactions, water retention, and negative affect in the premenstrual phase were calculated and expressed as percentages relative to those in the intermenstrual phase. Dietary hardness was not associated with total score in the premenstrual phase (P for trend = 0.48. Further, no association was seen for any subscale score in the premenstrual phase (P for trend = 0.18–0.91. In conclusion, this preliminary study failed to substantiate a hypothesized inverse relationship between hardness of the habitual diet and premenstrual symptoms. Considering the plausibility of the putative mechanism, however, further investigation using more relevant measures of chewing and premenstrual symptoms is warranted.

  13. The Effect of a Brief Salivary α-Amylase Exposure During Chewing on Subsequent in Vitro Starch Digestion Curve Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Charles S.; Woolnough, James W.; Bird, Anthony R.; Monro, John A.

    2010-01-01

    There is inconsistency between current in vitro digestion methods with regard to accommodation of a (salivary) α-amylase exposure during the oral phase. The effect of a salivary α-amylase pre-exposure on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles for various foods was investigated. Foods were chewed, expectorated and the boluses left to rest for 0–15 min. During pancreatic digestion, aliquots were taken and hydrolysis curves constructed for comparison against those of the same foods ...

  14. Earlier depression and later-life self-reported chewing difficulties: results from the Whitehall II study

    OpenAIRE

    AlJameel, A. H.; Watt, R G; Brunner, E.J.; Tsakos, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess, whether depression in adulthood was associated with self-reported chewing difficulties at older age, and examine whether the strength of the association differed according to the number of depression episodes in earlier adult life. We used Whitehall II study data from 277 participants who completed a questionnaire in 2011. Depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in 2003 and 2008. The association between CES-D depre...

  15. The comparative effect of propolis in two different vehicles; mouthwash and chewing-gum on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan, Nuray; Erdemir, Ebru Olgun; Ozkan, Serdar Yucel; Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In general, chemical plaque agents have been used in mouthwashes, gels, and dentifrices. In some situations, application of mouthwashes and dentifrices can be difficult. Therefore, different approaches for oral health-care have been needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propolis chewing-gum compared to propolis-containing mouthwash on gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation on patients that refrained from daily oral hygiene procedures for 5 days. Materia...

  16. The Effect of Chewing Sugar Free Gum after Elective Cesarean-Delivery on Return of Bowel Function in Primiparous Women:

    OpenAIRE

    F Safdari Dehcheshmeh

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: An important cause of delayed recovery from abdominal surgery is delay in return of bowel Function. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chewing sugar free gum after elective Cesarean-delivery on return of bowel function in primiparous women in Hajar hospital of Shahrekord. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 120 patients, who were s...

  17. Effect of nicotine, silver acetate, and ordinary chewing gum in combination with group counselling on smoking cessation.

    OpenAIRE

    E. J. Jensen; Schmidt, E.; Pedersen, B.; Dahl, R.

    1990-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety six smokers participated in a randomised comparison of the effect of silver acetate, nicotine, and ordinary chewing gum on smoking cessation. All were motivated to stop smoking abruptly and all had smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day for at least five years. Side effects and taste acceptability were related to outcome after six months. The participants attended nine meetings over a year, at which lectures, support, and advice about stopping smoking were given. Tobacco ...

  18. Gum Chewing Inhibits the Sensory Processing and the Propagation of Stress-Related Information in a Brain Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hongbo; Chen, Xi; Liu, Jinting; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Stress is prevalent in human life and threatens both physical and mental health; stress coping is thus of adaptive value for individual's survival and well-being. Although there has been extensive research on how the neural and physiological systems respond to stressful stimulation, relatively little is known about how the brain dynamically copes with stress evoked by this stimulation. Here we investigated how stress is relieved by a popular coping behavior, namely, gum chewing. In an fMRI st...

  19. The effect of chewing gum flavor on the negative affect associated with tobacco abstinence among dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lee M; Collins, Frank L; Vanderveen, Joseph W; Weaver, Cameron C

    2010-11-01

    Many smokers relapse during cessation attempts due to increases in negative affect. Previous research has shown that chewing confectionary chewing gum appears to lessen the severity of acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms and help individuals who are trying to reduce smoking in part due to the flavor of the gum chewed. The current study compared the effects of three flavored gums to a No Gum Control during 48-hour cessation periods for young dependent smokers. Forty-nine smokers participated in three experimental conditions (peppermint, vanilla, and baked apple cardamom flavored gum) as well as a No Gum Control across four weeks while abstaining from smoking for 48-hours each week. Compared to the No Gum Control, participants in the Gum conditions reported lower levels of anxiety, dysphoria, and tension. Vanilla and baked apple cardamom flavored gum resulted in lower levels of negative affect while peppermint flavored gum was not different from the No Gum Control. These findings indicate that some flavors of gum are effective in reducing the negative affect associated with nicotine withdrawal and may serve as a valuable tool in helping smokers quit. PMID:20598808

  20. The Effect of a Brief Salivary α-Amylase Exposure During Chewing on Subsequent in Vitro Starch Digestion Curve Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Brennan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is inconsistency between current in vitro digestion methods with regard to accommodation of a (salivary α-amylase exposure during the oral phase. The effect of a salivary α-amylase pre-exposure on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles for various foods was investigated. Foods were chewed, expectorated and the boluses left to rest for 0–15 min. During pancreatic digestion, aliquots were taken and hydrolysis curves constructed for comparison against those of the same foods comminuted with a manually-operated chopper, hence spared exposure to saliva. Hydrolysate aliquots taken at T0 (time zero of the digestion of chewed samples contained higher levels of glucose and dextrins compared with chopped samples. Pancreatin activity immediately overwhelmed differences in sugar released due to salivary amylase activity. Within 10 min no differences were detectable between hydrolysis curves for chewed and chopped foods. Salivary amylase pretreatment does not contribute to the robustness or relative accuracy of in vitro methods.

  1. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in chronic areca nut chewing Indian women: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidramesh Shivanand Muttagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is an important public health problem in India. Several risk factors such as tobacco, human papilloma virus, alcohol, areca nut usage have been extensively studied as causative agents. Though Areca nut chewing is known cause of oral cancer, its association with hypopharynx cancer has not been previously reported. Since areca nut is mostly consumed along with tobacco, it is uncommon to find patients who consume the areca nut alone. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case series of ten women who presented to us with HNSCC with history of chewing of areca nut alone for several years. We have excluded all those cases where areca nut was consumed along with tobacco in any form. The data were prospectively collected with regard to clinical parameters, duration and frequency of areca nut usage, the socio-economic status and education level. Results: All ten females had varying degree of submucous fibrosis and coexisting squamous cell carcinoma either in the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Submucous fibrosis was characterized by burning mouth, unhealthy oral mucosa, buried third molars, trismus, poor oral hygiene, etc. The disease presented in an advanced stage in majority of the cases. All patients were unaware of areca nut′s deleterious effects. Conclusion: Areca nut chewing is an important risk factor for HNSCC in females. Despite plethora of information, little importance is given to areca nut control in cancer prevention campaigns in India.

  2. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25744362

  3. Fighting Against Disuse of the Masticatory System in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Pilot Study Using Chewing Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, H Willemijn; van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Steenks, Michel H; van der Bilt, Andries; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H J; de Groot, Imelda J M; Kalaykova, Stanimira I

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients report masticatory problems. The aim was to determine the efficacy of mastication training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using chewing gum for 4 weeks. In all, 17 patients and 17 healthy age-matched males participated. The masticatory performance was assessed using a mixing ability test and measuring anterior bite force before, shortly after and 1 month after the training. In the patient group the masticatory performance improved and remained after 1-month follow-up, no significant changes in anterior maximum bite force was observed after mastication training. In the healthy subject the bite force increased and remained at the 1-month follow-up; no significant differences in masticatory performance were observed. Mastication training by using sugar-free chewing gum in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients improved their masticatory performance. Since bite force did not improve, the working mechanism of the improvement in chewing may relate to changes of the neuromuscular function and coordination, resulting in improvement of skills in performing mastication. PMID:25792431

  4. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (pGUM, but not significantly different from Control (p=0.08). However, overall carbohydrate intake was reduced by GUM (p=0.03). This was consistent with a reduction in snacks characterized as high carbohydrate, low fat (p=0.02). BMI specific effects indicated GUM reduced pretzel intake in obese women (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake. PMID:26948161

  5. Characterization of different tissue changes in normal, betel chewers, potentially malignant lesions, conditions and oral squamous cell carcinoma using reflectance confocal microscopy: correlation with routine histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Sherlin, Herald J; Anuja, N; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Chandrasekar, T

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the features of normal mucosa, mucosa in betel chewers and smokers, potentially malignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa using reflectance confocal microscopy. Oral cavity biopsies were acquired from 25 patients from College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University who underwent screening for suspected lesions of Oral precancer and Oral cancer along with normal patients who underwent impaction. Biopsies were acquired from the clinically suspicious area and immediately placed in Dulbecco modified eagles growth medium (DMEM). Reflectance confocal images were obtained at multiple image plane depths from biopsies within 6h of excision. After imaging, biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted for routine histopathological examination by an experienced oral and maxillofacial pathologist. Reflectance confocal images were compared with histological images from the same sample to determine the tissue features which contribute to early cellular changes, image contrast and early diagnosis. The confocal images were obtained to a depth of up to 150 microns on intact biopsy specimens and subsequent 3-dimensional images, keratin thickness measurements, cell measurements, cell density analysis and graphical representations were performed using Leica image analysis software. In normal mucosa keratin deposition were seen as alternating dark and bright stacks and in different cell layers the nuclei were seen as disks of varying intensities. In pre-cancerous lesions the keratin thickness and cell nuclear density were found to be increased when compared to normal controls. In OSMF cases confocal images of fibrosis show scattering from individual fibres as hyperdense areas. Oral squamous cell carcinoma cases demonstrated extensive variations in cell size, nuclear size and nuclear morphology. At cellular level, dysplastic features like increased nuclear density, increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear and cellular

  6. Modelling the effect of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) on germination, growth, and apparent lag time of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Suradeep; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-12-23

    The current study aimed at characterizing the chemical components of betel leaf (Piper betle L. var. Tamluk Mitha) essential oil (BLEO) and modelling its effect on growth of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of BLEO revealed the presence of different bioactive phenolic compounds in significant amounts. Among 46 different components identified, chavibetol (22.0%), estragole (15.8%), β-cubebene (13.6%), chavicol (11.8%), and caryophyllene (11.3%) were found to be the major compounds of BLEO. A disc diffusion and disc volatilization method were used to evaluate antifungal activity of the oil against a selected food spoilage mould. The logistic model was used to study the kinetics of spore germination. Prediction and validation of antifungal effect of BLEO was performed on semi-synthetic medium (apple juice agar) using predictive microbiological tools. The Baranyi and Roberts model was used to estimate maximum growth rate (μmax in mm/day) and apparent lag time (λ in days) of the mould. Secondary modelling was performed using a re-parameterized Monod-type equation based on cardinal values to study the effect of different BLEO concentration on estimated growth parameters. Emax (minimum concentration of oil at which mould growth was inhibited) and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration of BLEO at which lag time is infinite) value of BLEO against P. expansum was estimated to be 0.56 and 0.74 μl/ml, respectively, which was found to be similar on potato dextrose agar (PDA) as well as apple juice agar (AJA) medium. The correlation between estimated growth parameters of the mould on both the media was obtained with satisfactory statistical indices (R(2) and RMSE). This study revealed inhibitory efficacy of BLEO on spore germination, mycelial growth and apparent lag time of P. expansum in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, BLEO has potential to be used as a natural food preservative. PMID:26439423

  7. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi David K

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva to increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a fixed total daily dose of 10.32 g over five weeks. Methods Participants (n = 132 were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day. All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration. Results There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant. Conclusion There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically

  8. Comment on 'Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper of Sazonov et al (2008 Physiol. Meas. 29 525–41) addresses the topic of on-body sensor-based measurement and analysis of food intake and eating behaviour. The authors rightly pinpoint a lack of solutions to estimate eating behaviour and energy intake in contrast to the active development of energy expenditure prediction tools. Unfortunately, Sazonov and colleagues have missed reviewing a considerable amount of published research in the field of ubiquitous and wearable computing. Moreover, it should be noted that objective measurement techniques exist for laboratory studies of chewing and swallowing that could have served for the validation of their work. This letter summarizes relevant related works and identifies refinements of the study methodology suggested by Sazonov et al. Food intake behaviour is very variable and hard to capture. Nevertheless, the approaches towards automatic dietary monitoring (ADM) cited in this letter confirm the broad potential for sensing and pattern recognition techniques. ADM could eventually supplement or replace intake diaries. (letter to the editor)

  9. Gum Sensor: A Stretchable, Wearable, and Foldable Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Chewing Gum Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Khosrozadeh, Ali; Wang, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Presented in this work is a novel and facile approach to fabricate an elastic, attachable, and cost-efficient carbon nanotube (CNT)-based strain gauge which can be efficiently used as bodily motion sensors. An innovative and unique method is introduced to align CNTs without external excitations or any complicated procedure. In this design, CNTs are aligned and distributed uniformly on the entire chewing gum by multiple stretching and folding technique. The current sensor is demonstrated to be a linear strain sensor for at least strains up to 200% and can detect strains as high as 530% with a high sensitivity ranging from 12 to 25 and high durability. The gum sensor has been used as bodily motion sensors, and outstanding results are achieved; the sensitivity is quite high, capable of tracing slow breathing. Since the gum sensor can be patterned into various forms, it has wide applications in miniaturized sensors and biochips. Interestingly, we revealed that our gum sensor has the ability to monitor humidity changes with high sensitivity and fast resistance response capable of monitoring human breathing. PMID:26524110

  10. Effect of Chewing Gum on Oral Mucositis in Children Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, A; Taherkhanchi, B; Bagheri, B; Sadeghi Sedeh, B

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral mucositis is an adverse effect of chemotherapy. Type of chemotherapy regimen is the most important factor causing mucositis. Oral mucositis is usually associated with transient decrease in saliva production. The goal was to study effects of gum consumption on oral mucositis in children undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Method This randomized controlled trial was done in Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak, Iran. 130 children 5 to 15 years of age were studied. Control group was composed of 65 children who received mucotoxic drugs. Test group was made up of 65 patients received similar drugs in addition to sugar free gums. Patients consumed 6 pieces of gums per day for 15 days. A standardized follow up form and World Health Organization (WHO) grading system for oral mucositis were used for evaluation of patients during 15 days of treatment. Results Severe oral mucositis occurred in 30 (46%) of 65 patients in the test group and in 26 of 65 (40%) patients in the control group. Difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Rate of mild to moderate mucoitis (grade 1 and 2) was significantly lower in patients who used gums (15 % vs. 35%, P < 0.05). Conclusion Our study showed that stimulation of saliva flow by chewing gum could decrease mild to moderate inflammatory injuries of the oral mucosa during chemotherapy. However, it was not effective to subside severe mucositis.

  11. Arecoline induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity to human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shuei-Kuen; Chang, Mei-Chi; Su, Cheng-Yao; Chi, Lin-Yang; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Ching; Tseng, Wan-Yu; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Hsu, Ming-Lun; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2012-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is a common oral habit in South Asia and Taiwan. BQ consumption may increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), and periodontitis as well as systemic diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension, etc.). However, little is known about the toxic effect of BQ components on endothelial cells that play important roles for angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, tissue fibrosis, and cardiovascular diseases. EAhy 926 (EAHY) endothelial cells were exposed to arecoline, a major BQ alkaloid, for various time periods. Cytotoxicity was estimated by 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The cell cycle distribution of EAHY cells residing in sub-G0/G1, G0/G1, S-, and G2/M phases was analyzed by propidium iodide staining of cellular DNA content and flow cytometry. Some EAHY cells retracted, became round-shaped in appearance, and even detached from the culture plate after exposure to higher concentrations of arecoline (> 0.4 mM). At concentrations of 0.4 and 0.8 mM, arecoline induced significant cytotoxicity to EAHY cells. At similar concentrations, arecoline induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased sub-G0/G1 population, a hallmark of apoptosis. Interestingly, prolonged exposure to arecoline (0.1 mM) for 12 and 21 days significantly suppressed the proliferation of EAHY cells, whereas EAHY cells showed adaptation and survived when exposed to 0.05 mM arecoline. These results suggest that BQ components may contribute to the pathogenesis of OSF and BQ chewing-related cardiovascular diseases via toxicity to oral or systemic endothelial cells, leading to impairment of vascular function. During BQ chewing, endothelial damage may be induced by areca nut components and associate with the pathogenesis of OSF, periodontitis, and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21847594

  12. A Study on the Effect of Gum Chewing on Attention%咀嚼口香糖对个体注意功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张厚粲; 李红义

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of gum chewing on the cognitive function of attention. Methods: Based on gum chewing habit, trait-anxiety variable, and different treatments (with or without gum chewing) during experiment,181 college students with good health were assigned to four groups GH (with chewing gum treatment and habit), GL (with chewing gum treatment, no habit), CH (no treatment,has habit) and CL (no treatment,no habit). Two attention tasks: Continuous Performance Test (CPT-AX) and Conjunctive Search Task (CST) were performed by all subjects in the laboratory.Results: Chewing gum during experiment had positive effect on attention performance, and the habit of gum chewing played an important role. Conclusion: Gum chewing had positive effect on attention performance, suggesting the effects mainly came from the familiarity of gum-chewing.%目的:考察咀嚼口香糖对注意的影响. 方法:基于性别、特质性焦虑水平、嚼口香糖习惯大小(H/L)、以及实验时是否嚼糖(G/C).采用平衡组间设计将181名健康的大学生被试分为:实验时嚼糖且有习惯(GH)、实验时嚼糖但无习惯(GL).控制不嚼糖但有习惯(CH)、和控制不嚼糖且无习惯(CL)四个组,在实验室中进行连续操作测验(CPT-AX)和匹配搜索任务(CST)测验,用以评估持续性注意和选择性注意. 结果:除实验中咀嚼口香糖对被试成绩有积极影响外.咀嚼口香糖的经验对成绩显示了更重要影响. 结论:咀嚼口香糖对注意功能有积极影响,并且对口香糖的熟悉程度在此积极影响中起重要作用.

  13. Measuring tongue volumes and visualizing the chewing and swallowing process using real-time TrueFISP imaging - initial clinical experience in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajaj, W.; Goyen, M.; Herrmann, B.; Massing, S.; Goehde, S.; Lauenstein, T.; Ruehm, S.G. [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    This study assessed both two-dimensional (2D) TrueFISP imaging for quantifying tongue volume and real-time TrueFISP imaging for evaluating chewing and swallowing in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly. In 50 healthy volunteers, tongue volumes were measured using a 2D TrueFISP sequence. Chewing and swallowing were visualized using a real-time TrueFISP sequence. Ten patients with acromegaly were examined twice with the same magnetic resonance imaging protocol: once prior to therapy and a second time 6 months after therapy. Prior to therapy, healthy volunteers had an average tongue volume of 140 ml for men and 90 ml for women, and patients with acromegaly had an average tongue volume of 180 ml for men and 145 ml for women. However, 6 months after therapy the mean tongue volumes in patients with acromegaly had decreased to 154 ml in the men and to 125 ml in the women. The chewing and swallowing process was normal in all volunteers. Prior to therapy, just two patients showed a chewing and swallowing pathology, which disappeared after therapy. Patients with acromegaly had larger tongue volumes than healthy volunteers, and TrueFISP imaging proved feasible for visualizing chewing and swallowing in real time and is capable of detecting possible pathologies. Furthermore, TrueFISP imaging can be used to monitor therapeutic approaches in patients with acromegaly. (orig.)

  14. Transient endophytic colonizations of plants improve the outcome of foliar applications of mycoinsecticides against chewing insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resquín-Romero, G; Garrido-Jurado, I; Delso, C; Ríos-Moreno, A; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2016-05-01

    The current work reports how spray application of entomopathogenic fungi on alfalfa, tomato and melon plants may cause an additional Spodoptera littoralis larvae mortality due to a temporal colonization of the leaves and subsequent ingestion of those leaves by the larvae. Most entomopathogenic fungi (EF) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) endophytes seem to colonize their host plants in a non-systemic pattern, in which case at least a transient endophytic establishment of the fungus should be expected in treated areas after spray application. In this work, all strains were able to endophytically colonize roots, stems and leaves during the first 96h after inoculation. Whilst the treatment of S. littoralis larvae with a 10(8)ml(-1) conidial suspension resulted in moderate to high mortality rates for the Metarhizium brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su (41.7-50.0%) and Beauveria bassiana EABb 01/33-Su (66.7-76.6%) strains, respectively, an additive effect was detected when these larvae were also fed endophytically colonized alfalfa, tomato, and melon leaves, with mortality rates varying from 25.0% to 46.7% as a function of the host plant and total mortality rates in the combined treatment of 75-80% and 33-60% for B. bassiana and M. brunneum, respectively. Fungal outgrowth was not detected in any of the dead larvae feeding on colonized leaves, whereas traces of destruxin A were detected in 11% of the insects fed tomato discs endophytically colonized by M. brunneum. The combined effects of the fungal spray with the mortality caused by the feeding of insects on transient EF-colonized leaves have to be considered to estimate the real acute impact of field sprays with entomopathogenic fungi on chewing insects. PMID:26945771

  15. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sham S; Ramdas, Shenoy Shailesh; Ballal, Shrinidhi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of chewing gum on the salivary pH and to compare the effect of chewing bicarbonate-containing sugar-free gum on salivary pH against that of standard sugar-free gum. The experiment was carried out on 30 volunteers aged 20-22 years (mean age = 21 years) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The test gum was sugar-free greenmint-flavored bicarbonate-containing gum and the standard control was sugar-free spearmint-flavored gum. The pH was measured immediately using pH strips. According to statistical analysis, the mean salivary pH of the bicarbonate gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.9713, 6.5667, 6.4267, 6.3867 and 6.3233 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes, but there was a significant difference in salivary pH from 5 to 20 minutes (p = 0.014). The mean salivary pH of the standard gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.8767, 6.6067, 6.4200, 6.4027 and 6.3000 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 5 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes. Thus, the higher salivary pH achieved with chewing bicarbonate gum compared with a standard sugar-free gum may have important oral health implications. How to cite this article: Ballal RK, Bhat SS, Ramdas SS, Ballal S. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):35-38. PMID:27274153

  16. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  17. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera et Ischnocera) from wrens (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae), with description of a new species of Myrsidea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Kounek, F.; Papoušek, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Cárdenas-Callirgos, J. M.; Franco, S.; Literák, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-28. ISSN 0374-1036 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amblycera * Ischnocera * chewing lice * bird parasites * prevalence * mean intensity * geographic distribution * mitochondrial COI * phylogeny * taxonomy * Troglodytes * wrens * Neotropical Region * Palaearctic Region * new species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2014 http://www.aemnp.eu/PDF/54_1/54_1_1.pdf

  18. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen; B. Haluk Gulmez; Birgul Bozan; Hidir Gencoglu; Hakan Biricik

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF) on dry matter intake (DMI), chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1) a control diets (C) of 50%...

  19. Comparison of Adhesive Resistance to Chewing Gum among Denture Base Acrylic Resin, Cobalt-Chromium Alloy, and Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takeshi; Takano, Tomofumi; Ueda, Takayuki; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the adhesiveness of chewing gum to acrylic resin, cobalt-chromium alloy, and zirconia. Test specimens were fabricated using acrylic resin (resin), cobalt-chromium alloy (Co-Cr), and Ceria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal-based nanostructured zirconia/alumina composite (zirconia). Specimens of each material were attached to the upper and lower terminals of a digital force gauge. The operator masticated chewing gum, wiped off any saliva, and placed the gum on the lower specimen. The gum was compressed to a thickness of 1 mm between the upper and lower specimens. Thereafter, traction was applied to the upper specimen at a cross-head speed of 100 mm/min under 3 different conditions (dry, wet with distilled water, and wet with artificial saliva) to determine the maximum adhesive strength of the chewing gum. The statistical analysis was performed using the Bonferroni test after a one-way analysis of variance (α=0.05). Under dry conditions, adhesive force was 14.8±6.8 N for resin, 14.0±4.8 N for Co-Cr, and 4.3±2.3 N for zirconia. Significant differences were noted between resin and zirconia, and between Co-Cr and zirconia. When distilled water was applied to the specimen surface, the adhesive strength was 16.8±1.7 N for resin, 8.3±2.1 N for Co-Cr, and 2.7±0.8 N for zirconia. Significant differences were noted between resin and Co-Cr, resin and zirconia, and Co-Cr and zirconia. When artificial saliva was applied to the specimen surface, the adhesive force was 18.5±2.8 N for resin, 5.3±0.8 N for Co-Cr, and 3.0±1.7 N for zirconia. Significant differences were noted between resin and Co-Cr, and resin and zirconia. Chewing gum adhered less strongly to zirconia than to acrylic resin or cobalt-chromium alloy. PMID:26961330

  20. Prevalence and Determinants of Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing among High School Students in Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reda, Ayalu A; Moges, Asmamaw; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Wondmagegn, Berhanu Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis) alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users. Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of khat in east Africa and the majority of the khat comes from the eastern part of the country, however, no studies have been conducted to investigate the habit in this area. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among high school students ...

  1. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikhar Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Results: Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol chewing gum showed a marked increase in the pH of saliva and plaque when compared to their counterpart. All these values had a significant difference of P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusion: Xylitol is a safe all-natural sweetener which helps to reduce tooth decay. It plays a unique role in preventive strategies for better health.

  2. A case-control study of lung cancer in Karachi, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhurgri, Y.; Decullier, E.; Bhurgri, A.; Sheikh Nassar; Ahmed Usman; Brennan, P.; Boffetta, P. [Karachi Cancer Registry, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the causes of lung cancer in Pakistan. 320 patients (282 men and 38 women) with lung cancer treated at the Liaquat National Post Graduate Medical Centre, the Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center and the Civil Hospital, all in Karachi, and 640 controls (561 men and 79 women) were enrolled. A total of 275 patients and 222 controls reported having a history of smoking (57% of men and 14% of women). An increased risk of developing lung cancer was observed among individuals with a history of smoking (odds ratio (OR) 22.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-37.3) and among current smokers (OR 30.2; 95% CI 17.8-51.3). The risk decreased with the number of years since quitting (most apparent 10 years after smoking cessation). Chewing betel quid (containing betel leaf, lime, areca nut and tobacco) was only marginally associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, heavy exposure to this habit resulted in a significantly elevated odds ratio (OR2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0). The OR for snuff use was significantly increased (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.7), with a significant trend with years of exposure and average level of consumption. Having ever lived in a flat with a heating system (coal, wood, electricity and kerosene) was associated with an OR of 3.6 (95% CI 2.5-5.3). Using gas, electricity or kerosene for cooking was associated with a reduced OR compared with the use of wood, whereas the OR for the use of coal was 2.7 (95& CI 0.9-8.7). The primary role of tobacco smoking as the cause of lung cancer in Pakistan was confirmed. 13 refs.

  3. Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Efficacy of Simo Decoction and Acupuncture or Chewing Gum Alone on Postoperative Ileus in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xue-Mei; Mo, Xin-Shao; Ma, Liang; Zhong, Jian-Hong; Qin, Hong-Gui; Lu, Zhan; Xiang, Bang-De; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Zhao, Xin-Hua; Tang, Juan; Pang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Jie; Li, Le-Qun

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of simo decoction (SMD) combined with acupuncture at the tsusanli acupoint or chewing gum alone for treating postoperative ileus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy.In postoperative ileus, a frequent complication following hepatectomy, bowel function recovery is delayed, which increases length of hospital stay. Studies suggest that chewing gum may reduce postoperative ileus; SMD and acupuncture at the tsusanli acupoint have long been used in China to promote bowel movement.Patients with primary HCC undergoing hepatectomy between January 2015 and August 2015 were randomized to receive SMD and acupuncture (n = 55) or chewing gum (n = 53) or no intervention (n = 54) starting on postoperative day 1 and continuing for 6 consecutive days or until flatus. Primary endpoints were occurrence of postoperative ileus and length of hospital stay; secondary endpoints were surgical complications.Groups treated with SMD and acupuncture or with chewing gum experienced significantly shorter time to first peristalsis, flatus, and defecation than the no-intervention group (all P chewing gum group (mean 14.7, SD 6.2) and the no-intervention group (P = 0.147). Incidence of grades I and II complications was slightly lower in both intervention groups than in the no-intervention group.The combination of SMD and acupuncture may reduce incidence of postoperative ileus and shorten hospital stay in HCC patients after hepatectomy. Chewing gum may also reduce incidence of ileus but does not appear to affect hospital stay. (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02438436.). PMID:26559269

  4. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shikhar Kumar; Sogi, Suma H. P.; K R Indushekar

    2013-01-01

    This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol) chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Results: Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol) chewin...

  5. Deposition of a model substance, Tc E-HIDA, in the oral cavity after administration of lozenges, chewing gum and sublingual tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Davis, S.S.; Melia, C.D.;

    1990-01-01

    The deposition and clearance of a model substance, Tc E-HIDA, in the oral cavity/upper oesophagus and in the stomach after administration of lozenges, chewing gum and sublingual tablets has been followed by gamma scintigraphy in a group of healthy male volunteers. Following administration of...... sublingual tablets, the residence time of the model substance in the oral cavity was significantly longer than following administration of chewing gum. The residence time following administration of lozenges was found to be the shortest. © 1990....

  6. Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing Among Students of a College in Gondar Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Teni, FS; Surur, AS; Hailemariam, A; Aye, A; Mitiku, G; Gurmu, AE; Tessema, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: The estimate of the number of people chewing Khat globally ranges from 5 to 10 million people. Its use may result in a variety of effects due to the different compounds in it with effects on the gastro-intestinal system and nervous system being the principal ones. Aim: To assess the prevalence, factors, and effects of Khat chewing among students of a college in Gondar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Subjects and Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1...

  7. Paan without tobacco: an independent risk factor for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, A; Husain, S S; Hosain, M; Fikree, F F; Pitiphat, W; Siddiqui, A R; Hayder, S J; Haider, S M; Ikram, M; Chuang, S K; Saeed, S A

    2000-04-01

    Oral cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men in Pakistan. Tobacco is smoked and chewed extensively in Pakistan. Paan is a quid of piper betel leaf that contains areca nut, lime, condiment, sweeteners, and sometimes tobacco, which is also used extensively. We did this study to clarify the independent association of paan and oral cancer. Between July 1996 and March 1998, we recruited biopsy-proven, primary cases of oral squamous-cell carcinoma, from 3 tertiary teaching centers in Karachi, Pakistan, and controls pair-matched for age, gender, hospital and time of occurrence, excluding persons with a past or present history of any malignancy. There were 79 cases and 149 controls. Approximately 68% of the cases were men, 49 years old on average, the youngest being 22 years old and the eldest 80. People with oral submucous fibrosis were 19.1 times more likely to develop oral cancer than those without it, after adjusting for other risk factors. People using paan without tobacco were 9.9 times, those using paan with tobacco 8.4 times, more likely to develop oral cancer as compared with non-users, after adjustment for other covariates. This study identifies an independent effect of paan without tobacco in the causation of oral cancer. Its findings may be of significance in South Asian communities where paan is used, and among health-care providers who treat persons from South Asia. PMID:10728606

  8. The genomics of oral cancer and wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswini Y

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the most common malignancy in India, where it is epidemiologically linked to the chewing of betel quid and other carcinogens. But various point mutations were detectable in the p53 and p15 genes. Hence, this review was conducted with the aim to find out genetic risks as well as markers for oral cancers and wound healing. Tobacco-related cancers are associated with polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes in terms of genotype frequencies and cigarette smoking dose. Expression of E6/E7 were also found in tumors, most of which were derived from the oropharynx. Presence of homozygous arginine at codon 72 renders p53 about seven times more susceptible to E6-mediated proteolytic degradation. Erythropoietin, vascular permeability factor (VPF, also known as vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF, and PDGF has been implicated as one of the principal mitogens involved in cutaneous wound healing. Activation of NF-kB is associated with enhanced cell survival. Human papilloma virus status is a significantly favorable prognostic factor in tonsilar cancer and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer.

  9. Salivary estimation of copper, iron, zinc and manganese in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshata Raghavendra Okade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trace elements (TEs are required for physiological functioning and alterations are noted in potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer. These TEs are used in early diagnosis, treatment and also as an indicator of disease progress and prognosis. Aims: To estimate the TEs such as copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and Cu/Zn ratio in the saliva of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF patients and controls. Settings and Design: The hospital-based study was conducted to estimate salivary TEs using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in 60 individuals. Methods and Material: 5 ml saliva was collected from OSF cases (n=30 and controls (n=30 and was centrifuged and prepared by using the Wet Ashing method. The TEs were estimated in parts per million (ppm by using AAS. Statistical Analysis Used: The data obtained was statistically analyzed using non parametric tests such as Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Significant difference in the mean salivary Zn, Mn and Fe levels in OSF when compared to that of controls. Mean salivary Cu levels were increased and Cu/ Zn ratio was decreased in OSF when compared to the controls. Conclusions: To conclude TEs play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of OSF. Betel quid and areca nut chewing habits are frequently associated with OSF and alters the salivary TE levels. Concerted efforts would, therefore, help in early detection, management and monitoring the efficacy of treatment.

  10. Saffron and beetroot extracts encapsulated in maltodextrin, gum Arabic, modified starch and chitosan: Incorporation in a chewing gum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chranioti, Charikleia; Nikoloudaki, Aspasia; Tzia, Constantina

    2015-08-20

    Maltodextrin (MD-21DE), gum Arabic (GA), gum Arabic-modified starch (GA-MS), modified starch-chitosan (MS-CH) and modified starch-maltodextrin-chitosan (MS-MD-CH) were used as agents for beetroot and saffron coloring-extracts microencapsulation by freeze drying. The produced powders were evaluated in terms of coloring strength (E) during storage at 40°C for 10 weeks and a first-order kinetic was applied. Color parameters (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and ΔE(*)) and water sorption behavior was also studied. Moreover, incorporation of the powders in a chewing gum model system was conducted. The type of encapsulating agent significantly (PGA>GA-MS>MS-CH>MS-MD-CH. The water sorption study revealed that MD and GA kept their structural integrity up to water activities of 0.66 and 0.82, respectively. The chewing gum samples produced with coloring extracts encapsulated in GA-MS showed the greatest a(*)(for beetroot) and b(*) (for saffron) values indicating a better protection. PMID:25965482

  11. The ICDP-Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): new data from the Chew Bahir site in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Melanie; Dean, Jonathan; Asrat, Asfawossen; Cohen, Andrew; Foerster, Verena; Just, Janna; Klasen, Nicole; Lamb, Henry; Schäbitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin; Viehberg, Finn; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    There are currently few long, continuous, Pleistocene records from East Africa, meaning it has been difficult to establish the relative influence of low- versus high-latitude forcing on East African climate and climatic conditions at the time of anatomically modern human origin and subsequent dispersal. We have been attempting to address these gaps in our knowledge by analysing lake sediments taken from Chew Bahir, an area of playa mudflats in southern Ethiopia close to the site of the oldest-known anatomically modern human fossils at Omo-Kibish. In March 2014, Chew Bahir was cored to a depth of ~40 metres, and the resulting sediment sequence is estimated to cover the last ~115ka. In December 2014, a nearby site was drilled to a depth of ~280 metres as part of the International Continental scientific Drilling Programme - Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP). The oxygen and carbon isotope composition of endogenic calcite and other data from these cores will be presented. The data show some significant changes in water balance variability, the period prior to 70ka appears very unstable with some significant periods of drought and flood. Between 70-20ka the lake was stable and evaporative. The last 20ka years was wetter.

  12. Masseter muscle tension, chewing ability, and selected parameters of physical fitness in elderly care home residents in Lodz, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaszynska E

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ewelina Gaszynska,1 Malgorzata Godala,2 Franciszek Szatko,1 Tomasz Gaszynski3 1Department of Hygiene and Health Promotion, Medical University of Lodz, Poland; 2Department of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland; 3Department of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Poland Background: Maintaining good physical fitness and oral function in old age is an important element of good quality of life. Disability-related impairment of oral function contributes to a deterioration of the diet of older people and to the reduction of their social activity.Objectives: Investigate the association between masseter muscle tension, dental status, and physical fitness parameters.Materials and methods: Two hundred fifty-nine elderly care home residents (97 men, 162 women; mean age, 75.3±8.9 years were involved in this cross-sectional study. Their chewing ability was evaluated by masseter muscle tension palpation, differences of masseter muscle thickness, self-reported chewing ability, number of present and functional teeth, and number of posterior tooth pairs. Masseter muscle thickness was measured by ultrasonography. To assess physical fitness, hand grip strength and the timed up-and-go test were performed. Nutritional status was assessed using body mass index and body cell mass index (BCMI, calculated on the basis of electrical bioimpedance measurements. Medical records were used to collect information on systemic diseases and the number of prescribed medications. Subjects were also evaluated for their ability to perform ten activities of daily living.Results: Ninety-seven percent of the subjects suffered from systemic diseases. The three most prevalent illnesses were cardiac/circulatory 64.5%, musculoskeletal 37.3%, and endocrine/metabolic/nutritional 29.3%. Of the participants, 1.5% were underweight and more than one third (34.4% were overweight. Malnutrition (BCMI below normal was found in almost

  13. Oral health status and chewing ability is related to mini-nutritional assessment results in an older adult population in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnieng, Patcharaphol; Ueno, Masayuki; Shinada, Kayoko; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the relationship of Mini-Nutrition Assessment (MNA) results with chewing ability tests and oral examinations (number of teeth present and functional tooth units (FTUs)). The participants were 612 older people (Mean [SD] age: 68.8 [5.9]). According to the MNA score, 25.1% of participants were categorized as having normal nutrition, 67.2% were categorized as at risk of malnourishment, and 7.7% were categorized as having malnutrition. The mean numbers of teeth present and FTUs were [15.5] and [8.9], respectively. The ANCOVA analyses adjusted for age and gender showed that participants with malnutrition had lower numbers of teeth present (8.8), FTUs (8.4), and chewing ability (6.8) than those with normal nutrition (13.3, 10.4 and 7.8) (p Nutritional status was associated with mean numbers of teeth present, FTUs, and chewing ability. Therefore, it was concluded that retention of natural teeth with appropriate numbers of FTUs by replacing missing teeth with dentures and improving chewing ability will help the reduce risk of malnutrition in older adults. PMID:21846244

  14. Effects of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol on the development of gingivitis and plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Keukenmeester; D.E. Slot; N.A.M. Rosema; C. van Loveren; G.A. van der Weijden

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to test the effect of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol compared to the use of a gum base or no gum on gingivitis and plaque scores under both brushing and non-brushing circumstances. Methods The design of the study was a four-group,

  15. Assessment of Aspartame Exposure Due to Consumption of Some Imported Chewing Gums by Microwave Digestion and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rasouli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener, the long-term safety of which has been controversial ever since it was accepted for human consumption. The main aim of this research is assessment of aspartame exposure due to consumption of some imported chewing gums during summer 2015 to Iran by microwave digestion and HPLC analysis. Thirty chewing gums from highly consumed imported ones were collected from retail market in Tehran. Closed vessel microwave digestion was employed for sample preparation using a three phase temperature program. An aliquot of 20 μL of prepared samples was injected into the HPLC column and the aspartame was detected at 254 nm with an on-line detector. Concentration of aspartame in chewing gum samples was between 1.9 and 30.5 μg/g with an average of 11.1 μg/g. In conclusion, despite of existing aspartame in 76.6 percent of samples, however the effective amount of this artificial sweetener is not as high as the levels that international legislations recommended for exposing due to chewing gum consumption.

  16. Role of gum chewing on the duration of postoperative ileus following ileostomy closure done for typhoid ileal perforation: A prospective randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Marwah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim : There is ample evidence in the recent literature that gum chewing after elective colonic anastomosis decreases postoperative ileus (POI. But there are very few studies on small bowel anastomosis done in relaparotomy cases. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gum chewing on the duration of POI following small bowel anastomosis performed for the closure of intestinal stoma, made as temporary diversion in the selected cases of typhoid perforation peritonitis. Patients and Methods : Hundred patients undergoing elective small bowel anastomosis for the closure of stoma were randomly assigned to the study group (n=50 and the control group (n=50. The study group patients chewed gum thrice a day for 1 h each time starting 6 h after the surgery until the passage of first flatus. The control group patients had standard postoperative treatment. Results : Study and control group patients were comparable at inclusion. The mean time for the appearance of bowel sounds as well as the passage of first flatus was significantly shorter in the study group (P=0.040, P=0.006. The feeling of hunger was also experienced earlier in study group cases (P=0.004. The postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the study group, but the difference was not significant (P=0.059. Conclusions: The cases of relaparotomy requiring additional adhesiolysis and small bowel anastomosis for stoma closure are benefited by postoperative gum chewing.

  17. Supplementation of xylitol-containing chewing gum with probiotics: a double blind, randomised pilot study focusing on saliva flow and saliva properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueimonde, Laura; Vesterlund, Satu; García-Pola, María J; Gueimonde, Miguel; Söderling, Eva; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily chewing, for 12 weeks, of 2 different probiotic gums compared with placebo on saliva flow rate, saliva IgA levels and saliva pH. The intervention study included 54 adult volunteers with hyposalivation in a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled design with three parallel groups. Volunteers were randomly assigned to 3 different groups: subjects in group A (n = 19) were given placebo chewing gum, group B (n = 17) received Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 (ATCC 27536) and group C (n = 18) received Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (ATCC 53103), Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583) and Bifidobacterium longum 2C (DSM 14579) gums, during 3 months. Two volunteers from group B left the study for personal reasons leaving 19, 15 and 18 volunteers, respectively, for analyses. Clinical examinations, personal interviews, sialometries and saliva sampling were conducted at baseline and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. No statistically significant differences were found between probiotic and placebo groups for any of the parameters analysed. No side effects of probiotic or placebo chewing gums were observed. Chewing gum, with and without probiotics, had a positive impact on salivary flow rate and saliva pH and IgA levels. PMID:26913493

  18. Short-term effect of chewing gums containing probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri on the levels of inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Derawi, Bilal; Keller, Mette;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a chewing gum containing probiotic bacteria on gingival inflammation and the levels of selected inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy adults with moderate levels of gingival inflammation entered a...

  19. Processing of Functional Coconut Dietary Fiber Chewing Tablet%功能性椰子膳食纤维咀嚼片制备工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张木炎; 郑亚军

    2011-01-01

    The coconut dietary fiber(CDF) was prepared from coconut cake by the method of chemistry-processing and ultra-fine pulverizing. And the processing of coconut dietary fiber chewing tablet was studied. Coconut dietary fiber chewing tablet was made from CDF, maltol, denatured starch and so on. The effect of the addition of CDF, sweeteners, filler and prilling process on chewing tablet was studied too. The results showed that the quality of the chewing tablet was good when the additive concentration of CDF, maltol and denatured starch was 35%, 18% and 8%, respectively.%采用化学处理法、超微粉碎等技术从椰麸中制备椰子膳食纤维(Coconut dietary fiber,CDF),继之以CDF为基料,探讨CDF、甜味剂、填充剂的添加量及造粒工序对咀嚼片风味口感和感官质量的影响.结果表明,当CDF添加量为35%,麦芽糖醇为18%、变性淀粉为8%时,咀嚼片的综合质量较为理想.

  20. 果蔗良种品比试验初报%Preliminary Comparison Study of Chewing Cane Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷朝云; 卢加举; 雷石富

    2013-01-01

    为解决贵州无糖厂蔗区果蔗良种供应问题,促进果蔗产业发展,助农增收,2008年贵州省亚热带作物研究所从浙江省义乌市引进果蔗良种进行品比试验,以期择优示范推广.方法:采取随机区组设计,3个区组,3次重复,定期观察,年底测产.结果表明:宁化果蔗品质优良,平均田间糖分锤度18.60%[较对照(罗汉蔗)高3.47个百分点]、平均单产6854.49 kg/667m2(较对照增产2 701.39kg/667m2),增产率65.05%;福建1号品质优良,平均田间糖分锤度16.60%(较对照高1.47个百分点)、平均单产6789.27 kg/667 m2(较对照增产2636.17 kg/667 m2)、增产率63.47%;四川白鳝蔗品质优良,平均田间糖分锤度18.10%(较对照高2.97个百分点)、平均单产7 380.39 kg/667 m2(较对照增产3 227.29 kg/667 m2),增产率77.71%;广东黄皮果蔗品质优良,平均田间糖分锤度18.65%(较对照高3.52个百分点),平均单产7 709.32 kg/667 m2(较对照增产3 556.22 kg/667m2),增产率85.63%.同时,宁化果蔗、福建1号、四川白鳝蔗及广东黄皮果蔗还表现出较强的抗病性、抗虫性、抗寒性及抗旱性.%To solve the problem of provide with perfect chewing cane cultivars in the area of no sugar-refinery, help develop chewing cane industry and enhance income for farmer, chewing cane variety comparison test was conduct with varieties which come from Yiwu city Zhejiang province in 2008. All the sugarcane variety were randomly divided into 3groups, 3 repeat. According to the result of experiment of 2010 planting and 2010 stubble cane. The main agronomic character of Ninghua chewing cane was better, the average XB of stalks and cane average yield increased 3.47% and 2 701.39 kg/667 m2 respectively than check variety (Luohan); For Fujiang 1 chewing cane, the average XB of stalks and cane average yield increased 1.47% and 2 636.17 kg/667 m2 respectively than check variety (Luohan); For Sichuan Baishan chewing cane, the average XB of stalks

  1. Kebiasaan Menyirih dan Kesehatan Rongga Mulut Lansia di Desa Hilibadalu Kabupaten Nias

    OpenAIRE

    Lombu, Elvis Sofyan

    2015-01-01

    Betel chewing is part of tradition that completes the structure of culture and usually closely related to habits in the community in certain areas in Indonesia. This habit is a tradition made hereditary in the majority of the rural population which was originally closely related to local customs. But this habit can lead to health problems in the oral cavity. This research aims to find out how betel chewing betel and oral health by using a descriptive research design. The population in this re...

  2. Beneficial Effect of a Cellulose-Containing Chew Treat on Canine Periodontal Disease in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Beynen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are indications that appropriate chew treats can contribute to the control of canine periodontal disease. It was reasoned that the incorporation of a cellulose fiber network into the treat may improve the efficacy, but for proof experimental data were required. Approach: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with privately owned dogs was carried out to assess the efficacy of a cellulose preparation (Arbocel BWW40® in the treatment of periodontal disease. With the use of a questionnaire, the clinical signs were evaluated by the owners. There were 10 clinical signs: extent and severity of dental plaque and calculus, extent of gingivitis, redness, swelling, bleeding and firmness of gingivae and halitosis. For a period of 8 weeks, the test dogs daily received a chew treat to which 4% of the cellulose preparation was added. The control dogs were given a chew treat with identical formula, but without added cellulose. During the trial, all dogs were fed the same, complete dry food. There were 16 test dogs and 15 control dogs. Results: When compared with the baseline values, the administration of the test chew significantly improved 8 out of the 10 clinical signs. In the placebo group there was a significant improvement for 6 clinical signs. When the improvements over time for the two groups were compared, there were no statistically significant differences. When the score changes for all 10 clinical signs were added up as an overall index of improvement of periodontal disease, the test group showed a 17% greater amelioration than did the control group. Conclusion: The addition of the cellulose preparation had further enhanced the efficacy of the treat, possibly through an increase in mechanical cleansing and chewing time. This study indicates that a cellulose-containing treat is beneficial for dogs with periodontal disease and it is suggested that it may also impair its development.

  3. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.

  4. Reactive oxygen species are crucial for hydroxychavicol toxicity toward KB epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, J H; Wang, Y J; Chang, W H; Wu, H L; Li, C H; Uang, B J; Kang, J J; Lee, J J; Hahn, L J; Lin, B R; Chang, M C

    2004-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing shows a strong correlation to the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), leukoplakia and oral cancer. BQ contains mainly areca nut, lime, Piper betle leaf (PBL) and the inflorescence of P. betle (IPB). Hydroxychavicol (4-allyl-catechol, HC), as a major phenolic compound in PBL and IPB, is shown to induce oxidative stress, glutathione (GSH) depletion and cell cycle deregulation. Using bivariate BrdU/PI flow cytometry, KB cells in DNA synthesis (S phase) are shown to be sensitive to the toxic effect of HC and show cell cycle arrest and apoptosis following exposure to 0.1 and 0.3 mM HC. HC-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest are associated with mitochondrial membrane potential (delta Psim) depolarization as revealed by a decrease in rhodamine fluorescence. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (1 mM), superoxide dismutase (100 U/ml) and catalase (1000 U/ml) were effective in prevention of HC-induced GSH depletion (as indicated by chloromethylfluorescein fluorescence), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence), cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, dimethylthiourea (2 mM), neocuproine (1 mM), 1,10-phenanthroline (200 microM) and desferrioxamine (0.5 mM) showed little effect on HC-induced cell changes. HC elevated the cellular and mitochondrial GSH levels at moderate concentrations (0.05-0.1 mM), whereas at a concentration of 0.3 mM, inhibitory effects were noted. These results indicate that HC consumption may be associated with BQ-chewing-related oral mucosal diseases via GSH depletion, ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle disturbance and the induction of apoptosis. These events are related to the production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:14704856

  5. Chewing-gum stimulation did not reduce the absorbed dose to salivary glands during radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer as inferred from pre-therapy 124I PET/CT imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jentzen, Walter; Richter, Marion; Nagarajah, James; Poeppel, Thorsten Dirk; Brandau, Wolfgang; Dawes, Colin; Bockisch, Andreas; Binse, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this prospective study was to estimate the absorbed (radiation) doses to salivary glands in radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer under chewing-gum stimulation using 124I positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods Duplex ultrasonography was conducted in three test persons for visual comparison of the glandular blood flow with three different stimulation types (no stimulation, chewing tasteless gum base, sucking on lemon slices). Ten pat...

  6. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Prashant B.; Renuka Bathi; Smitha Chaudhari

    2013-01-01

    Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital–based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka). A total of 2400 subject...

  7. 全天麻咀嚼胶体外释放度的测定%In vitro dissolution of gastrodine in Gastrodia elata chewing gums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞; 谌介秀; 万军

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价全天麻咀嚼胶的体外释放情况。方法以人工唾液为介质,采用高效液相色谱法测定全天麻咀嚼胶中天麻素的质量分数,采用咀嚼释放度测定仪(自制)检测咀嚼胶体外释放度,检测波长为220 nm,介质体积为40 mL。结果天麻素在0.042~0.378μg范围内线性良好,平均回收率为99.18%, RSD为2.40%;全天麻咀嚼胶在8 min左右,天麻素释放达90.0%以上。结论全天麻咀嚼胶中天麻素释放迅速,可作为一种新型的降血压及治疗头痛的中药制剂进一步开发。%Objective To evaluate the in vitro dissolution of gastrodine chewing gum. Method The content of gastrodine in Gastrodia elata chewing gum was determined by HPLC and the dissolution of gastrodine was studied with a specialized release-measuring apparatus made-self in 40 mL artificial saliva at the detection wavelength of 420 nm. Result The linear range of gastrodine was from 0. 042 to 0. 378 μg and the average recovery was 99.18% with a RSD of 2.40%.Approximately 90.0% of the gastrodine contained in Gastrodia elata chewing gums was released in about 8 min. Conclusion Gastrodia elata chewing gum is a fast-released preparations and suitable for lowering blood pressure and treating headaches.

  8. Burden of waterpipe smoking and chewing tobacco use among women of reproductive age group using data from the 2012-13 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Hashmi, Shahkamal; Zaheer, Sidra; Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Khan, Naveed Ali; Aziz, Hina; Rashid, Nabil; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the general decline in cigarette smoking, use of alternative forms of tobacco has increased particularly in developing countries. Waterpipe (WP) and Chewing Tobacco (CT) are two such alternative forms, finding their way into many populations. However, the burden of these alternative forms of tobacco and their socio demographic determinants are still unclear. We assessed the prevalence of WP and CT use among women of reproductive age group in Pakistan. Methods: Da...

  9. Time to rethink the management intensity in a Mediterranean oak woodland: the response of insectivorous birds and leaf-chewing defoliators as key groups in the forest ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Pedro; Godinho, Carlos; Roque, Inês; Marques, Ana; Branco, Manuela; Rabaça, João E.

    2012-01-01

    International audience & Context The Iberian cork oak Quercus suber montados are dynamic agro-silvo-pastoral systems, contrasting with the abandonment trend of other Mediterranean forested areas. & Aims We aimed to identify the effect of management type and vegetation features on breeding insectivorous birds and leaf-chewing defoliator insects. & Methods In central Portugal, we selected two groups of 20 sites: dense montados (DM, high cover of cork oaks and low cattle impact) and sparse mo...

  10. Effect of a sugar-free chewing gum containing Magnolia bark extract on the development of caries lesions in healthy adult volunteers: a randomized controlled intervention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Carta, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The effect of magnolia bark extract (MBE) on the development of caries lesions administered daily through sugar-free chewing gum was evaluated. A randomized double-blind intervention trial was performed. Methods: 480 subjects (mean age±40.72) were examined using ICDAS index. A self-compiled questionnaire was submitted. A caries risk profile was generated for each subject using Cariogram software. 271 subjects, presenting inclusion criteria, were enrolled and divided into three groups ...

  11. Masseter muscle thickness, chewing efficiency and bite force in edentulous patients with fixed and removable implant-supported prostheses: a cross-sectional multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Frauke; Hernandez, Marta; Gruetter Faineteau, Linda; Aracil-Kessler, Luis; Weingart, Dieter; Schimmel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Edentulous patients may be restored with conventional dentures (C/C), implant-supported overdentures (IOD) or implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (IFDP). Null-hypotheses: chewing efficiency, maximum voluntary bite force (MBF) and masseter muscle thickness (MMT) are lower in patients with C/IOD compared with the patients with bimaxillary IFDPs. Both groups perform better than C/C and are inferior to fully dentate controls.

  12. Research of New-typed Anti-halitosis Chewing Gum%新型除口臭口香糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金威; 李胡俊; 周鸿媛; 侯大军

    2011-01-01

    本文对新型除口臭口香糖的配方和加工工艺进行了研究;在传统口香糖配方和加工工艺的基础上,对新型除口臭口香糖的工艺进行了研究.通过试验确定出新型除口臭口香糖的最佳配方为:金银花用量为3.00mL/10g,锌含量2.00mg/10g,茶多酚用量为0.06g/10g;辅料吸收的最适温度为60℃.%In this paper, the formulation and processing technology of anti-halitosis functional chewing gum were studied.Based on the traditional chewing gum formulation and processing technology, the removing bad breath technics of antihalitosis functional chewing gum was researched as well. According the tests, the best compound is: 3.00mL/10g honeysuckle, 2.00mg/10g zinc, 0.06g/10g tea polyphenols and 60 ℃ for materials absorbing.

  13. Analysis of Wrigley's Chewing Gum Patent Application in China%箭牌公司在华口香糖专利申请分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林倩; 胡婉珊

    2015-01-01

    Wrigley is the world,s largest chewing gum enterprise. This paper analysis the amount of patent application, technical subjects and document writing of the patent application of Wrigley,s Chewing Gum Patent Application in China. According to the relevant data of the analysis, show the current situation of patent application, provide the reference for scheduling research direction and developing patent layout of chewing gum enterprises, scientific research institution, in the future.%口香糖在中国发展速度迅猛,由于中国人口基数大、口香糖人均消费片数低,因此存在巨大的消费增长空间。箭牌公司在竞争日益激烈的口香糖市场中何以能够一直处于霸主地位是值得中国企业深思的问题,本文从箭牌公司口香糖产品在华专利申请的整体情况、技术主题、文本撰写的角度进行分析,以期为业内人士提供启示和借鉴。

  14. Can school-based oral health education and a sugar-free chewing gum program improve oral health? Results from a two-year study in PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan; Tai, Baojun; Jiang, Han

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from one district were divided into three groups: OHE group (Group E), sugar-free chewing gum in addition to OHE group (Group G), and the control group (Group C). All children of grade 1 (aged 6-7 years) were recruited (n = 1342). After 2 years, 1143 children remained in the study group at follow-up. The overall drop-out rate was about 15%. Data on dental caries and gingival bleeding were collected by clinical examination. The results showed that the mean increment of DMFS in Group G was 42% lower than in groups E and C (P improving children's oral hygiene; in certain circumstances children may benefit from using polyol-containing chewing gum in terms of reduced dental caries. PMID:15848976

  15. Study on the Extraction of Antioxidant Components from Betel Nut Seed and Evaluation of Their Activities%槟榔籽中抗氧化成分的提取及活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩林; 黄玉林; 张海德; 万婧; 戴萍

    2009-01-01

    为了研究槟榔籽的抗氧化活性,采用不同的溶剂(乙酸乙酯、体积分数70%乙醇和水)对槟榔籽进行提取,利用DPPH法、铁氰化钾还原法和ABTS法对提取物进行抗氧化实验.结果表明:3种提取物中,体积分数70%乙醇提取物的还原力、清除DPPH自由基及ABTS自由基能力最强,水提取物次之,而乙酸乙酯提取物相对较弱,并且随着各提取物浓度的增加,其抗氧化活性也相应增强.各提取物的抗氧化活性与其总酚组成及含量有关.%In order to research the antioxidant activity compounds of the Betel nut seed ( BNS),ethyl acetate,70% ethanol and water were used as extraction solvents,three extracts were performed from BNS. Antioxidant activities of different extracts were evaluated by three different methods,such as DPPH radical scavenging assay,potassium ferricyanide reduction method and ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results showed that the reducing power,DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging activity of 70% ethanol extract were stronger than those of water extract and ethyl acetate extract. The antioxidant activity of each extract which was correlated with the composition and contents of phenolic compounds,became stronger with the increasing of concentration.

  16. Residual and ovicidal efficacy of essential oil-based formulations in vitro against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, B; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils have shown good experimental potential as novel veterinary ectoparasiticides. However, if they are to be used as veterinary products, they must be available in formulations that are suitable for practical application against specific ectoparasites. Here, the efficacies of formulations containing 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oil, in combination with two emulsifiers [a surfactant, 5% (w/v) N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (SLS), and a soluble polymer, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)], with or without 10% coconut oil, were tested in contact bioassays against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Residual activity was quantified in open and closed containers; ovicidal efficacy was also examined. Exposure to either of 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oils with SLS or PVP resulted in louse mortality of 100%, but when coconut oil was included as an excipient, significantly lower efficacy was recorded. However, the formulations became significantly less effective after 2 h in open containers and 40 h in closed containers. The results confirm that the residual activity of essential oils is relatively transitory and the addition of 10% coconut oil does not prolong the period of insecticidal activity by slowing essential oil evaporation. Too short a period of residual activity is likely to be a significant impediment to the effective practical use of essential oils. However, unlike many synthetic pediculicides, the essential oils tested here were highly ovicidal, which suggests that prolonged residual activity may not be essential to kill newly hatched nymphs after treatment. PMID:26522385

  17. Effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, B W; Berger, L L; Fahey, G C

    1996-11-01

    Seventy-two Simmental-cross growing steers (219 +/- 2.4 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture (G/P) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of beef liver and muscle. Animals were allotted by weight to 12 pens (six/pen). Each pen was assigned one of three dietary treatments: 1) 0% G/P (control), 2) 20% G/P, or 3) 30% G/P (% G/P on a DM basis). Steers were fed their respective diets for an 84-d growing phase and a 112-d finishing phase. The G/P replaced corn silage and corn in the growing and finishing phases, respectively. Eighteen steers (six/treatment) were randomly selected for slaughter at the end of the finishing phase, and carcass measurements, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of liver and longissimus muscle were measured. During the growing phase, steers fed G/P-containing diets had improved (P .05) on carcass characteristics. Steaks from steers fed 20% G/P had improved (P carcass merit. PMID:8923170

  18. Can school-based oral health education and a sugar-free chewing gum program improve oral health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Bin; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bian, Zhuan;

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome of school-based oral health education (OHE) and a sugar-free chewing gum program on the oral health status of children in terms of reduced caries increment and gingival bleeding over a period of 2 years. Nine primary schools randomly chosen from...... overall drop-out rate was about 15%. Data on dental caries and gingival bleeding were collected by clinical examination. The results showed that the mean increment of DMFS in Group G was 42% lower than in groups E and C (P < 0.05). The mean increments in F-S were higher in Groups G and E than in Group C...... (P < 0.01). The gingival bleeding scores were statistically significant among the three groups. Compared to Group C, the mean increment in bleeding scores of Group G was 71% lower (P < 0.01) and in Group E 42% lower (P < 0.05). The school-based OHE programs had some positive effect improving children...

  19. Effect of ACP-CPP Chewing Gum and Natural Chewable Products on Plaque pH, Calcium and Phosphate Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Saima; Chaudhary, Seema; Manuja, Naveen; Kaur, Harsimran; Amit, Sinha Ashish; Lingesha, Ravishankar Telgi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Numerous epidemiological studies have documented dental caries as the major public health problems throughout the world. It is gradually increasing in the underdeveloped and developing countries especially in children due to increasing popularity of refined sugars. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of natural chewable products (Tulsi, sesame seeds, fennel seeds, coconut) and ACP-CPP chewing gum on plaque pH, calcium and phosphate concentration. Materials and Methods A randomized controlled trial, with a cross-over study design, was conducted. Ten subjects aged 15-17 years who agreed to refrain from oral hygiene practice for 48 hours prior to the sample collection were selected for the study. The baseline plaque pH, calcium and phosphate was measured and repeated after 5 and 30 minutes. It was ensured that each study participant was subjected to all the products making an effective sample of ten subjects per product. The data was statistically analysed. Results The mean pH in all the study groups increased after 5 minutes and 30 minutes compared to baseline, except for coconut group at 30 minutes and fennel group at 5 minutes. Highest increase in plaque calcium concentration was found in fennel group followed by recaldent and sesame, respectively. Whereas, the highest increase in plaque phosphate was found in recaldent group followed by sesame group and fennel group respectively. Conclusion Plant products can be effective, inexpensive, easily accessible methods of maintaining oral health. Further studies are recommended to confirm long term effects. PMID:27190943

  20. Wounding, insect chewing and phloem sap feeding differentially alter the leaf proteome of potato, Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duceppe Marc-Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various factors shape the response of plants to herbivorous insects, including wounding patterns, specific chemical effectors and feeding habits of the attacking herbivore. Here we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of the plant's response to wounding and herbivory, using as a model potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. subjected to mechanical wounding, defoliation by the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, or phloem sap feeding by the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas. Results Out of ~500 leaf proteins monitored by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, 31 were up- or downregulated by at least one stress treatment compared to healthy control plants. Of these proteins, 29 were regulated by beetle chewing, 8 by wounding and 8 by aphid feeding. Some proteins were up- or downregulated by two different treatments, while others showed diverging expression patterns in response to different treatments. A number of modulated proteins identified by mass spectrometry were typical defense proteins, including wound-inducible protease inhibitors and pathogenesis-related proteins. Proteins involved in photosynthesis were also modulated, notably by potato beetle feeding inducing a strong decrease of some photosystem I proteins. Quantitative RT PCR assays were performed with nucleotide primers for photosynthesis-related proteins to assess the impact of wounding and herbivory at the gene level. Whereas different, sometimes divergent, responses were observed at the proteome level in response to wounding and potato beetle feeding, downregulating effects were systematically observed for both treatments at the transcriptional level. Conclusions These observations illustrate the differential impacts of wounding and insect herbivory on defense- and photosynthesis-related components of the potato leaf proteome, likely associated with the perception of distinct physical and chemical cues in planta.

  1. Generation of selectable marker-free transgenic rice resistant to chewing insects using two co-transformation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hengxiu Yu; Quanhong Yao; Ling Wang; Zhipeng Zhao; Zhiyun Gong; Shuzhu Tang; Qiaoquan Liu; Minghong Gua

    2009-01-01

    To produce selectable marker-free (SMF) transgenic rice resistant to chewing insects, the Bacillus thuringiensis crylA (c) gene (Bt) was introduced into two efitejaponica rice varieties by using two Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation systems. One system is with a single mini-twin T-DNA binary vector in one Agrobacterium strain, which consists of two separate T-DNA regions, one carrying the Bt while the other contains the selectable marker gene, hygromycin resistant gene (HPT). The other system uses two separate binary vectors in two separate Agrobacterium cultures, containing the Bt or HPT gene on individual plasmids. A lot of independent transgenic rice lines harboring both Bt and selectable marker genes were obtained. The results showed that the co-transformation frequency of the Bt gene and HPTgene was much higher by using the mini-twin T-DNA vector system (29.87%) than that by the two separate binary vector sys-tems (4.52%). However, the frequency of the SMF transgenic rice plants obtained from the offspring of co-transgenic plants (21.74%) was lower for the mini-twin T-DNA vector system than that for the latter (50-60%). The data of ELISA implied that the expressed Bt pro-teins were quantitated as 0.025-0.103% of total leaf soluble proteins in the transgenic plant. Therefore, several elite transgenic rice lines, free of the selectable marker gene, were chosen. The results from both in vitro and in vivo insect bioassays indicated that the SMF trans-genic rice was shown to be highly resistant to the striped stem borer and rice leaf folder. Moreover, in a natural field condition without any insecticide applied, all the transgenic rice plants were found to be not injured by the rice leaf folder, whereas the wild types were impaired seriously.

  2. Areca Nut Chewing and an Impaired Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate as Significant Risk Factors for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Xu, Ran; Zhao, Xiaokun; Zhong, Zhaohui; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Xuan; Wu, Shuiqing; Ai, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the predictive value of preoperative clinicopathological variables, with a special focus on areca nut chewing, on disease recurrence and progression in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Data from 242 patients diagnosed with NMIBC between 2008 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Fifteen clinicopathological variables were analyzed to evaluate their prognostic value. During a mean observation period of 21 months, disease recurrence occurred in 140 patients (57.9%). On multivariate analysis, heavy-areca nut chewing (HR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.37–3.47), current smoking (HR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.99–4.80), moderately impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.09–2.83), severely impaired eGFR (HR = 3.32, 95% CI: 1.70–6.48) and tumor grade (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.36–2.77) were independent factors for recurrence, based on which a risk factor model was developed to stratify patients into high, medium and low risk groups. In conclusion, our study suggests that in addition to quitting smoking, quitting areca nut chewing may also reduce the risk of first recurrence in NMBIC patients, monitoring and preserving their renal function may be beneficial as well. Further prospective studies are needed to verify the prognostic significance of these factors and the risk stratification model in this population. PMID:27385379

  3. Comparison between swallowing and chewing of garlic on levels of serum lipids, cyclosporine, creatinine and lipid peroxidation in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanihaghjo Amir

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract Hyperlipidemia and increased degree of oxidative stress are among the important risk factors for Atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients (RTR. The Medical treatment of hyperlipidemia in RTR because of drugs side effects has been problematic, therefore alternative methods such as using of Garlic as an effective material in cholesterol lowering and inhibition of LDL Oxidation has been noted. For evaluation of garlic effect on RTR, 50 renal transplant patients with stable renal function were selected and divided into 2 groups. They took one clove of garlic (1 gr by chewing or swallowing for two months, after one month wash-out period, they took garlic by the other route. Results indicated that although lipid profile, BUN, Cr, serum levels of cyclosporine and diastolic blood pressure did not change, Systolic blood pressure decreased from138.2 to 132.8 mmHg (p=0.001 and Malondialdehyde (MDA decreased from 2.4 to1.7 nmol/ml (p=0.009 by swallowing route, Cholesterol decreased from 205.1 to 195.3 mg/dl (p=0.03, triglyceride decreased from 195.7 to 174.8 mg/dl (p=0.008, MDA decreased from 2.5 to 1.6 nmol/ml (p=0.001, systolic blood pressure decreased from 137.5 to 129.8 mmHg (p=0.001, diastolic blood pressure decreased from 84.6 to 77.6 mmHg (p=0.001 and Cr decreased from 1.51 to 1.44 mg/dl (p=0.03 by chewing route too. However HDL, LDL and cyclosporine serum levels had no significant differences by both of swallowing and chewing routes. We conclude that undamaged garlic (swallowed had no lowering effect on lipid level of serum. But Crushed garlic (chewed reduces cholesterol, triglyceride, MDA and blood pressure. Additionally creatinine reduced without notable decrease in cyclosporine serum levels may be due to cyclosporine nephrotoxicity ameliorating effect of garlic.

  4. Effects of chewing xylitol-containing gum on oral microflora%木糖醇口香糖咀嚼时间对口腔微生物群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帝泽; 陆君卓; 向臻婷; 胡巍; 郑黎薇

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究咀嚼木糖醇口香糖时间长短对口腔常见细菌的影响。方法:纳入60名年龄在18~22岁口腔健康志愿者,随机分为3组(n=20)。 A组于午餐后咀嚼木糖醇口香糖45 min;B组于午餐后咀嚼等剂量同品牌木糖醇口香糖15 min;C组(对照组)午餐后不咀嚼口香糖。于咀嚼口香糖3周后收集唾液,接种于BHI、MSB、Rogosa培养基平板,计数总菌落与主要条件致龋菌的数量,评估咀嚼口香糖时间长短对口腔微生物群落的影响。结果:咀嚼木糖醇口香糖组口腔微生物水平低于对照组(P<0.05)),但咀嚼口香糖时间长短对口腔微生物水平的影响无统计学差异。结论:咀嚼口香糖15 min即可达到良好口腔清洁效果,延长咀嚼时间并不能显著增强其对龋病相关微生物的清除作用。%AIM:To investigate the effects of chewing xylitol-containing gum on the microbial composition in oral cavity.METHODS:60 volunteers aged 18-22 years were included and randomly divided into 3 groups ( n=20):45 min chewing after lunch (group A), 15 min chewing after lunch (group B) and non-chewing control (group C) .Saliva was collected on day 21 and cultured on BHI, MSB and Rogosa agar plates for colony enumeration.RE-SULTS:Chewing xylitol-containing gum significantly decreased the level of total bacteria in saliva.However, no sig-nificant difference was observed between different duration of gum chewing.CONCLUSION:Chewing xylitol-contai-ning gum for 15 min is sufficient to suppress oral bacteria, further prolonging the duration of chewing may not necessari-ly enhance the inhibitory effect on oral microflora.

  5. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops. PMID:25641865

  6. Determination of minor, trace and toxic elements in chewing tobacco products by instrumental neutron activation analysis and identification of glutamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobacco smoking/chewing has been a cause of concern because of it being related with oral cancer. It causes stimulation and ill physiological effects. Ten different brands of spit tobacco, eight gutkaas and five paan masalas have been analyzed for seven minor (Al, Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 17 trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, and Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Also Ni and Pb were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentration of Cd was below detection limit (-1) in the tobacco samples. Mg, generally added as MgCO3 to prevent caking, is present as minor constituent in spit tobacco and gutkaas but is below detection limit (-1) in paan masalas. Most elemental concentrations vary in a wide range depending on the nature of chewing tobacco. Spit tobacco has been found to be more enriched in essential elements (Ca, K, Na, P, Mn, and Rb), whereas gutkaas contain higher concentrations of Fe, Cr, Cu, and Zn. Paan masalas contain lower contents of other elements but higher content of Hg. Gutkaas also contain higher amounts of As and Pb. Further glutamic acid has been separated from tobacco leaves and characterized as it might bind with some elements. (author)

  7. The effect of green tea extract on the removal of sulfur-containing oral malodor volatiles in vitro and its potential application in chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q C; Wu, A Z; Pika, J

    2010-09-01

    Increasing pH solution from 7.5 to 8.0 was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of green tea extract for methanethiol removal in vitro. Green tea extract was also found to remove hydrogen sulfide and its effectiveness was greatly improved under alkaline conditions. It was found that with green tea extract, maximum H₂S removal was achieved when the pH was between 8.1 and 8.4 at 37 °C for 5 min. Further increases in pH resulted in decrease of the extract effectiveness. Vegetable acetone powders which contain polyphenol oxidases or peroxidases were found to further enhance the effectiveness for the removal of thiols when used in combination with green tea extracts at body temperature under alkaline conditions. Adding 5% baking soda to green tea extract-containing chewing gum was found to buffer saliva pHs to 8.0 during 10 min of chewing. However, severe discoloration was observed and undesirable bitterness was perceived, most likely due to the polymerization of unencapsulated green tea polyphenols. Therefore, encapsulation of green tea extract is recommended for applications at elevated pHs. PMID:21383482

  8. Super-Protective Child-Rearing by Japanese Bess Beetles, Cylindrocaulus patalis: Adults Provide Their Larvae with Chewed and Predigested Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Tatsuya; Wada, Noriko; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Anzai, Hirosi; Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Beetles of the family Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are termed subsocial. The insects inhabit rotten wood as family groups consisting of the parents and their offspring. The Japanese species Cylindrocaulus patalis has the lowest fecundity among passalids because siblicide occurs among the first-instar larvae; accordingly, parental care toward the survived larva is the highest among Passalidae. To clarify the nutritional relationships between the parents and their offspring, we investigated their ability to digest three types of polysaccharides that are components of wood (cellulose and β-1,4-xylan) and fungal cell walls (β-1,3-glucan). Although carboxymethyl-cellulase activity was barely detectable, β-xylosidase, β-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylanase and β-1,3-glucanase activities were clearly detected in both adults and larvae. Because the activities of enzymes that digest β-1,3-glucan were much higher than those for degrading β-1,4-xylan, in both adults and larvae, it is concluded that they are mainly fungivorous. Furthermore, these digestive enzymatic activities in second- and third-instar larvae were much lower than they were in adults. Although all larval instars grew rapidly when fed chewed wood by their parents, larvae ceased growing and died when fed only artificially ground wood meals. We conclude that the larvae are assumed to be provided with chewed predigested wood in which β-1,3-glucan is degraded by parental enzymes. PMID:27128944

  9. Retrospective analysis on 34 patients with oral submucous fibrosis coexisted with oral lichen planus%OSF并存OLP34例回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继佳; 彭解英; 吴颖芳; 孟庆玉; 谢迪; 李敏; 肖璇

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical feature of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) coexisted with oral lichen planus(OLP) ,to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Method: The clinical data of 34 patients with OSF coexisted with OLP were retrospectively reviewed. Result: All 34 patients with OSF coexisted with OLP were mainly young and middle-aged male patients, and had the habit of eating spicy foods and betel quid chewing. Among that 29 patients (85.29 %) had the smoking habit, 27 patients (79.41 %) had the alcohol drinking habit. On OSF pathologic staging 28 patients (82.35 %) were in the early stage and 6 patients (17.65 %) were in the middle stage. OSF coexisted with OLP was mainly seen on the buccal and lingual mucosa.no patient had the erosive type of lesion and trismus. Although pain could be relieved after therapy, white striations or macules did not regressed and the disappeared filiform and fungiform papillas did not recovered. Conclusion: OSF coexisted with OLP is not a simple combination of them, but have the special characteristics. While diagnosising if possible, take two biopsies from two typical locations. During tretment and after it, patient has to give up smoking and betel quid chewing habit.%目的:总结口腔黏膜下纤维性变(OSF)并存口腔扁平苔藓(OLP)的临床特征,提高对该病的诊断和治疗水平.方法:对34例OSF并存OLP患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果:34例OSF并存OLP患者表现为青壮年男性居多,均有进食刺激性食物和咀嚼槟榔史,29例(85.29%)有吸烟史,27例(79.41%)有饮酒史,28例(82.35 %)OSF的病理分期为早期,6例(17.65%)为中期,发病部位以颊部和舌部为主,所有患者均无糜烂和张口受限,治疗后疼痛症状缓解,但白色条纹或斑点始终未消退,己消失的丝状乳头、菌状乳头亦未见恢复.结论:OSF并存OLP并非两种疾病的简单叠加,而是具有其特异性的表现,必要时可行两个典型部位活检进行诊

  10. Arecanut as an emerging etiology of oral cancers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Gunjan Shah; Pankaj Chaturvedi; Sagar Vaishampayan

    2012-01-01

    Arecanut (AN) usage is widespread in Asian countries, especially India and Taiwan. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing day by day, but there is no exponential increase with tobacco usage. Especially in the country like Taiwan where betel quid mostly do not contain tobacco, AN can be correlated with the increased incidence of cancer. There are different studies in the literature about AN and oral cancer but none of them have concluded with the definite pathway for carcinogenesis. The pr...

  11. Cultural and dietary risk factors of oral cancer and precancer - A brief overview

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    This is an update on cultural and dietary risk factors for oral precancer and cancer. It is an overview on ethnic differences (where possible) and socio-cultural risk factors (tobacco/areca nut/betel quid, alcohol use and dietary factors) in relation to oral precancer and cancer. While studies were from Western countries, India and China, this update also attempts to include and highlight some studies conducted in the Asia-Pacific region.

  12. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; OUYANG, ZILAN; GAO, ZHI; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as...

  13. Genin oral kanser için bir tedavisi var mı? Genetik diş hekimliği

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshman, Anusha Rangare; Suresh, Deepak Rangare; Suresh, Karthick Rangare; Lakshman, Shruthi Rangare; Lakshman, Amithash Rangare; Swamy Rao, Ashwini Gujjar; Rao, Anushree Mohan; Hanchate, Lalith

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, oral carcinoma is one of the most prevalent cancers and it is the sixth most common cancer globally. Oral cancer is associated with genetic mutations which occur due to the exposure to tobacco, alcohol, betel quid. Advances over recent decades in the surgical, radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic treatment of oral cancer patients did not produced a significant improvement in patient survival. Recent advances like immunotherapy, gene therapy, and targeted therapy are showing promis...

  14. Chewing over physiology integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion. PMID:15718383

  15. Chewing over Khat prohibition

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Axel; Jelsma, Martin; Metaal, Pien

    2012-01-01

    In the context of a fast changing and well documented market in legal highs, the case of khat (Catha edulis) provides an interesting anomaly. It is first of all a plant-based substance that undergoes minimal transformation or processing in the journey from farm to market. Secondly, khat has been consumed for hundreds if not thousands of years in the highlands of Eastern Africa and Southern Arabia. In European countries, khat use was first observed during the 1980s, but has only attracted wide...

  16. Synchronous malignancies in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchronous malignancies in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OCSCC) are occasionally encountered. In the current study we tried to evaluate their frequency, detectability by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies, and prognostic factors. A retrospective analysis of patients with primary OCSCC enrolled for 18F-FDG studies from 2002 to 2008 was performed. The detectability of synchronous second cancers by 18F-FDG studies was defined by the scoring of two interpreters. Prognostic factors for overall survival in patients receiving curative-intent treatment were assessed using the univariate Kaplan-Mayer analysis and the multivariate Cox regression model. Of 764 patients, 40 (5.2%) had synchronous malignancies. 18F-FDG studies detected 22 (48%) of 46 synchronous second cancers. For synchronous cancers at the hypopharynx, esophagus, or liver, the median survival of patients was no longer than 1 year, and the detection rates by 18F-FDG studies were 100, 86, and 25%, respectively. In the 33 patients receiving curative-intent treatment, the site of second cancer, complete surgical resection of all known tumors, and the oral habit of betel quid/areca nut chewing are significant prognostic factors in the univariate analysis, while the site of second cancer is the only significant prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.041). The site of second cancer is the most significant prognostic factor in OCSCC patients with synchronous malignancies receiving curative-intent treatment. 18F-FDG studies detect synchronous malignancies with poor prognosis in OCSCC patients except for hepatic cancers. In OCSCC patients with synchronous malignancies with poor prognosis, prospective studies comparing different treatment options should be further conducted. (orig.)

  17. The incidence and risk of developing a second primary esophageal cancer in patients with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma: a population-based study in Taiwan over a 25 year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of oral and pharyngeal (including oral cavity, oropharynx and hypopharynx) carcinoma increases rapidly in Asia and South Pacific because of betel quid chewing. Thus far, large-scale epidemiological studies are not available yet to stratify these patients by their risks of developing a second primary cancer in the digestive tract including esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum. A population-based study was conducted using the database from the Taiwan National Cancer Registry for the period 1979-2003. We quantified standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and cumulative incidence of second primary cancers among 33,787 patients with initial diagnoses of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma. Among these four digestive tract organs, the esophagus was the only site of second cancer with excess risk in patients with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma. The incidence and risk of developing a second primary esophageal cancer differed by the site of the primary index tumor, most frequently seen in hypopharyngeal cancer (71/4,218 = 1.68%, SIR = 22.76, 95% CI 17.77-28.70), followed by oropharyngeal cancer (30/3,403 = 0.88%, SIR = 14.29, 95% CI 9.64-20.39) and the least in oral cavity cancer (99/26,166 = 0.38%, SIR = 5.57, 95% CI 4.53-6.78). In addition, the risk was extraordinarily high for patients with a follow-up interval ≤ 1 year and those with first primary cancer diagnosed at age ≤50. These patients may justify more close surveillance. The present study represents the first population-based study in Asia attempting to stratify the patients of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma by their risk of developing a second esophageal cancer. It helps identify patients at high risk and tailor the application of intense follow-up surveillance to the estimated risk in each individual case

  18. 运动员咀嚼口香糖行为与竞赛焦虑的关系%The Relationship Between Athletes' Chewing Gum and Sport Competition Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金婷; 陈曦; 施惟希; 沈锡远; 周晓林

    2012-01-01

    Sport competition anxiety is one of the primary detrimental effects on athletes’ performances. There is ample empirical evidence showing that chewing gum alleviates physiological and psychological anxious response to acute or chronic stressors. However, it is unknown whether chewing gum reduces athletes’ anxiety during competition. To clarify the relationship between chewing gum and the sport competition anxiety in athletes, four hundred and fifty-seven athletes were recruited to complete the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) and Chewing Gum and Sport Competition Anxiety Questionnaire (CGSCA). Competition anxiety was measured with 15 items from SCAT developed by Martens and Schwenkmezger (1979). The response scale for the items was 1 (rarely) to 3 (often). Six items measuring CGSCA were developed for this study. Item 1 measured the frequency of chewing gum; Item 2 measured the subjective experience of chewing gum; Item 3 measured the reason for chewing gum; Item 4 measured the frequency of competition anxiety during 11 sports scenes, ranging from 1 (never) to 4 (always); Item 5 measured whether athletes chewed gum during 11 sports scenes described in Item 4; and Item 6 measured the frequency of adopting the 16 ways to relieve anxiety, ranging from 1 (never) to 4 (always). The mean of SCAT was 18.3±3.3, which was beyond the lowest anxiety (10). Moreover, the scores of SCAT were correlated with the Item 4 of CGSCA, r = .507, p〈 .001. The results confirmed that all of athletes were anxious and stressful in sporting events. The result of Item 1 of CGSCA showed that almost half (44.4%) of the athletes chewed gum more than once a month in daily life. Further correlation analysis among the last 3 items of CGSCA demonstrated two significant correlations: one was between sporting competition anxiety (Item 4) and habits of chewing gum in sporting events (Item 5), r = .142, p .01, and the other was between

  19. 咖啡因口香糖的制备及含量测定研究%Studies on preparation and content determination of caffeine chewing gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊永正; 张琛; 陈振兴; 刘俊杰; 鲁莹; 钟延强; 邹豪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a new type of chewing gum contained caffeine, and a method for determination of caffeine in the chewing gum. Methods the caffeine powder and sugar powder were mixed evenly, the mixtures were reconciled with the chewing gum which were then cutted, extruded ,cooled and packaged. The caffeine in the gum was extracted hy boiling water bath for 1h and caffeine content was determind by HPLC. Results This type of gum tastd good and the caffeine contained in the gum was uni form; The calibration curve showed good linearity in the range, and the mean of the extraction recovery rate was 98. 41 ± 2. 02%. Methodology of this study met the requirements of determination. Conclusion The technology of caffeine gum was simple and available; the developed HPLC method was easy, rapid , accurate and the quality was under control.%目的 研制一种新型含咖啡因的口香糖,并建立其含量测定的方法.方法 建立咖啡因口香糖制备工艺,首先将咖啡因粉末与糖料均匀混合,与口香糖胶基调和,切割挤压,冷却老化,包装.建立咖啡因口香糖的含量测定方法,采用沸水浴加热1 h提取口香糖中的咖啡因,通过高效液相色谱法测定其中咖啡因的含量.结果 制得的咖啡因口香糖含量均匀,口感较好;其含量测定方法线性良好,提取回收率为(98.41±2.02)%,方法学研究符合测定要求.结论 咖啡因口香糖制备工艺简单,含量测定的质量可控,操作简便、快速、准确.

  20. Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project. Chew Bahir, southern Ethiopia: How to get from three tonnes of sediment core to > 500 ka of continuous climate history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Verena; Asrat, Asfawossen; Cohen, Andrew S.; Gromig, Raphael; Günter, Christina; Junginger, Annett; Lamb, Henry F.; Schaebitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin H.

    2016-04-01

    In search of the environmental context of the evolution and dispersal of Homo sapiens and our close relatives within and beyond the African continent, the ICDP-funded Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) has recently cored five fluvio-lacustrine archives of climate change in East Africa. The sediment cores collected in Ethiopia and Kenya are expected to provide valuable insights into East African environmental variability during the last ~3.5 Ma. The tectonically-bound Chew Bahir basin in the southern Ethiopian rift is one of the five sites within HSPDP, located in close proximity to the Lower Omo River valley, the site of the oldest known fossils of anatomically modern humans. In late 2014, the two cores (279 and 266 m long respectively, HSPDP-CHB14-2A and 2B) were recovered, summing up to nearly three tonnes of mostly calcareous clays and silts. Deciphering an environmental record from multiple records, from the source region of modern humans could eventually allow us to reconstruct the pronounced variations of moisture availability during the transition into Middle Stone Age, and its implications for the origin and dispersal of Homo sapiens. Here we present the first results of our analysis of the Chew Bahir cores. Following the HSPDP protocols, the two parallel Chew Bahir sediment cores have been merged into one single, 280 m long and nearly continuous (>90%) composite core on the basis of a high resolution MSCL data set (e.g., magnetic susceptibility, gamma ray density, color intensity transects, core photographs). Based on the obvious cyclicities in the MSCL, correlated with orbital cycles, the time interval covered by our sediment archive of climate change is inferred to span the last 500-600 kyrs. Combining our first results from the long cores with the results from the accomplished pre-study of short cores taken in 2009/10 along a NW-SE transect across the basin (Foerster et al., 2012, Trauth et al., 2015), we have developed a hypothesis