WorldWideScience

Sample records for betel quid chewing

  1. Betel Quid Chewing, Personality and Mood: Betel Quid Chewing Associated with Low Extraversion and Negative Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Ping-Ho; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Shiah, Yung-Jong

    2018-02-08

    Betel quid (BQ), chewed by about 600 million people worldwide, is one of the most widely used addictive substances. Little is known about psychological factors in BQ chewers. The present study was the first attempt to explore the relationships between BQ chewing, personality, and mood. A survey was conducted with a purposive sample to assess BQ chewing habits in four subgroups: BQ-only users, BQ users who smoke and/or drink, smokers and/or drinkers only, and substance nonusers. A total of 494 participants were recruited from the civilian, non-institutionalized population in Taiwan. Habitual consumption of BQ, smoking and drinking; socio-demographic variables; extraversion; and mood (tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, confusion, and self-esteem). All BQ chewers were evaluated on BQ dependence domains using DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria. The 6-month BQ dependency rate among BQ chewers, defined by either DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria, ranged from 42.9 to 45.6%. BQ-only users had significantly lower scores on extraversion than substance nonusers. BQ-only users had statistically significant higher scores on confusion and total mood than substance nonusers. BQ-only users had significantly higher scores on fatigue, anger, tension, and depression, than substance nonusers, BQ users who smoke and/or drink, and smokers and/or drinkers only. The number of BQ dependence domains correlated significantly negatively with total mood scores. Conclusions/Importance: The results supported the two hypotheses: (a) BQ chewing is associated with low extraversion; and (b) BQ chewing is related to negative mood.

  2. Factors associated with quitting areca (betel) quid chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Shiun; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yang, Yi-Hsin Connie; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Tsai, Chi-Cheng

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide useful data for a future abstinence project by identifying the factors related to quitting areca (betel) quid chewing. The study was cross-sectional. Data on demographic variables, psychological factors and substance-use behaviors were collected via questionnaires from 326 participants. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the areca/betel quid chewers who were less educated (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.98) were least likely to try to give up. Among the chewers who tried to quit, those employed as full-time drivers (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.14-4.39), who had drinking habits (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.24-4.66), and who preferred to chew only betel quid wrapped with leaf (OR = 4.44, 95% CI = 1.99-9.90) were more likely to fail. Chewers who successfully quit had a higher internal health locus of control compared with those who failed to quit (one-point increments, OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90-0.98). The results suggest that health educators and researchers can better influence people's chewing behavior if the importance of chewers' education level, job type, substance use (i.e. drinking habits, type of betel quid), and level of health locus of control are all taken into consideration when devising interventions.

  3. Betel quid chewing in rural Bangladesh: prevalence, predictors and relationship to blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Julia E; Marcotte, Erin L; Argos, Maria; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Sarwar, Golam; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2012-04-01

    Betel quid is chewed by 600 million people worldwide and it has been linked to obesity and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of our study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of betel quid chewing in a rural area of Bangladesh, and determine its effects on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. In this population-based prospective study, we analysed data on 19 934 Bangladeshi adults. Linear and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the socio-demographic predictors of betel quid chewing and the effect of betel quid on change in BMI and on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, arterial pressure, overweight or obesity, and hypertension. At baseline, betel quid was chewed by 33.2% of the cohort (35.5% of men, 31.6% of women). In a subsample in which we collected methods of use, 17.5% chewed it without tobacco and 82.5% chewed it with tobacco. In multivariate analysis, betel quid chewing was associated with female sex, older age, tobacco smoking and lower socio-economic status, as measured by fewer years of formal education and not owning land. Betel quid was chewed more times per day among women and older persons. At follow-up, persons who chewed betel quid without tobacco had higher systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and arterial pressure in comparison with never users. After controlling for other explanatory variables, chewing betel quid without tobacco was associated with general hypertension [odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.10] and systolic hypertension (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.01-2.37). We did not observe associations of betel quid chewing with BMI or overweight. Betel quid chewing is likely contributing to high blood pressure in Bangladesh, particularly among women.

  4. Betel quid chewing without tobacco: a meta-analysis of carcinogenic and precarcinogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Wan, Yi; Xu, Yong-Yong

    2015-03-01

    Betel quid without tobacco is an important factor influencing the incidences of oral cancer and precancer. This study systematically evaluated the associations between betel quid containing no tobacco and oral cancer and precancer, with implications for the prevention of oral cancer. We searched MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and EMBASE (to April 2011) and retrieved studies that investigated the relationship between chewing betel quid and oral cancer (or precancer). We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the published data and describe the prevalence of betel quid use with regard to cancerous diseases. In all, 19 eligible studies that reported odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for oral cancer with respect to betel quid were included. The analysis identified an association suggesting that betel quid might be an important risk factor for oral cancer and precancer. The results of this review suggest that betel-chewing-cessation programs should be developed to help prevent oral diseases. © 2013 APJPH.

  5. The reasons for betel-quid chewing scale: assessment of factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Pokhrel, Pallav; Murphy, Kelle L; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Suguitan, Gil S; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-03

    Despite the fact that betel-quid is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances worldwide and a major risk-factor for head-and-neck cancer incidence and mortality globally, currently no standardized instrument is available to assess the reasons why individuals chew betel-quid. A measure to assess reasons for chewing betel-quid could help researchers and clinicians develop prevention and treatment strategies. In the current study, we sought to develop and evaluate a self-report instrument for assessing the reasons for chewing betel quid which contributes toward the goal of developing effective interventions to reduce betel quid chewing in vulnerable populations. The current study assessed the factor structure, reliability and convergent validity of the Reasons for Betel-quid Chewing Scale (RBCS), a newly developed 10 item measure adapted from several existing "reasons for smoking" scales. The measure was administered to 351 adult betel-quid chewers in Guam. Confirmatory factor analysis of this measure revealed a three factor structure: reinforcement, social/cultural, and stimulation. Further tests revealed strong support for the internal consistency and convergent validity of this three factor measure. The goal of designing an intervention to reduce betel-quid chewing necessitates an understanding of why chewers chew; the current study makes considerable contributions towards that objective.

  6. Chewing of betel quid: why do health careproviders in Thimphu, Bhutan, do it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Nidup; Pacheun, Oranut; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon

    2012-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of betel quid chewing and related factors including general characteristics, behavioral pattern, perception and social influences among health care providers in Thimphu, Bhutan. A self-administered questionnaire was handed to 478 health care providers working in different units of health care centers in Thimphu during June-July 2010. A total of 391 (81.8%) questionnaires were returned. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. The prevalence of current betel quid chewers among this group was 26.6%. Males chewed betel quid more than females (29.5%, 23.9% respectively). Forty-two percent of current chewers had no specific reasons for chewing betel quid, although 18.2% declared that they were addicted. Both friends and family members were key persons involved in influencing betel quid chewing. Marital status was significantly associated with betel quid chewing, married health care providers being 2 times more likely to chew betel quid (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.02-4.28) than those of single marital status. Similarly, those coming from West Bhutan, were 2 times more likely to be currently using betel quid (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.32-5.55) than other regions. Health care providers from families with more than half of their members chewing betel quid were 14 times more likely to be currently chewing it (OR = 14.52, 95% CI = 6.02-35.04) than families having none of their members chewing it. Health care smokers were more likely to chew betel quid than non-smoking ones (p-value = 0.012). Also occasional drinkers were 3 times more likely to be currently using betel quid (OR = 3.52, 95% CI = 1.78-6.96). Those who perceived a high barrier to quit chewing were about 2.6 times more likely to be current chewers of betel quid, than those who perceived less of a barrier to quit (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.21-5.67). The present study revealed betel quid chewing prevalence rate of 26.6%. Of the various factors

  7. Relationship between betel quid chewing and radiographic alveolar bone loss among Taiwanese aboriginals: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chun-Nan; Ting, Chun-Chan; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Ko, Edward Chengchuan

    2014-11-04

    Betel quid chewing is associated with the periodontal status; however, results of epidemiological studies are inconsistent. To the best of our knowledge, no study has reported radiographic alveolar bone loss (RABL) associated with betel quid chewing. This survey was conducted in an aboriginal community in Taiwan because almost all betel quid chewers were city-dwelling cigarette smokers. In total, 114 subjects, aged 30-60 years, were included. Full-mouth intraoral RABL was retrospectively measured and adjusted for age, gender, and plaque index (PI). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between RABL and potential risk factors. Age-, gender-, and PI-adjusted mean RABL was significantly higher in chewers with or without cigarette smoking than in controls. Multiple regression analysis showed that the RABL for consumption of 100,000 pieces betel quid for the chewer group was 0.40 mm. Full-mouth plotted curves for adjusted mean RABL in the maxilla were similar between the chewer and control groups, suggesting that chemical effects were not the main factors affecting the association between betel quid chewing and the periodontal status. Betel quid chewing significantly increases RABL. The main contributory factors are age and oral hygiene; however, the major mechanism underlying this process may not be a chemical mechanism. Regular dental visits, maintenance of good oral hygiene, and reduction in the consumption of betel quid, additives, and cigarettes are highly recommended to improve the periodontal status.

  8. Tobacco (kretek) smoking, betel quid chewing and risk of oral cancer in a selected Jakarta population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amtha, Rahmi; Razak, Ishak Abduk; Basuki, Bastaman; Roeslan, Boedi Oetomo; Gautama, Walta; Puwanto, Denny Joko; Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between tobacco consumption (kretek) and betel quid chewing with oral cancer risk. A total of 81 cases of oral cancers were matched with 162 controls in this hospital-based study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and details of risk habits (duration, frequency and type of tobacco consumption and betel quid chewing) were collected. Association between smoking and betel quid chewing with oral cancer were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Slightly more than half of the cases (55.6%) were smokers where 88.9% of them smoked kretek. After adjusting for confounders, smokers have two fold increased risk, while the risk for kretek consumers and those smoking for more than 10 years was increased to almost three-fold. Prevalence of betel quid chewing among cases and controls was low (7.4% and 1.9% respectively). Chewing of at least one quid per day, and quid combination of betel leaf, areca nut, lime and tobacco conferred a 5-6 fold increased risk. Smoking is positively associated with oral cancer risk. A similar direct association was also seen among betel quid chewers.

  9. Yauk gyar mann yin (Be a man!): masculinity and betel quid chewing among men in Mandalay, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Thida; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Lin, Chu Fu; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Betel quid chewing is associated with various oral cancers and other health concerns, including reproductive health issues. Nevertheless, the practice is widespread in Myanmar, especially among men. This qualitative study elucidates the gendered aspects of betel quid chewing by examining how it links with masculine ideology among male betel quid chewers in Mandalay, Myanmar. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, focus-group discussions, key-informant interviews and participant observation. The thematic content analysis was guided by Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity and Butler's notion of gender performativity. The findings indicated that young Mandalay men were drawn to betel quid chewing by the value they gave to satisfying their curiosity, power competition, risk-taking and a display of manliness. Thus, the practice of betel quid chewing, as defined by our participants, was perceived as manly, trendy, stylish and sexually attractive. For adult men, betel quid chewing was a social lubricant that assisted them in talking with clients and co-workers, thus enhancing their economic opportunities with other men. It also helped working-class men to work harder. Betel quid chewing harm-reduction programmes therefore need to be mindful of masculinity issues as well as the economic aspects of betel quid chewing.

  10. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handa Yujiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid chewing is a common habit widely practiced in Southern Asian populations. However, variations are seen in the content of a betel quid across the different countries. Factors associated with commencement and cessation of this habit has been numerously studied. Unfortunately, data on Malaysian population is non-existent. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the inception and also cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour among Malaysian adults. Method This study is part of a nationwide survey on oral mucosal lesions carried out among 11,697 adults in all fourteen states in Malaysia. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information and details on betel quid chewing habit such as duration, type and frequency. The Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated and plotted to compare the rates for the commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios for factors related to commencement or cessation of this habit. Results Of the total subjects, 8.2% were found to be betel quid chewers. This habit was more prevalent among females and, in terms of ethnicity, among the Indians and the Indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak. Cessation of this habit was more commonly seen among males and the Chinese. Females were found to be significantly more likely to start (p Conclusion Factors that influence the development and cessation of this behaviour are gender, age, ethnicity, and also history of smoking habit while frequency and type of quid chewed are important factors for cessation of this habit.

  11. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I., E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg{sup -1}) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg{sup -1}) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg{sup -1}), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg{sup -1} (SD 0.02 mg kg{sup -1}). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg{sup -1}) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  12. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg(-1)) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg(-1)) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg(-1)), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg(-1) (SD 0.02 mg kg(-1)). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg(-1)) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg(-1)), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O.; Haris, Parvez I.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg -1 ) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg -1 ) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg -1 ), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg -1 (SD 0.02 mg kg -1 ). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg -1 ) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg -1 ), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  14. The role of betel-quid chewing in smoking cessation among workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Li; Chen, Peter Y; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Min-Chien

    2014-07-28

    Current smokers exhibit a higher rate of betel-quid chewing than non-smokers. However, little is known regarding the extent to which betel-quid chewing may affect attempts to quit smoking and smoking cessation. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between betel-quid chewing and patterns of quitting smoking. Specifically, we explore whether betel-quid chewing is associated with (1) current smokers who have never attempted to quit versus those who have attempted to quit and have failed, those who are in the process of quitting, and successful cessation smokers, and (2) current smokers who have attempted to quit and have failed versus those who have successfully quit smoking. A telephone survey of 7,215 workers was conducted and obtained an 88.6% response rate. In the survey, the respondents' smoking and betel-quid chewing statuses were recorded and a list of covariates was assessed. After controlling for the effect of the covariates, betel-quid chewing was found to be more highly associated with current smokers who have never attempted to quit, compared to current smokers who are in the process of quitting (OR = 12.72; 95% CI = 1.05-154.26), successful cessation smokers (OR = 3.62; 95% CI = 2.32-5.65), and smokers who have attempted to quit and have failed (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.06-1.77), respectively. In addition, betel-quid chewing is more highly associated with a failure to quit smoking than with successfully quitting smoking (OR = 3.46; 95% CI = 2.17-5.51). The findings support four plausible reasons why betel-quid chewing may dissuade smokers from quitting. These reasons highlight additional avenues for potentially reducing the smoking population in workplaces, such as considering work contexts and social norms, and product sales in smoking-cessation campaigns.

  15. Betel quid, chewing habits and difficult intubation: A case report and critical appraisal of evidence for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, P L; Hegde, Harihar V; Vijaykumar, T K; Nallamilli, Samson

    2015-01-01

    Betel quid is used by 10-20% of world of population. Oral submucus fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic premalignant disease common in South Asian countries where betel quid is chewed. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial fibrosis of oral cavity and limited mouth opening, which can cause difficult intubation. A recent study in Taiwan has revealed long-term betel nut chewing is not predictor of difficult intubation. We describe two cases of OSF and critically analyze this study and its implications for clinical practice. OSF is now seen in Saudi Arabia and western countries with use of commercial betel quid substitutes. Although betel quid without tobacco is used in Taiwan, available evidence suggests rapid and early development of OSF where commercial chewing products like Pan Masala are used in India. Effects of betel quid may vary depending on the composition of quid and chewing habits. Studies where personal habits are involved must be analyzed carefully for external validity. Even though, Taiwan study is controlled, its validity outside Taiwan is highly questionable. Since OSF can cause unanticipated difficult intubation, thus during preanesthetic assessment, history of betel quid chewing, more importantly use of commercial chewing products is more likely to give clues to severity of OSF and possible difficult intubation. Further controlled trails in populations where commercial chewing products are used is necessary to detect association of chewing habits and difficult intubation.

  16. Nonlinear association between betel quid chewing and oral cancer: Implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathil, Sreenath Arekunnath; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Wynant, Willy; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-09-01

    Betel quid chewing is a major oral cancer risk factor and the human papillomaviruses (HPV) may play an aetiological role in these cancers. However, little is known about the shape of the dose-response relationship between the betel quid chewing habit and oral cancer risk in populations without HPV. We estimate the shape of this dose-response relationship, and discuss implications for prevention. Cases with oral squamous cell carcinoma (350) and non-cancer controls (371) were recruited from two major teaching hospitals in South India. Information on socio-demographic and behavioral factors was collected using a questionnaire and the life grid technique. The effect of daily amount of use and duration of the habit were estimated jointly as risk associated with cumulative exposure (chew-years). The shape of the dose-response curve was estimated using restricted cubic spline transformation of chew-years in a conditional logistic regression model. Risk estimates for low dose combinations of daily amount and duration of the habit were computed from flexible regression. Most (72%) oral cancer cases were betel quid chewers in contrast to only 18% of controls. A nonlinear dose-response relationship was observed; the risk increased steeply at low doses and plateaued at high exposures to betel quid (>425 chew-years). A threefold increase in risk (OR=3.92, 95%CI: 1.87-8.21) was observed for the lowest dose; equivalent to the use of one quid per day for one year. Our findings may be used to counsel people to refrain from even low betel quid chewing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical evidence of field cancerization in patients with oral cavity cancer in a betel quid chewing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Wallace, Christopher G; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2014-08-01

    We sought to investigate whether there is evidence of field cancerization in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) enrolled in a betel quid chewing area. We also assessed whether betel quid chewing is an independent risk factor for field cancerization in OSCC patients. We retrospectively examined the records of 1570 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2011. A total of 1243 study participants (79%) had a positive history of betel quid chewing before surgery. Of the 767 patients treated with surgery alone, 599 (78%) were preoperative chewers, whereas a history of preoperative betel quid chewing was identified in 644 (80%) of the 803 patients who received adjuvant therapy. The 5-year control, survival, and second primary tumors (SPTs) rates served as the main outcome measures. Regardless of the treatment modality, more than 70% of the SPTs were located in the oral cavity or soft palate. Despite a similar risk profile in terms of tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, and pathological margin status, preoperative chewers showed a significantly higher incidence of 5-year SPTs and local recurrences compared with non-chewers. Moreover, multivariate analysis demonstrated that preoperative betel quid chewing was an independent prognostic factor for 5-year local control and SPTs occurrence rates. Our results demonstrate that preoperative betel quid chewers had a higher incidence of local recurrence and SPTs than non-chewers, suggesting that field cancerization may occur in OSCC patients with a history of betel quid chewing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reasons for betel quid chewing amongst dependent and non-dependent betel quid chewing adolescents: a school-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azmina; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2018-05-09

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing in children is initiated in their adolescence. It is pivotal to understand adolescents' reasons behind chewing BQ. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reasons for BQ chewing amongst adolescents using reasons for betel quid chewing scale (RBCS) and their associated dependency on it. This is a cross-sectional school based survey. Out of 2200 adolescents from 26 schools of Karachi, 874 BQ chewers were assessed for their reasons of BQ chewing and dependency on it. Regression analyses were employed to report crude and adjusted (after adjusting for all reasons of BQ chewing) effect sizes with 95% confidence interval and P-value was set significant at < 0.05. Students who believed that BQ chewing relaxes them (stimulation construct) were twice as likely to be dependent on BQ (OR = 2.36, 95% CI (1.20-4.65) as compared with others. Participants who thought it eases their decision making (stimulation construct), were sizably more likely to be dependent on BQ (OR = 9.65, 95% CI (4.15-22.43) than those who did not consider ease in decision making important. Adolescents who considered not chewing as rude (social/cultural construct), were thrice more likely to be dependent on BQ (OR = 2.50, 95% CI (1.11-5.63) than others. Stimulation remained fundamental chewing reason followed by social/cultural trigger amongst adolescents. Any future intervention may get favorable results if it addresses ways to overcome stimulation and social/cultural barriers that are strongly associated with BQ chewing and dependency.

  19. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-02-07

    A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L(-1)) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L(-1)). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg(-1) (range 26 -518 mg kg(-1)). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg(-1) (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.

  20. Chewing betel quid and the risk of metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomohide; Hara, Kazuo; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Betel nut (Areca nut) is the fruit of the Areca catechu tree. Approximately 700 million individuals regularly chew betel nut (or betel quid) worldwide and it is a known risk factor for oral cancer and esophageal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the influence of chewing betel quid on metabolic diseases, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. We searched Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Science Direct for pertinent articles (including the references) published between 1951 and 2013. The adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval were calculated using the random effect model. Sex was used as an independent category for comparison. Of 580 potentially relevant studies, 17 studies from Asia (5 cohort studies and 12 case-control studies) covering 388,134 subjects (range: 94 to 97,244) were selected. Seven studies (N = 121,585) showed significant dose-response relationships between betel quid consumption and the risk of events. According to pooled analysis, the adjusted RR of betel quid chewers vs. non-chewers was 1.47 (PBetel quid chewing is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Thus, in addition to preventing oral cancer, stopping betel quid use could be a valuable public health measure for metabolic diseases that are showing a rapid increase in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific.

  1. Oral lichenoid contact lesions induced by areca nut and betel quid chewing: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, Peter A; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2012-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut chewing is widely prevalent in many parts of Asia and Asian-migrant communities throughout the world. Global reports estimate 600 million users. Sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity has been found for BQ and its main ingredient, areca nut. BQ areca nut users have an increased risk of potentially malignant disorders. Among chewers, BQ remains in contact with the oral mucosa for prolonged periods. This review examines the clinical and pathological aspects of lichenoid lesions caused by areca nut and BQ, a condition that has received little attention in the published literature. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Epidemiology of betel quid usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P C; Ray, C S

    2004-07-01

    Betel quid chewing is an ancient practice common in many countries of Asia and among migrated communities in Africa, Europe and North America. It enjoys complete social acceptance in many societies and is also popular among women. In its most basic form, betel quid consists of betel leaf (Piper betel), areca nut, the main psychoactive ingredient, and slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). Areca nut is said to be the fourth most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world, after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. There are a great variety of ingredients and ways of preparing betel quid in different countries. In some, particularly in India, tobacco is added to the quid. In recent years, commercially-manufactured non-perishable forms of betel quid (pan masala or betel quid mixtures and gutka), not containing betel leaf, have been marketed. Within a short period of about 2 decades, this industry has risen in value to several hundred US million dollars. Use of areca nut in any form is not safe for oral health; the use of commercially manufactured forms seems even riskier.

  3. Association of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Betel Quid Chewing with Epigenetic Aberrations in Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong-Hong; Hsia, Shih-Min; Shih, Yin-Hwa; Shieh, Tzong-Ming

    2017-06-06

    Numerous environmental factors such as diet, alcohol use, stress, and environmental chemicals are known to elicit epigenetic changes, leading to increased rates of cancers and other diseases. The incidence of head and neck cancer, one of the most common cancers in Taiwanese males, is increasing: oral cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are ranked fourth and tenth respectively, among the top ten cancers in this group, and a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Taiwanese males. Previous studies have identified smoking, alcohol use, and betel quid chewing as the three major causes of head and neck cancers; these three social habits are commonly observed in Taiwanese males, resulting in an increasing morbidity rate of head and neck cancers in this population. In this literature review, we discuss the association between specific components of betel quid, alcohol, and tobacco, and the occurrence of head and neck cancers, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and urethral cancer. We focus on regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level and their oncogenic effects. The review further discusses the application of FDA-approved epigenetic drugs as therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  4. Association of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Betel Quid Chewing with Epigenetic Aberrations in Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Hong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental factors such as diet, alcohol use, stress, and environmental chemicals are known to elicit epigenetic changes, leading to increased rates of cancers and other diseases. The incidence of head and neck cancer, one of the most common cancers in Taiwanese males, is increasing: oral cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are ranked fourth and tenth respectively, among the top ten cancers in this group, and a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Taiwanese males. Previous studies have identified smoking, alcohol use, and betel quid chewing as the three major causes of head and neck cancers; these three social habits are commonly observed in Taiwanese males, resulting in an increasing morbidity rate of head and neck cancers in this population. In this literature review, we discuss the association between specific components of betel quid, alcohol, and tobacco, and the occurrence of head and neck cancers, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and urethral cancer. We focus on regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level and their oncogenic effects. The review further discusses the application of FDA-approved epigenetic drugs as therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  5. Oral mucosal lesions associated with betel quid, areca nut and tobacco chewing habits: consensus from a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 25-27, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, R B; Ikeda, N; Gupta, P C; Warnakulasuriya, S; van Wyk, C W; Shrestha, P; Axéll, T

    1999-01-01

    A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that "quid" be defined as "a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or both of the two basic ingredients, tobacco and/or areca nut, in raw or any manufactured or processed form." Clear delineations on contents of the quid (areca nut quid, tobacco quid, and tobacco and areca nut quid) are recommended as absolute criteria with finer subdivisions to be added if necessary. The betel quid refers to any quid wrapped in betel leaf and is therefore a specific variety of quid. The workshop proposed that quid-related lesions should be categorized conceptually into two categories: first, those that are diffusely outlined and second, those localized at the site where a quid is regularly placed. Additional or expanded criteria and guidelines were proposed to define, describe or identify lesions such as chewer's mucosa, areca nut chewer's lesion, oral submucous fibrosis and other quid-related lesions. A new clinical entity, betel-quid lichenoid lesion, was also proposed to describe an oral lichen planus-like lesion associated with the betel quid habit.

  6. Ortho- and meta-tyrosine formation from phenylalanine in human saliva as a marker of hydroxyl radical generation during betel quid chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U J; Nair, J; Friesen, M D; Bartsch, H; Ohshima, H

    1995-05-01

    The habit of betel quid chewing, common in South-East Asia and the South Pacific islands, is causally associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. Reactive oxygen species formed from polyphenolic betel quid ingredients and lime at alkaline pH have been implicated as the agents responsible for DNA and tissue damage. To determine whether hydroxyl radical (HO.) is generated in the human oral cavity during chewing of betel quid, the formation of o- and m-tyrosine from L-phenylalanine was measured. Both o- and m-tyrosine were formed in vitro in the presence of extracts of areca nut and/or catechu, transition metal ions such as Cu2+ and Fe2+ and lime or sodium carbonate (alkaline pH). Omission of any of these ingredients from the reaction mixture significantly reduced the yield of tyrosines. Hydroxyl radical scavengers such as ethanol, D-mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide inhibited the phenylalanine oxidation in a dose-dependent fashion. Five volunteers chewed betel quid consisting of betel leaf, areca nut, catechu and slaked lime (without tobacco). Their saliva, collected after chewing betel quid, contained high concentrations of p-tyrosine, but no appreciable amounts of o- or m-tyrosine. Saliva samples from the same subjects after chewing betel quid to which 20 mg phenylalanine had been added contained o- and m-tyrosine at concentrations ranging from 1010 to 3000 nM and from 1110 to 3140 nM respectively. These levels were significantly higher (P betel quid, which ranged from 14 to 70 nM for o-tyrosine and from 10 to 35 nM for m-tyrosine. These studies clearly demonstrate that the HO. radical is formed in the human oral cavity during betel quid chewing and is probably implicated in the genetic damage that has been observed in oral epithelial cells of chewers.

  7. Betel quid-induced oral lichen planus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoopler, Eric T; Parisi, Ernesta; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2003-04-01

    The social use of betel nut is relatively common in certain geographic areas, especially India and Southeast Asia. The term betel nut does not truly describe the product that is chewed; rather, the term quid is more accurate because it refers to a substance or mixture of substances, including the areca nut, that are chewed and remain in contact with the mucosa. Betel quid is a type of quid that contains betel leaf. Chewer's mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis are clinical entities that have been associated with betel quid use. We report a case of oral lichen planus induced by betel quid use in a 79-year-old Cambodian woman.

  8. The Incidence of Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers in Betel Quid-Chewing Populations in South Myanmar Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Nobuyoshi; Swe Swe Win; Zaw Moe Thein; Moe Thida Htwe; Yoshioka, Yohsuke; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Iida, Seiji; Myo Khin; Okada, Shigeru; Than Sein

    2017-12-01

    Oral cancer is a very common disease in South and Southeast Asia. Betel quid (BQ)- chewing and tobaccosmoking habits are etiological factors for oral cancer patients in these regions. We conducted an oral cancer screening in BQ-chewing endemic rural areas in South Myanmar for the early detection of oral cancer in BQ-chewing and smoking individuals. We examined 105 subjects who were at high risk of oral cancer due to their oral habits (BQ users and/or smokers). Three carcinoma cases were detected, and there were 8 dysplasia cases. The carcinoma detection rate was 2.9%, and the carcinoma and precancerous lesion detection rate was 10.5%. In Myanmar, oral cancer screening has been conducted sporadically on a voluntary basis, and nationwide surveys have never been performed. There are also few reports of oral cancer screening for high-risk groups among the general population in Myanmar. Our present findings highlight the need for further screening and surveys. Education on betel quid chewing- and tobacco- related oral diseases and screening for the early detection of oral cancer are of the utmost importance in the control and prevention of oral cancer.

  9. Intention to quit betel quid: a comparison of betel quid chewers and cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Pokhrel, Pallav; Murphy, Kelle L; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Suguitan, Gil S; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-01

    Despite the global significance of betel quid chewing and the associated health risks, there have been no studies assessing chewers' intention to quit. Given the difficulties associated with quitting betel quid and the serious health consequences of chewing, it is important for researchers to develop interventions aimed at helping chewers quit. Betel quid chewers experience similar patterns of dependence and withdrawal symptoms as tobacco smokers, and the use of both substances causes serious adverse health effects. Therefore, it is possible that intention to quit betel quid and tobacco would also be similar. If similarities were found, researchers could look to existing tobacco cessation interventions to inform the development of betel quid cessation interventions. In the current study we sought to understand chewers' intention to quit and how it compares to smokers' intention to quit cigarettes. A total of 351 adult betel quid chewers from Guam were compared against 1,555 adult tobacco users from Hawaii. These comparisons were made possible because of the deliberate use of identical questionnaire items (mutatis mutandis) for betel quid chewing and cigarette smoking. Smokers reported higher levels of wanting to quit, intending to quit, and wishing they have never started in the first place compared to chewers (p'sbetel quid cessation interventions.

  10. Relationships Among Smoking, Drinking, Betel Quid Chewing and Pregnancy-Related Nausea and Vomiting in Taiwanese Aboriginal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Hao Chou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the associations among smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing and pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting (N/V in Taiwanese aboriginal women. A total of 901 aboriginal women from 11 hospitals were recruited into this study. A structured questionnaire on demographic and obstetric information, smoking history, alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing habits, and N/V by checklist was used to collect data. The findings of this study indicated that the prevalence of N/V, maternal smoking, drinking, and betel quid chewing were 75.6% (n = 682, 22.8% (n = 201, 31.9% (n = 287, and 34.7% (n = 313 respectively. Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, body mass index and antiemetics use revealed significant relationships between smoking habits and N/V before confirmation of pregnancy and during pregnancy. In comparison with those who did not smoke, women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day before pregnancy were 1.65 times more likely to develop N/V; and women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day during pregnancy were 2.79 times more likely to develop N/V. Based on the findings of this study, smoking was associated, with a dose-response effect, with pregnancy-related N/V. Reducing the intake of cigarettes could decrease the risk of pregnancy-related N/V. Health care providers should help these women decrease their uncomfortable symptoms and improve their experiences of pregnancy and birth outcome during critical times.

  11. Social cognitive determinants of betel quid chewing among college students in southern Taiwan: a revised Attitudes-Social Influence-Efficacy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hung; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2007-10-01

    Through Structural Equation Modeling, this study aimed to revise and examine the Attitudes-Social Influence-Efficacy Model in explaining the psychosocial process of betel quid use among Southern Taiwan college students. A representative sample of 3,741 college students were recruited from 14 colleges through stratified and random cluster sampling, yielding 3,162 valid participants. Results showed that the revised ASE model accounted for 26.5% of the variance in betel quid use and had a better model-fit evaluation than the original model. Intention to chew affected the use of betel quid, while both social influence and refusal self-efficacy had a direct impact on intention and use as well as an indirect effect on use through intention. Additionally, both positive and negative outcome expectancies predicted intention and betel quid use via refusal self-efficacy. Our results supported the revised ASE model for explaining the psychosocial processes of betel quid use, suggesting that more attention should be given towards the development of school-based preventive programs on diminishing social influence and promoting refusal self-efficacy in betel quid use.

  12. Resident Rounds: Part III - Case Report: Betel Quid Induced Irritant Contact Dermatitis of the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Regine J; Cheraghi, Nikoo; Russo, Marian A

    2016-06-01

    Betel quid is a drug used in Far East Asia, India, and the South Pacific. The habit of betel quid chewing is widely reported to cause oral cancer and tooth and gum disease. However, skin disease due to betel quid use is underreported. We report a case of irritant contact dermatitis to betel quid components in a 35-year-old male betel quid user who presented for evaluation of a persistent rash on his fingertips.

  13. Pilot study of the pharmacokinetics of betel nut and betel quid biomarkers in saliva, urine, and hair of betel consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Adrian A.; Li, Xingnan; Lai, Jennifer F.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 600 million people worldwide practise the carcinogenic habit of betel nut/quid chewing. Carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds have been identified in saliva or urine of betel chewers and the betel alkaloid arecoline in hair from habitual betel quid chewers. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters of these compounds have been little explored. Assessment of betel use by biomarkers is urgently needed to evaluate the effectiveness of cessation programmes aimed at reducing betel consumpti...

  14. P53 and bak mutations as a predictive factor for radiotherapy of oral cancer associated with betel quid chewing in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongyo, Tadashi; Nawa, Nobutoshi; Nomura, Taisei; Parida, Dillip K.; Rath, Goura K.

    2004-01-01

    Betel quid chewing is very common in India and Southeast Asian countries, where oral cancer comprises up to 40% of the total malignancies. Radiotherapy is usually adopted for oral cancer, but the prognosis is very poor. Therefore, identifying predictive parameters for radiotherapy is utmost important

  15. Distinctive Features of Oral Cancer in Changhua County: High Incidence, Buccal Mucosa Preponderance, and a Close Relation to Betel Quid Chewing Habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Chun Su

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that the high incidence and buccal mucosa preponderance of oral cancer in Changhua may have an exceptionally close relation with patients' betel quid chewing habit, and other unknown etiologic factors may also be present locally. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:225-233

  16. Association between betel quid chewing and carotid intima-media thickness in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Tyler R; Parvez, Faruque; Wu, Fen; Wang, Weijia; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Areca nut, more commonly known as betel nut, is the fourth most commonly used addictive substance in the world. Though recent evidence suggests it may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease, no studies have investigated whether betel nut use is related to subclinical atherosclerosis. We evaluated the association between betel nut use and subclinical atherosclerosis in 1206 participants randomly sampled from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Frequency and duration of betel nut use were assessed at baseline, and carotid IMT was measured on average 6.65 years after baseline. A positive association was observed between duration and cumulative exposure (function of duration and frequency) of betel nut use and IMT, with above-median use for duration (7 or more years) and cumulative exposure (30 or more quid-years) corresponding to a 19.1 μm [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.3-32.8; P ≤ 0.01] and 16.8 μm (95% CI: 2.9-30.8; P betel use such that the joint exposure was associated with a 42.4 μm (95% CI: 21.6-63.2; P ≤ 0.01) difference in IMT. Betel nut use at long duration or high cumulative exposure levels is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis as manifested through carotid IMT. This effect is especially pronounced among men and cigarette smokers. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  17. Effects of arecoline on adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake of adipocytes-A possible role of betel-quid chewing in metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Hsin-Fen; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chao, How-Ran; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Kuo, Ya-Ting; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Yeh, Szu-Ching; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of betel-quid chewing in adipocyte dysfunction, we determined the effects of arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, on adipogenic differentiation (adipogenesis), lipolysis, and glucose uptake by fat cells. Using mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we showed that arecoline inhibited adipogenesis as determined by oil droplet formation and adipogenic marker gene expression. The effects of arecoline on lipolysis of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were determined by the glycerol release assay, indicating that arecoline induced lipolysis in an adenylyl cyclase-dependent manner. The diabetogenic effects of arecoline on differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were evaluated by the glucose uptake assay, revealing that ≥ 300 μM arecoline significantly attenuated insulin-induced glucose uptake; however, no marked effect on basal glucose uptake was detected. Moreover, using 94 subjects that were randomly selected from a health check-up, we determined the association of betel-quid chewing with hyperlipidemia and its related risk factors. Hyperlipidemia frequency and serum triglyceride levels of betel-quid chewers were significantly higher than those of non-betel-quid chewers. In this study, we demonstrated that arecoline inhibits adipogenic differentiation, induces adenylyl cyclase-dependent lipolysis, and interferes with insulin-induced glucose uptake. Arecoline-induced fat cell dysfunction may lead to hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia/insulin-resistance. These findings provide the first in vitro evidence of betel-quid chewing modulation of adipose cell metabolism that could contribute to the explanation of the association of this habit with metabolic syndrome disorders.

  18. Betel quid chewing leads to the development of unique de novo malignancies in liver transplant recipients, a retrospective single center study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chan; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Yu-Chao; Wu, Ting-Jun; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Chan, Kun-Ming; Lee, Wei-Chen; Lee, Chen-Fang; Soong, Ruey Shyang

    2016-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the choice of treatment not only for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure but also for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The development of de novo malignancies after liver transplantation plays an important role in late mortality; the incidence of late mortality has increased owing to improved survival. The incidence of de novo malignancies is 2.3% to 25%, which is 2 to 3 times that of malignancies in the general population. The most commonly reported de novo malignancies in solid organs are skin cancer, Karposi sarcoma, and colon cancer according to the frequency of exposure to a specific carcinogen. We hypothesized that exposure to different carcinogens would change the distribution of de novo malignancies among patients after OLT. In Taiwan, 10% of the population is exposed to a unique carcinogen, the betel quid, which is associated with a high incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) among the Taiwanese population.From 2004 to 2014, we retrospectively reviewed 484 cases post-OLT at our institution and 16 patients with 17 de novo malignancies were identified. Most of the patients had HNC, which is in contrast to previous literature reports.Univariate and multivariate analyses identified betel quid chewing as the main leading factor for HNC in the Taiwanese population.Routine screening of the oral mucosa in patients with the habit of betel quid chewing is recommended in Taiwan for the early detection of HNC. Routine screening with aggressive treatment after diagnosis of HNC in patients with the habit of chewing betel quid, who underwent OLT, resulted in good patient prognosis.

  19. Cheilitis granulomatosa associated with allergic contact dermatitis to betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cheng-Sheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun

    2008-04-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare disorder of unknown origin, which is characterized clinically by painless, recurrent or persistent swelling of 1 or both lips. Betel quids, composed of betel nuts (seeds of the Areca catechu), slake lime, and Piper betel leaf/or Piper betel inflorescence, are widely used in Asia and strongly associated with oral mucosal disease. It has also been found to be a cause of contact leukomelanosis because of its ingredients of various chemicals. We describe a case of CG induced by betel quid chewing.

  20. The Betel Quid Dependence Scale: replication and extension in a Guamanian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thaddeus A; Murphy, Kelle L; Little, Melissa A; Suguitan, Gil S; Pokhrel, Pallav; Kawamoto, Crissy T

    2014-05-01

    Betel quid is the fourth most commonly consumed psychoactive substance in the world. The Betel Quid Dependence Scale (BQDS) is the first instrument designed specifically to measure betel quid dependence. The three factor structure of the BQDS consists of "physical and psychological urgent need," "increasing dose," and "maladaptive use." The BQDS initially was validated in a sample of male prisoner ex-chewers in Taiwan. To replicate and extend the original validation research on the BQDS in a sample of male and female current betel quid chewers in Guam. A survey containing the BQDS was administered to 300 current betel quid chewers in Guam. Participants were compensated for their time with a gift card worth $25. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an adequate fit with the hypothesized three-factor measurement model. ANOVAs and structural equations modeling revealed that betel quid dependence is associated with the inclusion of tobacco in the quid, number of chews per day, years of chewing, and education. The BQDS is valid for current English-speaking male and female chewers in Guam. Overall levels of betel quid dependence were high, and most chewers included tobacco in their betel quid. The results suggest that levels of dependence for betel quid are similar to those observed for nicotine dependence. Future research should explore other important psychological and behavioral aspects of betel quid chewing such as health risk perceptions and motivation to quit chewing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Secondary Prevention of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Areas Where Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid Chewing are Prevalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shuan Chung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.

  2. [A Symbol of Connectedness Between the Self and the Tribal Home: Betel Quid in the Lives of Indigenous Taiwanese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Chia-Ing; Gritz, Ellen R; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Lam, Cho; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2017-06-01

    Betel quid chewing plays a significant role in the development of oral cancer, yet the high prevalence of betel quid use remains a serious health problem in Taiwan, especially among indigenous Taiwanese. The present study aimed to understand the reasons behind betel-quid chewing among indigenous Taiwanese people by examining the larger context of their culture and traditions. This descriptive, qualitative study recruited ten regular betel quid indigenous chewers using purposive and snowball sampling. Four of the participants were interviewed individually and the remaining six comprised a focus group. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with semi-structured guidelines and analyzed using qualitative content analysis following the process of open coding, identifying codes, giving meaningful names to codes, putting similar codes in categories, and grouping categories into themes. Most of the participants associated betel quid with significant aspects of life, with betel quid symbolizing social belonging. In indigenous cultures, betel nut embodies the enduring companionship of lifelong friends. For the study participants, chewing betel quid was associated with symbolic meanings associated with the following five themes: betel quid chewing helps reinforce self-identity and sense of belonging; betel quid is considered a traditional symbol of love and marriage; betel quid reflects the celebration of simple abundance in indigenous life; betel quid represents an attitude toward life that accentuates the importance of learning to live in everlasting harmony with the environment and nature; and betel quid chewing is used to cure physical ailments and mitigate dental problems. Beliefs related to chewing betel quid deeply impact the attitudes of indigenous people toward this behavior. Because chewing betel quid is an essential part of Taiwanese indigenous community life, the cultural and symbolic meanings of this practice must be taken into consideration when drafting

  3. The effectiveness of school educating program for betel quid chewing: A pilot study in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effectiveness of educating program among primary and secondary school students in Papua New Guinea, where has the highest incidence of oral cancer all over the world. Methods: A cross-sectional school based survey was arranged in primary and secondary school in Papua New Guinea in June, 2015. A self-administrated questionnaire was administered before and after education done by health experts from Taiwan. The subjects were chosen by random. The schools provided the students we educated and did the questionnaires on. Results: Ninety five primary school students and 55 secondary school students in Papua New Guinea participated in the study. Before education, both groups lacked the knowledge that betel quid is harmful to health and had no motivation to quit betel quid consumption with the average score 4.580 out of the total score of 8 for primary school students, and the average score of 4.600 out of the total score of 8 for secondary school students. After education, improvements were noted in knowledge of betel quid among both groups, and reached the statistical significance for secondary school students (mean difference 0.700 ± 0.277, 95% CI 0.164–1.248, p-value = 0.018. Conclusion: A great achievement was gained by a short time of education. To prevent the incidence and mortality of oral cancer in Papua New Guinea, education programs should be arranged aggressively and effectively. Keywords: Betel nut, Betel quid, Education, Papua New Guinea

  4. The effect of stimulants and their combined use with cigarettes on mortality: the case of betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shao-Hsun; Sheu, Sheng-Jang

    2013-08-01

    Ten percent of the world's population use betel quid, making betel quid the fourth most used substance in the world. In Taiwan, there are an estimated 1.5 million users and the majority of them are also smokers. The number of people who died from oral cancer rose more than five times over the period from 1987 to 2006. In this study, we employ propensity score matching and the Weibull hazard model with instrumental variables to examine the health effects of betel quid chewing, in particular the health effect of its combined use with cigarettes. We show that betel quid chewing and smoking have a significant negative effect on health, and that the 10-year death hazard for joint users of betel quid and cigarettes doubles that for abstainers. Moreover, betel quid chewing is as harmful to health as smoking. We also find that betel quid chewing and smoking significantly increase the odds of dying from oral and oesophagus cancers.

  5. The effectiveness of school educating program for betel quid chewing: A pilot study in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gene; Hsieh, Ming-Yu; Chen, Andy Wei-Ge; Kao, Nina Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of educating program among primary and secondary school students in Papua New Guinea, where has the highest incidence of oral cancer all over the world. A cross-sectional school based survey was arranged in primary and secondary school in Papua New Guinea in June, 2015. A self-administrated questionnaire was administered before and after education done by health experts from Taiwan. The subjects were chosen by random. The schools provided the students we educated and did the questionnaires on. Ninety five primary school students and 55 secondary school students in Papua New Guinea participated in the study. Before education, both groups lacked the knowledge that betel quid is harmful to health and had no motivation to quit betel quid consumption with the average score 4.580 out of the total score of 8 for primary school students, and the average score of 4.600 out of the total score of 8 for secondary school students. After education, improvements were noted in knowledge of betel quid among both groups, and reached the statistical significance for secondary school students (mean difference 0.700 ± 0.277, 95% CI 0.164-1.248, p-value = 0.018). A great achievement was gained by a short time of education. To prevent the incidence and mortality of oral cancer in Papua New Guinea, education programs should be arranged aggressively and effectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  6. Effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and betel quid chewing on upper digestive diseases: a large cross-sectional study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yun-Shiuan; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Yu, Fang-Jung; Wang, Yao-Kuang; Lu, Chien-Yu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, I-Chen

    2017-09-29

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor of upper digestive diseases. Findings on alcohol's effect on these diseases are inconsistent and with the exception of its association with esophageal cancer, little is known about betel quid chewing. This study investigated the association between use of these three substances and upper digestive diseases. We collected data from 9,275 patients receiving upper endoscopies between April 2008 and December 2013. Polynomial regressions were used to analyze the association between risk factors and diseases of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Meta-analysis for use of these substances and esophageal diseases was also performed. Participants who simultaneously consumed cigarettes, alcohol and betel quid had a 17.28-fold risk of esophageal cancer (95% CI = 7.59-39.33), 2.99-fold risk of Barrette's esophagus (95% CI = 2.40-4.39), 1.60-fold risk of grade A-B erosive esophagitis (95% CI = 1.29-2.00), 2.00-fold risk of gastric ulcer (95% CI = 1.52-2.63), 2.12-fold risk of duodenitis (95% CI = 1.55-2.89) and 1.29-fold risk of duodenal ulcer (95% CI = 1.01-1.65). Concurrent consumption of more substances was associated with significantly higher risk of developing these diseases. Meta-analysis also revealed use of the three substances came with a high risk of esophageal diseases. In conclusions, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and betel quid chewing were associated with upper digestive tract diseases.

  7. Tobacco-Smoking, Alcohol-Drinking, and Betel-Quid-Chewing Behaviors: Development and Use of a Web-Based Survey System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Huang, Chu-Ching; Yeh, Wen-Ling; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Ching-Yen; Lee, Hsiu-Lan

    2018-06-11

    Smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid are health-risk behaviors for several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, with severe impacts on health. However, health care providers often have limited time to assess clients' behaviors regarding smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid and intervene, if needed. The objective of this study was to develop a Web-based survey system; determine the rates of tobacco-smoking, alcohol-drinking, and betel-quid-chewing behaviors; and estimate the efficiency of the system (time to complete the survey). Patients and their family members or friends were recruited from gastrointestinal medical-surgical, otolaryngology, orthopedics, and rehabilitation clinics or wards at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data for this descriptive, cross-sectional study were extracted from a large series of research studies. A Web-based survey system was developed using a Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP stack solution. The Web survey was set up to include four questionnaires: the Chinese-version Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, the Chinese-version Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Betel Nut Dependency Scale, and a sociodemographic form with several chronic diseases. After the participants completed the survey, the system automatically calculated their score, categorized their risk level for each behavior, and immediately presented and explained their results. The system also recorded the time each participant took to complete the survey. Of 782 patient participants, 29.6% were addicted to nicotine, 13.3% were hazardous, harmful, or dependent alcohol drinkers, and 1.5% were dependent on chewing betel quid. Of 425 family or friend participants, 19.8% were addicted to nicotine, 5.6% were hazardous, harmful, or dependent alcohol drinkers, and 0.9% were dependent on chewing betel quid. Regarding the mean time to complete the survey, patients took 7.9 minutes (SD 3.0; range 3-20) and

  8. Pilot study of the pharmacokinetics of betel nut and betel quid biomarkers in saliva, urine, and hair of betel consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Li, Xingnan; Lai, Jennifer F

    2016-10-01

    Approximately 600 million people worldwide practise the carcinogenic habit of betel nut/quid chewing. Carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds have been identified in saliva or urine of betel chewers and the betel alkaloid arecoline in hair from habitual betel quid chewers. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters of these compounds have been little explored. Assessment of betel use by biomarkers is urgently needed to evaluate the effectiveness of cessation programmes aimed at reducing betel consumption to decrease the burden of cancers in regions of high betel consumption. In the search for biomarkers of betel consumption, we measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) the appearance and disappearance of betel alkaloids (characteristic for betel nuts), N-nitroso compounds, and chavibetol (characteristic for Piper Betle leaves) in saliva (n=4), hair (n=2), and urine (n=1) of occasional betel nut/quid chewers. The betel alkaloids arecoline, guvacoline, guvacine, and arecaidine were detected in saliva of all four participants and peaked within the first 2 h post-chewing before returning to baseline levels after 8 h. Salivary chavibetol was detected in participants consuming Piper Betle leaves in their quid and peaked ~1 h post-chewing. Urinary arecoline, guvacoline, and arecaidine excretion paralleled saliva almost exactly while chavibetol glucuronide excretion paralleled salivary chavibetol. No betel nut related compounds were detected in the tested hair samples using various extraction methods. From these preliminary results, we conclude that betel exposure can only be followed on a short-term basis (≤8 h post-chewing) using the applied biomarkers from urine and saliva while the feasibility of using hair has yet to be validated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Social and Cultural Context of Betel Quid Consumption in Taiwan and Implications for Prevention and Cessation Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Ma, Wei-Fen; Lam, Cho; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lin, Mi-Ting; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Li, Tsai-Chung; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Lu, I-Ying; Gritz, Ellen R

    2017-04-16

    In Taiwan, betel quid chewing is a part of social life for chewers. Betel quid itself, with or without tobacco, is a Group 1 human carcinogen. Betel quid chewing has become a severe health threat in Taiwan. The aim of the present study was to identify the individual, social, contextual, and cultural factors related to initiation, continuous use, and cessation of betel quid chewing. Four focus groups and 15 in depth face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2013 with current and former users of betel quid, members of a community organization located in central Taiwan. A thematic analysis identified themes evident across all groups. Study participants (N = 41) were 66% male and 34% female; mean age was 40.34 ± 9.23 years. Participants stated that betel quid initiation usually occurs during childhood and that the most frequent reasons for chewing were: to follow cultural/social traditions, to achieve an energetic feeling, and to avoid boredom. Participants perceived betel quid chewing as an addiction and a risk factor for cancer and other health-related conditions. The most frequently mentioned barriers to quitting betel quid included: peer pressure and selected withdrawal symptoms. For the development of culturally relevant and effective cessation interventions for betel quid in Taiwan, it is critical to understand and address perceptions of betel quid chewing and barriers to cessation.

  10. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions: a hospital based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sugandha; Vengal, Manoj; Raju, Bina; Patil, Neelkant; Sathosker, Sujatha; Bateja, Sumit; David, Jamil

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk indicators of betel quid oral lichenoid lesions in chewers. A total of 1209 chewers were identified and categorized into three main groups based on the type of lesion: betel quid oral lichenoid lesions only, betel quid oral lichenoid lesions in association with quid-induced other oral mucosal lesions, and no lesions. Multinomial regression analyses were used to determine associations between dependent and independent variables. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions were more common in individuals who chewed quid comprising both tobacco and areca nut, and in those who chewed it two to three, or greater than three, times a day. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions + quid-induced other oral mucosal lesions were more likely to occur in females, and in individuals who chewed quid containing both tobacco and areca nut, in their processed and unprocessed forms, and greater than three times a day. The prevalence of betel quid oral lichenoid lesions was higher than that reported in previous studies conducted in India. Increase in the frequency and duration of quid chewing was associated with increased likelihood of developing these oral lichenoid lesions. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Risks of musculoskeletal disorders among betel quid preparers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jer-Hao; Wu, Jyun-De; Chen, Chih-Yong; Sumd, Shih-Bin; Yin, Hsin-I; Hsu, Der-Jen

    2014-04-01

    Betel quid chewing is common in Taiwan. The work of betel quid preparers is characterized by long hours of static work, awkward working posture and highly repetitive hand/wrist motion. However, the musculoskeletal health of betel quid preparers receives very little attention. The Chinese version of the Standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was administered, and electrogoniometers and electromyography were used in this cross-sectional study to characterize the hand/wrist motion of the subjects. Physical examinations on the thumbs and wrists of the subjects were conducted by means of Phalen's test and Finkelstein's test, respectively. Among the 225 participants, more than 95% attributed their musculoskeletal complaints to their work, and shoulder, neck, hand/wrist, and lower back discomfort were most frequently reported. More than 70% of the preparers did not seek medical treatment for their musculoskeletal problems. Based on the physical examination, 24% of the participants had suspected symptom of either carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) or DeQuervain's tenosynovitis. The instrumental measurements indicated that betel quid preparation is characterized by extreme angle ranges and moderate repetition of wrist motion as well as low forceful exertion. This study concludes that betel quid preparers are a high risk group of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Future studies by electrogoniometers and detailed physical examination on betel quid preparers are needed to determine the predisposing factors for CTS. Some intervention measures to prevent MSDs and to lessen psychological stress for this group of workers are strongly suggested. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Betel quid use and mortality in Bangladesh: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Argos, Maria; Levy, Diane; Sarwar, Golam; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of betel quid chewing on mortality. (A quid consists of betel nut, wrapped in betel leaves; tobacco is added to the quid by some users). Prospective data were available on 20 033 individuals aged 18-75 years, living in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Demographic and exposure data were collected at baseline using a standardized questionnaire. Cause of death was defined by verbal autopsy questionnaires administered to next of kin. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between betel use and mortality from all causes and from specific causes, using Cox proportional hazards models. We adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, educational attainment and tobacco smoking history. There were 1072 deaths during an average of 10 years of follow-up. Participants who had ever used betel were significantly more likely to die from all causes (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09-1.44) and cancer (HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.09-2.22); but not cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.93-1.43). These findings were robust to adjustment for potential confounders. There was a dose-response relationship between mortality from all causes and both the duration and the intensity of betel use. The population attributable fraction for betel use was 14.1% for deaths from all causes and 24.2% for cancer. Betel quid use was associated with mortality from all causes and from cancer in this cohort.

  13. Betel-quid dependence and oral potentially malignant disorders in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chu, Koung-Shing; Gao, Yi-Jun; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Sunarjo; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Patrick, Walter K; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-11-01

    Despite gradual understanding of the multidimensional health consequences of betel-quid chewing, information on the effects of dependent use is scant. To investigate the 12-month prevalence patterns of betel-quid dependence in six Asian populations and the impact of this dependence on oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). A multistage random sample of 8922 participants was recruited from Taiwan, mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Participants were evaluated for betel-quid dependency using DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria and assessed clinically for oral mucosal lesions. The 12-month prevalence of dependence was 2.8-39.2% across the six Asian samples, and 20.9-99.6% of those who chewed betel-quid were betel-quid dependent. Men dominated the prevalence among the east Asian samples and women dominated the prevalence in south-east Asian samples. 'Time spent chewing' and 'craving' were the central dependence domains endorsed by the Chinese and southern/south-east Asian samples respectively, whereas the Nepalese samples endorsed 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal'. Dependency was linked to age, gender, schooling years, drinking, smoking, tobacco-added betel-quid use and environmental accessibility of betel-quid. Compared with non-users, those with betel-quid dependency had higher pre-neoplastic risks (adjusted odds ratios 8.0-51.3) than people with non-dependent betel-quid use (adjusted odds ratio 4.5-5.9) in the six Asian populations. By elucidating differences in domain-level symptoms of betel-quid dependency and individual and environmental factors, this study draws attention to the population-level psychiatric problems of betel-quid chewing that undermine health consequences for OPMD in six Asian communities.

  14. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-03-11

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Cross-sectional health examination survey. This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1-10/day, 11-20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into 'Yes' or 'No'. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥ 3.0 mg/L. After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥ 3.0 mg/L) in the second (1-10/day, n=133), third (11-20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by further prospective studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  15. Characterization of the Psychological, Physiological and EEG Profile of Acute Betel Quid Intoxication in Naïve Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G.; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pchewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pincreased arousal (Pchewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug. PMID:21909371

  16. Population burden of betel quid abuse and its relation to oral premalignant disorders in South, Southeast, and East Asia: an Asian Betel-quid Consortium Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ling, Tian-You; Sunarjo; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Han-Jiang; Liu, Lin; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia. The Asian Betel-Quid Consortium conducted a multistage sampling of 8922 representative participants from Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Participants received an interviewer-administered survey and were examined for oral mucosal disorders. The prevalence of betel quid abuse was 0.8% to 46.3% across 6 Asian populations. The abuse frequency was over 40.5% for current chewers, with the highest proportion in Nepalese and Southeast Asian chewers (76.9%-99.6%). Tobacco-added betel quid conferred higher abuse rates (74.4%-99.6%) among Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan men than did tobacco-free betel quid (21.8%-89.1%). Gender, lower education level, younger age at chewing initiation, and clustering of familial betel quid use significantly contributed to higher abuse rates. Indonesian betel quid abusers showed the highest prevalence of OPDs and had a greater risk of OPDs than did nonabusers. Betel quid abuse is high in regions of Asia where it is customarily practiced, and such abuse correlates highly with OPDs. By recognizing abuse-associated factors, health policies and preventive frameworks can be effectively constructed to combat these oral preneoplasms.

  17. Altered Gray-Matter Volumes Associated With Betel Quid Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Fulai Yuan; Lingyu Kong; Xueling Zhu; Xueling Zhu; Canhua Jiang; Changyun Fang; Weihua Liao

    2017-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive substances. It has been suggested to be associated with various health issues, especially oral cancer. Evidence also points to possible decreased cognitive functions after long-term BQ chewing, such as attention and inhibition control. The present study aims to investigate the brain structure basis of BQ chewing in Hunan province of China. Twenty-five BQ chewers and 25 controls were recruited to participate in this study. Voxel...

  18. Consumption of guava (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) may protect betel quid-chewing Papua New Guineans against diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Patrick L; Martineau, Louis C; Caves, Dayna; Haddad, Pierre S; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Johns, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Papua New Guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (BQ) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing DM2. We investigated the dietary habits of Kalo residents from coastal Central Province who are avid BQ chewers yet have a relatively low incidence of DM2 compared to the ethnically similar and adjacent Wanigelans who abstain from BQ yet have an unusually high incidence of DM2. In Kalo, guava bud (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) were consumed much more frequently than in Wanigela, whereas the inverse was observed for mangrove bean (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L) Lam.). These plants, along with BQ and its component ingredients areca nut (Areca catechu L) and Piper betle L inflorescence, were assessed for their ability to mediate insulin-dependent and insulin-independent glucose transport in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A dose-dependent inhibition of glucose uptake from methanolic extracts of BQ, areca nut and P. betle inflorescence supports previous reports of prodiabetic activity. Conversely, guava bud extract displayed significant insulin-mimetic and potentiating activity. Noni fruit, noni leaf, commercial noni juice and mangrove bean all displayed insulin-like activity but had little or no effect on insulin action. Habitual intake of guava and noni is proposed to offer better protection against DM2 development and/or betel quid diabetogenicity than cooked mangrove bean. These findings provide empirical support that DM2 risk reduction can be accomplished using traditional foods and medicines.

  19. Betel Quid and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in a Periurban Township in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Ko-Ko; Ohnmar, Mya; Hlaing, Moh-Moh; Oo, Yin-Thet-Nu; Win, Swe-Swe; Htike, Maung-Maung-Than; Aye, Phyu-Phyu; Shwe, Sein; Htwe, Moe-Thida; Thein, Zaw-Moe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe betel quid chewing practice and compare oral potentially malignant disorders between chewers and non-chewers of betel quid among residents in Dagon Myothit (East) Township, Myanmar. The study used a cross-sectional design conducted with a representative sample of 542 adults aged 18 years and above in the township. The trained interviewers collected data using a pretested structured questionnaire. On-site oral examination was done for suspected oral lesions. The mean age of the respondents was 45 years and 59% were women. Fifty-two percent of the respondents were currently in the habit of chewing betel quids (72% of men and 39% of women). Among 284 current betel quid chewers, 240 (85%) chewed betel quids together with tobacco. Out of 284 current betel quid chewers, 24 (8.5%) were found to have oral potentially malignant disorders; out of 258 betel quid non-chewers, only 1 (0.4%) was found to have oral potentially malignant disorders. This highlights the growing importance of smokeless tobacco use as public health problem.

  20. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pbetel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pbetel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  1. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  2. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  3. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir R Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the betel leaf has protective antioxidant action. Materials and Methods: Salivary ascorbic acid levels of 60 subjects were estimated using the Dinitrophenyl hydrazine method. Results: The results revealed that quid chewers who used betel leaf had higher salivary ascorbic acid content compared to nonbetel leaf quid chewers. This could possibly be due to the protective antioxidants in the betel leaf.

  4. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shishir R; Babu, Subhas; Kumari, Suchetha; Prasad, Rajendra; Bhat, Supriya; Fazil, K A

    2013-07-01

    Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the betel leaf has protective antioxidant action. Salivary ascorbic acid levels of 60 subjects were estimated using the Dinitrophenyl hydrazine method. The results revealed that quid chewers who used betel leaf had higher salivary ascorbic acid content compared to nonbetel leaf quid chewers. This could possibly be due to the protective antioxidants in the betel leaf.

  5. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Osborne

    Full Text Available Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm and elevated face temperature (0.7°C (P<0.001 above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05 and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01 and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05 in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05 relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  6. Incidence and Outcomes of Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Fourth Primary Tumors: A Long-term Follow-up Study in a Betel Quid Chewing Endemic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Mohamad; Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Fang, Ku-Hao; Wang, Yu-Chien; Chang, Kai-Ping; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Yang, Lan Yan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the incidence and outcomes of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and fourth primary tumors (PTs) in a betel-chewing endemic area.We retrospectively examined the records of 1836 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2014. The outcome measures included the incidence and number of multiple PTs, the main risk factors, and their associations with overall survival (OS).Of the 1836 patients, 1400 (76.3%) had a single PT, 344 (18.7%) a second PT, 67 (3.6%) a third PT, and 25 (1.4%) a fourth PT. Univariate analyses (log-rank test) identified the following factors as significantly associated with a fourth PT: simultaneous first and second PTs, betel quid chewing, buccal subsite, and pT3-4 status. After allowance for the potential confounding effect of other risk factors, all of these factors retained their independent prognostic significance in stepwise multivariate analyses, the only exception being betel chewing. The incidences of second, third, and fourth PTs at 5 and 10 years were 20.2%/34.6%, 4.0%/8.6%, and 1.0%/2.3%, respectively. The 5 and 10-year OS rates (calculated from the diagnosis of each PTs) for patients with a single, second, third, and fourth PTs were 68%/61%, 43%/37%, 45%/39%%, and 30%/30%, respectively (P betel quid-chewing endemic area. Long-term survival rates of patients treated with radical surgery seems acceptable, being 4-fold higher than their counterparts.

  7. Betel quid use in relation to infectious disease outcomes in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramil N; Natto, Zuhair; Yel, Daravuth; Job, Jayakaran; Knutsen, Synnove

    2012-04-01

    The habitual chewing of betel quid (areca nut, betel leaf, tobacco) is estimated to occur among 600 million persons in Asia and the Asia-Pacific Region. Emerging data from rural Asia indicate that the betel quid is part of traditional medicine practices that promote its use for a wide range of ailments, including infectious disease. In the present study, we examined the association between betel quid, traditional medicine, and infectious disease outcomes. For the purpose of a nationwide, interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of tobacco use (including betel quid), we conducted a stratified three-stage cluster sampling of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces of Cambodia. We found an association between the intensity of betel quid use and HIV/AIDS (odds ratio (OR) 2.06, 95% CI 1.09-3.89), dengue fever (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.55-2.72), tuberculosis (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.96-2.36), and typhoid (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.95-2.30). These associations were even stronger in women - the primary users of betel quid in Cambodia. Multivariable analyses that controlled for age, gender, income, education, urban versus rural dwelling, receiving care from traditional medicine practitioners, and cigarette smoking did not alter the betel quid-infectious disease association. Our findings raise the possibility of a role of betel quid use in the transmission of infectious disease through pathways such as immunosuppression, oral route of entry for a pathogen (i.e., through injury to the oral mucosa), and contamination (i.e., fecal-oral) of the betel quid ingredients. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The association of betel quid, alcohol, and cigarettes with salivary gland tumor—A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I. Li

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study provided the first evidence to show the independent and combined impact of betel quid chewing with cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking on the SGT, and support the concept that cigarette smoking may associate with SGT carcinogenesis.

  9. Effect of betel quid on catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Hwang, L S

    1997-10-01

    Health damage and environmental pollution are serious problems caused by betel quid chewing in Taiwan. Many people acquire the habit of chewing betel quid due to its physiological effects, including increased stamina and a general feeling of well-being. In this study, a sympathetic model system of adrenal chromaffin cells and sensory evaluation were used to examine the physiological effects of betel quid and the interaction of all the ingredients (areca fruit, Piper betle inflorescence and red time paste) in betel quid. Physiological effects of cardioacceleration, a slightly drunk feeling, sweating and salivation occurred during the chewing of betel quid (a mixture of areca fruit, Piper betle inflorescence and red lime paste) and a mixture of areca fruit and red lime paste. Both induced much more basal catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells than did other ingredients and combinations of ingredients. It was evident that the responses in the sympathetic model system were closely correlated with the physiological feeling of well-being. The inhibitory effects of all the chewing juices on catecholamine secretion evoked by carbachol and a high concentration of potassium (high K+) showed that they perhaps affected the calcium influx through voltage-sensitive channels or the steps involved in secretion after calcium entry to stimulate basal catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells.

  10. Attentional bias to betel quid cues: An eye tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Chiu, Meng-Chun; Li, Shuo-Heng; Huang, Guo-Joe; Liu, Ling-Jun; Ho, Ming-Chou

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization regards betel quid as a human carcinogen, and DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence symptoms may develop with heavy use. This study, conducted in central Taiwan, investigated whether betel quid chewers can exhibit overt orienting to selectively respond to the betel quid cues. Twenty-four male chewers' and 23 male nonchewers' eye movements to betel-quid-related pictures and matched pictures were assessed during a visual probe task. The eye movement index showed that betel quid chewers were more likely to initially direct their gaze to the betel quid cues, t(23) = 3.70, p betel quid chewers' attentional bias. The results demonstrated that the betel quid chewers (but not the nonchewers) were more likely to initially direct their gaze to the betel quid cues, and spent more time and were more fixated on them. These findings suggested that when attention is directly measured through the eye tracking technique, this methodology may be more sensitive to detecting attentional biases in betel quid chewers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Betel Quid-Dependent Chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojun; Pu, Weidan; Liu, Haihong; Li, Xinmin; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M; Xue, Zhimin; Liu, Zhening

    2017-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a common psychoactive substance worldwide with particularly high usage in many Asian countries. This study aimed to explore the effect of BQ use on functional connectivity by comparing global functional brain networks and their subset between BQ chewers and healthy controls (HCs). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was obtained from 24 betel quid-dependent (BQD) male chewers and 27 healthy male individuals on a 3.0T scanner. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to determine components that represent the brain's functional networks and their spatial aspects of functional connectivity. Two sample t -tests were used to identify the functional connectivity differences in each network between these two groups. Seventeen networks were identified by ICA. Nine of them showed connectivity differences between BQD and HCs (two sample t -tests, p  betel quid dependence scale scores were positively related to the increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal ( r  = 0.39, p  = 0.03) while negatively related to the decreased functional connectivity in medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks ( r  = -0.35, p  = 0.02). Our findings provide further evidence that BQ chewing may lead to brain functional connectivity changes, which may play a key role in the psychological and physiological effects of BQ.

  12. Spatial short-term memory is impaired in dependent betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Meng-Chun; Shen, Bin; Li, Shuo-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chou

    2016-08-01

    Betel quid is regarded as a human carcinogen by the World Health Organization. It remains unknown whether chewing betel quid has a chronic effect on healthy betel quid chewers' memory. The present study aims to investigate whether chewing betel quid can affect short-term memory (STM). Three groups of participants (24 dependent chewers, 24 non-dependent chewers, and 24 non-chewers) were invited to carry out the matrix span task, the object span task, and the digit span task. All span tasks' results were adopted to assess spatial STM, visual STM, and verbal STM, respectively. Besides, there are three set sizes (small, medium, and large) in each span task. For the matrix span task, results showed that the dependent chewers had worse performances than the non-dependent chewers and the non-chewers at medium and large set sizes. For the object span task and digit span task, there were no differences in between groups. In each group, recognition performances were worse with the increasing set size and showing successful manipulation of memory load. The current study provided the first evidence that dependent betel quid chewing can selectively impair spatial STM rather than visual STM and verbal STM. Theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed.

  13. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C.; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Design Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18–60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Results Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). Conclusion The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. Implication If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success. PMID:25678943

  14. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2011-03-01

    To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18-60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success.

  15. A qualitative study on tobacco smoking and betel quid use among Burmese refugees in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furber, Susan; Jackson, Janet; Johnson, Keryn; Sukara, Radmila; Franco, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are high rates of smoking among Burmese men in Wollongong, Australia. A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the beliefs and experiences of Burmese refugees in Wollongong on smoking to guide the development of smoking cessation interventions. Three focus groups were conducted with Burmese refugees. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with service providers involved with Burmese refugees. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise responses to the questions. Participants were aware of the health effects of tobacco smoking but had little knowledge of support for quitting. Many participants chewed betel quid and were unaware of the health consequences. Service providers noted the lack of resources on smoking and betel quid use for Burmese people. Smoking cessation interventions for Burmese people should consider the co-related use of betel quid due to the possibility of inadvertently encouraging use of betel nut as an alternative to tobacco.

  16. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazwi, Nordin Nur; Nalina, Thurairajah; Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Haji

    2013-12-11

    Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Five samples (betel leaf, areca nut, gambir, betel quid and betel quid containing calcium hydroxide) were extracted in deionized distilled water for 12 hours at 37°C. Antioxidant activities were evaluated for radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay, ferric reducing activity using FRAP assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity using FTC assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Phenolic composition was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Cytoprotective activity towards human gingival fibroblast cells was examined using MTT assay. Among the ingredients of betel quid, gambir demonstrated the highest antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 = 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/mL, FRAP - 5717.8 ± 537.6 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 1142.5 ± 106.8 μg TAE/mg) and cytoprotective (100.1 ± 4.6%) activities. Betel quid when compared with betel quid containing calcium hydroxide has higher antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 =59.4 ± 4.4 μg/mL, FRAP - 1022.2 ± 235.7 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 140.0 ± 22.3 μg TAE/mg), and cytoprotective (113.5 ± 15.9%) activities. However, all of the five samples showed good lipid peroxidation inhibition compared to vitamin E. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of quinic acid as the major compound of gambir and betel quid. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging (r = 0.972), reducing power (r = 0.981) and cytoprotective activity (r = 0.682). The betel quid has higher TPC, and antioxidant and

  17. Altered Gray-Matter Volumes Associated With Betel Quid Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulai Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ is one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive substances. It has been suggested to be associated with various health issues, especially oral cancer. Evidence also points to possible decreased cognitive functions after long-term BQ chewing, such as attention and inhibition control. The present study aims to investigate the brain structure basis of BQ chewing in Hunan province of China. Twenty-five BQ chewers and 25 controls were recruited to participate in this study. Voxel-based morphormetry analysis revealed that there were three key regions showing structural differences between BQ chewers and controls, including bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/insula, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and left orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, the GMV in the DLPFC could potentially predict BQ dependence scores, level of daily BQ chewing, and history of BQ chewing. These results suggested that participants who showed BQ chewing dependence may have deficit in inhibition control and affective decision-making, and the level of deficit was dependent on the level of daily BQ chewing, and history of BQ chewing. Understanding the neurobiology features of BQ chewing would help us develop novel ways to diagnose and prevent BQ dependence.

  18. Altered Gray-Matter Volumes Associated With Betel Quid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fulai; Kong, Lingyu; Zhu, Xueling; Jiang, Canhua; Fang, Changyun; Liao, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive substances. It has been suggested to be associated with various health issues, especially oral cancer. Evidence also points to possible decreased cognitive functions after long-term BQ chewing, such as attention and inhibition control. The present study aims to investigate the brain structure basis of BQ chewing in Hunan province of China. Twenty-five BQ chewers and 25 controls were recruited to participate in this study. Voxel-based morphormetry analysis revealed that there were three key regions showing structural differences between BQ chewers and controls, including bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)/insula, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and left orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, the GMV in the DLPFC could potentially predict BQ dependence scores, level of daily BQ chewing, and history of BQ chewing. These results suggested that participants who showed BQ chewing dependence may have deficit in inhibition control and affective decision-making, and the level of deficit was dependent on the level of daily BQ chewing, and history of BQ chewing. Understanding the neurobiology features of BQ chewing would help us develop novel ways to diagnose and prevent BQ dependence.

  19. Inhibitory effect of betel quid on the volatility of methyl mercaptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Chen, S L; Wu, M G

    2001-04-01

    Betel quid, a popular natural masticatory in Taiwan, is mainly composed of fresh areca fruit, Piper betle (leaf or inflorescence), and slaked lime paste. People say that halitosis disappears during betel quid chewing. In this study, the removal of mouth odor during betel quid chewing was discussed by using a model system which measured its inhibition on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Results showed that crude extracts of betel quid (the mixture of areca fruit, Piper betle, and slaked lime paste) and extracts of the mixture of areca fruit and slaked lime paste exhibited marked effects on the volatility of methyl mercaptan, and the inhibition function increased when increasing amounts of slaked lime paste were added. The same condition (increased inhibition) was also found by replacing the slaked lime paste with alkaline salts (calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or sodium hydroxide). Areca fruit, the major ingredient of betel quid, contained abundant phenolics. However, the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit did not show any inhibitory activity on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Great inhibitory activity occurred only when the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit was treated with alkali. Further studies by using gel filtration determined that the effect probably came from the oxidative polymerization of phenolics of areca fruit after alkaline treatment.

  20. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A.; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F.; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut (‘BN’), nut + Piper betle leaf (‘BL’), and betel quid (‘BQ’) consisting of nut+lime+tobacco+Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p<0.05 indicated significance. Predominant compounds in chewing material were guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, chavibetol, and nicotine. In chewing saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ) and significant differences between all groups for total areca- specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. PMID:25797484

  1. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J

    2015-06-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans, including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut ('BN'), nut + Piper betle leaf ('BL'), and betel quid ('BQ') consisting of nut + lime + tobacco + Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p < 0.05 indicated significance. Predominant compounds in chewing material were guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, chavibetol, and nicotine. In chewing saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ), and significant differences between all groups for total areca-specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Shishir R.; Babu, Subhas; Kumari, Suchetha; Prasad, Rajendra; Bhat, Supriya; Fazil, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the b...

  3. Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Betel Quid-Dependent Chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBetel quid (BQ is a common psychoactive substance worldwide with particularly high usage in many Asian countries. This study aimed to explore the effect of BQ use on functional connectivity by comparing global functional brain networks and their subset between BQ chewers and healthy controls (HCs.MethodsResting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was obtained from 24 betel quid-dependent (BQD male chewers and 27 healthy male individuals on a 3.0T scanner. We used independent component analysis (ICA to determine components that represent the brain’s functional networks and their spatial aspects of functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to identify the functional connectivity differences in each network between these two groups.ResultsSeventeen networks were identified by ICA. Nine of them showed connectivity differences between BQD and HCs (two sample t-tests, p < 0.001 uncorrected. We found increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal, bilateral frontoparietal, frontotemporal, occipital/parietal, frontotemporal/cerebellum, and temporal/limbic networks, and decreased connectivity in the parietal and medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks in the BQD compared to the HCs. The betel quid dependence scale scores were positively related to the increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal (r = 0.39, p = 0.03 while negatively related to the decreased functional connectivity in medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks (r = −0.35, p = 0.02.DiscussionOur findings provide further evidence that BQ chewing may lead to brain functional connectivity changes, which may play a key role in the psychological and physiological effects of BQ.

  4. Aberrant proteins featured in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers: an indication of early oral premalignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie, Kala; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged chewing of betel quid is known to cause oral diseases, including cancer. The present study was performed to screen for aberrant proteins in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers compared to nonchewers. Saliva of female subjects (n = 10) who had been chewing betel quid for more than 20 years and nonbetel quid chewers (n = 10) of the same gender and range of age was analyzed by gel-based proteomics. Increased structural microheterogeneity of saliva haptoglobin beta chains indicated by shifts of focused spots similar to that earlier reported in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and their relatively higher abundance compared to nonbetel quid chewers, were detected in saliva protein profiles of all chewers. In addition, the majority of the betel quid chewers also showed significant higher abundance of hemopexin, alpha-1B glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, complement C3, and transthyretin. These proteins had previously been associated with several different cancers. Our data demonstrated different forms of protein aberration in the saliva of betel quid chewers, which may be indicative of early oral precancerous conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Elemental composition of betel nut and associated chewing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, C.; Akanle, O.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Betel nut chewing (Area catechu), Whether plain or wrapped inside a betel leaf 'quid' together with other substances including tobacco, has been reported as a cause of the high incidence of oral and oesophageal cancers in Asian communities worldwide. Chewing of such substances results in the formation of nitrosamines, some of which may be diabetogenic to man. The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is particularly prevalent amongst Asian immigrants living in the UK and as part of a larger study we have analysed a number of popular betel nut based chewing materials to determine their elemental composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for determination of elemental concentrations of short-lived radionuclides. Ag, Al. Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Dy, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ti, and V were detected, some of which are implicated in diabetes. Concentrations of these, expect for Ag, Dy and Ti, are reported and compared with values found in betel-nut and chewing materials from Taiwan. It is indicated that for certain elements the amount ingested by betel-nut chewers may be a significant fraction of their daily dietary intake. (author)

  6. White Matter Integrity Deficit Associated with Betel Quid Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulai Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ is a commonly consumed psychoactive substance, which has been regarded as a human carcinogen. Long-term BQ chewing may cause Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV dependence symptoms, which can lead to decreased cognitive functions, such as attention and inhibition control. Although betel quid dependence (BQD individuals have been reported with altered brain structure and function, there is little evidence showing white matter microstructure alternation in BQD individuals. The present study aimed to investigate altered white matter microstructure in BQD individuals using diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics was used to analyze the data. Compared with healthy controls, BQD individuals exhibited higher mean diffusivity (MD in anterior thalamic radiation (ATR. Further analysis revealed that the ATR in BQD individuals showed less fractional anisotropy (FA than that in healthy controls. Correlation analysis showed that both the increase of MD and reduction of FA in BQD individuals were associated with severity of BQ dependence. These results suggested that BQD would disrupt the balance between prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas, causing declined inhibition control.

  7. White Matter Integrity Deficit Associated with Betel Quid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fulai; Zhu, Xueling; Kong, Lingyu; Shen, Huaizhen; Liao, Weihua; Jiang, Canhua

    2017-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a commonly consumed psychoactive substance, which has been regarded as a human carcinogen. Long-term BQ chewing may cause Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV dependence symptoms, which can lead to decreased cognitive functions, such as attention and inhibition control. Although betel quid dependence (BQD) individuals have been reported with altered brain structure and function, there is little evidence showing white matter microstructure alternation in BQD individuals. The present study aimed to investigate altered white matter microstructure in BQD individuals using diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics was used to analyze the data. Compared with healthy controls, BQD individuals exhibited higher mean diffusivity (MD) in anterior thalamic radiation (ATR). Further analysis revealed that the ATR in BQD individuals showed less fractional anisotropy (FA) than that in healthy controls. Correlation analysis showed that both the increase of MD and reduction of FA in BQD individuals were associated with severity of BQ dependence. These results suggested that BQD would disrupt the balance between prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas, causing declined inhibition control.

  8. Betel-quid dependence domains and syndrome associated with betel-quid ingredients among chewers: an Asian multi-country evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Hua, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ling, Tian-You; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-07-01

    Betel-quid (BQ) contains biologically psychoactive ingredients; however, data are limited concerning the symptoms and syndrome of BQ dependence among chewers. The aims of this study were to evaluate the ingredients-associated BQ dependence syndrome and country-specific chewing features and behaviour for BQ dependence among chewers from six Asian communities. An intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study. Six Asian general communities in Taiwan, Mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Six multi-stage random samples of BQ chewers in the Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (n = 2078). All chewers were evaluated for BQ dependence using the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. The 12-month BQ dependence rate was 12.5-92.6% and 47.9-99.3% (P = 0.023) among tobacco-free and tobacco-added BQ chewers across the six Asian communities, with a higher dependence rate in chewers who used tobacco-free BQ with lime added than without (23.3-95.6% versus 4.0%, P ≤ 0.001). Taiwanese and Hunanese BQ chewers both notably endorsed the dependency domain of 'time spent chewing'. 'Tolerance' and 'withdrawal' were the major dependence domains associated with the Nepalese and Indonesian chewers, with high BQ dependence rates. Malaysian and Sri Lankan chewers formed a BQ dependence cluster linked closely to 'craving'. In Sri Lanka, the quantity consumed explained 90.5% (P betel quid users in Asian communities, more so if they use it with tobacco or lime. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. MicroRNA-17-5p post-transcriptionally regulates p21 expression in irradiated betel quid chewing-related oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.Y.; HungKuang Univ., Taichung; Lin, K.C.; Chiou, J.F.; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei; Jeng, S.C.; Cheng, W.H.; Chang, C.I.; Lin, W.C.; Wu, L.L.; Lee, H.L.; Chen, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Betel nut chewing is associated with oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. OC3 is an oral carcinoma cell line that was established from cells collected from a long-term betel nut chewer who does not smoke. After we found that microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is induced in OC3 cells, we used this cell line to examine the biological role(s) of this microRNA in response to exposure to ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: A combined SYBR green-based real-time PCR and oligonucleotide ligation assay was used to examine the expression of the miR-17 polycistron in irradiated OC3 cells. The roles of miR-17-5p and p21 were evaluated with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODN) that were designed and used to inhibit their expression. Expression of the p21 protein was evaluated by Western blotting. The clonogenic assay and annexin V staining were used to evaluate cell survival and apoptosis, respectively. Cells in which miR-17-5p was stably knocked down were used to create ectopic xenografts to evaluate in vivo the role of miR-17-5p. Results: A radiation dose of 5 Gy significantly increased miR-17-5p expression in irradiated OC3 cells. Inhibition of miR-17-5p expression enhanced the radiosensitivity of the OC3 cells. We found that miR-17-5p downregulates radiation-induced p21 expression in OC3 cells and, by using a tumor xenograft model, it was found that p21 plays a critical role in increasing the radiosensitivity of OC3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: miR-17-5p is induced in irradiated OC3 cells and it downregulates p21 protein expression, contributing to the radioresistance of OC3 cells. (orig.)

  10. MicroRNA-17-5p post-transcriptionally regulates p21 expression in irradiated betel quid chewing-related oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.Y. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; HungKuang Univ., Taichung (China). Dept. of Biotechnology; Lin, K.C. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Chiou, J.F. [Taipei Medical Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiology; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Hospice and Palliative Center; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Cancer Center; Jeng, S.C. [Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Cheng, W.H.; Chang, C.I. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Hemato-Ongology; Lin, W.C. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Thoracic Surgery; Wu, L.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Lee, H.L. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; Chen, R.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital and National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: Betel nut chewing is associated with oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. OC3 is an oral carcinoma cell line that was established from cells collected from a long-term betel nut chewer who does not smoke. After we found that microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is induced in OC3 cells, we used this cell line to examine the biological role(s) of this microRNA in response to exposure to ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: A combined SYBR green-based real-time PCR and oligonucleotide ligation assay was used to examine the expression of the miR-17 polycistron in irradiated OC3 cells. The roles of miR-17-5p and p21 were evaluated with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODN) that were designed and used to inhibit their expression. Expression of the p21 protein was evaluated by Western blotting. The clonogenic assay and annexin V staining were used to evaluate cell survival and apoptosis, respectively. Cells in which miR-17-5p was stably knocked down were used to create ectopic xenografts to evaluate in vivo the role of miR-17-5p. Results: A radiation dose of 5 Gy significantly increased miR-17-5p expression in irradiated OC3 cells. Inhibition of miR-17-5p expression enhanced the radiosensitivity of the OC3 cells. We found that miR-17-5p downregulates radiation-induced p21 expression in OC3 cells and, by using a tumor xenograft model, it was found that p21 plays a critical role in increasing the radiosensitivity of OC3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: miR-17-5p is induced in irradiated OC3 cells and it downregulates p21 protein expression, contributing to the radioresistance of OC3 cells. (orig.)

  11. Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid and Oral Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jiun Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the association between smoking, alcoholic consumption, and betel quid chewing with oral cancer in a prospective manner. All male patients age ≥18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosa inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 10,657 participants were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings were found in 514 participants (4.8%. Three hundred forty-four participants received biopsy, and 230 patients were proven to have oral cancer. The results of multivariate logistic regression found that those who smoked, consumed alcohol, and chewed betel quid on a regular basis were most likely to develop cancer (odds ratio: 46.87, 95% confidence interval: 31.84–69.00. Therefore, habitual cigarette smokers, alcohol consumers, and betel quid chewers have a higher risk of contracting oral cancer and should receive oral screening regularly so potential oral cancer can be detected as early as possible.

  12. The increased risk of urinary stone disease in betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Siân E; Singh, Sadmeet; Robertson, William G

    2006-08-01

    The chewing of betel quid is a common practice in many countries of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia. The quid consists of a preparation of areca nut, betel leaf and calcium hydroxide "lime" paste ("chuna"). For the first time, we present a study that links its use to urinary stone disease. Eight patients (seven male and one female) who presented to our Stone Unit with recurrent urinary stones were included in the study. All were from the Indian subcontinent and were found to regularly chew betel. The patients underwent metabolic screening including blood, random urine and 24-h urine tests, quantitative chemical analysis of their calculi (where possible) and each completed a 7-day Diet Diary on his/her free, home diet. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hypercalciuria, a tendency to pass an alkaline urine and low urinary citrate excretion among the patients. Together these urinary risk factors increase the probability of developing both calcium phosphate-containing and calcium oxalate-containing stones. In support of this hypothesis, the patients were found to form stones consisting mainly of calcium phosphate but mixed with calcium oxalate. It is concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide "chuna" in the betel quid is the major contributor to the cause of urinary stones in its users. Moreover, the development of urinary lithiasis in such patients may be a precursor to milk-alkali syndrome in those individuals whose chewing habit is more extensive than in the patients in this study and who do not seek to decrease their habit over the long term.

  13. Evaluation of Female Breast Cancer Risk Among the Betel Quid Chewer: A Bio-Statistical Assessment in Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Nijara; Mahanta, Lipi B; Nath, Dilip C

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among the female population of Assam, India. Chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco is common practice among female population of this region. Moreoverthe method of preparing the betel quid is different from other parts of the country.So matched case control study is conducted to analyse whetherbetel quid chewing plays a significant role in the high incidence of breast cancer occurrences in Assam. Here, controls are matched to the cases by age at diagnosis (±5 years), family income and place of residence with matching ratio 1:1. Conditional logistic regression models and odd ratios (OR) was used to draw conclusions. It is observed that cases are more habituated to chewing habits than the controls.Further the conditional logistic regression analysis reveals that betel quid chewer faces 2.353 times more risk having breast cancer than the non-chewer with p value 0.0003 (95% CI 1.334-4.150). Though the female population in Assam usually does not smoke, the addictive habits typical to this region have equal effect on the occurrence of breast cancer.

  14. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Hammerl

    Full Text Available Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.

  15. Consumption of Cigarettes but not Betel Quid or Alcohol Increases Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Wu

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicated that consumption of cigarettes but not betel quid or alcohol was a risk factor for male CRC. A large study is necessary to investigate the risk factors for female CRC in Taiwan, and to understand the effect of betel quid exposure on male CRC.

  16. New Lancet Oncology publication - Defining a research and policy agenda for betel quid and areca nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betel quid and areca nut, typically made up of a mixture of areca nut and slaked lime wrapped in a betel leaf with added flavorings, is a known risk factor for many oral and other associated cancers. There are more than 600 million betel quid or areca nut users worldwide (or 10% of the world’s population), making it a critical global cancer control issue. With its use steeped in culture and tradition, the use of betel quid and areca nut is widely unregulated, and poses a significant and understudied health threat to the Asia-Pacific region where prevalence is high. Unlike many forms of smoked tobacco, the two are widely used by women in regions where common. Betel quid and areca use also extends beyond the Asia-Pacific region to diaspora and migrant communities in the U.S., South Africa, and parts of Europe and the Middle East.

  17. Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: a review of agents and causative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Urmila; Bartsch, Helmut; Nair, Jagadeesan

    2004-07-01

    In south-east Asia, Taiwan and Papua New Guinea, smoking, alcohol consumption and chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco or areca nut with or without tobacco are the predominant causes of oral cancer. In most areas, betel quid consists of a mixture of areca nut, slaked lime, catechu and several condiments according to taste, wrapped in a betel leaf. Almost all habitual chewers use tobacco with or without the betel quid. In the last few decades, small, attractive and inexpensive sachets of betel quid substitutes have become widely available. Aggressively advertised and marketed, often claimed to be safer products, they are consumed by the very young and old alike, particularly in India, but also among migrant populations from these areas world wide. The product is basically a flavoured and sweetened dry mixture of areca nut, catechu and slaked lime with tobacco (gutkha) or without tobacco (pan masala). These products have been strongly implicated in the recent increase in the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis, especially in the very young, even after a short period of use. This precancerous lesion, which has a high rate of malignant transformation, is extremely debilitating and has no known cure. The use of tobacco with lime, betel quid with tobacco, betel quid without tobacco and areca nut have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As gutkha and pan masala are mixtures of several of these ingredients, their carcinogenic affect can be surmised. We review evidence that strongly supports causative mechanisms for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of these substitute products. Although some recent curbs have been put on the manufacture and sale of these products, urgent action is needed to permanently ban gutkha and pan masala, together with the other established oral cancer-causing tobacco products. Further, education to reduce or eliminate home-made preparations needs to be accelerated.

  18. Palauans who chew betel nut: social impact of oral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn Griffin, M T; Mott, M; Burrell, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2014-03-01

    Chewing betel nut is a tradition extending from Southeast Asia to the Pacific. Globally, betel nut is the fourth main psychotropic substance containing a stimulant, arecoline, that has a similar effect to nicotine. In Palau, there is broad acceptance of betel nut chewing. One of the largest immigrant groups in Hawaii is the Palauans. Chewing betel nut has significant social implications that make it difficult for those who engage in this practice to separate potential oral disease from the social importance. However, little is known about the social impact of oral disease from chewing betel nut on Palauans in Hawaii. The study aimed to describe the perceptions of betel-chewing Palauans in Hawaii regarding betel nut and to determine the social impact of oral disease among these individuals. Descriptive study conducted on the island of Oahu, Hawaii with 30 adult Palauans. Data were collected using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 to measure perceptions of social impact of oral disease on well-being. Demographic and general health information was collected. Participants perceived little negative social impact of oral disease on well-being. Families, peers and society exert a strong influence on the decision to chew betel nut, a known carcinogen. Participants in this study showed little concern on the impact of betel nut chewing on their oral health. They continue the habit in spite of the awareness of potential for oral disease. Nurses face challenges in educating Palauans about the negative aspects of betel nut, particularly those related to oral health especially when they do not perceive problems. Nurses must be involved in the development of health policies to design and implement strategies to promote behavioural change, and to ensure clinical services that are culturally sensitive to betel nut chewers. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Developing a Betel Quid Cessation Program on the Island of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, John; Kawamoto, Crissy; Pokhrel, Pallav; Paulino, Yvette; Herzog, Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    Betel quid is a psychoactive drug preparation typically made up of a combination of areca quid, slaked lime, piper betel leaf and tobacco. It is the fourth most commonly consumed drug in the world with global use concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region (Boucher and Mannan, 2002; Warnakulasuriya and Peters, 2002). The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified betel quid as a Group 1 carcinogen (IARC, 2004; Lin et al., 2006), and its use has been associated with oral and oropharyngeal cancer, oral lesions, oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, gum disease, and cancer of the pharynx and esophagus (IARC, 2004; Oakley et al., 2005; Shah et al., 2002; Warnakulasuriya, 2002). This paper reports on the feasibility of an innovative betel quid cessation program carried on the U.S. territory of Guam, and is the first of its kind. The program is described, along with the challenges encountered during the implementation process.

  20. Defining a global research and policy agenda for betel quid and areca nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtash, Hedieh; Duncan, Kalina; Parascandola, Mark; David, Annette; Gritz, Ellen R; Gupta, Prakash C; Mehrotra, Ravi; Amer Nordin, Amer Siddiq; Pearlman, Paul C; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Wen, Chi-Pang; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Trimble, Edward L

    2017-12-01

    Betel quid and areca nut are known risk factors for many oral and oesophageal cancers, and their use is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. Additionally, betel quid and areca nut are associated with health effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, metabolic, respiratory, and reproductive systems. Unlike tobacco, for which the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides evidence-based policies for reducing tobacco use, no global policy exists for the control of betel quid and areca nut use. Multidisciplinary research is needed to address this neglected global public health emergency and to mobilise efforts to control betel quid and areca nut use. In addition, future research is needed to advance our understanding of the basic biology, mechanisms, and epidemiology of betel quid and areca nut use, to advance possible prevention and cessation programmes for betel quid and areca nut users, and to design evidence-based screening and early diagnosis programmes to address the growing burden of cancers that are associated with use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Li, Ren-Hau; Tang, Tze-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Betel nut (or areca) is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for ob...

  2. Effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system. Seventeen healthy volunteers without any experience of chewing betel nut (fresh chewers) and 17 habitual chewers underwent vital sign measurements, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests prior to the study. Each subject then chewed two pieces of betel nut for 2min (dosing). The same paradigm was repeated immediately, 10min, and 20min after chewing. On a different day, 10 fresh chewers masticated chewing gum as control. Fresh chewers exhibited significantly decreased response rates of oVEMP (53%) and cVEMP (71%) after dosing compared with those from the predosing period. These abnormal VEMPs returned to normal 20min after dosing. In contrast, 100% response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were observed before and after masticating chewing gum. In habitual chewers, the response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were 32% and 29%, respectively, 20min after dosing. Chewing betel nuts induced a transient loss of the otolithic reflexes in fresh chewers but may cause permanent loss in habitual chewers. Chewing betel nuts can cause a loss of otholitic reflex function. This creates a risk for disturbed balance and malfunction, for instance, during driving. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific. Studies (case control and/or cohort) were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE) for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE), Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls) and four cohort studies (15,342) which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE) = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, Pbetel quid without tobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, Pbetel quid, and betel quid without tobacco, are both strong and independent risk factors for oral cancer in these populations. However, studies with better separation of the types of tobacco and the ways in which it is used, and studies with sufficient power to quantify dose-response relationships are still needed.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL AND SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF INGREDIENTS OF BETEL QUID ON ORAL AND ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Niraj A Ghanwate; Prashant Thakare

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antimicrobial and synergistic activity of ingredients of betel quid i.e. kattha, lime, betel leaf, betel nut, cardamom, clove and fennel seeds was tested against microbial population of oral cavity and four enteric pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri. For this purpose two methods were used. Pour plate method was used for calculating the reduction in microbial population in oral cavity and disk diffusion method was u...

  5. Induction of micronuclei in buccal mucosa on chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Balakrishnan, Mythili; Raman, Sangeetha; Palanisamy, Subashini

    2009-06-01

    Betel quid containing areca nut and chewing tobacco is used in many parts of India. In this study we evaluated the micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosa of healthy individuals from southern India, who were regularly chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco. A total of 44 subjects were examined. The study population included 15 chewers, 14 chewers with smoking habit and 15 controls with the mean age of 38.57 +/- 0.54, 34.50 +/- 0.95, and 33.28 +/- 0.89 years, respectively. The mean percentage of MN was 1.90 +/- 1.03 in chewers, 2.00 +/-1.12 in chewers with smoking habits and 0.81 +/- 0.66 in controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentages of the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, and tobacco is unsafe for oral health.

  6. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Intercountry prevalences and practices of betel-quid use in south, southeast and eastern Asia regions and associated oral preneoplastic disorders: an international collaborative study by Asian betel-quid consortium of south and east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Yin, Bang-Liang; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Liu, Zhi-Wen; Li, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2011-10-01

    Health risks stemming from betel-quid (BQ) chewing are frequently overlooked by people. Updated epidemiological data on the increased BQ use among Asian populations using comparable data collection methods have not been widely available. To investigate the prevalence, patterns of practice and associated types of oral preneoplastic disorders, an intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (the ABC study) was conducted for Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka. A random sample of 8,922 subjects was recruited, and the data were analyzed using survey-data modules adjusted for the complex survey design. Chewing rates among men (10.7-43.6%) were significantly higher than women (1.8-34.9%) in Taiwan, Mainland China, Nepal and Sri Lanka, while women's rates (29.5-46.8%) were higher than that for men (9.8-12.0%) in Malaysia and Indonesia. An emerging, higher proportion of new-users were identified for Hunan in Mainland China (11.1-24.7%), where Hunan chewers have the unique practice of using the dried husk of areca fruit rather than the solid nut universally used by others. Men in the Eastern and South Asian study communities were deemed likely to combine chewing with smoking and drinking (5.6-13.6%). Indonesian women who chewed BQ exhibited the highest prevalence of oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and oral leukoplakia (9.1-17.3%). Lower schooling, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were identified as being associated with BQ chewing. In conclusion, the ABC study reveals the significant cultural and demographic differences contributing to practice patterns of BQ usage and the great health risks that such practices pose in the Asian region. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  8. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Gupta

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.Studies (case control and/or cohort were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias.Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls and four cohort studies (15,342 which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, P<0.001, (adjusted main-effect summary for cohort studies RR = 5.48; 95% CI = 2.56-11.71, P<0.001. Furthermore, meta-analysis of fifteen case control studies (4,648 cases; 7,847 controls has shown betel quid without tobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, P<0.001. This is presumably due to the carcinogenicity of areca nut. There was no significant publication bias.There is convincing evidence that smokeless (aka chewing tobacco, often used as a component of betel quid, and betel quid without tobacco

  10. Betel nut chewing associated with increased risk of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang

    2017-11-01

    Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN, are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine oxidase (MAO gene was associated with the occurrence and progress of oral and pharyngeal cancers. In summary, our review article provides important insights into the potential roles of environmental BQ (specific alkaloid biomarkers and nitrosamine products MNPN and genetic factors (MAO and offers a basis for studies aiming to reduce or eliminate BQ-related OPMD and oral/pharyngeal cancer incidences in the future.

  12. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Chiang, Tai-An

    2017-01-01

    Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN), are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene was associated with the occurrence and progress of oral and pharyngeal cancers. In summary, our review article provides important insights into the potential roles of environmental BQ (specific alkaloid biomarkers and nitrosamine products MNPN) and genetic factors (MAO) and offers a basis for studies aiming to reduce or eliminate BQ-related OPMD and oral/pharyngeal cancer incidences in the future. PMID:29376073

  13. Betel Quid Dependency and Associated Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Environmental Factors among Adolescents: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azmina; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2018-03-13

    Betel quid (BQ) is one of the fourth most commonly used substance globally. Though BQ is a psycho-active substance, yet little has been explored regarding dependency on it particularly among adolescents. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine adolescents' dependency on BQ, along with their intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental determinants of dependency. This cross-sectional study focused on 2200 school-going adolescents of Karachi, Pakistan in 2016. Primary outcome was dependency on BQ among adolescents. Both univariate and multivariate regressions were used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (after adjustments for all intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors) with 95% confidence level. Out of 2200 students, 874 (39.7%) were found to be BQ users amongst whom 69 (7.9%) were dependent on BQ. Comparing the groups with only areca nut users as reference category, betel quid with tobacco additives chewers were considerably dependent (OR = 14.08, 95% CI 3.64-54.16). The individuals who chewed >5 chews per day (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.08-3.29) and chronic users (>1year) (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.09-3.74) were more likely to be dependent. Older students (>12 years) (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.06-4.23), and who studied in government schools were significantly dependent (OR = 3.32, 95% CI 1.80-6.10) than those who studied in private schools. In conclusion, intrapersonal characteristics like more than 5 chews per day, chronic chewers of more than a year, BQ with tobacco chewers, older adolescents and children studying in government schools were significantly associated with BQ dependency.

  14. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  15. Health risk perception and betel chewing behavior--the evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we provided an empirical examination of the interaction between people's health risk perception and betel chewing. We hypothesized that a better knowledge of possible health risks would reduce both the number of individuals who currently chew betel and the likelihood of those who do not yet chew betel to begin the habit. We constructed a simultaneous equation model with Bayesian two-stage approach to control the endogeneity between betel chewing and risk perception. Using a national survey of 26,684 observations in Taiwan, our study results indicated that better health knowledge reduced the possibility that people would become betel chewers. We also found that, in general, betel chewers have a poorer health risk perception than other population. Overall, the empirical evidence suggested that health authorities could reduce the odds of people becoming betel chewers by improving their knowledge of betel-chewing's harmful effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS INFLUENCING BETEL NUT CHEWING AMONG ADULTS IN WEST INSEIN TOWNSHIP, YANGON, MYANMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Su Kyaw; Narksawat, Kulaya; Sillabutra, Jutatip

    2016-09-01

    Betel nut chewing can cause precancerous oral lesions and is common in Myanmar. We conducted a cross sectional study aimed to estimate prevalence and factors influencing betel nut chewing among 420 subjects aged ≥18 years in West Insein Township, Yangon, Myanmar in order to inform preventive health programs. The mean age of the study subjects was 45(±15) years. The overall prevalence of current betel nut chewing among study subjects was 55.2%. The mean age starting betel nut chewing was 29(±13) years, and the mean duration of chewing was 15(±13) years. The reasons given by study subjects for chewing betel nut included the addictive effect to betel nut, to release tension, to get rid of boredom and to stop smoking. Sixty-two point three percent of current betel nut chewers also chewed tobacco and 24.2% also smoked cigarettes. Factors significantly associated with betel nut chewing were male gender, current alcohol consumer, having no education or finishing primary or secondary school, having a low score regarding their attitude about the health effects of betel nut chewing, and having high score on interpersonal factors by family and peer pressure. Our results show a need to better educate the public about the health effects of betel nut chewing among the study population.

  17. Effects of Betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N S

    2001-01-01

    Betel chewing has been claimed to produce a sense of well-being, euphoria, heightened alertness, sweating, salivation, a hot sensation in the body and increased capacity to work. Betel chewing also leads to habituation, addiction and withdrawal. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of Areca nut, has been extensively studied, and several effects of betel chewing are thought to be related to the actions of this parasympathomimetic constituent. However, betel chewing may produce complex reactions and interactions. In the presence of lime, arecoline and guvacoline in Areca nut are hydrolyzed into arecaidine and guvacine, respectively, which are strong inhibitors of GABA uptake. Piper betle flower or leaf contains aromatic phenolic compounds which have been found to stimulate the release of catecholamines in vitro. Thus, betel chewing may affect parasympathetic, GABAnergic and sympathetic functions. Betel chewing produces an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and body temperature. In addition, EEG shows widespread cortical desynchronization indicating a state of arousal. In autonomic function tests, both the sympathetic skin response and RR interval variation are affected. Betel chewing also increases plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These results suggest that betel chewing mainly affects the central and autonomic nervous systems. Future studies should investigate both the acute and chronic effects of betel chewing. Such studies may further elucidate the psychoactive mechanisms responsible for the undiminished popularity of betel chewing since antiquity. Copyright 2001 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Comparison of oral Candida species prevalence and carriage among gutka-chewers and betel-quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Hussain, Mudassir; Adnan, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Javed, Fawad

    2017-03-01

    To compare prevalence and carriage of Candida species among gutka-chewers and betel-quid-chewers. The cross-sectional case-control study was conducted between January and December, 2015 at the Oral Surgery department of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and the Dental department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised oral yeast samples of gutka-chewers, betel-quid-chewers, and non-chewers. A standardised questionnaire was used to gather demographic data and oral hygiene maintenance information. Oral Candida strains were collected, cultured and identified using standard techniques and yeast identification system. In all groups, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was determined. Lesions on the tongue and oral mucosa were clinically investigated and numbers of missing teeth were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the total 185 samples, 50(27%) were from gutka-chewers, 50(27%)betel-quid-chewers, and 85(46%) non-chewers. Oral Candida carriage was comparable among betel-quid-chewers (18 [36%])and gutka-chewers (20 [40%]), but it was significantly higher than the non-chewers (11 [12.9%]) (pbetel-quid-chewers (p>0.05). Prevalence and carriage of Candida species were comparable between betel-quid-chewers and gutka-chewers compared to non-chewers.

  19. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Association of Smokeless Tobacco and of Betel Quid without Tobacco with Incidence of Oral Cancer in South Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific. Methods Studies (case control and/or cohort) were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary ORRE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary ORRE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Results Meta-analysis of fifteen case–control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls) and four cohort studies (15,342) which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies ORRE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86–9.50, Poral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35–3.40, Poral cancer in these populations. However, studies with better separation of the types of tobacco and the ways in which it is used, and studies with sufficient power to quantify dose-response relationships are still needed. PMID:25411778

  20. Addressing a silent killer - The International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health, National Cancer Institute, in coordination with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research , The University of Texas at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Oral Cancer Research Coordinating Center, University of Malaya, Taiwan Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and with the generous support of the Malaysia Ministry of Health, hosted the International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia on April 27-28, 2016.

  1. Betel Nut Chewing Behavior among Adolescents in Eastern Taiwan: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Ying; Waigandt, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of betel nut chewing among junior high school students is highest in the eastern region of Taiwan (Lin, 1990). Although there is some research on the prevalence rate, little effort has been paid to developing a classification of betel nut chewing behavior applicable to adolescents. Eight-hundred and forty-three students, including…

  2. The Effects of Preventive Intervention for Betel Nut Chewing in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the effect of preventive health education intervention in the knowledge, attitude, practice of betel nut chewing, and self-efficacy of anti-betel nut chewing for adolescent students. Methods: One hundred eighty-six indigenous samples were recruited, and divided into experimental and control groups. The…

  3. Src Family Kinases Mediate Betel Quid-Induced Oral Cancer Cell Motility and Could Be a Biomarker for Early Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Yi-Fu Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ-chewing oral cancer is a prevalent disease in many countries of Southeast Asia. Yet, the precise disease mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BQ extract-induced cell motility in three oral cancer cells (Ca9-22, SAS, and SCC9 presumably involves the Src family kinases (SFKs. Besides, BQ extract can markedly induce cell migration of wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs but not MEFs lacking three SFK members, namely, Src, Yes, and Fyn, indicating the requirement of SFKs for BQ-induced cell motility. Betel quid extract can also elevate cellular SFK activities because phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 at the catalytic domain is increased, which in turn promotes phosphorylation of an in vitro substrate, enolase. Furthermore, we identified that areca nut, a major component of BQ, is the key factor accounting for BQ-induced cell migration and invasion through SFKs-mediated signaling pathways. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, particularly in BQ-chewing cases, the activity of SFKs was significantly higher in tumor-adjacent mucosa than that in solid tumor areas (P < .01. These results suggest a possible role of SFKs in tumor-host interface and thus in early tumor invasion in vivo. Consistent with this is the observation that activation of SFKs is colocalized with invasive tumor fronts in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Together, we conclude that SFKs may represent a potential biomarker of invasion and therapeutic target in BQ-induced oral cancer.

  4. High α - radioactivity level in betel leaf (Piper Betel) and chewing tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Maiti, Sunil; Harh, Sadananda

    2011-01-01

    Studies on alpha emitting radionuclides in tobacco samples is of significant importance as the interaction of alpha particles with cells chromosomes in different organs of tobacco eaters causes to carcinogenic changes in those organs. Apart from smoking, the tobacco products that are smokeless, like ghutka, chewing tobacco, etc., that are directly consumed through orally also contribute to carcinogenic health hazards. They can increase the internal radiation dose and thereby enhance the case of cancer in human population. Another important sample is betel leaf which is largely consumed by people. Since betel leaf is cultivated in lands using fertilizers having high alpha activity. Regular use of betel leaf may cause health hazards if alpha radioactivity is present in harmful quantities. In view of this the present work betel leafs and different type of tobacco products have been collected from the local market in and around Kolkata and alpha activity of those samples have been measured using CR-39 (SSNTD) detectors and dose has been estimated. (author)

  5. [Epidemiological investigation of chewing fresh or dried betel nut and oral mucosal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongxiu, Du; Dongye, Sun; Xinchun, Jian; Qiuhua, Mao; Yanan, Cheng; Pu, Xu

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chewing fresh or dried betel nut on the inci-dence and canceration of oral mucosa disease in Haikou City in Hainan Province. Through a survey questionnaire, clinical examination, and regular follow-up, we collected clinical data from 1 722 cases and divided them into two groups, among which 704 of the afflicted people chew dried betel nut, whereas the other 1 018 chew fresh betel nut. The data were 
statistically analyzed using different variables which included age, number, time of onset of the disease, and the cancerous condition associated with common oral mucosa disease, including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), oral leukoplakia (OLK), and oral Lichen planus (OLP). 1) The study found no significant difference in the prevalence of oral mucosa diseases between the dried betel nut group (n=704) and fresh betel nut group (n=1 018) among the 1 722 cases (P>0.05), but the peak age of oral mucosal disease was more advanced in the dried betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut is more pathogenic and carcinogenic than chewing fresh betel nut. The extremely harmful components of the dried betel nut synergistically play a vital role in the occurrence and carcinogenesis of oral mucosal diseases.

  6. QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF SUBGINGIVAL MICROFLORA AFTER THE CHEWING OF BETEL LEAF

    OpenAIRE

    K Vani; Jose Maji; Rao Srinivasa

    2011-01-01

    Betel a branching vine, scientifically called as Piper betel, is used in a number of traditional remedies and known to have immune boosting as well as antibacterial properties. This study was conducted to assess the qualitative changes in the sub-gingival micro flora, after the chewing of betel leaves, in order to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of this medicinal plant on oral pathogens.Forty volunteers were made to chew betel leaves daily for 5-10 minutes for a period of two weeks and the ...

  7. The influence of religious affiliation on heavy drinking, heavy smoking and heavy betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The results of a national survey of determinants of drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing behaviors are analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing are influenced by a variety of religions based on Taiwan data. Our results suggest that Buddhism, Taoism and practitioners of Chinese folk region are positively associated with heavy betel nut chewing while the religion effects on heavy smoking and drinking are statistically insignificant. Our findings on religion effects in Taiwan can be a valuable reference for comparison in Christian and western countries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Caries prevalence and DMF-T index of Papuan’s students with Betel chewing habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Tebai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to find the extent of caries prevalence and DMF-T index in Papuan’s students with betel chewing habit in Cilaki Dormitory Bandung, 2007. Betel chewing habit is a chewing action of Areca nut (Areca Catechu Linn, Betel leaves (Piper Betel Folia, Betel fruit (Piper Betle Linn, lime talk (Calcium Hydroxide, and after chew to spent out of the mouth. The research is a descriptive research using the survey technique. Research samples are determined by purposive sampling, and a number of 80 samples are collected, consisting of Papuan’s student with betel chewing habit in Bandung between 18-to-30 years of age. Research results indicated that caries prevalence is 98.75% with a DMF-T index of 5.46. The conclusion of the reseach is that the caries prevalence and the DMF-T in Papuan’s student with betel chewing habit in Cilaki Papuan’s Student Dormitory Bandung, 2007, is in the high category.

  9. Betel-quid and alcohol use were associated with lipid accumulation product among male factory workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Fang; Chen, Chao-Tung; Wang, Pei-Ming; Koo, Malcolm

    2015-05-01

    In this study, cardiometabolic risk associated with betel-quid, alcohol and cigarette use, based on a simple index-lipid accumulation product (LAP), was investigated in Taiwanese male factory workers. Male factory workers were recruited during their annual routine health examination at a hospital in south Taiwan. The risk of cardiometabolic disorders was estimated by the use of LAP, calculated as (waist circumference [cm]-65)×(triglyceride concentration [mmol/l]). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the risk factors of natural logarithm-transformed LAP. Of the 815 participants, 40% (325/815) were current alcohol users, 30% (248/815) were current smokers and 7% (53/815) were current betel-quid users. Current betel-quid use, alcohol use, older age, lack of exercise and higher body mass index were found to be significant and independent factors associated with natural logarithm-transformed LAP. Betel-quid and alcohol, but not cigarette use, were independent risk factors of logarithm-transformed LAP, adjusting for age, exercise and body mass index in male Taiwanese factory workers. LAP can be considered as a simple and useful method for screening of cardiometabolic risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The effect of betel nut chewing on contour and object masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2011-11-01

    The betel nut is a common stimulant in many Asian countries. We employed the masking task developed by Enns and Di Lollo (Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 345-352, 1997) to investigate the effects of betel nuts on sensory and attentional processing. In the masking task, participants needed to identify a target that was masked by either a contour mask or an object mask. Sensory processing was assessed by examining target identification in the contour mask condition when the target was presented only centrally, whereas attentional processing was assessed by examining target identification in the object mask condition when the target was presented randomly in either a central or a parafoveal location. The results showed that chewing betel nut and chewing gum produced significant contour masking with a large effect size, similar to the pure control condition, in which participants chewed nothing, and the placebo control condition, in which what participants chewed was disguised. This suggests that neither betel nut nor gum affects sensory processing. Alternatively, betel nut chewing could produce a reduction in object masking for the habitual chewers and the nonchewers, suggesting an effect of betel nut on attentional processing. This concentrated attention was also observed in the placebo control condition; thus, it cannot be exclusively driven by the expectation effect. Also, chewing per se reduced the attentional distribution foveally.

  11. Population-based screening program for reducing oral cancer mortality in 2,334,299 Taiwanese cigarette smokers and/or betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Lin; Su, William Wang-Yu; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Lee, Yi-Chia; Chiu, Han-Mo; Chang, Dun-Cheng; Jou, Yann-Yuh; Wu, Chien-Yuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2017-05-01

    To reduce oral cancer mortality, an organized, population-based screening program for the early detection of oral premalignancy and oral cancer was designed for high-risk individuals with habits of betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking, or both. The objective of this report was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this program in reducing the incidence of advanced disease and deaths from oral cancer. A nationwide, population-based screening program for oral cancer has been conducted in Taiwan since 2004. Residents aged ≥ 18 years with oral habits of cigarette smoking and/or betel quid chewing were invited. The standardized mortality ratio method was used to compare the observed numbers of advanced oral cancers and deaths from oral cancer among screening attendees with the expected numbers derived from mortality among nonattendees. An intention-to-treat analysis of the relative rate of reductions in advanced-stage oral cancers and oral cancer mortality also was conducted. The overall screening rate was 55.1%. The relative risk of death from oral cancer was 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.56) as a result of screening compared with the expected risk of oral cancer deaths in the absence of screening. The corresponding relative risk was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.72-0.77) after adjusting for self-selection bias. The relative risk of advanced oral cancer for the screened group versus the nonscreened group was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.59-0.64), which increased to 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.82) after adjustment for self-selection bias. An organized, population-based oral cancer screening program targeting more than 2 million Taiwanese cigarette smokers and/or betel quid chewers demonstrated the effectiveness of reducing stage III or IV oral cancers and oral cancer mortality. These evidence-based findings corroborate and support the screening strategy of oral visual inspection for the prevention of oral cancer among high-risk individuals in areas with a high incidence of oral

  12. Betel nut chewing and the risk of chronic kidney disease: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Yu, Si-Yi; Lv, Zheng-Tao; Yao, Ying

    2018-06-01

    To investigate and quantify the potential association between betel nut chewing and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We searched five online databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Wanfang and CNKI to identify observational studies that published prior to May, 1, 2017. The primary outcome was the association between betel nut chewing and CKD expressed as odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) after adjustment for other covariates. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software; the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis was used to confirm the stability of drawn conclusion. Five studies comprising a total of 10,562 CKD patients and 34,038 subjects without CKD that analyzed the relationship between betel nut chewing and CKD were included in our study; all the included studies were performed in Taiwan. After the adjustment for covariates, the combined adjusted ORs showed that betel nut used had 1.44 times higher risk to develop CKD compared with non-chewers (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.08-1.92). Betel nut chewing could significantly increase the risk of CKD, indicating that betel nut chewing may exist as an independent risk factor for CKD. Further investigation should be warranted.

  13. The Role of Physical Activity in Harm Reduction among Betel Quid Chewers from a Prospective Cohort of 419,378 Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng En Lo

    Full Text Available To assess the benefits of regular exercise in reducing harms associated with betel quid (BQ chewing.The study cohort, 419,378 individuals, participated in a medical screening program between 1994 and 2008, with 38,324 male and 1,495 female chewers, who consumed 5-15 quids of BQ a day. Physical activity of each individual, based on "MET-hour/week", was classified as "inactive" or "active", where activity started from a daily 15 minutes/day or more of brisk walking (≥3.75 MET-hour/week. Hazard ratios for mortality and remaining years in life expectancy were calculated.Nearly one fifth (18.7% of men, but only 0.7% of women were chewers. Chewers had a 10-fold increase in oral cancer risk; and a 2-3-fold increase in mortality from lung, esophagus and liver cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, with doubling of all-cause mortality. More than half of chewers were physically inactive (59%. Physical activity was beneficial for chewers, with a reduction of all-cause mortality by 19%. Inactive chewers had their lifespan shortened by 6.3 years, compared to non-chewers, but being active, chewers improved their health by gaining 2.5 years. The improvement, however, fell short of offsetting the harms from chewing.Chewers had serious health consequences, but being physically active, chewers could mitigate some of these adverse effects, and extend life expectancy by 2.5 years and reduce mortality by one fifth. Encouraging exercise, in addition to quitting chewing, remains the best advice for 1.5 million chewers in Taiwan.

  14. Profil saliva pada penyirih di Kecamatan Rembon Kabupaten Tana Toraja Salivary profile of betel quid tobacco chewers in District of Rembon, Tana Toraja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Marcelina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid tobacco (BQT chewing is a process of chewing betel leaves, areca nut, lime, gambier, and tobacco. Chewing and chemical stimulation of BQT can affect the salivary profile. The purpose of this study is to observe the differences of salivary profile such as volume, pH, and salivary inorganic component (Na + and phosphate between BQT chewers and non-chewers. This study is an observation analytic with cross sectional design on 30-60 years old women that live in Rembon district of Tana Toraja (n=96 using cluster random sampling technique. Salivary volume was measured by measured glass, salivary pH was measured by indicator pH (Macherey-Nagel. The content of the salivary inorganic component was seen using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in BPTP Laboratory, Maros. Data were analyzed by t-test and chi square test using SPSS v 15.0. The result were mean of salivary volume (chewers=3.88 ml/10 s; p=0.051. Mean of salivary pH (chewers=6.92; p=0.001. Mean of salivary Na+  (chewers=0.38 ppm; p=0.112, Mg2+ (chewers=11.9 ppm; p=0.002, phosphate (chewers=156.8 ppm; p=0.001, Ca 2+ (chewers=174.8 ppm; p=0.000, K concluded that there was no significant difference on salivary volume, pH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg(chewers=445.9 ppm; p=0.429. It was +and K+ content between chewers and non chewers, but the content of salivary Mg 2+, Ca2+and phosphate had significant difference.

  15. Effects of aqueous extracts of "Betel quid" and its constituents on testosterone production by dispersed mouse interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Kaphle, Krishna; Wang, Pei-Hwa; Jong, De-Shien; Wu, Leang-Shin; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2004-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a favorite chewing item among many communities in different parts of Asia where it is popular by different names. BQ is a unique combination of nut or fruit from the Areca catechu Linn. (AN) tree, leaf from the Piper betle Linn. (BL) vine, slaked lime, paste of bark from the Acacia catechu tree and other spices. AN has been used successfully in various traditional medicines by different civilizations over several ages. Initially condemned by the medical communities for its health hazards, identification and application of potent pharmacologically bioactive compounds from different constituents of BQ have rekindled growing interest in related investigations. Curious about the stimulating role of BQ, we investigated the potential steroidogenic activity of hot water extract from BQ and its constituents and arecoline on testosterone producing ability in an in vitro experiment. Enzyme dissociated interstitial cells from adult mouse testes (ICR strain) were cultured with/without different doses of the extracts and the level of testosterone produced was assayed by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique. It was found that at lower doses of arecoline, AN and BL extracts had significantly stimulated testosterone production over the basal level (p effect on testosterone production. Combinations of arecoline at low doses with 10 ng/ml ovine leutinizing hormone (oLH) showed increases in testosterone produced, while cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) co-culture showed dose-related inhibition. Our current finding hints at the possible dose-dependent dualistic role of AN and BL extracts and arecoline for testosterone production employing possible non-cAMP-dependent pathway of steroidogenesis. However, the identity of the active compounds besides arecoline and the exact mechanism involved remains to be further investigated.

  16. Sociocultural Factors that Affect Chewing Behaviors among Betel Nut Chewers and Ex-Chewers on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-12-01

    Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by an estimated 10% of the world's population which is equivalent to about 600 million people. It is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has been linked to various types of oral cancer. Chewing areca predominates in South and South East Asia, East Africa, and the Western Pacific and has important social and cultural implications. The purpose of the pilot study was twofold: (1) to examine sociocultural factors that affect why people on Guam chew betel nut, their chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit; and (2) to pilot two surveys (one for chewers and one for ex-chewers) to be used in a larger study in the future. A mixed methods design was employed that included surveys pertaining to their status (chewer or ex-chewer) and in-depth interviews. A total of 30 adults participated in this pilot study: adult betel nut chewers (n = 15) and ex-chewers (n = 15). Chewing betel nut is a learned behavior, embedded within the culture, and is viewed as an important cultural identifier. Socially, chewing is viewed as positive. Chewers stated that they were not as aware of health issues; however, ex-chewers stated health reasons for quitting.

  17. The association between hyperuricemia and betel nut chewing in Taiwanese men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Tsai-Sung; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Liu, Wen-Hsin; Hsu, Yueh-Han

    2013-12-05

    Studies have associated betel nut chewing with cancers, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, chronic kidney disease, and proteinuria. This study investigated whether hyperuricemia is associated with betel nut chewing in men who participated in a health check-up program. From hospital records, we identified a total of 11,991 men who participated in the health check-up program from 2003 to 2009. They were divided into hyperuricemic group and non-hyperuricemic group. Laboratory tests, medical history, and status of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel nut chewing were compared between the 2 groups. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hyperuricemia in association with betel nut consumption and other factors. Compared with the non-hyperuricemic group, the hyperuricemic group was slightly older (59.4 vs. 58.6 years) but less prevalent with betel nut use (11.8 vs. 13.6%, p = 0.003). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that hyperuricemia was negatively associated with betel nut chewing (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.84), older age (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.93), and diabetes mellitus (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.50-0.64). On the other hand, hyperuricemia was positively associated with body mass index (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.62-1.90), drinking (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.25-1.49), hypertension (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.30-1.52), mixed hyperlipidemia (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.33-2.54), chronic kidney disease (OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.94-3.65), and proteinuria (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.08-1.38). Smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia had no significant association with hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that betel nut chewing is negatively associated with hyperuricemia.

  18. Association of DSM-5 Betel-Quid Use Disorder With Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder in 6 Betel-Quid Endemic Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yang, Frances M; Hung, Chung-Chieh; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2018-03-01

    Betel-quid (BQ) is the fourth most popular psychoactive agent worldwide. An emerging trend across Asia is the addictive consumption of BQ, which is associated with oral cancer and other health consequences. To investigate the validity and pattern of DSM-5-defined BQ use disorder (BUD) and its association with oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) among Asian populations. In-person interviews were conducted from January 1, 2009, to February 28, 2010, among a random sample of 8922 noninstitutionalized adults from the Asian Betel-quid Consortium study, an Asian representative survey of 6 BQ-endemic populations. Statistical analysis was performed from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. Participants were evaluated for BUD using DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder and for OPMD using a clinical oral examination. Current users of BQ with 0 to 1 symptoms were classified as having no BUD, those with 2 to 3 symptoms as having mild BUD, those with 4 to 5 symptoms as having moderate BUD, and those with 6 or more symptoms as having severe BUD. Among the 8922 participants (4564 women and 4358 men; mean [SD] age, 44.2 [0.2] years), DSM-5 symptoms showed sufficient unidimensionality to act as a valid measure for BUD. The 12-month prevalence of DSM-5-defined BUD in the 6 study populations was 18.0% (mild BUD, 3.2%; moderate BUD, 4.3%; and severe BUD, 10.5%). The 12-month proportion of DSM-5-defined BUD among current users of BQ was 86.0% (mild BUD, 15.5%; moderate BUD, 20.6%; and severe BUD, 50.0%). Sex, age, low educational level, smoking, and drinking were significantly associated with BUD. Among individuals who used BQ, family use, high frequency of use, and amount of BQ used were significantly linked to moderate to severe BUD. Compared with individuals who did not use BQ, those who used BQ and had no BUD showed a 22.0-fold (95% CI, 4.3-112.4) risk of OPMD (P < .001), whereas those with mild BUD showed a 9.6-fold (95% CI, 1.8-56.8) risk (P = .01), those

  19. Effect of chewing betel nut (Areca catechu) on salivary cortisol measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Martina; Urlacher, Samuel S

    2015-09-01

    Cultural practices may compromise the accuracy of salivary hormone measurements and must be considered when designing human biology research protocols. This study aims to evaluate the acute effect of one common human practice-chewing betel nut-on the measurement of salivary cortisol levels under field conditions. Data were collected from 17 adult habitual betel nut users (males = 11; females = 6; mean age = 32.8 years) from a small rural community in Papua New Guinea. Saliva was collected in time series from each participant before and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 min after chewing betel nut. Samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and cortisol levels were compared across time using linear mixed effects modeling. Measured mean cortisol concentration fell nearly 40% immediately following betel nut use and remained significantly below baseline levels for the following 45 min (all P  0.16). Chewing betel nut is associated with a transient but significant reduction in measured levels of salivary cortisol. Future research must take this into account in populations where betel nut use is prevalent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Altered Long- and Short-Range Functional Connectivity in Patients with Betel Quid Dependence: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disease. Brain structural abnormalities may constitute an abnormal neural network that underlies the risk of drug dependence. We hypothesized that individuals with Betel Quid Dependence (BQD have functional connectivity alterations that can be described by long- and short-range functional connectivity density(FCD maps. Methods: We tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from subjects of the Han ethnic group in Hainan, China. Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33 and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs (n = 32 in a rs-fMRI study to observe FCD alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Results: Compared with HCs, long-range FCD was decreased in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and increased in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL and bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL in the BQD group. Short-range FCD was reduced in the right ACC and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, and increased in the left CPL. The short-range FCD alteration in the right ACC displayed a negative correlation with the Betel Quid Dependence Scale (BQDS (r=-0.432, P=0.012, and the long-range FCD alteration of left IPL showed a positive correlation with the duration of BQD(r=0.519, P=0.002 in BQD individuals. Conclusions: fMRI revealed differences in long- and short- range FCD in BQD individuals, and these alterations might be due to BQ chewing, BQ dependency, or risk factors for developing BQD.

  1. Changes in plasma steroids and cytokines levels in betel chewing patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sindy; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Hwang, Guey-Shyang; Chen, Szu-Tah; Kuo, Song-Bor; Chen, Yifen; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    Betel nut is the second largest economic food product in Taiwan. In Southeast Asia, the habit of chewing betel nut seems to be highly correlated with oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral submucous fibrosis is characterized by abnormal accumulation of oral submucous collagen fibers and limitation of mouth opening. Although the mechanism responsible for tissue damage is still unknown, prolonged irritation caused by betel nut and tobacco is considered to be a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. The effect of betel nut chewing on immune system remains unknown. Present study aims to investigate the change of plasma hormones including cortisol, testosterone, and inflammatory cytokine concentrations in male chewing betel nut compared with normal subjects. Heparinized blood was obtained from control group (normal young+mid-aged individuals), betel nut-chewing, and oral cancer male subjects. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital. Written informed consent was granted by the patients. Plasma cortisol and testosterone concentrations were detected by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-15, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were analyzed by ELISA with commercial monoclonal capture antibodies and polyclonal detection antibodies. The median concentrations of plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α were 3.14pg/ml, 3.14pg/ml, and 6.85pg/ml, respectively, in patients with oral cancer, compared with median plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α concentration of 2.64pg/ml, 5.86pg/ml, and 5.38pg/ml, respectively, in patients with betel nut-chewing habit. In contrast, the median concentrations of plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α in mid-aged males (aged 30-50) were 7.00pg/ml, 10.64pg/ml, and 31.73pg/ml, respectively, compared with median plasma concentration of IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α of 4.48pg/ml, 33.36pg

  2. A Comprehensive Analysis on the Association between Tobacco-Free Betel Quid and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer in Taiwanese Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hua Wu

    Full Text Available Although betel quid (BQ is an established risk factor of head and neck cancer (HNC, insufficiencies exist in the literature regarding the dose-response, BQ types, HNC sites, and BQ cessation. The current study was conducted to fill these insufficiencies.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the association between BQ and HNC. In-person interview was conducted to collect data on BQ chewing. The current analysis included 487 men newly diagnosed with HNC and 617 male controls who were frequency-matched to the cases by age. The association between BQ and HNC was assessed using multivariable unconditional logistic regression.Ever BQ chewing was associated with an increased HNC risk regardless of the BQ types. A non-linear positive association between BQ and HNC was observed, with a steep rise in HNC risk for the first 5 pack-years or 200,000 minutes of BQ consumption. Every year of BQ cessation was associated with a 2.9% reduction in HNC risk; however, the risk did not reduce to the level of non-BQ chewers even after 20 years of BQ cessation. Eliminating BQ chewing may prevent 51.6% of HNCs, 62.6% of oral cancers, and 41.3% of pharyngeal cancers in Taiwan.Our results supported the positive association between BQ and HNC. BQ cessation is effective in reducing HNC risk and should be encouraged. Because BQ cessation may not reduce the HNC risk to the level of non-BQ chewers, it is important to prevent the initiation of BQ chewing.

  3. Betel Nut Chewing Is Associated With Reduced Tacrolimus Concentration in Taiwanese Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W-Y; Lee, C-Y; Lin, P-Y; Hsieh, C-E; Ko, C-J; Lin, K-H; Lin, C-C; Ming, Y-Z; Chen, Y-L

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that arecoline, the major alkaloid component of betel nuts, alters the activity of enzymes in the cytochrome P450 (CYP-450) family. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant that protects against organ rejection in transplant recipients, not only is mainly metabolized by CYP3A enzymes but also has a narrow therapeutic range. We aimed to investigate whether dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus differed over time between betel nut-chewing and non-betel nut-chewing liver transplant recipients. In this retrospective case-control study, 14 active betel nut-using liver recipients were matched at a 1:2 ratio to 28 non-betel nut-using liver recipients by sex, age, graft source, duration of follow-up after liver transplantation, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Differences in liver function index, renal function index, and dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus over an 18-month period were compared between the 2 groups by using the Generalized Estimating Equation approach. Dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus tended to be significantly (P = .04) lower in betel nut chewers (mean = 0.81, medium = 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 0.90) than in nonchewers (mean = 1.12, medium = 0.88, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.22) during the 18-month study period. However, there was no significant difference in renal and liver function index between the 2 groups. Liver transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus tend to have lower blood trough levels of the drug over time if they chew betel nuts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Betel chewing and arecoline affects eotaxin-1, asthma and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Meng-Chih; Duh, Tsai-Hui; Lee, Chih-Hung; Wang, Chin-Chou; Chen, Ping-Ho; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Wu, Chao-Chien; Ferri, Cleusa P; Stewart, Robert; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Betel nut is commonly used in many countries. Despite evidence suggesting an association with asthma, few studies have investigated the connection between betel nut use and asthma; thus, the underlying mechanism for the association with asthma is also unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between betel chewing and asthma as well as the associations of plasma arecoline (a biomarker for exposure) and eotaxin-1 (a potential mediator) with asthma and lung function. We recruited 600 hospital-based asthmatic patients and 1200 age- and gender-matched community controls in southern Taiwan. To clarify the mechanism of action for eotaxin-1 in the association between betel chewing and asthma, we also designed an in vitro experiment to study the functional associations between arecoline exposure and eotaxin-1 levels. A significant association was found between asthma and current betel chewing (adjusted odds ratio 2.05, 95% CI = 1.12-3.76), which was independent of potential confounders but was attenuated following adjustment for eotaxin-1. Arecoline and eotaxin-1 levels were positively correlated (Spearman r = 0.303, p = 0.02), while arecoline and arecaidine were negatively correlated with lung function. Functionally, arecoline alone does not induce eotaxin-1 release in vitro from dermal and gingival fibroblasts. However, in the presence of IL-4 and TNF-alpha, arecoline at 100 μg/ml induced more eotaxin-1 release than arecoline at 0 μg/ml (2700±98 pg/ml vs 1850±142 pg/ml, p = 0.01 in dermal fibroblast cells, and 1489±78 pg/ml vs 1044±95 pg/ml, p = 0.03 in gingival fibroblast cells, respectively). Betel chewing is associated with asthma in this population, with arecoline induction of eotaxin-1 supported as a plausible causal pathway.

  5. Betel nut chewing behaviour and its association with oral mucosal lesions and conditions in Ghaziabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sumanth; Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the practices and behaviour among Betel nut users in Ghaziabad and to detect the clinically associated oral mucosal lesions and conditions. A community-based survey was conducted in Ghaziabad among 332 betel nut users. Data on betel nut use was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Oral mucosal lesions and conditions were recorded using WHO criteria. Out of 332 betel nut users, 32.8% consumed Gutkha. 62.3% users used betel nut with tobacco. Most of the study population started chewing betel nut because of peer pressure and the habit started at the workplace or school. A majority found that there was no physical discomfort due to the habit. The significant oral diseases detected were oral leukoplakia in 11.7% and oral submucous fibrosis in 6.1% of individuals. The findings of the present study revealed that 74.7% of the participants were current chewers. 30.4% of all participants had oral mucosal lesions and conditions.

  6. Betel Nut Chewing in Hawai‘i: Is it Becoming a Public Health Problem? Historical and Socio-Cultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Enrico I

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural significance of betel nut use among Micronesians, in light of the recent migration of Micronesians to Hawai‘i. The different ways of chewing betel nut are the result of historical changes within Micronesia over time due to Spanish and US colonialism as well as the introduction of tobacco. These divergent ways of chewing may have different risks or impacts on health and it remains to be seen whether or not betel nut will become a significant public health problem in Hawai‘i. PMID:22413101

  7. Epidemiology of oral cavity cancer in taiwan with emphasis on the role of betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Jen, Yee-Min; Wang, Bill-B; Lee, Jih-Chin; Kang, Bor-Hwang

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the epidemiological characteristics and the possible contributing etiology of oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. Data on oral cavity cancer from the period between 1986 and 1997 were compiled from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Annual Report. The amount of average annual consumption per person of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nut were extracted from the Annual Report of Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau and the Agriculture Counsel of Taiwan. The incidence of oral cavity cancer increased annually. Both the total and male incidence have increased substantially since 1993. Regarding the peak incidence, most cases were seen in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Multiple regression models indicated that 86.2% variation in the incidence of oral cavity cancer was explained by the annual average betel nut consumption per person. These results imply that those who chew betel nut belong to a high-risk group and require special consideration and attention regarding health education and health promotion.

  8. Longer Duration and Earlier Age of Onset of Paternal Betel Chewing and Smoking Increase Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Human Offspring, Independently, in a Community-Based Screening Program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Boucher, Barbara J; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-08-02

    Transgenerational effects of paternal Areca catechu nut chewing on offspring metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in humans, on obesity and diabetes mellitus experimentally, and of paternal smoking on offspring obesity, are reported, likely attributable to genetic and epigenetic effects previously reported in betel-associated disease. We aimed to determine the effects of paternal smoking, and betel chewing, on the risks of early MetS in human offspring. The 13 179 parent-child trios identified from 238 364 Taiwanese aged ≥20 years screened at 2 community-based integrated screening sessions were tested for the effects of paternal smoking, areca nut chewing, and their duration prefatherhood on age of detecting offspring MetS at screen by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Offspring MetS risks increased with prefatherhood paternal areca nutusage (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.53) versus nonchewing fathers (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.67-6.43) with >10 years paternal betel chewing, 1.62 (95% CI, 0.88-2.96) for 5 to 9 years, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.80-2.54) for betel usage prefatherhood (Ptrend=0.0002), with increased risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.26-3.04) for paternal areca nut usage from 20 to 29 years of age, versus from >30 years of age (adjusted hazard ratio,1.61; 95% CI, 0.22-11.69). MetS offspring risk for paternal smoking increased dosewise (Ptrendbetel quid chewing and smoking, prefatherhood, independently predicted early occurrence of incident MetS in offspring, corroborating previously reported transgenerational effects of these habits, and supporting the need for habit-cessation program provision. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Piper betel Linn (betel vine), the maligned Southeast Asian medicinal plant possesses cancer preventive effects: time to reconsider the wronged opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Palatty, Princy L; Rao, Prathima; Rao, Suresh; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Piper betel Linn (betel vine; family Piperaceae) has been an important medicinal agent in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia countries. The leaves are the most valued plant part and in the past were routinely used as a chewing agent to prevent halitosis. The leaves are also supposed to harden the gum, conserve the teeth and to prevent indigestion, bronchitis, constipation, congestion, coughs and asthma. Innumerable scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal claims. Betel leaves are an integral component of the betel quid that consists of areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and slaked lime; a highly abused agent with carcinogenic properties. Regular chewing of betel quid is associated mainly with oral cancer and detail studies with individual constituents of the quid have shown that both tobacco and areca nut are carcinogenic, while slaked lime is shown to promote the process of carcinogenesis. However unlike other constituents of the betel quid, the betel leaves devoid carcinogenic effects and on the contrary possesses cancer preventive effects including against the carcinogens present in tobacco. This review for the first time provides information on cancer preventive effects and also addresses the various mechanisms which might be involved.

  10. A study to analyze the different patterns of quid usage among subjects with chewer′s mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Betel chewer′s mucosa, although not considered as a potentially malignant lesion, has been suggested to be a precursor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF. Thus a study was undertaken to asses various quid chewing patterns in patients with chewer′s mucosa and to evaluate possible association between chewer′s mucosa and a particular quid usage patter. Materials and methods: The study was done on 150 subjects clinically diagnosed of having chewers mucosa lesion. After complete oral examination, a detailed habit history was taken through preformed questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Among the 150 subjects males to female ratio was 8:2- Majority of the subjects were within the age group of 20 to 30 years and chewed a combination of betel leaf, arecanut, tobacco, lime- Majority of the subjects of chewer′s mucosa used the quid for a duration of 1 to 5 years, a frequency of three to five quid per day. Conclusion: In the present study, chewers mucosa was seen in majority of the subjects who used the quid for a duration of 1 to 5 years, a frequency of three to five quid per day and chewed the quid containing betel leaf, arecanut, tobacco, lime as its constituents.

  11. Areca (betel) nut chewing practices of adults and health behaviors of their children in the Freely Associated States, Micronesia: Findings from the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Ettienne, Reynolette; Novotny, Rachel; Wilkens, Lynne R; Shomour, Moria; Sigrah, Cecilia; Remengesau, Shelley D; Johnson, Emihner L; Alfred, Julia M; Gilmatam, Daisy F

    2017-10-01

    Chewing areca (betel) nut has been deemed carcinogenic. The practice has become a public health concern in Micronesia. The Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program included an areca (betel) nut questionnaire in a survey of household characteristics in the Freely Associated States (FAS). This paper describes areca (betel) nut chewing practices of adults and the health behaviors of their children. A cross-section of 1200 children (2-8 year-olds) and their caregivers in Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Republic of Palau, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and Yap were recruited. Socio-demographics, adult areca (betel) nut chewing practices, and other health behaviors of children and adults were assessed. Child anthropometric measurements were collected to estimate weight status. The FAS areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence was 42%, ranging from 3% (RMI) to 94% (Yap). Among chewers, 84% added tobacco, 97% added slaked lime, 85% added betel leaf, and 24% mixed the components with alcohol. Among FAS children, 95% practiced daily teeth-brushing and 53% visited the dentist annually. Compared to non-chewing households, areca (betel) nut chewing households were more likely to have very young children enrolled, more highly educated adults, and members that used tobacco and alcohol. The FAS areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence (42%) is above the world prevalence of 10-20%, with wide variability across the islands. The oral health findings in this study may inform future oral cancer prevention programs or policies. Regular monitoring of areca (betel) nut use is needed to measure the impact of such programs or policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of monoamine oxidase variants on the risk of betel quid-associated oral and pharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Huang, Bin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Wu, Ju-Hui; Huang, Jhen-Hao; Chen, Chun-Chia; Lee, Ka-Wo

    2014-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut (AN) (major BQ ingredient) are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS.

  13. Mapping brain functional alterations in betel-quid chewers using resting-state fMRI and network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jun-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Syuan; Huang, Guo-Joe; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Ho, Ming-Chou

    2018-04-01

    The World Health Organization regards betel quid (BQ) as a human carcinogen, and DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence symptoms may develop with its heavy use. BQ's possible effects of an enhanced reward system and disrupted inhibitory control may increase the likelihood of habitual substance use. The current study aimed to employ resting-state fMRI to examine the hypothesized enhanced reward system (e.g., the basal forebrain system) and disrupted inhibitory control (e.g., the prefrontal system) in BQ chewers. The current study recruited three groups of 48 male participants: 16 BQ chewers, 15 tobacco- and alcohol-user controls, and 17 healthy controls. We used functional connectivity (FC), mean fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (mfALFF), and mean regional homogeneity (mReHo) to evaluate functional alternations in BQ chewers. Graph theoretical analysis (GTA) and network-based statistical (NBS) analysis were also performed to identify the functional network differences among the three groups. Our hypothesis was partially supported: the enhanced reward system for the BQ chewers (e.g., habitual drug-seeking behavior) was supported; however, their inhibitory control was relatively preserved. In addition, we reported that the BQ chewers may have enhanced visuospatial processing and decreased local segregation. The current results (showing an enhanced reward system in the chewers) provided the clinicians with important insight for the future development of an effective abstinence treatment.

  14. The Influence of Monoamine Oxidase Variants on the Risk of Betel Quid-Associated Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ and areca nut (AN (major BQ ingredient are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS.

  15. Betel nut chewing history is an independent prognosticator for smoking patients with locally advanced stage IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma receiving induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan-Ye; Chien, Chih-Yen; Luo, Sheng-Dean; Huang, Tai-Lin; Lin, Wei-Che; Fang, Fu-Min; Chiu, Tai-Jan; Chen, Yen-Hao; Lai, Chi-Chih; Hsu, Cheng-Ming; Li, Shau-Hsuan

    2016-03-22

    Smoking and betel nut chewing are well-known risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Smoking is also a strong prognosticator for patients with locally advanced HNSCC receiving induction chemotherapy. Smoking with or without betel nut chewing is a common practice in Asia. However, little is known regarding whether betel nut chewing can serve as a prognostic factor for smoking patients with locally advanced HNSCC receiving induction chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of betel nut chewing in such patients receiving induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (TPF). From January 2010 to December 2012, we retrospectively analyzed 162 smoking patients with locally advanced HNSCC who received induction chemotherapy with TPF at our institution. Background characteristics, including a history of betel nut chewing, were analyzed as potential prognostic factors. Among the 162 smoking patients, 131 patients (81%) were betel nut chewers, while 31 (19%) were non-betel nut chewers. One hundred fifty-six (96%) were men, and 6 (4%) were women. The median age was 53 years. The overall response rates to induction chemotherapy were 57 and 77% in patients with and without betel nut chewing history, respectively (P = 0.038). The 2-year progression survival rates were 37 and 67% in patients with and without betel nut chewing history, respectively (P = 0.004). The 2-year overall survival rates were 47 and 71% in patients with and without betel nut chewing history, respectively (P = 0.017). Betel nut chewing history was independently associated with a poor response to induction chemotherapy, an inferior progression-free survival rate, and a poor overall survival rate. Our results indicate that betel nut chewing history is independently associated with poor prognosis in smoking patients with locally advanced HNSCC receiving induction chemotherapy with TPF. Further investigation is warranted to

  16. Implication for second primary cancer from visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions in betel-nut chewing related oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shyun-Yu; Feng, I-Jung; Wu, Yu-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Hsiung, Chao-Nan; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Che-Yi; Chang, Min-Te; Yu, Hsi-Chien; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions may be used to monitor for a second primary oral cancer. To control for bias, we focused on the visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions of patients with oral cancer with a positive betel-nut chewing habit. Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions that can predict second primary oral cancers were studied. Nine hundred ninety-seven patients with positive betel-nut chewing habits and oral cancer were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the relevance of their visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesion incidence and relative clinicopathological variables to the development of a second primary oral cancer. Second primary oral cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with positive visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions (P oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions make it a potentially valuable marker in follow-ups of patients with a positive betel-nut chewing habit with oral cancer, especially young patients with heterogeneous leukoplakia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Effects of Chewing Betel Nut with Tobacco and Pre-pregnancy Obesity on Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Palauan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katherine E; Masterson, James; Mascardo, Joy; Grapa, Jayvee; Appanaitis, Inger; Temengil, Everlynn; Watson, Berry Moon; Cash, Haley L

    2016-08-01

    The small Pacific Island nation of Palau has alarmingly high rates of betel nut with tobacco use and obesity among the entire population including pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the effects of betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity on adverse birth outcomes. This study used retrospective cohort data on 1171 Palauan women who gave birth in Belau National Hospital in Meyuns, Republic of Palau between 2007 and 2013. The exposures of interest were pre-pregnancy obesity and reported betel nut with tobacco use during pregnancy. The primary outcomes measured were preterm birth and low birth weight among full-term infants. A significantly increased risk for low birth weight among full-term infants was demonstrated among those women who chewed betel nut with tobacco during pregnancy when other known risk factors were controlled for. Additionally, pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with a significantly increased risk for preterm birth when other known risk factors were controlled for. Both betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity were associated with higher risks for adverse birth outcomes. These findings should be used to drive public health efforts in Palau, as well as in other Pacific Island nations where these studies are currently lacking.

  18. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in betel chewers and non betel chewers with and without oral cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Neluka; Jayakumar, Gnanapragasam; Perera, Naomal; Amarasingha, Indranee; Meedin, Fahra; Holton, John

    2009-01-01

    Background Betel chewing has been shown to predispose to periodontal disease and oral cancer. Studies show that people with gum disease are more likely to test positive for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). It is not known if the lesions produced by betel quid and the resulting, chemical changes predispose to colonization by H. pylori. Further the role of this organism in oral cancer is not known. Our objective was to determine the presence of H. pylori in oral lesions of thirty oral cancer patients and to determine the presence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori in oral cancer patients who are betel chewers and non betel chewers, healthy betel chewers and healthy non-betel chewers and to compare the presence of H. pylori in these four groups. This case control study was conducted at the Cancer Institute Maharagama and the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Methods One hundred and seventy three subjects, of whom fifty three were patients presenting with oral cancer to the Cancer Institute Maharagama, sixty healthy betel chewers and sixty healthy non-betel chewers from the Religious and Welfare Service Centre Maharagama were tested for H. pylori by serology. Thirty oral biopsies from oral cancer patients were cultured under microaerophilic condition to isolate H. pylori. The statistic used was Chi-square test. Results Of the fifty-three oral cancer patients, forty-four were betel chewers. Among the 53 oral cancer patients examined, ten of forty-four (10/44 = 22.7%) patients who are betel chewers and four of nine (4/9 = 44.4%) patients who are non-betel chewers were detected positive for IgG antibody against H. pylori. In the healthy group (betel chewers and non betel chewers) ten (16.7%) of the healthy betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori by serology. None of the healthy non-betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori Fourteen [26.4%] of oral cancer patients tested positive for H. pylori by serology, of

  19. Comparative distribution of Lysyl Oxidase (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphism among tea-garden workers (habitual chewers of betel quid of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Gopal Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chewing of processed arecanut products with tobacco and betel quid has been attributed to many oral pathological conditions. These products are very popular among the youngsters of lower economic groups. Genetic predisposition has been now identified as a major risk factor for increasing the susceptibility toward the disease among these chewers. Aims: Our study mainly aims to find out the predisposition of LOX (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphisms and present a comparison between the population (habitually exposed to processed arecanut and smokeless tobacco products of a metro-city Kolkata and the tea-garden workers of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Settings and Design: Subjects for the study was recruited from various oral health check-up camps organized in the tea-gardens of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city. Materials and Methods: Genotyping analysis was done through a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP-based approach. Statistical Analysis Used: A two-way contingency table analysis software (JAVASTAT: http://statpages.org/ctab2 × 2.html using 95% confidence interval was used to study the distribution of genotypes among the populations. A P T (609 was found to be significantly higher among the north Bengal tea-garden workers [OR 0.480 (0.280-0.82 P = 0.01; 0.218 (0.091-0.524 P = 0.0001], respectively. Interestingly CT (21% in both and TT (8% and 7%, respectively were found to be equally distributed in the two populations. For LOX G > A (473 a significantly higher number of Kolkata individuals were found to carry the heterozygous GA allele in individuals aged <30 years [OR 3.779 (1.684-6.547 P = 0.001]. However, none were carrier of heterozygous GA allele of Kolkata population as compared with 29% north Bengal tea-garden workers aged above 31 years. Conclusions: A close observation of occurrence of oral diseases over time among such a population will be helpful to identify risk

  20. AURKA Phe31Ile polymorphism interacted with use of alcohol, betel quid, and cigarettes at multiplicative risk of oral cancer occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Pin; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Lee, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Yi-Shan; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Hua, Chun-Hung; Chen, Yuan-Chien; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2015-11-01

    The expression levels of two DNA repair genes (CHAF1A and CHAF1B) and a chromosome segregation gene (AURKA) were susceptible to arecoline exposure, a major alkaloid of areca nut. We hypothesize that genetic variants of these genes might also be implicated in the risk of oral cancer and could be modified by substance use of betel quid or alcohol and cigarettes. A case-control study, which included 507 patients with oral cancer and 717 matched controls, was performed in order to evaluate the cancer susceptibility by the tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in AURKA, CHAF1A, and CHAF1B using a genotyping assay and gene-environment interaction analysis. The Phe31Ile polymorphism (rs2273535, T91A) of AURKA was significantly associated with an increased risk of oral cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.5). The gene dosage of the 91A allele also showed a significant trend in risk of oral cancer (P = 0.008). Furthermore, we found the AURKA 91AA homozygote was modifiable by substance use of alcohol, betel quid, and cigarettes (ABC), leading to increased risk of oral cancer in an additive or a multiplicative model (combined effect indexes = 1.2-4.0 and 1.5-2.2, respectively). However, no association was observed between the genetic variants of CHAF1A or CHAF1B and oral cancer risk in the study. These findings reveal the functional Phe31Ile polymorphism tagSNP of AURKA may be a strong susceptibility gene in ABC-related oral cancer occurrence. The results of this betel-related oral cancer study provide the evidence of environment-gene interaction for early prediction and molecular diagnosis.

  1. Antimutagenic effects of betel leaf extract against the mutagenicity of two tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P R; Amonkar, A J; Bhide, S V

    1989-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated chewing tobacco alone to be more hazardous than chewing tobacco with betel quid. Experimental studies have shown that betel leaf is antimutagenic against standard mutagens like benzo[a]pyrene and dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Since the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) are the only carcinogens present in unburnt forms of tobacco, including chewing tobacco, we tested the effect of an extract of betel leaf against the mutagenicity of the two important TSNA, viz., N'-nitrosonornicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay with TA100 +S9 and the in vivo micronucleus test. In both the test systems it was observed that betel leaf extract suppressed the mutagenic effects of both the nitrosamines to a significant extent.

  2. Betel: consumption and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S A

    1998-01-01

    Betel is a compound of natural substances chewed for its psychostimulating effects. Betel is composed of the nut of the areca palm (Areca catechu), the leaf of the betel pepper (Piper betle), and lime (calcium hydroxide). Approximately 200 million persons chew betel regularly throughout the western Pacific basin and south Asia. Only three drugs (nicotine, ethanol, and caffeine) are consumed more widely than betel. When betel is chewed, it produces mild psychoactive and cholinergic effects. There is copious production of a blood-red saliva that can stain oral structures. After years of chewing, the teeth may become red-brown to nearly black. Betel use is associated with oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, and squamous cell carcinoma. Use of betel is discouraged in Western countries because of its alleged carcinogenic and perceived dysesthetic properties; nevertheless, betel is widely available in the West.

  3. Screening for oral potentially malignant disorders among areca (betel) nut chewers in Guam and Saipan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Hurwitz, Eric L; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Gatewood, Robert R; Pierson, Kenneth D; Tenorio, Lynnette F; Novotny, Rachel; Palafox, Neal A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Badowski, Grazyna

    2014-12-11

    The Mariana Islands, including Guam and Saipan, are home to many ethnic subpopulations of Micronesia. Oral cancer incidence rates vary among subpopulations, and areca (betel) nut chewing, a habit with carcinogenic risks, is common. Our objectives were to conduct a screening program to detect oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) in betel nut chewers, measure their betel nut chewing practices, and assess the prevalence of the oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a subset of betel nut chewers in these islands. A cross-section of 300 betel nut chewers ≥18 years old [in Guam (n = 137) and in Saipan (n = 163)] were recruited between January 2011-June 2012. We collected demographic, socioeconomic, and oral behavioural characteristics. Latent class analysis was used to identify chewing patterns from selected chewing behaviours. Following calibration of OPMD against an expert, a registered oral hygienist conducted oral examinations by house to house visits and referred positive cases to the study dentist for a second oral examination. Buccal smears were collected from a subset (n = 123) for HPV testing. Two classes of betel nut chewers were identified on 7 betel nut behaviours, smoking, and alcohol use; a key difference between the two Classes was the addition of ingredients to the betel quid among those in Class 2. When compared on other characteristics, Class 1 chewers were older, had been chewing for more years, and chewed fewer nuts per day although chewing episodes lasted longer than Class 2 chewers. More Class 1 chewers visited the dentist regularly than Class 2 chewers. Of the 300 participants, 46 (15.3%; 3.8% for Class 1 and 19.4% for Class 2) had OPMD and one (0.3%) was confirmed to have squamous cell carcinoma. The prevalence of oral HPV was 5.7% (7/123), although none were high-risk types. We found two patterns of betel nut chewing behaviour; Class 2 had a higher frequency of OPMD. Additional epidemiologic research is needed to

  4. Individual, social and environmental determinants of smokeless tobacco and betel quid use amongst adolescents of Karachi: a school-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azmina; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2017-11-28

    With 600 million people using betel quid (BQ) globally, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use being more wide-spread; the duo is an uphill public health concern in South Asian countries. SLT and/or BQ use increases the risk for morbidity and mortality from oral cancer. Because SLT and/or BQ use is initiated during adolescence, it renders this group more vulnerable; and particular attention is needed to curb SLT and/or BQ use to reduce related disease burden. We aimed to observe the differential individual, social and environmental features amongst SLT and/or BQ users to determine the key influencers of its use in adolescents. This study was a cross-sectional survey of 2140 adolescents from secondary schools of Karachi, Pakistan. The main outcome measure was SLT and/or BQ use based on their consumption in the past 30 days. Univariate and multivariate regression binary logistic analyses were employed while reporting results in both crude form and adjusted odds ratio (after adjusting for all remaining individual, social and environmental level variables) with 95% confidence level. A p-value of co-education schools. Students whose peers (OR = 6.79, 95% CI 4.67-9.87, p-value co-education, parents and peers use, lack of knowledge based sessions on harmful health effects of SLT and/or BQ, and easy availability of the product from hawkers outside school all contribute towards enhanced risk of SLT and/or BQ use in adolescents.

  5. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Amy L; Carrara, Verena I; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-09-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai-Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse effects of areca nut use routinely recorded on enrolment. Of 7685 women, 2284 (29.7%) never used areca or smoked (cheroots), 2484 (32.3%) only used areca, 438 (5.7%) only smoked cheroots and 2479 (32.3%) used both areca and cheroots. Pieces of ripe areca nut in a leaf with lime, without tobacco, were used particularly among older multigravid women. Adverse pregnancy effects were not observed in areca nut users compared with non-users. Smoking, but not areca nut use, had a dose-related effect on miscarriage. Areca nut use in conjunction with smoking reduced the adverse effects of smoking on birth weight, further supporting a lack of effect of areca nut. Areca (betel) nut-related adverse pregnancy outcomes were not observed in this population, whereas smoking was clearly harmful. Differences from previous reports may result from the amount or types of areca nut, or quid content, consumed between countries. Smoking, but not areca nut, reduction is likely to improve pregnancy outcomes on the Thai-Myanmar border.

  6. High ERCC1 expression predicts cisplatin-based chemotherapy resistance and poor outcome in unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in a betel-chewing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Chih-Yen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was to evaluate the effect of excision repair cross-complementation group 1(ERCC1 expression on response to cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy (IC followed by concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT in locally advanced unresectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC patients. Methods Fifty-seven patients with locally advanced unresectable HNSCC who received cisplatin-based IC followed by CCRT from January 1, 2006 through January 1, 2008. Eligibility criteria included presence of biopsy-proven HNSCC without a prior history of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess ERCC1 expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens from paraffin blocks. Clinical parameters, including smoking, alcohol consumption and betel nuts chewing, were obtained from the medical records. Results The 12-month progression-free survival (PFS and 2-year overall survival (OS rates of fifty-seven patients were 61.1% and 61.0%, respectively. Among these patients, thirty-one patients had low ERCC1 expression and forty-one patients responded to IC followed by CCRT. Univariate analyses showed that patients with low expression of ERCC1 had a significantly higher 12-month PFS rates (73.3% vs. 42.3%, p Conclusions Our study suggest that a high expression of ERCC1 predict a poor response and survival to cisplatin-based IC followed by CCRT in patients with locally advanced unresectable HNSCC in betel nut chewing area.

  7. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers.

  8. Hydroxyl radical formation and oxidative DNA damage induced by areca quid in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Lan; Chi, Chin-Wen; Liu, Tsung-Yun

    2002-02-01

    Chewing areca quid (AQ) has been implicated as a major risk factor for the development of oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies have suggested that AQ-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the contributing factors for oral carcinogenesis. However, the AQ used in Taiwan is different from that used in other countries. This study is designed to test whether ROS are generated and the consequent effects in locally prepared AQ in vivo. We measured the hydroxyl radical formation, as represented by the presence of o- and m-tyrosine in saliva from volunteers who chewed AQ containing 20 mg phenylalanine. Their saliva contained significantly higher amounts (p betel leaf. We further tested the oxidative DNA damaging effect of the reconstituted AQ, as evidenced by the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels, in hamster buccal pouch. Following daily painting for 14 d, the 8-OH-dG level in hamster buccal pouch is significantly elevated (p < .05) in the AQ-treated group versus the controls. These findings demonstrate that ROS, such as hydroxyl radical, are formed in the human oral cavity during AQ chewing, and chewing such prepared AQ might cause oxidative DNA damage to the surrounding tissues.

  9. Nonmutagenicity of betel leaf and its antimutagenic action against environmental mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhushan, M; Amonkar, A J; D'Souza, A V; Bhide, S V

    1987-01-01

    Betel leaf (Piper betel) water and acetone extract are nonmutagenic in S. typhimurium strains with and without S9 mix. Both the extracts suppress the mutagenicity of betel quid mutagens in a dose dependent manner. Moreover both the extracts of betel leaf reduce the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene and dimethylbenzanthracene. Acetone extract is more potent than water extract in inhibiting mutagenicity of environmental mutagens.

  10. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.T.Jayasree; Dr.Shaikh Ubedulla; Dr.Harini K; Dr.Shankar.J

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae) commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim...

  11. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chue, Amy L.; Carrara, Verena I.; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J.; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during

  12. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jamil Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  13. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  14. [Betel - the fourth most popular substance in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Kosowski, Wojciech; Królikowska, Natalia; Stebnicki, Marek; Stebnicki, Michał R

    2015-09-01

    Betel is a kind of substance for chewing, that is made from piper betle, areca nuts and other, additional constituents. It is the fourth most popular psychoactive substance in the world, right after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. It is particularly famous in Asia. Betel chewing induces euphoria and it is addictive. Similarly like in other substances such as nicotine or alcohol, betel also has detrimental effects. It causes e.g. oral cancer and cancer of the oesophagus, it contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome, liver cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease. There are also positive effects of chewing betel, because is has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antyparasitic and antiseptic properties. The aim of this paper was to expand knowledge about betel and its both: positive and negative influence on human health. In this article original and review papers associated with the topic were used. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  15. The ethics of betel nut consumption in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Joseph; Sem, Geoffrey; Sit, Eugene; Tai, Michael Cheng-Tek

    2017-11-01

    The ethics of betel nut use in Taiwan are examined in this article. It first presents scientific facts about the betel quid, its consumption and negative health consequences and then analyses the cultural background and economic factors contributing to its popularity in Asia. Governmental and institutional attempts to curb betel nut cultivation, distribution and sales are also described. Finally, the bioethical implications of this often ignored subject are considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. [Tooth wear in Hindu betel nut chewers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerreth, Karolina

    2006-01-01

    Literature data describe the impact of certain factors on oral health. Very well known is habitual chewing of different plant products, including tobacco, which depending on the geographical area and the substances used, have various names. It has been estimated that approximately 200 million residents of the West Pacific Rim and South-East Asia indulge in betel chewing. Betel is composed of a leaf of the betel pepper, lime, tobacco and the nut of the areca palm. This study aimed to assess the degree of abrasive changes in residents of the Korunalaya Leprosy Care Center. The examinations were carried out on 85 patients (45 females and 40 males), aged 35-95 years, at the local dental surgery. Patients had their teeth assessed and they were further interviewed as to the duration of their habit with regard to their sex and age (35-44; 45-64 and > or = 65 years). The abrasive changes were evaluated using Gerasimov's 7-degree scale. Interview data indicate that 71.76% of the patients were habitual betel chewers. Among female patients, third-degree abrasion was the most frequent change while among males--fifth degree (53.3% and 45.0%, respectively). The abrasive changes, increasing with age, can be attributed to the duration of betel chewing. It is worth noticing that a vegetarian diet can be a contributing factor to abrasion as most of the food consumed by Hindus are plants.

  17. Betel nut usage is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Asadullah; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-12-27

    The objective of our study was to assess betel nut usage as one of the major risk factors associated with coronary artery disease. This case control study consisted of 300 controls and 300 cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants to assess consumption of betel nut and confounding variables. A respondent was considered a regular consumer of betel nut if he/she consumed one or more pieces of betel nut every day for a period of greater than 6 months. About 8 in 10 betel nut chewers developed coronary artery disease. After adjusting for diabetes and hypertension, the odds ratio analysis depicted 7.72 times greater likelihood for coronary artery disease in patients who chewed betel nut for more than 10 years. Our study concludes that betel nut chewing is a significant risk factor leading to the development of coronary artery disease.

  18. Chromosome-damaging effect of betel leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivan, G; Rani, G; Kumari, C K

    1978-05-01

    The chewing of betel leaf with other ingredients is a widespread addiction in India. The chromosome damaging effect was studied in human leukocyte cultures. There was an increase in the frequency of chromatid aberrations when the leaf extract was added to cultures.

  19. Association of Betel Nut with Carcinogenesis: Revisit with a Clinical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Rajeshwar N.; Mehrotra, Ravi; Choudhury, Yashmin; Asotra, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Betel nut (BN), betel quid (BQ) and products derived from them are widely used as a socially endorsed masticatory product. The addictive nature of BN/BQ has resulted in its widespread usage making it the fourth most abused substance by humans. Progressively, several additives, including chewing tobacco, got added to simple BN preparations. This addictive practice has been shown to have strong etiological correlation with human susceptibility to cancer, particularly oral and oropharyngeal cancers. The PUBMED database was searched to retrieve all relevant published studies in English on BN and BQ, and its association with oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Only complete studies directly dealing with BN/BQ induced carcinogenesis using statistically valid and acceptable sample size were analyzed. Additional relevant information available from other sources was also considered. This systematic review attempts to put in perspective the consequences of this widespread habit of BN/BQ mastication, practiced by approximately 10% of the world population, on oral cancer with a clinical perspective. BN/BQ mastication seems to be significantly associated with susceptibility to oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Addition of tobacco to BN has been found to only marginally increase the cancer risk. Despite the widespread usage of BN/BQ and its strong association with human susceptibility to cancer, no serious strategy seems to exist to control this habit. The review, therefore, also looks at various preventive efforts being made by governments and highlights the multifaceted intervention strategies required to mitigate and/or control the habit of BN/BQ mastication. PMID:22912735

  20. MUTAGENICITY OF NITRITE-TREATED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF 'PIPER BETLE'; L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betel quid is chewed as a masticatory material by people in certain areas of Asia. The quid chewing has been related to oral cancer by epidemiological study. The mutagenic components in the aqueous extracts of betel quid ingredients were studied. Only nitrite-treated aqueous extr...

  1. Constituents of areca chewing related to esophageal cancer risk in Taiwanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M-T; Wu, D-C; Hsu, H-K; Kao, E-L; Lee, J-M

    2004-01-01

    Two most common types of areca chewing are noted in Taiwan: raw betel fruit with Piper betle inflorescence or folded in betel leaf. Piper betle inflorescence contains carcinogens, whereas betel leaf includes anticarcinogenic agents. One hundred and twenty-six esophageal squamous-cell-carcinoma patients and 279 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. Areca chewers were 4.4 times (95% CI, 2.2-8.8) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than non-chewers. Sixty-five of the patients were areca chewers, of which, 61 (93.9%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, none chewed it with betel leaf and four (6.1%) chewed both. Of the 24 controls who were chewers, 10 (41.7%), three (12.5%) and 11 (45.8%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, betel leaf, and both, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects who chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence were 24.4 times (95% CI 3.9-154.4) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than those who chewed areca with betel leaf or with both leaf and inflorescence. Our epidemiologic findings suggest parts of the same Piper plant contains carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic substances.

  2. Betel nut use among first and second generation Bangladeshi women in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of socio-economic variables and migration history on the prevalence of betel nut and smokeless tobacco use in both UK- and Bangladeshi born migrant women resident in London. No significant difference in betel nut use prevalence was found among women of different generations. However, in all groups betel nut users were significantly older and less educated than non-users. Among first generation women there was no effect of either length of time living in the UK or age at migration on use of betel nut, even after controlling for current age. No significant differences in prevalence use due to language spoken, occupation, marital status or borough of residence in London were found. We conclude that, although there are some indications of a change in behavior among younger individuals, betel nut chewing is a practice very much present among Bangladeshi women born and brought up in a bicultural context.

  3. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

  4. Epidemiology of areca (betel) nut use in the mariana islands: Findings from the University of Guam/University of Hawai`i cancer center partnership program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Hurwitz, Eric L; Ogo, Joanne C; Paulino, Tristan C; Yamanaka, Ashley B; Novotny, Rachel; Wilkens, Lynne R; Miller, Mary Jane; Palafox, Neal A

    2017-10-01

    Areca (betel) nut is considered a Group 1 human carcinogen shown to be associated with other chronic diseases in addition to cancer. This paper describes the areca (betel) nut chewing trend in Guam, and health behaviors of chewers in Guam and Saipan. The areca (betel) nut module in the Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey was used to calculate the 5-year (2011-2015) chewing trend. To assess the association between areca (betel) nut chewing and health risks in the Mariana Islands, a cross-section of 300 chewers, ≥18years old, were recruited from households in Guam and Saipan. Self-reported socio-demographics, oral health behaviors, chronic disease status, diet, and physical activity were collected. Anthropometry was measured. Only areca (betel) nut-specific and demographic information were collected from youth chewers in the household. The 5-year areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence in Guam was 11% and increased among Non-Chamorros, primarily other Micronesians, from 2011 (7%) to 2015 (13%). In the household survey, most adult chewers (46%) preferred areca nut with betel leaf, slaked lime, and tobacco. Most youth chewers (48%) preferred areca nut only. Common adult chronic conditions included diabetes (14%), hypertension (26%), and obesity (58%). The 5-year areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence in Guam is comparable to the world estimate (10-20%), though rising among Non-Chamorros. Adult and youth chewers may be at an increased risk for oral cancer. Adult chewers have an increased risk of other chronic health conditions. Cancer prevention and intervention strategies should incorporate all aspects of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Areca nut chewing has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but its association with erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated. To investigate the association between areca nut chewing and risk of ED. Consecutive men at public health centers for oral malignancy screening or health checkup were invited to complete a questionnaire. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Of the 2,652 respondents, 1,038 (mean age = 43.8 ± 11.1 years) were eligible for the areca nut chewing group and 1,090 non-areca nut chewers were selected as the age-matched control group. In the areca nut group, the mean duration of chewing was 13.2 ± 9.6 years, 61.7% consumed more than 10 portions per day, and 76.2% used it with betel leaf, 16.7% used it with betel inflorescence, and 7.1% used it with betel leaf and inflorescence. Smoking, alcohol drinking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were more predominant in areca nut chewers compared with controls. ED defined by self-report and by SHIM score was more prevalent in areca nut chewers than in controls (13.7% vs 9.8% and 48.7% vs 43.3%, respectively; P betel inflorescence was associated with a higher risk of ED (odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-3.28) with a dose-dependent effect, whereas using it with betel leaf was not (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.26) after adjustment of possible confounders. Areca nut chewing with betel inflorescence was associated with an increased risk of ED. These findings warrant further studies. Huang Y-J, Jiann B-P. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med 2017;5:e163-e168. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The risk of cirrhosis in non-alcohol drinkers is greater in female than male betel nut chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-Hua; Wang, Lee; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lan, Shou-Jen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2018-02-02

    The association of betel nut with liver cirrhosis among alcohol drinkers has been clearly shown. However, very few studies have shown such an association among non-alcohol drinkers. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between betel nut chewing and cirrhosis among non-alcohol drinkers. This study retrospectively analyzed data retrieved from the 2012 Adult Preventive Medical Services and the National Health Insurance Research Datasets in Taiwan. Participants' information included physical examination and lifestyle, alongside laboratory tests. Betel nut chewers were grouped into three categories: never, occasional and frequent. Diseases were diagnosed using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Initially, 1573024 adults aged 40 years and above who engaged in the free adult preventive medical services in 2012 were recruited. However, only 1065246 of them were included in the analysis. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the analyses. After multivariable adjustments, there were significant relationships between cirrhosis and betel nut chewing in both sexes (P-trend betel nut chewing and cirrhosis in both male and female non-alcohol drinkers. The risk of cirrhosis was greater in female than male chewers.

  7. Protective effect of hydroxychavicol, a phenolic component of betel leaf, against the tobacco-specific carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonkar, A J; Padma, P R; Bhide, S V

    1989-02-01

    The phenolic compound, hydroxychavicol (HC), present in betel leaf, was synthesised and tested for its antimutagenic effect against the mutagenicity of the 2 tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), in 2 different test systems, viz. the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay and the micronucleus test using Swiss male mice. We are reporting the synthesis of HC of a high degree of purity. We observed that HC suppressed the mutagenic effects of NNN and NNK in both test systems used. These results indicate that HC may have a role to play in reducing the risk of oral cancer in betel quid with tobacco chewers.

  8. Analysis of various risk factors affecting potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer patients of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Kadashetti

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Chewing tobacco/betel quid is a strong risk factor in the development of PMD and oral cancer. Also age, gender, SES, education, and occupation influence the development of PMD and oral cancer.

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling of socio-cultural constructs among chamorro and non-chamorro micronesian betel nut chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Liu, Min; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2017-07-05

    Betel nut chewing is embedded within the cultures of South Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific. The determinants of betel nut consumption are complex. Ongoing consumption of betel nut is affected by cultural, social, and drug-specific effects (i.e. dependence). This study's first objective was to assess the psychometric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of the socio-cultural constructs in a survey developed for betel nut chewers. The study's second objective was to investigate the influence of socio-cultural variables on betel nut chewing behaviors among Chamorro and non-Chamorro Micronesians in Guam. The current study was a secondary analysis of a larger study (N = 600; n = 375 chewers and n = 225 former chewers) that examined socio-cultural factors that influence why chewers chew betel nut, along with assessing chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit. The socio-cultural constructs of the survey were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The socio-cultural factors were a sufficient fit with data and the instrument is reliable and valid, as indicated by various model fit indices (χ 2 (13) = 18.49 with p = .14, TLI = .99, CFI = 1.00, SRMR = .02, RMSEA = .03 with 90% CIs [.00,.07]). Cronbach's alpha, the sign and magnitude of the factor loadings, the inter-factor correlations, and the large proportion of variance extracted for each factor, all indicate that the instrument is reliable and valid. Additionally, multivariate analyses showed that socio-cultural reasons were important contributing or chewing betel nut. Participants cited chewing because their friends and family members chewed, the behavior is embedded within their culture, and it would be considered rude and disrespectful to not chew. Based on the findings, this study provides important implications pertaining to

  10. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  11. Comparing Immunohistologic and Demographic Variables of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    occurrence at 5th to 61h 14 decade, tobacco-alcohol association, betel nut chewing, HPV infection and are similar histologically [3,4]. Alcohol...it is of increased significance in areas oflndia and Southeast Asia [5]. The "chewing" of betel quid is the most common etiological factor in these...pai1s of the world. Betel quid is a combination of betel leaf, areca nut, and slaked lime. Often, tobacco is added and the product is known as

  12. Effects of betel nut on cardiovascular risk factors in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz; Mehboobali, Naseema; Haider, Ghulam; Pervez, Shahid; Azam, Iqbal

    2012-10-24

    Areca nut (commonly known as betel nut) chewing has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism by which betel nut ingestion could lead to development of CVD is not precisely known; however, dyslipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and inflammation could be some of the potential risk factors. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of two dosages of betel nut on homocysteinemia, inflammation and some of the components of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, obesity and fasting hyperglycemia in a rat model. Thirty-six adult female Sprague Dawley rats, aged 10-12 weeks were divided into three equal groups. Group-1 served as the control group (n = 12) and received water, whereas groups 2 and 3 were given water suspension of betel nut orally in two dosages, 30 mg and 60 mg, respectively for a period of 5 weeks. At the end of the fifth week, the animals were weighed and sacrificed, blood was collected and liver, kidney, spleen and stomach were removed for histological examination.Plasma/serum was analyzed for glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) - a marker of inflammation. When the mean concentration values of 3 groups were compared using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD-test, there was a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol (p = 0.04) in the group receiving 30 mg/day betel nut compared to the control group. However, administration of a higher dose of betel nut (60 mg/day) had no significant effect on the serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and NAG. Histological examination of spleen revealed a dose-dependent extramedullary hematopoiesis. No other remarkable change in the tissues (liver, kidney and stomach) was observed.Mean serum/plasma levels of folate

  13. Betel leaf in stoma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Tahmina; Talukder, Rupom; Chowdhury, Tanvir Kabir; Hoque, Mozammel

    2007-07-01

    Construction of a stoma is a common procedure in pediatric surgical practice. For care of these stomas, commercially available devices such as ostomy bag, either disposable or of longer duration are usually used. These are expensive, particularly in countries like Bangladesh, and proper-sized ones are not always available. We have found an alternative for stoma care, betel leaf, which is suitable for Bangladeshis. We report the outcome of its use. After construction of stoma, at first zinc oxide paste was applied on the peristomal skin. A betel leaf with shiny, smooth surface outwards and rough surface inwards was put over the stoma with a hole made in the center according to the size of stoma. Another intact leaf covers the stomal opening. When bowel movement occurs, the overlying intact leaf was removed and the fecal matter was washed away from both. The leaves were reused after cleaning. Leaves were changed every 2 to 3 days. From June 1998 to December 2005, in the department of pediatric surgery, Chittagong Medical College and Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh, a total of 623 patients had exteriorization of bowel. Of this total, 495 stomas were cared for with betel leaves and 128 with ostomy bags. Of 623 children, 287 had sigmoid colostomy, 211 had transverse colostomy, 105 had ileostomy, and 20 had jejunostomy. Of the 495 children under betel leaf stoma care, 13 patients (2.6%) developed skin excoriation. There were no allergic reactions. Of the 128 patients using ostomy bag, 52 (40.65%) had skin excoriation. Twenty-four (18.75%) children developed some allergic reactions to adhesive. Monthly costs for betel leaves were 15 cents (10 BDT), whereas ostomy bags cost about US$24. In the care of stoma, betel leaves are cheap, easy to handle, nonirritant, and nonallergic.

  14. Anticarcinogenic effect of betel leaf extract against tobacco carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P R; Lalitha, V S; Amonkar, A J; Bhide, S V

    1989-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated that betel quid offers some protection to tobacco induced carcinogenesis. Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown betel leaf extract (BLE) to be antimutagenic against standard mutagens and tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines (TSNA), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In the present study, we have tested the anticarcinogenic effect of BLE using Swiss male mice. Two protocols of study were used to test this effect. In the first protocol, the effect of BLE was tested against the standard carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP) using Wattenberg's stomach tumor model, Cancer Res., 41 (1981) 2820-2823. In this protocol, BLE inhibited the tumorigenicity of BP to a significant extent. In the second protocol, the effect of BLE against the two tobacco-specific nitrosamines, NNN and NNK was studied using long-term studies on Swiss male mice. The nitrosamines were administered on the tongues of the mice, while the BLE was supplied in drinking water. Two doses of NNN (22 mg and 72 mg) and one dose of NNK (22 mg) were used. In this study, it was observed that the number of tumor bearing animals decreased, but the difference was significant only in the group treated with the low dose of NNN in combination with BLE. However, in all the BLE treated animals, irrespective of the dose of nitrosamine, the hepatic vitamin A and C levels were elevated significantly as compared to the corresponding nitrosamine-treated controls. These results indicate that BLE has a promising anticarcinogenic role to play in tobacco induced cancer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Ancient human mitochondrial DNA and radiocarbon analysis of archived quids from the Mule Spring Rockshelter, Nevada, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D Hamilton-Brehm

    Full Text Available Chewed and expectorated quids, indigestible stringy fibers from the roasted inner pulp of agave or yucca root, have proven resilient over long periods of time in dry cave environments and correspondingly, although little studied, are common in archaeological archives. In the late 1960s, thousands of quids were recovered from Mule Spring Rockshelter (Nevada, USA deposits and stored without consideration to DNA preservation in a museum collection, remaining unstudied for over fifty years. To assess the utility of these materials as repositories for genetic information about past inhabitants of the region and their movements, twenty-one quids were selected from arbitrary excavation depths for detailed analysis. Human mitochondrial DNA sequences from the quids were amplified by PCR and screened for diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Most detected single nucleotide polymorphisms were consistent with recognized Native American haplogroup subclades B2a5, B2i1, C1, C1c, C1c2, and D1; with the majority of the sample set consistent with subclades C1, C1c, and C1c2. In parallel with the DNA analysis, each quid was radiocarbon dated, revealing a time-resolved pattern of occupancy from 347 to 977 calibrated years before present. In particular, this dataset reveals strong evidence for the presence of haplogroup C1/C1c at the Southwestern edge of the US Great Basin from ~670 to 980 cal YBP, which may temporally correspond with the beginnings of the so-called Numic Spread into the region. The research described here demonstrates an approach which combines targeted DNA analysis with radiocarbon age dating; thus enabling the genetic analysis of archaeological materials of uncertain stratigraphic context. Here we present a survey of the maternal genetic profiles from people who used the Mule Spring Rockshelter and the historic timing of their utilization of a key natural resource.

  16. Cracking the Betel Nut: Cholinergic Activity of Areca Alkaloids and Related Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horenstein, Nicole A; Quadri, Marta; Stokes, Clare; Shoaib, Mohammed; Papke, Roger L

    2017-10-03

    The use of betel quid is the most understudied major addiction in the world. The neuropsychological activity of betel quid has been attributed to alkaloids of Areca catechu. With the goal of developing novel addiction treatments, we evaluate the muscarinic and nicotinic activity of the four major Areca alkaloids: arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine and four structurally related compounds. Acetylcholine receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied with two-electrode voltage clamp. Both arecoline- and guvacoline-activated muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR), while only arecoline produced significant activation of nicotinic AChR (nAChR). We characterized four additional arecoline-related compounds, seeking an analog that would retain selective activity for a α4* nAChR, with diminished effects on mAChR and not be a desensitizer of α7 nAChR. We show that this profile is largely met by isoarecolone. Three additional arecoline analogs were characterized. While the quaternary dimethyl analog had a broad range of activities, including activation of mAChR and muscle-type nAChR, the methyl analog only activated a range of α4* nAChR, albeit with low potency. The ethyl analog had no detectable cholinergic activity. Evidence indicates that α4* nAChR are at the root of nicotine addiction, and this may also be the case for betel addiction. Our characterization of isoarecolone and 1-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) ethanone as truly selective α4*nAChR selective partial agonists with low muscarinic activity may point toward a promising new direction for the development of drugs to treat both nicotine and betel addiction. Nearly 600 million people use Areca nut, often with tobacco. Two of the Areca alkaloids are muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, and one, arecoline, is a partial agonist for the α4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) associated with tobacco addiction. The profile of arecoline activity suggested its potential to be used as a

  17. Cytomorphometric analysis of oral buccal mucosal smears in tobacco and arecanut chewers who abused with and without betel leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufal, Ahammed; George, Antony; Jose, Maji; Khader, Mohasin Abdul; Jayapalan, Cheriyanthal Sisupalan

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco in any form (smoking or chewing), arecanut chewing, and alcohol are considered to be the major extrinsic etiological factors for potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity and for squamous cell carcinoma, the most common oral malignancy in India. An increase in nuclear diameter (ND) and nucleus-cell ratio (NCR) with a reduction in cell diameter (CD) are early cytological indicators of dysplastic change. The authors sought to identify cytomorphometric changes in ND, CD, and NCR of oral buccal cells in tobacco and arecanut chewers who chewed with or without betel leaf. Participants represented 3 groups. Group I consisted of 30 individuals who chewed tobacco and arecanut with betel leaf (BQT chewers). Group II consisted of 30 individuals who chewed tobacco and arecanut without betel leaf (Gutka chewers). Group III comprised 30 apparently healthy nonabusers. Cytological smears were prepared and stained with modified-Papanicolaou stain. Comparisons between Groups I and II and Groups II and III showed that ND was increased, with P values of .054 and .008, respectively, whereas a comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. Comparisons between Groups I and II and Groups II and III showed that CD was statistically reduced, with P values of .037 and <.000, respectively, whereas comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. Comparisons between Groups I and II and groups II and III showed that NCR was statistically increased, with P values of <.000, whereas a comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. CD, ND, and NCR showed statistically significant changes in Group II in comparison with Group I, which could indicate larger and earlier risk of carcinoma for Gutka chewers than in BQT chewers.

  18. BETEL-NUTS AS CONTAMINATED WITH A CANCER PRODUCING FUNGUS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Betel nuts prematurely harvested and allowed to dry in heaps contain moisture which permits Aspergillus flavous to enter and spread over the central portions. Such betel – nuts consumed with betel leaves can cause cancer of the mouth since A. flavus is a carcinogen. Samples collected showed that the most betel – nuts were contaminated.

  19. [Chewing and cognitive function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Chewing does not only crush food to aid swallowing and digestion; it also helps to relieve stress and regulate cognitive functions, including alertness and executive function. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving. In addition, it has been shown in the elderly that a decrease in the number of residual teeth is related to dementia onset. These findings suggest a link between chewing and maintaining memory and attention. Recently, many studies regarding the effects of chewing on memory and attention were conducted using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). When a working memory task was used, the middle frontal gyrus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed greater activation in addition to producing higher alertness after chewing. Furthermore, using an attentional network test, reaction time shortened, and the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus were both activated for the executive network. From these results, it is suggested that chewing elevates alertness, consequently leading to improvements in cognitive performance. In this review, we introduce findings concerning the effects of chewing on cognitive performance, and discuss the neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects.

  20. Legal Understanding of "Quid Pro Quo" Sexual Harassment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus

    2017-01-01

    This paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of…

  1. Symptoms with betel nut and betel nut with tobacco among Micronesian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K; Gallen, Marcelle; Mancl, Lloyd; Spillane, Nichea; Chi, Donald L; Ramsay, Douglas S

    2016-02-01

    Betel nut has been stated to be addictive, but evidence is lacking. This study describes dependence symptoms among adolescents using betel alone or with tobacco. In the first study, participants were 151 9th graders in Saipan. In the second study, participants were 269 9th graders in Pohnpei and Yap. Participants completed a confidential questionnaire adapted from the U.S. National Survey of Drug Use and Health, which measured dependence symptoms. The 15 items were summed to form a scale, with a range of 0-15, where higher scores indicated greater endorsement of dependence symptoms. In the first study, 39.1% had used betel. More than two-thirds of all users (69.5%) used betel in the previous month: 87.8% also used tobacco with the betel. The mean (SD) dependence symptoms scale score among tobacco users was 8.2±4.0 versus 3.4±2.9 among those who used betel alone [t(7)=3.3, p=0.015]. In the second study, 38% from Pohnpei and 85% from Yap had used betel and most of the current users used it in the previous month (67% from Pohnpei, 91% from Yap). Among those who had used betel in the previous month, 90% from Pohnpei and 64% from Yap were using betel with tobacco. The dependence score was positively associated with frequency of tobacco use (e.g., mean (SD)=11.3 (±2.4) among most frequent users versus a mean (SD)=4.8 (±3.5) among the never users [F(3109)=28.8, pBetel nut users who also use tobacco may benefit from tobacco cessation strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between areca nut usage and heart rate in lactating Bangladeshis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoy, S; Mascie-Taylor, C G N; Rosetta, L

    2002-01-01

    The betel-nut quid, a piece of areca nut chewed alone or mixed with tobacco and slaked lime wrapped in betel vine leaf, is widely used in Asian populations as a stimulant (due to the cholinergic agent, arecoline) or as a relaxant (due to arecaidine and guvacine). This study, which formed part of a larger project assessing the effect of energy expenditure on the duration of post-partum amenorrhoea, provided the opportunity to assess the role of chronic areca nut usage on heart rate and oxygen consumption during resting periods and during graded stepping tests. The mothers (n = 47), all of whom were lactating, were aged between 19 and 39, of low nutritional status and anaemic and they all chewed betel quid daily. Moderate users of betel quid (defined as more than 3 times a day) were found, on average, to have a significantly lower heart rate at rest and during exercise than low betel quid users (less than 3 times a day) but there was no modification in oxygen consumption. Chronic betel quid use does not seem to affect the assessment of 24h energy expenditure provided that subjects are denied access to betel nut usage before and during calibration.

  3. Chewing behavior and salivary secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaviao, MBD; Engelen, L

    We determined the salivary flow rate in 16 healthy subjects in rest and while chewing artificial and natural foods (Parafilm, Melba toast with and without margarine, and three different volumes of breakfast cake and cheese). We also determined the duration of a chewing cycle, the number of chewing

  4. Cytotoxicity of Betel leaf (Piper betel L. against primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblast and its effects on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Ma’at

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf (Piper betel L. has been used in modern and traditional medicine as antiseptic, antibacterial, and also prevention of plaque accumulation, but it still can stimulate cancer in lime-piper betel quid. Betel leaf also has anti-inflammatory properties. Purpose: The purpose of this study was examine the cytotoxicity of Betel leaf extract (BLE against primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblast and its effects on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC stimulated with LPS. Methods: MTT assay was used to investigate the survival rate of the culture with the survival rate result of the given culture extract 4%, 2% and 1% about 82%, 83.4% and 85%. There was no significant difference between treatment with various concentrations of the extract and the control (p>0.05. To evaluate the effect of Betel leaf extracts on the production of cytokines, proinflammatory was conducted by incubating the extracts of betel leaf with peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from healthy volunteers isolated by density centrifugation method using Ficoll-Hypaque. Once coupled with various concentrations of betel leaf extract and lipopolysaccharide, and then incubated for 24 hours, the culture supernatant was used to determine the level of IFN-γ and TNF-α by ELISA method. Results: It is known that the survival rates of BLE 4%, 2% and 1% were 82%, 83.4% and 85%. There was no significant of difference between several concentrations of BLE and those in the control group (p>0.05. The production of IFN-γ and TNF-α stimulated with LPS was no significant difference between BLE 4%, 2% and 1% and that in the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that BLE is not toxic against primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblast, and the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by PBMC was not affected by BLE.Latar belakang: Daun

  5. Modes of betel leaf consumption in early India

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Gutierrez

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse some food practices surrounding betel in early Indian history. Betel consumption was not prescribed for everyone in Brahmanical society. Hence I examine texts referring to betel from the late pre-modern to early modern era (roughly 300–1800 ce) in order to explain proscriptions of betel in the legal discourse that discusses religious practice. The literature I consider in my analysis of betel consumption ranges from the kāmaśāstra genre, influential works of tantra,...

  6. Modes of betel leaf consumption in early India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gutierrez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I analyse some food practices surrounding betel in early Indian history. Betel consumption was not prescribed for everyone in Brahmanical society. Hence I examine texts referring to betel from the late pre-modern to early modern era (roughly 300–1800 ce in order to explain proscriptions of betel in the legal discourse that discusses religious practice. The literature I consider in my analysis of betel consumption ranges from the kāmaśāstra genre, influential works of tantra, texts detailing worship, and ascetic and renunciant guides. Material cultural studies aid my exploration of betel as a socio-religious identity marker and my development of three modes of betel consumption and one mode of non-consumption.

  7. Hydroxychavicol, a novel betel leaf component, inhibits platelet aggregation by suppression of cyclooxygenase, thromboxane production and calcium mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M C; Uang, B J; Tsai, C Y; Wu, H L; Lin, B R; Lee, C S; Chen, Y J; Chang, C H; Tsai, Y L; Kao, C J; Jeng, J H

    2007-09-01

    Platelet hyperactivity is important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Betel leaf (PBL) is consumed by 200-600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Hydroxychavicol (HC), a betel leaf component, was tested for its antiplatelet effect. We tested the effect of HC on platelet aggregation, thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, ex vivo platelet aggregation and mouse bleeding time and platelet plug formation in vivo. The pharmacokinetics of HC in rats was also assessed. HC inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and TXB(2) production. HC inhibited the thrombin-induced TXB(2) production, but not platelet aggregation. SQ29548, suppressed collagen- and thrombin-induced TXB(2) production, but not thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. HC also suppressed COX-1/COX-2 enzyme activity and the AA-induced ROS production and Ca(2+) mobilization. HC further inhibited the ex vivo platelet aggregation of platelet-rich plasma (>100 nmole/mouse) and prolonged platelet plug formation (>300 nmole/mouse) in mesenteric microvessels, but showed little effect on bleeding time in mouse tail. Moreover, pharmacokinetics analysis found that more than 99% of HC was metabolized within 3 min of administration in Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. HC is a potent COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, ROS scavenger and inhibits platelet calcium signaling, TXB(2) production and aggregation. HC could be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases through its anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects, without effects on haemostatic functions.

  8. Lymph node density as a prognostic predictor in patients with betel nut-related oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chin; Lin, Chun-Shu; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chih-Kung; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2018-04-01

    Lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a poor prognostic factor. The histopathologic stage (e.g., pN) is used to evaluate the severity of lymph node metastasis; however, the current staging system insufficiently predicts survival and recurrence. We investigated clinical outcomes and lymph node density (LND) in betel nut-chewing individuals. We retrospectively analyzed 389 betel nut-exposed patients with primary OSCC who underwent surgical resection in 2002-2015. The prognostic significance of LND was evaluated by overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that the 5-year OS and DFS rates in all patients were 60.9 and 48.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that variables independently prognostic for OS were aged population (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.1-2.5; P = .025), and cell differentiation classification (HR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4-4.2; P = .002). In pathologic N-positive patients, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for OS was used and indicated the best cutoff of 0.05, and the multivariate analysis showed that LND was an independent predictor of OS (HR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.7; P = .004). Lymph node density, at a cutoff of 0.05, was an independent predictor of OS and DFS. OS and DFS underwent multiple analyses, and LND remained significant. The pathologic N stage had no influence in the OS analysis. LND is a more reliable predictor of survival in betel nut-chewing patients for further post operation adjuvant treatment, such as reoperation or adjuvant radiotherapy.

  9. Quid-Induced Lichenoid Reactions: A Prevalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Dang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available White lesions of the oral mucosa are of concern to the dental surgeon in view of the fact that some of these may be potentially malignant. Oral lichen plane: (OLP and oral lichenoid reactions (OLR share similar clinical appearances but need to be carefully distinguished because of their different etiologies and clinical behaviour. This study screened 5.017 population, in a house-to-house field survey, for tobacco use and investigated the prevalence of oral lichenoid reactions in the 98 quid users. Six subjects with clinical/clinical and histopathological criteria compatible with the diagnosis of OLR were identified. All these subjects were users of ′Gutka′, a unique chewable variant of tobacco quid containing areca nut and catechu. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between quid habit and lesion occurrence (p < 0.005.

  10. Betel Nut Beauty in Taiwan: Chinese Tourists- Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shwu-Huey Wang; Hsiu-Yuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Tourists- eyes will often be attracted by the unique phenomenon of the roadsides: betel nut beauties (pronounced as binlang xishi in Mandarin), if they drive on the roads of Taiwan. Sitting in the neon-lit glass stalls with attractive dress on the roadsides, betel nut beauties usually sell betel nuts to the passing truckers or car drivers with much of their efforts. Moreover, in order to attract peoples- eyesight and increase the sales volume, the young girls are in skimp...

  11. Legal Understanding of Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu

    2017-01-01

    Paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of victimisation and abuse. However, there seems to be an abuse of power by all those who are supposedly to protect learners in schools. Paper used an abuse of o...

  12. Insolubilia and the fallacy secundum quid et simpliciter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh Novaes, C.; Read, S.

    2008-01-01

    Thomas Bradwardine makes much of the fact that his solution to the insolubles is in accordance with Aristotle's diagnosis of the fallacy in the Liar paradox as that of secundum quid et simpliciter. Paul Spade, however, claims that this invocation of Aristotle by Bradwardine is purely "honorary" in

  13. The SPLENDID chewing detection challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanagiotou, Vasileios; Diou, Christos; Lingchuan Zhou; van den Boer, Janet; Mars, Monica; Delopoulos, Anastasios

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring of eating behavior using wearable technology is receiving increased attention, driven by the recent advances in wearable devices and mobile phones. One particularly interesting aspect of eating behavior is the monitoring of chewing activity and eating occurrences. There are several chewing sensor types and chewing detection algorithms proposed in the bibliography, however no datasets are publicly available to facilitate evaluation and further research. In this paper, we present a multi-modal dataset of over 60 hours of recordings from 14 participants in semi-free living conditions, collected in the context of the SPLENDID project. The dataset includes raw signals from a photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor and a 3D accelerometer, and a set of extracted features from audio recordings; detailed annotations and ground truth are also provided both at eating event level and at individual chew level. We also provide a baseline evaluation method, and introduce the "challenge" of improving the baseline chewing detection algorithms. The dataset can be downloaded from http: //dx.doi.org/10.17026/dans-zxw-v8gy, and supplementary code can be downloaded from https://github. com/mug-auth/chewing-detection-challenge.git.

  14. Modifiable Lifestyle Behaviors Are Associated With Metabolic Syndrome in a Taiwanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuei-Man; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Ko, Shu-Hua; Tan, Jung-Ying; Huang, Chien-Ning; Liao, Wen-Chun

    2015-11-01

    To explore associations between metabolic syndrome and modifiable lifestyle behaviors among the adult population in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample that participated in the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. The sample (2,337 participants older than 19 years) provided data on demographic characteristics, modifiable lifestyle behaviors, anthropometric measurements, and blood chemistry panel. These data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression to determine factors associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome had a prevalence of 25.2%, and this prevalence increased with age. In univariate regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with age, living with family members, educational level, and modifiable lifestyle behaviors (smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing, and physical activity). Individuals with a smoking history and currently chewing betel quid had the highest risk for metabolic syndrome. The risk for metabolic syndrome might be reduced by public health campaigns to encourage people to quit smoking cigarettes and chewing betel quid. Implementing more modifiable lifestyle behaviors in daily life will decrease metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Considering that betel quid chewing and tobacco smoking interact to adversely affect metabolic syndrome risk, public health campaigns against both behaviors seem to be a cost-effective and efficient health promotion strategy to reduce the prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. Legal Understanding of Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of victimisation and abuse. However, there seems to be an abuse of power by all those who are supposedly to protect learners in schools. Paper used an abuse of organisational power theory and conceptualisation framework as a lens used in analysing various forms of victimisation and abuse with an effort to provide a better understanding of behaviour that amounts to abuse. Paper concludes with guidelines for handling harassment and bullying in the school contexts.

  16. Quid-Induced Lichenoid Reactions: A Prevalence Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Dang; Madhav Nagpal

    2011-01-01

    White lesions of the oral mucosa are of concern to the dental surgeon in view of the fact that some of these may be potentially malignant. Oral lichen plane: (OLP) and oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) share similar clinical appearances but need to be carefully distinguished because of their different etiologies and clinical behaviour. This study screened 5.017 population, in a house-to-house field survey, for tobacco use and investigated the prevalence of oral lichenoid reactions in the 98 quid...

  17. Effects of Chewing on Cognitive Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and…

  18. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.

  19. Validation of drying models and rehydration characteristics of betel (Piper betel L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Sharma, R; Gupta, R K; Patil, R T

    2011-12-01

    Effect of temperature on drying behaviour of betel leaves at drying air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C was investigated in tunnel as well as cabinet dryer. The L* and b* values increased whereas, a* values decreased, as the drying air temperature increased from 50 to 70°C in both the dryers, but the colour values remained higher for cabinet dryer than tunnel dryer in all cases. Eleven different drying models were compared according to their coefficients of determination (R(2)), root mean square error (RMSE) and chi square (χ (2)) to estimate drying curves. The results indicated that, logarithmic model and modified Page model could satisfactorily describe the drying curve of betel leaves for tunnel drying and cabinet dryer, respectively. In terms of colour quality, drying of betel leaves at 60°C in tunnel dryer and at 50°C in cabinet dryer was found optimum whereas, rehydration at 40°C produced the best acceptable product.

  20. The SPLENDID chewing detection challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papapanagiotou, Vasileios; Diou, Christos; Zhou, Lingchuan; Boer, van den Janet; Mars, Monica; Delopoulos, Anastasios

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of eating behavior using wearable technology is receiving increased attention, driven by the recent advances in wearable devices and mobile phones. One particularly interesting aspect of eating behavior is the monitoring of chewing activity and eating occurrences. There are several

  1. Brain Activity and Human Unilateral Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Myers, C.; Schutt, R.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mechanisms underlying mastication have been studied in non-human mammals but less so in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activity in humans during gum chewing. Chewing was associated with activations in the cerebellum, motor cortex and caudate, cingulate, and brainstem. We also divided the 25-second chew-blocks into 5 segments of equal 5-second durations and evaluated activations within and between each of the 5 segments. This analysis revealed activation clusters unique to the initial segment, which may indicate brain regions involved with initiating chewing. Several clusters were uniquely activated during the last segment as well, which may represent brain regions involved with anticipatory or motor events associated with the end of the chew-block. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for specific brain areas associated with chewing in humans and demonstrated that brain activation patterns may dynamically change over the course of chewing sequences. PMID:23103631

  2. Without Qualification: An Inquiry Into the Secundum Quid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botting David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will consider several interpretations of the fallacy of secundum quid as it is given by Aristotle in the Sophistical Refutations and argue that they do not work, one reason for which is that they all imply that the fallacy depends on language and thus fail to explain why Aristotle lists this fallacy among the fallacies not depending on language (extra dictione, amounting often to a claim that Aristotle miscategorises this fallacy. I will argue for a reading that preserves Aristotle’s categorization by a quite different account of how qualifications function.

  3. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution.

  4. Functional Connectivity of Human Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Schutt, R.; Myers, C.; Peltier, S.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    Mastication is one of the most important orofacial functions. The neurobiological mechanisms of masticatory control have been investigated in animal models, but less so in humans. This project used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess the positive temporal correlations among activated brain areas during a gum-chewing task. Twenty-nine healthy young-adults underwent an fcMRI scanning protocol while they chewed gum. Seed-based fcMRI analyses were performed with the motor cortex and cerebellum as regions of interest. Both left and right motor cortices were reciprocally functionally connected and functionally connected with the post-central gyrus, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, and precuneus. The cerebellar seeds showed functional connections with the contralateral cerebellar hemispheres, bilateral sensorimotor cortices, left superior temporal gyrus, and left cingulate cortex. These results are the first to identify functional central networks engaged during mastication. PMID:23355525

  5. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and..., Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.615 Chewing gum base. The food additive chewing gum base... substances listed in paragraph (a) of this section, chewing gum base may also include substances generally...

  6. Validation of drying models and rehydration characteristics of betel (Piper betel L.) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, S.; Sharma, R.; Gupta, R. K.; Patil, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    Effect of temperature on drying behaviour of betel leaves at drying air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C was investigated in tunnel as well as cabinet dryer. The L* and b* values increased whereas, a* values decreased, as the drying air temperature increased from 50 to 70°C in both the dryers, but the colour values remained higher for cabinet dryer than tunnel dryer in all cases. Eleven different drying models were compared according to their coefficients of determination (R2), root mean squar...

  7. Physics of chewing in terrestrial mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emmanuel; Ma, Grace; Clanet, Christophe; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies on chewing frequency across animal species have focused on finding a single universal scaling law. Controversy between the different models has been aroused without elucidating the variations in chewing frequency. In the present study we show that vigorous chewing is limited by the maximum force of muscle, so that the upper chewing frequency scales as the -1/3 power of body mass for large animals and as a constant frequency for small animals. On the other hand, gentle chewing to mix food uniformly without excess of saliva describes the lower limit of chewing frequency, scaling approximately as the -1/6 power of body mass. These physical constraints frame the -1/4 power law classically inferred from allometry of animal metabolic rates. All of our experimental data stay within these physical boundaries over six orders of magnitude of body mass regardless of food types.

  8. Effects of chewing rate and reactive hyperemia on blood flow in denture-supporting mucosa during simulated chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Takamichi; Ueda, Takayuki; Ogami, Koichiro; Koike, Takashi; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    We examined how chewing rate and the extent of reactive hyperemia affect the blood flow in denture-supporting mucosa during chewing. The left palatal mucosa was loaded under conditions of simulated chewing or simulated clenching for 30s, and the blood flow during loading was recorded. We compared the relative blood flow during loading under conditions that recreated different chewing rates by combining duration of chewing cycle (DCC) and occlusal time (OT): fast chewing group, typical chewing group, slow chewing group and clenching group. The relationship between relative blood flow during simulated chewing and the extent of reactive hyperemia was also analyzed. When comparing the different chewing rate, the relative blood flow was highest in fast chewing rate, followed by typical chewing rate and slow chewing rate. Accordingly, we suggest that fast chewing increases the blood flow more than typical chewing or slow chewing. There was a significant correlation between the amount of blood flow during simulated chewing and the extent of reactive hyperemia. Within the limitations of this study, we concluded that slow chewing induced less blood flow than typical or fast chewing in denture-supporting mucosa and that people with less reactive hyperemia had less blood flow in denture-supporting mucosa during chewing. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of chewing in working memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Kashikura, Kenichi; Nonaka, Hiroi; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2008-05-09

    It has been generally suggested that chewing produces an enhancing effect on cognitive performance-related aspects of memory by the test battery. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that chewing is associated with activation of various brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the relation between cognitive performances affected by chewing and the neuronal activity in specified regions in the brain. We therefore examined the effects of chewing on neuronal activities in the brain during a working memory task using fMRI. The subjects chewed gum, without odor and taste components, between continuously performed two- or three-back (n-back) working memory tasks. Chewing increased the BOLD signals in the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 9 and 46) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the n-back tasks. Furthermore, there were more prominent activations in the right premotor cortex, precuneus, thalamus, hippocampus and inferior parietal lobe during the n-back tasks after the chewing trial. These results suggest that chewing may accelerate or recover the process of working memory besides inducing improvement in the arousal level by the chewing motion.

  10. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans.

  11. Gum chewing and cognition : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, L.I.; Koerts, J.

    In recent years, there was a debate about the effects of gum chewing on various aspects of cognitive functioning. In this review, the results of previous studies are presented and summarized. There is a clear indication that gum chewing can improve various aspects of cognitive functioning including

  12. Gum chewing affects academic performance in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewing gum may have an impact on improved memory during specific tasks of recognition and sustained attention. Research objective was to determine the effect of gum chewing on standardized test scores and math class grades of eighth grade students. Four math classes, 108 students, were randomized i...

  13. Formulation and characterization of caffeine biodegradable chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chewing gum delivery system for alertness using ... texture profile analysis (TPA), and also evaluated for biodegradation, microstructure`, in vitro .... human chewing. .... Data are presented as mean ± standard error mean (n=6) .... No conflict of interest associated with this work. ... d), which permit unrestricted use, distribution,.

  14. Effect of gum hardness on chewing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, O; Bishop, B; McCall, W

    1986-06-01

    Chewing rhythms are set by a putative central pattern generator whose output is influenced by sensory feedback. In this study we assessed how an altered feedback imposed by changing the hardness of a gum bolus modifies the timing of chewing, the maximal gape, and the activity in the masseter muscle on the chewing side. Ten adult subjects with no orofacial dysfunction chewed a standard piece of soft or hard gum for at least 3 min in random order. Vertical jaw movements were recorded with a kinesiograph and activity of the masseter muscle was recorded and integrated from surface EMG electrodes. The subjects sat in a dental chair and viewed a video lecture to distract their attention from chewing; they were instructed to chew on the right molars. Cycle-by-cycle analysis showed that 9 of the 10 subjects chewed the hard gum more slowly than the soft with no significant change in gape. The increases in cycle duration were due to changes in the duration of the opening and occlusal phases. The duration of closing was not significantly changed even though the duration and level of masseter activity were both significantly increased. We conclude that gum hardness by altering proprioceptive feedback modifies the output of the masticatory central pattern generator in such a way that the temporal aspects of chewing and the output of the masseteric motor pool are affected.

  15. Availability and characteristics of betel products in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L

    2008-09-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/ sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the availability and characteristics of these products outside of this region. Thus, a representative sample of betel products and additives was purchased in the Richmond, Virginia area. Five venues were visited between March and May, 2006. Products successfully purchased were those containing betel alone (seven), betel/tobacco (three), tobacco alone (four), and additives (four). Most betel products listed ingredients on the packaging, though some did not explicitly distinguish between those with versus without tobacco. Importantly, seven of seven betel alone and one of three betel/tobacco products omitted any health-related warnings. All products were inexpensive and relatively obtainable in the groceries visited. More research is warranted in order to accurately estimate product emergence into the U.S. and other world markets, and the consequent impact on public health.

  16. AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BETEL PRODUCTS IN THE U.S.†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the availability and characteristics of these products outside of this region. Thus, a representative sample of betel products and additives was purchased in the Richmond, Virginia area. Five venues were visited between March and May, 2006. Products successfully purchased were those containing betel alone (seven), betel/tobacco (three), tobacco alone (four), and additives (four). Most betel products listed ingredients on the packaging, though some did not explicitly distinguish between those with versus without tobacco. Importantly, seven of seven betel alone and one of three betel/tobacco products omitted any health-related warnings. All products were inexpensive and relatively obtainable in the groceries visited. More research is warranted in order to accurately estimate product emergence into the U.S. and other world markets, and the consequent impact on public health. PMID:19004423

  17. The usefulness of cytogenetic parameters, level of p53 protein and endogenous glutathione as intermediate end-points in raw betel-nut genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpawat, K; Chatterjee, A

    2003-07-01

    Betel-nut (BN) chewing related oral mucosal lesions are potential hazards to a large population worldwide. Genotoxicity of betel alkaloids, polyphenol and tannin fractions have been reported. It has been shown earlier that BN ingredients altered the level of endogenous glutathione (GSH) which could modulate the host susceptibility to the action of other chemical carcinogens. The north-east Indian variety of BN, locally known as 'kwai', is raw, wet and consumed unprocessed with betel-leaf and slaked lime and contains higher alkaloids, polyphenol and tannins as compared to the dried one. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of DNA damage, pattern of cell kinetics, the level of p53-protein and endogenous GSH in kwai chewers in the tribal population of Meghalaya state in the northeastern region of India with an aim to see whether these end-points could serve as biomarkers of genetic damage of relevance for genotoxic/carcinogenic process. The present data show higher DNA damage, delay in cell kinetics, p53 expression and lower GSH-level in heavy chewers (HC) than nonchewers (NC). The influence of bleomycin (BLM) on chromatid break induction in G2-phase of peripheral blood lymphocytes in NC and HC has been analysed to determine individual susceptibility to carcinogenic assaults. HC showed higher induction of chromatid breaks than NC. Risk assessment in this study suggests an interaction between carcinogen exposure and mutagen sensitivity measures, risk estimates being higher in those individuals who both consume kwai and express sensitivity to free radical oxygen damage in vitro. From this study it seems that besides cytogenetical parameters, the level of endogenous GSH and the level of p53 protein could act as effective biomarkers for kwai chewers.

  18. The Health Effects of Kava/Sakau and Betel Nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harvey

    For generations Pacific Islanders have used kava root and betel nut for a variety of cultural, medicinal, and ceremonial purposes: to overcome social barriers and lubricate social interactions; to cure bodily afflictions; and to accompany traditional and religious rituals. Kava, also known as ava, sakau, and yaqona has a long tradition as a…

  19. Modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betel leaf ingredients: roles of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Chen, Shiao-Yun; Liao, Chang-Hui; Tung, Yuan-Yii; Lin, Bor-Ru; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2002-05-01

    There are 2 to 6 billion betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. Areca nut (AN), a BQ component, modulates arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, which is crucial for platelet function. AN extract (1 and 2 mg/ml) stimulated rabbit platelet aggregation, with induction of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production. Contrastingly, Piper betle leaf (PBL) extract inhibited AA-, collagen-, and U46619-induced platelet aggregation, and TXB2 and prostaglandin-D2 (PGD2) production. PBL extract also inhibited platelet TXB2 and PGD2 production triggered by thrombin, platelet activating factor (PAF), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), whereas little effect on platelet aggregation was noted. Moreover, PBL is a scavenger of O2(*-) and *OH, and inhibits xanthine oxidase activity and the (*)OH-induced PUC18 DNA breaks. Deferoxamine, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) and neomycin prevented AN-induced platelet aggregation and TXB2 production. Indomethacin, genistein, and PBL extract inhibited only TXB2 production, but not platelet aggregation. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and dimethylthiourea (DMT) showed little effect on AN-induced platelet aggregation, whereas catalase and DMT inhibited the AN-induced TXB2 production. These results suggest that AN-induced platelet aggregation is associated with iron-mediated reactive oxygen species production, calcium mobilization, phospholipase C activation, and TXB2 production. PBL inhibited platelet aggregation via both its antioxidative effects and effects on TXB2 and PGD2 production. Effects of AN and PBL on platelet aggregation and AA metabolism is crucial for platelet activation in the oral mucosa and cardiovascular system in BQ chewers.

  20. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kate; Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in post-task self-rated alertness scores. The declines in both performance and subjective alertness were attenuated in the chewing-gum group. In particular, correct RTs were significantly shorter following the chewing of gum in the latter stages of the task. Additionally, the gradients of decline for target detection and incline for correct RTs were both attenuated for the chewing-gum group. These findings are consistent with the data of Tucha and Simpson (2011), Appetite, 56, 299-301, who showed beneficial effects of chewing gum in the latter stages of a 30 min visual attention task, and extend their data to a task that necessitates the continuous updating of order memory. It is noteworthy that our data contradict the claim (Kozlov, Hughes, & Jones, 2012, Q. J. Exp. Psychology, 65, 501-513) that chewing gum negatively impacts short-term memory task performance. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Brief Report: Gum Chewing Affects Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…

  2. A review of the use of Piper betel in oxidative stress disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Y; Nurul Zaidah, A S; Nur Amalina, G; Muhammad Azree, Ema; Das, S; Zar, C T

    2014-01-01

    Increase in prevalence of disease related oxidative stress disorders have been on the rise in the entire world since the past decades. Significant positive effects with few antioxidant properties in the modern drugs pave for the alternative medicines in managing the disease. Piper betel (P. betel), a herb, is known to possess high anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-cancer and neuroprotective property. This review focused on the effect of P. betel on diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer. P. betel proved to show positive effects with specific outcomes towards these diseases. Moreover, the promising effect of P. betel in vitro studies was also highlighted in the present review. It is believed that the findings obtained in this review will draw the attention of the medical professionals and general public towards P. betel and it will open the door for further detailed research.

  3. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  4. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  5. AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BETEL PRODUCTS IN THE U.S.†

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the avail...

  6. Effects of chewing on cognitive processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and cognitive processing speed, testing the hypothesis that this effect induces higher cognitive performance. Seventeen healthy adults (20-34 years old) were studied during attention task with blood oxygenation level-dependent functional (fMRI) at 3.0 T MRI. The attentional network test (ANT) within a single task fMRI containing two cue conditions (no cue and center cue) and two target conditions (congruent and incongruent) was conducted to examine the efficiency of alerting and executive control. Participants were instructed to press a button with the right or left thumb according to the direction of a centrally presented arrow. Each participant underwent two back-to-back ANT sessions with or without chewing gum, odorless and tasteless to remove any effect other than chewing. Behavioral results showed that mean reaction time was significantly decreased during chewing condition, regardless of speed-accuracy trade-off, although there were no significant changes in behavioral effects (both alerting and conflict effects). On the other hand, fMRI analysis revealed higher activations in the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus for the executive network and motor-related regions for both attentional networks during chewing condition. These results suggested that chewing induced an increase in the arousal level and alertness in addition to an effect on motor control and, as a consequence, these effects could lead to improvements in cognitive performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Quid pro quo: tobacco companies and the black press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Phyra M; Yerger, Valerie B; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-04-01

    We explored the relationship between tobacco companies and the Black press, which plays an important role in conveying information and opinions to Black communities. In this archival case study, we analyzed data from internal tobacco industry documents and archives of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), the trade association of the Black press. In exchange for advertising dollars and other support, the tobacco industry expected and received support from Black newspapers for tobacco industry policy positions. Beginning in the 1990s, resistance from within the Black community and reduced advertising budgets created counterpressures. The tobacco industry, however, continued to sustain NNPA support. The quid pro quo between tobacco companies and the Black press violated journalistic standards and represented an unequal trade. Although numerous factors explain today's tobacco-related health disparities, the Black press's service to tobacco companies is problematic because of the trust that the community placed in such media. Understanding the relationship between the tobacco industry and the NNPA provides insight into strategies that the tobacco industry may use in other communities and countries.

  8. Head and Neck Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck include the following: Paan (betel quid) . Immigrants from Southeast Asia who use paan (betel quid) ... use this content on your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. ...

  9. Trend Analysis of Betel Nut-associated Oral Cancer 
and Health Burden in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan Jia; Chen, Jie; Zhong, Wai Sheng; Ling, Tian You; Jian, Xin Chun; Lu, Ruo Huang; Tang, Zhan Gui; Tao, Lin

    To forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health based on historical oral cancer patient data in Hunan province, China. Oral cancer patient data in five hospitals in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan province) were collected for the past 12 years. Three methods were used to analyse the data; Microsoft Excel Forecast Sheet, Excel Trendline, and the Logistic growth model. A combination of these three methods was used to forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health. Betel nut-associated oral cancer cases have been increasing rapidly in the past 12  years in Changsha. As of 2016, betel nuts had caused 8,222 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and close to 25,000 cases in Hunan, resulting in about ¥5 billion in accumulated financial loss. The combined trend analysis predicts that by 2030, betel nuts will cause more than 100,000 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and more than 300,000 cases in Hunan, and more than ¥64 billion in accumulated financial loss in medical expenses. The trend analysis of oral cancer patient data predicts that the growing betel nut industry in Hunan province will cause a humanitarian catastrophe with massive loss of human life and national resources. To prevent this catastrophe, China should ban betel nuts and provide early oral cancer screening for betel nut consumers as soon as possible.

  10. Candida infection in oral leukoplakia: an unperceived public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilhari, Ayomi; Weerasekera, Manjula M; Siriwardhana, Anusha; Maheshika, Oshanthi; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Karunathilaka, Sunil; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Fernando, Neluka

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the proportion, known risk factors and etiology for Candida infection in leukoplakia lesions among patients with oral leukoplakia attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka. Eighty clinically suspected oral leukoplakia patients were included. Two oral swabs each, from leukoplakia patients: one swab from the lesion and the other one from the contralateral unaffected corresponding area (as a control) were collected. Direct microscopy and culture followed by colony count and phenotypic identification were performed to identify pathogenic Candida species. Candida infection was seen in 47% of patients with oral leukoplakia. Candida albicans (94.7%) was the most common Candida species followed by Candida tropicalis (5.3%). Majority of Candida-infected lesions were seen in the buccal mucosa region. Alteration of taste (p = 0.021), having other oral lesions (p = 0.008), angular cheilitis (p = 0.024) and periodontitis (p = 0.041) showed a significant association with Candida-associated leukoplakia. Increasing age showed a significant tendency for Candida infection (p = 0.020). Smoking (p = 0.026) and betel-quid chewing (p = 0.006) were also found to be significantly associated, although alcohol consumption alone did not show a significant association. Oral leukoplakia patients who had all three habits: alcohol consumption, smoking and betel-quid chewing had a significant association with Candida infection (p = 0.004). Patients who had a combination of risk factors: smoking, betel-quid chewing and alcohol consumption were seen to have a significant association with Candida infection. Further betel-quid chewing alone and smoking singly was also significantly associated with Candida infection in oral leukoplakia.

  11. The effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaiwa, Miho; Gunjigake, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency by evaluating masticatory variables. Ten adult nasal breathers with normal occlusion and no temporomandibular dysfunction were selected. Subjects were instructed to bite the chewing gum on the habitual side. While breathing through the mouth and nose, the glucide elution from the chewing gum, number of chewing strokes, duration of chewing, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle were evaluated as variables of masticatory efficiency. The durations required for the chewing of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 250 strokes were significantly (P chewing stroke between nose and mouth breathings. The glucide elution rates for 1- and 3-minute chewing were significantly (P chewing between nose and mouth breathings. While chewing for 1, 3, and 5 minutes, the chewing stroke and EMG activity of the masseter muscle were significantly (P chewing to obtain higher masticatory efficiency when breathing through the mouth. Therefore, mouth breathing will decrease the masticatory efficiency if the duration of chewing is restricted in everyday life.

  12. 26 CFR 1.6115-1 - Disclosure requirements for quid pro quo contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure requirements for quid pro quo contributions. 1.6115-1 Section 1.6115-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... unique qualities of the goods or services that are being valued. (3) Examples. The following examples...

  13. Prevalence of Khat chewing and associated factors in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen, Somalia, Sudan, South Africa and Madagascar; it ... effects of khat chewing; for instance, a study revealed .... cervical cancer screening coverage in women, and provision ..... Socio-economic effects of khat chewing in.

  14. Chewing Tobacco: Not a Safe Alternative to Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Quit smoking Get the facts about chewing tobacco and other forms of smokeless tobacco. They' ... than you might think. By Mayo Clinic Staff Chewing tobacco and other smokeless tobacco products may be ...

  15. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  16. Temporomandibular Disorders: The Habitual Chewing Side Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Mora, Urbano; López-Cedrún, José; Mora, María J.; Otero, Xosé L.; Santana-Penín, Urbano

    2013-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side) and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. Methods The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms) was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. Results Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher’s exact test, P = .003) and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002) were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88) degrees versus 46.16(7.25) degrees; P = .001), and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35) degrees versus 48.32(9.53) degrees P = .036) on the symptomatic side. Discussion The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, “habitual chewing side syndrome”, instead of the nonspecific symptom-based “temporomandibular joint disorders”; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side. PMID:23593156

  17. Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Santana-Mora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. METHODS: The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. RESULTS: Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003 and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002 were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88 degrees versus 46.16(7.25 degrees; P = .001, and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35 degrees versus 48.32(9.53 degrees P = .036 on the symptomatic side. DISCUSSION: The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.

  18. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K.; Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C..

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in p...

  19. Effect of chewing speed on energy expenditure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Leelayuwat, Naruemon; Boonyawat, Nattawat; Parniangtong, Auddamar; Sripratoom, Jindamanee

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of rate of chewing on energy expenditure in human subjects. Fourteen healthy subjects (aged 18-24 years) within the normal range of BMI participated in a cross-over experiment consisting of two 6-min sessions of gum chewing, slow (∼60 cycles/min) and fast (∼120 cycles/min) chewing. The resting energy expenditure (REE) and during gum chewing was measured using a ventilated hood connected to a gas analyzer system. The normality of data was explored using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The energy expenditure rate during chewing and the energy expenditure per chewing cycle were compared between the two chewing speeds using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. The energy expenditure per chewing cycle during slow chewing (median 1.4, range 5.2 cal; mean 2.1±1.6 cal) was significantly higher than that during fast chewing (median 0.9, range 2.2 cal; mean 1.0±0.7 cal) (p chewing speeds (p > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that chewing at a slower speed could increase the energy expenditure per cycle and might affect the total daily energy expenditure.

  20. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and

  1. Differences between the chewing and non-chewing sides of the mandibular first molars and condyles in the closing phase during chewing in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonari, Hiroshi; Kwon, Sangho; Kuninori, Takaharu; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess differences between the closing paths of the chewing and non-chewing sides of mandibular first molars and condyles during natural mastication, using standardized model food in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy young adults (age: 19-25 years; 22 men, 10 women) with normal occlusion and function chewed on standardized gummy jelly. Using an optoelectric jaw-tracking system with six degrees of freedom, we recorded the path of the mandibular first molars and condyles on both sides for 10 strokes during unilateral chewing. Variables were compared between the chewing side and the non-chewing side of first molars and condyles on frontal, sagittal, and horizontal views during the early-, middle- and late-closing phases. On superior/inferior displacements, the chewing side first molar and condyle were positioned superior to those on the non-chewing side during the early- and middle-closing phases. Conversely, the first molar and condyle on the non-chewing side were positioned significantly superior to those on the chewing side during the late-closing phase. On anterior/posterior displacements, the chewing side mandibular first molar and condyle were positioned significantly posterior to those on the non-chewing side throughout all closing phases. Our results showed the differences between the mandibular first molars and condyles on both sides with respect to masticatory path during natural chewing of a model food. These differences can be useful for informing initial diagnostic tests for impaired masticatory function in the clinical environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioprotective property of the ethanolic extract of Piper betel leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Roychowdhury, S.; Bandyopadhyay, S.K.; Subramanian, M.; Bauri, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Kamat, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The radioprotective activity of Piper betel ethanolic extract (PE) has been studied using rat liver mitochondria and pBR 322 plasmid DNA as two model in vitro systems. The extract effectively prevented γ-ray induced lipid peroxidation as assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates, lipid hydroperoxide and conjugated diene. Likewise, it prevented radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration dependent manner. The radioprotective activity of PE could be attributed to its hydroxyl and superoxide radicals scavenging property along with its lymphoproliferative activity. The radical scavenging capacity of PE was primarily due to its constituent phenolics, which were isolated and identified as chevibetol and allyl pyrocatechol. (author)

  3. Lifetime risk of distinct upper aerodigestive tract cancers and consumption of alcohol, betel and cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Lun; Chien, Yin-Chu; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Hwai-I; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Yu, Kelly J; You, San-Lin; Wang, Li-Yu; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Czau-Siung; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-09-15

    The cancer of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is a common cancers in the world. However, its lifetime risk by consumption of alcohol, betel and cigarettes remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to estimate lifetime risk of distinct UADT cancers and assess their associations with alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption. Three cohorts of 25,611 men were enrolled in 1982-1992 in Taiwan. The history of alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption was enquired through questionnaire interview. Newly developed UADT cancers were ascertained through computerized linkage with national cancer registry profile. Lifetime (30-80 years old) risk and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj) of distinct UADT cancers by alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption were estimated. A total of 269 pathologically confirmed cases of UADT cancers were newly-diagnosed during 472,096 person-years of follow-up. The lifetime risk of UADT cancer was 9.42 and 1.65% for betel chewers and nonchewers, 3.22 and 1.21% for cigarette smokers and nonsmokers and 4.77 and 1.85% for alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers. The HRadj (95% confidence interval) of developing UADT cancer was 3.36 (2.51-4.49), 2.02 (1.43-2.84), 1.90 (1.46-2.49), respectively, for the consumption of betel, cigarette and alcohol. Alcohol, betel and cigarette had different effect on cancers at various anatomical sites of UADT. The cancer risk from the mouth, pharynx, esophagus to larynx increased for alcohol and cigarette consumption, but decreased for betel consumption. Alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption are independent risk predictors for distinct UADT cancers. © 2014 UICC.

  4. Prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions in out-patients at two Malaysian and Thai dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axéll, T; Zain, R B; Siwamogstham, P; Tantiniran, D; Thampipit, J

    1990-04-01

    At the Faculties of Dentistry in Chiang Mai, Thailand (CM), and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL), 234 and 233 consecutive out-patients of mean ages 33.8 and 31.0 yr, respectively, were examined for the presence of oral mucosal lesions. Tobacco in some form was regularly used by 31.7% and 27.5% of the study populations in CM and KL, respectively. Cigarette smoking was the predominant habit. In CM three persons chewed betel quids and nine smoked banana leaf cigars daily. In addition, there were 24 habitual chewers of tea leaves (miang). In KL six persons chewed betel quids daily. In CM and KL three cases each (1.3%) of tobacco-associated leukoplakias were found. In KL an additional idiopathic leukoplakia was registered. One and three cases of betel related lesions were found in CM and KL, respectively. One case of a squamous cell carcinoma was found in a 45-yr-old Indian woman in KL who had been chewing betel with tobacco daily for many years. High prevalence figures were found for lichen planus, 3.8% in CM and 2.1% in KL, and an extremely high one, 48.3%, in CM for episodes of aphthous ulcers experienced during the last 2 yr. Comparatively low prevalence figures were found for herpes labialis. As could be expected melanin pigmentation was prevalent while only low figures were encountered for denture-related lesions and amalgam tattoos.

  5. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: The independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing-gum induced context-dependent memory effect (Baker et al, 2004). At learning and/or recall participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect. This is found despite participants’ su...

  6. Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jess R; Bezance, Jessica B; Zellaby, Ella; Aggleton, John P

    2004-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether chewing spearmint gum can affect the initial learning or subsequent recall of a word list. Comparing those participants in Experiment 1 who chewed gum at the learning or the recall phases showed that chewing gum at initial learning was associated with superior recall. In addition, chewing gum led to context-dependent effects as a switch between gum and no gum (or no gum and gum) between learning and recall led to poorer performance. Experiment 2 provided evidence that sucking gum was sufficient to induce some of the same effects as chewing.

  7. Phytase application in chewing gum - A technical assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    either prior to ingestion, i.e. in the food, or post ingestion, i.e. in the human gastrointestinal tract. We have assessed the technical aspects of formulation and release of phytase added to chewing gum as a delivery vehicle. Phytases from Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli incorporated into chewing...... gum were released quantitatively upon chewing and retained phytase activity (50-80% of the enzyme activity added was released within 10 minutes). Initial evaluations of phytase chewing gum shelf life showed good stability after 48 days of storage of the chewing gum at ambient conditions....

  8. Antioxidant activity of piper betel leaf extract and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Jitesh S; Patro, Birija S; Mula, Soumyaditya; Gamre, Sunita; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2006-11-29

    The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay of the ethanol extracts of three varieties (Bangla, sweet, and Mysore) of Piper betel (pan) revealed the Bangla variety to possess the best antioxidant activity that can be correlated with the total phenolic content and reducing powers of the respective extracts. Column chromatography of the extract of the Bangla variety led to the isolation of chevibetol (CHV), allylpyrocatechol (APC), and their respective glucosides. The HPTLC analyses of the extracts revealed similar chemical profiles in all three P. betel varieties, although the concentrations of CHV and APC were significantly less in the sweet and Mysore varieties. Among the isolated compounds, APC showed the best results in all the in vitro experiments. It could prevent Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liposomes and rat brain homogenates as well as gamma-ray-induced damage of pBR322 plasmid DNA more efficiently than CHV. The superior anti-LPO and radioprotective activities of APC vis-à-vis those of CHV could not be explained by their respective Fe(II) chelation and .OH radical scavenging capacities. The better ability of APC to scavenge O2-. radicals and H2O2 might account for the results.

  9. The impact of the cigarette market opening in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C P; Cheng, T Y; Eriksen, M P; Tsai, S P; Hsu, C C

    2005-06-01

    To assess the effect of the opening of the Taiwanese cigarette market on cigarette consumption, changes in market share, and the effects on tobacco control efforts. With the use of key word "Taiwan", the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of the University of California, San Francisco, was searched for internal documents related to smuggling activities, promotion of light cigarettes, and market share analyses in Taiwan. Age adjusted smoking rates and cigarette and betel quid consumption before and after market opening were compared. By 2000, the market share of imported cigarettes increased from less than 2% in 1986 to nearly 50%, and per capita cigarette consumption increased 15% following market opening. Because of the sharp increase in smuggling, with contraband cigarettes being as popular as legal imports, and the rapid proliferation of retail outlets, such as betel quid stalls, the market penetration by foreign tobacco companies was greater in Taiwan than among the other Super 301 Asian countries. Aggressive cigarette marketing strategies were associated with a 6% increase in adult male smoking prevalence, and with a 13% increase in the youth rate, within three years after market opening. The market opening also had an incidental effect on increasing the popularity of betel quid. Betel quid chewing has since become a major public health problem in Taiwan. The opening of the cigarette market in 1987 had a long lasting impact on Taiwan. It increased smoking prevalence and the market has become dominated by foreign companies. The seriousness of smuggling and its associated loss of revenue by the government, the extent of increased youth smoking and its associated future health care costs, and the increased use of betel quid and the associated doubling of oral cancer mortality rates each pose significant problems to Taiwan. However, the market opening galvanised anti-smoking sentiment and forced the government to initiate and intensify a series of tobacco control

  10. The difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing Betel leaf (Piper Betle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ling Fu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long history of the use of plants to improve dental health and oral hygiene. The purpose of this research was to find out the difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel. The type of research used was quasi-experimental. Data collected were analyzed by using a paired t-test. The result shows that there is an increase of salivary pH by an average of 0.48 after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel. In conclusion, there is the difference between the salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel.

  11. Hypolipidemic activity of Piper betel in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Ernest David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of Piper betel (P. betel) in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia rat. Methods: The methanol leaf extract was tested for hypolipidemic effect in the albino rats at the selected optimum dosage of 250 mg/kg body weight and administered orally. Adult male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken study and evaluated. Results: In group II animals, the activity levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low densi...

  12. Quid Pro Quo in IPOs: Why Book-Building is Dominating Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Degeorge, François; Derrien, Francois; Womack, Kent L

    2004-01-01

    The book-building procedure for selling initial public offerings to investors has captured significant market share from auction alternatives in recent years, despite significantly lower costs in both direct fees and initial underpricing when using the auction mechanism. This paper shows that in the French market, where the frequency of book-building and auctions was about equal in the 1990s, the ostensible advantages to the issuer using book-building were advertising-related quid pro quo ben...

  13. Supplementation of Red Betel Leaf (Piper Crocatum) in Dairy Cattle Feed on Fermentation Characteristics by in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Prayitno, Caribu Hadi; Suwarno, Suwarno; Sarwanto, Doso; Hidayatun, Dinar; Solihah, Ma'ratul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact and efficiency of red betel leaf’s extract supplementation in the diet of dairy cattle on fermentation characteristics by in vitro.  The research method was experiment by using completely randomized design.  The treatments that were tested were R1: basal feed, R2:  R1 + 15 ppm of  red betel  leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R3: R1 + 30 ppm of  red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R4: R1 + 45 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R5: R...

  14. Chew-Low equations as Cremoma transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerikh, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    The Chew-Low equations for the p-wave pion-nucleon scattering with the crossing-symmetry matrix (3x3) are investigated in their well-known formulation as a system of nonlinear difference equations. These equations interpreted as geometrical transformations are shown to be a special case of the Cremona transformaions. Using the properties of the Cremona transformations we obtain the general 3-parametric functional equation on invariant algebraic and nonalgebraic curves in the space solutions of the Chew- Low equations. It is proved that there exists only one invariant algebraic curve, the parabola corresponding to the well-known solution. Analysis of the general functional equation on invariant nonalgebraic curves makes it possible to select in addition to this parabola 3 invariant forms defining implicitly 3 nonalgebraic curves and to concretize for them the general equation by means of fixing the parameters. From the transformational properties of the invariant forms with respect to the Cremona transformations, there follows an important result that the ration of these forms in proper powers is the general integral of the nonlinear system of the Chew-Low equations, which is an even antiperiodic function. The structure of the second general integral is given and the functional equations which determinne this integral are presented [ru

  15. Retrospective study on risk habits among oral cancer patients in Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, D S; Prasad, K V V; Shavi, Girish R; Ariga, Jitendra; Rajesh, G; Krishna, Madhusudan

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective studies on oral cancer patient profiles related to risk habits could provide etiologic clues for prevention in specific geographic areas. To study risk habit characteristics of oral cancer patients. A cross sectional retrospective case record study of oral cancer patients who reported during 1991-2000 to Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India was conducted. Data on socio-demography, histopathology, site of cancer and risk habit profiles of the patients were recorded in a predesigned Performa by one calibrated examiner with internal validity checks. The 1,472 oral cancer patients constituted 11% of total cancer patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years, ranging from 12-88, with a male: female ratio of 2:1. 1,110 (75%) oral cancer patients had risk habits, 55% were habituated for >10 years and 25% were habit free. 751(51%) patients had individual and 359(24%) had combined risk habits. Majority 59% were chewers of betel quid alone (17%)/betel quid with tobacco (42%); smokers were (31%) and alcohol users were (14%) of patients. Chewers of gutkha, khaini were more in 40 years. Risk habituates were highest (87%) in patients with cancer of buccal mucosa, commonly affected site attributed to chewing habit in (51%) of patients. The prevalence of oral cancer was higher among elderly males predominantly with risk habits of betel quid/tobacco chewing and smoking for more than 10 years.

  16. Interactions between environmental factors and melatonin receptor type 1A polymorphism in relation to oral cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yan Lin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the combined effect of melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of oral cancer.Three polymorphisms of the MTNR1A gene from 618 patients with oral cancer and 560 non-cancer controls were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The CTA haplotype of the studied MTNR1A polymorphisms (rs2119882, rs13140012, rs6553010 was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, MTNR1A gene polymorphisms exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and tobacco use on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Finally, oral-cancer patients with betel quid-chewing habit who had T/T allele of MTNR1A rs13140012 were at higher risk for developing an advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis.These results support gene-environment interactions of MTNR1A polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid-chewing habits possibly altering oral-cancer susceptibility and metastasis.

  17. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: the independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2008-05-01

    Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing gum induced context-dependent memory effect. At learning and/or recall, participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context-dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect. This is found despite participants' subjective ratings indicating a perceived change in state following administration of flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips. Additionally, some preliminary evidence for a non-additive facilitative effect of receiving gum or flavour at either learning and/or recall is reported. The findings raise further concerns regarding the robustness of the previously reported context-dependent memory effect with chewing gum.

  18. Oral health benefits of a daily dental chew in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, Bradley W

    2013-01-01

    An independent study was conducted to determine and quantify the oral care benefits of a daily edible dental chew in dogs as measured by plaque and calculus control, gingival indices, and oral malodor. A "clean mouth" test model was used comparing a commercial dry diet and a commercial dry diet plus one dental chew per day. The dental chew tested was representative of a retail canine dental chew. The test dental chew was a green-colored dental dog chew with a flexible texture that can be readily chewed by dogs. They are made with a knuckle bone shape on one end and a toothbrush shape on the other end. Sixty adult dogs were allocated in either control or test groups based on plaque stratification and studied for 28-days. The test group (30 dogs) received a dry diet and 1 dental chew each day. The control group (30 dogs) received the same dry diet only. At the end of the study, measurements of plaque and calculus accumulation and evaluations of oral malodor and gingival heath were performed. Adding a dental chew to the diet resulted in statistically significant reductions in plaque and calculus accumulation, and oral malodor while improving gingival indices.

  19. Comparison of physical chewing measures to consumer typed Mouth Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arran; Jeltema, Melissa; Morgenstern, Marco P; Motoi, Lidia; Kim, Esther; Hedderley, Duncan

    2018-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypotheses that when presented with foods that could be chewed in different ways, (1) are participants jaw movements and chewing sequence measures correlated with Mouth Behavior (MB) group, as measured by the JBMB typing tool? (2) can MB group membership can be predicted from jaw movement and chewing sequence measures? One hundred subjects (69 female and 31 male, mean age 27 ± 7.7 years) were given four different foods (Mentos, Walkers, Cheetos Puffs, Twix) and video recordings of their jaw movements made. Twenty-nine parameters were calculated on each chewing sequence with 27 also calculated for the first half and second half of chewing sequence. Subjects were assigned to a MB group using the JBMB typing tool which gives four MB groups ("Chewers," "Crunchers," "Smooshers," and "Suckers"). The differences between individual chewing parameters and MB group were assessed with analysis of variance which showed only small differences in average chewing parameters between the MB groups. By using discriminant analysis, it was possible to partially discriminate between MB groups based on changes in their chewing parameters between foods with different material properties and stages of the chewing. A 19-variable model correctly predicted 68% of the subjects' membership of a MB group. This partially confirms our first hypothesis that when presented with foods that could be chewed in different ways participants will use a chewing sequence and jaw movements that correlate with their MB as measured by the JBMB typing tool. The way consumers chew their food has an impact on their texture perception of that food. While there is a wide range of chewing behaviors between consumers, they can be grouped into broad categories to better target both product design and product testing by sensory panel. In this study, consumers who were grouped on their texture preference (MB group) had jaw movements, when chewing a range of foods, which

  20. Chewing rates among domestic dog breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Geoffrey E.; Cooper, Meghan; Helvie, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian masticatory rhythm is produced by a brainstem timing network. The rhythm is relatively fixed within individual animals but scales allometrically with body mass (Mb) across species. It has been hypothesized that sensory feedback and feed-forward adjust the rhythm to match the jaw's natural resonance frequency, with allometric scaling being an observable consequence. However, studies performed with adult animals show that the rhythm is not affected by jaw mass manipulations, indicating that either developmental or evolutionary mechanisms are required for allometry to become manifest. The present study was performed to tease out the relative effects of development versus natural selection on chewing rate allometry. Thirty-one dog breeds and 31 mass-matched non-domestic mammalian species with a range in Mb from ∼2 kg to 50 kg were studied. Results demonstrated that the chewing rhythm did not scale with Mb among dog breeds (R=0.299, P>0.10) or with jaw length (Lj) (R=0.328, P>0.05). However, there was a significant relationship between the chewing rhythm and Mb among the non-domestic mammals (R=0.634, Pgeneration but they do not explain the 1/3rd to 1/4th allometric scaling observed among adult mammals. The rhythm of the timing network is either adjusted to the physical parameters of the jaw system during early development only, is genetically determined independently of the jaw system or is uniquely hard-wired among dogs and laboratory rodents. PMID:20543125

  1. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  2. The sweet lung: Chewing gummi bear aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavladaki, Theonimfi; Fitrolaki, Michaela-Diana; Spanaki, Anna-Maria; Ilia, Staurula; Geromarkaki, Elissabet; Briassoulis, George

    2012-07-01

    Inhalation of foreign bodies, a leading cause of accidental death, is most common in preschool children. In this article we report our experience with a 5-year-old Greek girl who presented with a 24-hour history of sore throat, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Emergency bronchoscopy was performed and multiple small chewing gummi bear (HARIBO) particles impacted in the orifices of the right main bronchus and right lobar and segmentalinic bronchi were successfully removed and aspirated. Aspiration of gummi bears, which is for the first time reported, may cause a silent choking episode leading to life-threatening bronchi obstruction at multiple sites, even in children older than 4 years.

  3. Automatic identification of temporal sequences in chewing sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amft, O.D.; Kusserow, M.; Tröster, G.

    2007-01-01

    Chewing is an essential part of food intake. The analysis and detection of food patterns is an important component of an automatic dietary monitoring system. However chewing is a time-variable process depending on food properties. We present an automated methodology to extract sub-sequences of

  4. Average chewing pattern improvements following Disclusion Time reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstein, Robert B; Radke, John

    2017-05-01

    Studies involving electrognathographic (EGN) recordings of chewing improvements obtained following occlusal adjustment therapy are rare, as most studies lack 'chewing' within the research. The objectives of this study were to determine if reducing long Disclusion Time to short Disclusion Time with the immediate complete anterior guidance development (ICAGD) coronoplasty in symptomatic subjects altered their average chewing pattern (ACP) and their muscle function. Twenty-nine muscularly symptomatic subjects underwent simultaneous EMG and EGN recordings of right and left gum chewing, before and after the ICAGD coronoplasty. Statistical differences in the mean Disclusion Time, the mean muscle contraction cycle, and the mean ACP resultant from ICAGD underwent the Student's paired t-test (α = 0.05). Disclusion Time reductions from ICAGD were significant (2.11-0.45 s. p = 0.0000). Post-ICAGD muscle changes were significant in the mean area (p = 0.000001), the peak amplitude (p = 0.00005), the time to peak contraction (p chewing position became closer to centric occlusion (p chewing velocities increased (p chewing pattern (ACP) shape, speed, consistency, muscular coordination, and vertical opening improvements can be significantly improved in muscularly dysfunctional TMD patients within one week's time of undergoing the ICAGD enameloplasty. Computer-measured and guided occlusal adjustments quickly and physiologically improved chewing, without requiring the patients to wear pre- or post-treatment appliances.

  5. Crossing symmetric solution of the Chew-Low equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An N/D dispersion theory is developed which solves crossing symmetric Low equations. The method is used to generate crossing symmetric solutions to the Chew-Low model. We show why the technique originally proposed by Chew and Low was incapable of producing solutions. (orig.)

  6. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    release patterns, but with variations in the total amount released. Chewing gum formulated with cetirizine alone, demonstrated a release of 75% after 8 min of chewing. The presence of CDs resulted in increased cetirizine release. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that parameters with the most...... the statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated significance in the release (P

  7. Design, formulation, and evaluation of ginger medicated chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Ginger chewing gum comprises admissible properties to be used as a modern drug delivery system due to its advantageous results in motion sickness. It passed all the specified tests for an acceptable chewing gum. Thus, it may be successfully produced to help GI problems.

  8. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.597). A statistically significant negative correlation between body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  9. Effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, heart rate, EEG and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Jacob, Tim J C; Smith, Andrew P

    2014-06-22

    Research has shown that chewing gum improves attention, although the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. This study investigated the effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, mood, heart rate and EEG. Participants completed a vigilance task four times; at baseline, with or without chewing gum, and twice post-chewing. EEG alpha and beta power at left frontal and temporal lobes, subjective mood and heart rate were assessed. Chewing gum shortened reaction time and increased the rate of hits, although hits fell during the second post-chewing task. Chewing gum heightened heart rate, but only during chewing. Gum also increased beta power at F7 and T3 immediately post-chewing, but not following the post-chewing tasks. The findings show that chewing gum affects several different indicators of alertness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral submucous fibrosis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Shyam B Verma,2 Fareedi Mukram Ali,3 Kishor Patil4 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Nirvana Skin Clinic, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; 3Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India; 4Departments of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India Abstract: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments. Keywords: betel nut, betel quid, oral disease, squamous cell carcinoma, tobacco, fibrosis

  11. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.

  12. Chew and Spit (CHSP): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouad, Phillip; Hay, Phillipa; Soh, Nerissa; Touyz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review is an evaluation of the empirical literature relating to the disordered eating behaviour Chew and Spit (CHSP). Current theories postulate that CHSP is a symptom exhibited by individuals with recurrent binge eating and Bulimia Nervosa. The review aimed to identify and critically assess studies that have examined the distribution of CHSP behaviour, its relationship to eating disorders, its physical and psychosocial consequences and treatment. A systematic database search with broad inclusion criteria, dated to January 2016 was conducted. Data were extracted by two authors and papers appraised for quality using a modified Downs and Black Quality Index. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. All were of clinical samples and majority (n = 7) were of low quality. The pathological action of chewing food but not swallowing was reported more often in those with restrictive type eating disorders, such as Anorexia Nervosa, than binge eating type disorders. CHSP also was reported to be an indicator of overall severity of an eating disorder and to appear more often in younger individuals. No studies of treatment were found. Conclusions were limited due to the low quality and small numbers of studies based on clinical samples only. Further research is needed to address gaps in knowledge regarding the physiological, psychological, social, socioeconomic impact and treatment for those engaging in CHSP.

  13. Effect of body posture on chewing behaviours in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, T; Magara, J; Tsujimura, T; Inoue, M

    2017-11-01

    Mastication is essential to the eating process and forms an important part of feeding behaviour. Many factors related to the food bolus, such as bolus texture and size, are known to influence mastication. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of body posture on (i) chewing duration prior to the first swallow and (ii) patterns of mastication-related EMG activity. We asked 10 healthy adults to chew 8 g of steamed rice with barium sulphate while we recorded masseter, suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity and simultaneously collected videofluorographic images. Participants chewed in either an upright or reclining position. Chewing duration, which was defined as the time from the start of mastication to the first swallow, was not different between the positions. However, the variability of chewing duration was larger in the upright versus reclining position, and the chewing duration in the reclining position was distributed around 15 s. Masseter activity gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner and was significantly larger at the early versus late stage of mastication. Suprahyoid activity was significantly larger at the early versus middle stage of mastication in the upright position only. Finally, masseter activity per second was negatively correlated with changes in chewing duration, that is, the larger the increase in chewing duration in the reclining position, the more the decrease in masseter activity per second. These results suggest that position-dependent changes in chewing behaviours, as described by chewing duration and EMG activity, may vary among participants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Quid est veritas? Augustinus oor waarheid en leuen - en latere ontwikkelings1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Wyk

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Quid est veritas? Augustine on truth and lying - and the aftermath. In this article the author investigates the (very difficult issue of truth and lying. What does it mean to speak the truth and when does a person tell a lie? The Augustinian as well as post-Augustinian views are enumerated and some of the main truth theories evaluated. In conclusion the author tries to make a final assessment and to open new ways of thinking the truth. Truth is a multidimensional category which should never be over-simplified.

  15. Dual role of betel leaf extract on thyroid function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S; Kar, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of betel leaf extract (0.10, 0.40, 0.80 and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) on the alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were investigated in male Swiss mice. Administration of betel leaf extract exhibited a dual role, depending on the different doses. While the lowest dose decreased thyroxine (T4) and increased serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, reverse effects were observed at two higher doses. Higher doses also increased LPO with a concomitant decrease in SOD and CAT activities. However, with the lowest dose most of these effects were reversed. These findings suggest that betel leaf can be both stimulatory and inhibitory to thyroid function, particularly for T3 generation and lipid peroxidation in male mice, depending on the amount consumed.

  16. Psychoactive substances of the South Seas: betel, kava and pituri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawte, J

    1985-03-01

    Before white man brought his alcohol to the South Pacific, the indigenes were using many wild plants possessing psychoactive properties. The most prominent were betel in much of Melanesia, kava in much of Polynesia, and pituri in much of Australia. The use of each of these three drugs was widespread, institutionalised as a ritual and the occasion for extensive trade. Each was valued for its effect in reducing tension or in producing altered states of consciousness. Each was also capable of inducing intoxication. Since few physicians nowadays have had my opportunity to observe the use of all three of these substances, their main features are recalled here. Attention is paid to their traditional use and probable future use, to their pharmacological and clinical properties, and to their place in the zeitgeist of people and period. There is no indication that these substances will be espoused by the drug enthusiasts of the West as avidly as other ethno-psychopharmacological agents such as Peruvian coca leaf, the Indian hemp, the Asian poppy, or the American tobacco. The possibility, however, of some use in the West cannot be discounted.

  17. Antioxidant effect of betel leaf extract on dry-cured fish

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaimani, N.; Muraleedharan, V.; Joseph, K.G.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) extract on control of autoxidation of fat in dry fish has been studied. Oil sardine has been selected for experiments since it contains very high amount of fat. The treatments were given with 5% (w/v) betel leaf extract in water at different stages of salt curing. FFA, PV and TVN values of the samples were determined periodically to assess the keeping quality and autoxidation. The sample, prepared by dipping the fish in the extract immediately afte...

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, R; Chanda, Sumitra

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel.

  19. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  20. Effect of complete and partial removable dentures on chewing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, T M S V; Vilanova, L S R; Gonçalves, L M; Rodrigues Garcia, R C M

    2014-03-01

    Partial or complete edentulism impairs mastication. However, it is unclear how the chewing cycle is affected by prosthetics. We evaluated the chewing movements of patients fitted with complete (CD) or removable partial denture (RPD). A total of 29 subjects were kinesiographically evaluated during chewing of peanuts and Optocal portions in a random sequence. The subjects were divided into two groups according to prosthesis type. Group RPD was composed of 14 partially edentulous patients using a lower distal extension RPD (mean age 61 ± 8 years), and group CD contained 15 completely edentulous patients using CD (mean age 65·9 ± 7·9 years) in both jaws. Opening, closing, occlusal and masticatory cycle times, movement angle (opening and closing), maximum velocity (opening and closing), total area and chewing cycle amplitudes were evaluated. The results were subjected to anova and Tukey's HSD test at a significance level of 5%. The RPD group exhibited shorter opening and closing phases and masticatory cycle time (P chewing envelope was smaller in the CD group (P chewing cycles in any of the parameters evaluated (P > 0·05). RPD wearers use a faster chewing sequence with greater vertical and lateral jaw excursions compared with CD wearers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Masticatory performance alters stress relief effect of gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Matsuka, Yoshizo

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of gum chewing on the response to psychological stress induced by a calculation task and investigated the relationship between this response and masticatory performance. Nineteen healthy adult volunteers without dental problems undertook the Uchida-Kraepelin (UK) test (30 min of reiterating additions of one-digit numbers). Before and immediately after the test, saliva samples were collected from the sublingual area of the participants. Three min after the UK test, the participants were made to chew flavorless gum for 3 min, and the final saliva samples were collected 10 min after the UK test. The experiment was performed without gum chewing on a different day. Masticatory performance was evaluated using color-changing chewing gum. Salivary CgA levels at immediately and 10 min after the UK test were compared with and without gum chewing condition. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant interaction between gum chewing condition and changes in CgA levels during post 10 min UK test period. A significant correlation was found between changes in CgA levels and masticatory performance in all participants. Our results indicate that gum chewing may relieve stress responses; however, high masticatory performance is required to achieve this effect. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender differences in chewing discomfort in older South Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-J; Kim, C-B; Ahn, Y-H; Chung, W-G; Kim, N-H

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in chewing discomfort among elderly Koreans. This study used data from 56 616 (weighted sample: 5 638 394) subjects aged over 65 years who participated in the 2011 Community Health Survey in Korea. Of them, 23 059 (weighted sample: 2 368 200, 42.0%) were men and 33 357 (weighted sample: 3 270 194, 58.0%) were women. Data were analysed using chi-square tests and hierarchical logistic regression analyses, with SPSS 20.0. Chewing discomfort was set as the dependent variable, and independent variables were divided into socio-economic factors (place of residence, age, education, monthly household income, basic living security stipend, private insurance, economic activity, living arrangements), general health factors (hypertension, diabetes) and oral health factors (tooth defects, denture use, subjective periodontal health status). A greater proportion of women (50.2%) than men (42.6%) exhibited chewing discomfort (P chewing discomfort (P chewing discomfort (P chewing discomfort than their male counterparts. The factors associated with chewing also differ by gender. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The impact of chewing gum resistance on immediate free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Sarah; Johnson, Andrew; Miles, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  5. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  6. Xylitol chewing gum and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, J M

    1995-02-01

    There is an extensive peer-reviewed literature on xylitol chewing gum as it pertains to effects on tooth decay in human subjects, on human dental plaque reduction, on inhibition of dental plaque acid production, on inhibition of the growth and metabolism of the mutans group of streptococci which are the prime causative agents of tooth decay, on reduction of tooth decay in experimental animals, and on xylitol's reported contribution to the remineralisation of teeth. The literature not only supports the conclusion that xylitol is non-cariogenic but it is now strongly suggestive that xylitol is caries inhibitory, that is, anti-cariogenic in human subjects, and it supplies reasonable mechanistic explanation(s).

  7. Cross sectional survey on association between alcohol, betel- nut, cigarette consumption and health promoting behavior of industrial workers in Ghaziabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dimple; Marya, Charu Mohan; Menon, Ipseeta; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The work force in industries are at risk of developing unduly high rates of health and behaviour related problems including abuse of alcohol, betel nut and cigarette (alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption). This study describes the relationships between alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption and health promoting behaviour among industrial workers. A cross sectional survey was conducted on workers in various industries of Ghaziabad city with concerned authority permission. A sample size of 732 workers was calculated based on pilot study. Through Simple random sampling 732 workers in 20 to 50 years age group with informed consent were interviewed through structured, pretested, validated questionnaire in vernacular language by one calibrated investigator. Data on socio demography, alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption pattern and health behaviour were collected. The association between health promoting behaviour and alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption was analysed by Logistic regression and Chi-square test through SPSS 16 at pbetel nut and cigarette consumption in study population was 88%. The prevalence of individual alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption were 82%, 68% and 79% respectively. Combined alcohol, betel nut and cigarette prevalence in study population was 58%. Alcohol and cigarette users were significantly higher (pbetel nut and cigarette users.

  8. Chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) associated with vertebrates in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SÁnchez-Montes, Sokani; Colunga-Salas, Pablo; Álvarez-Castillo, LucÍa; GuzmÁn-Cornejo, Carmen; Montiel-Parra, Griselda

    2018-01-15

    The chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) of Mexico have been little studied and many publications include isolated records. This paper summarizes current knowledge of chewing lice recorded from Mexico resulting from an exhaustive search of the literature published from 1866 to 2017. We found 342 louse species associated with 206 bird and 28 mammal species. As a result, we provide a checklist of the chewing lice recorded from Mexico, including a host-parasite list and their geographical distribution within the country.

  9. Gummed-up memory: Chewing gum impairs short-term recall

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity...

  10. Chemopreventive efficacy of a betel leaf extract against benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach tumors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, S V; Zariwala, M B; Amonkar, A J; Azuine, M A

    1991-09-01

    The effect of betel leaf extract and some of its constituents, eugenol, hydroxychavicol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, on benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach neoplasia in male Swiss mice was examined. Betel leaf and its constituents decreased the number of papillomas per animal with the maximum protection, considering molar dosage, exhibited by beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. Except for beta-carotene, eugenol, hydroxychavicol and alpha-tocopherol increased the levels of reduced glutathione in the liver while glutathione S-transferase activity was enhanced by all except eugenol. Of seven sources, Banarasi betel leaves showed the maximum amounts of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol.

  11. Effect of Piper betel leaf stalk extract on protein metabolism in reproductive tissues of male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    V Vengaiah; A Govardhan Naik; C Changamma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To know the impact of Piper betel leaf stalk (P. betel) extract on Protein and energy metabolism and its role in male albino rats. Methods: Healthy adult (3-4 months old) male Wistar strain albino rats were administered with betel leaf stalk extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day through oral gavages for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last dose, the animals were autopsied. In order to assess antifertility effect in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland, esti...

  12. The difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing Betel leaf (Piper Betle)

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Ling Fu; Silvi Kintawati; Sri Tjahajawati

    2014-01-01

    There has been a long history of the use of plants to improve dental health and oral hygiene. The purpose of this research was to find out the difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel). The type of research used was quasi-experimental. Data collected were analyzed by using a paired t-test. The result shows that there is an increase of salivary pH by an average of 0.48 after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (...

  13. Characteristic of betel nuts activated carbon and its application to Jumputan wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundari, L.; Sari, K. F.; Anggraini, L.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater from Jumputan production contains synthetic dye which is harmful to the environment. The contaminant can be reduced by adsorption process using activated carbon. The activated carbon was prepared from betel nuts with carbonization temperature of 500°C and 0.5 M HCl as an activator. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effect of various factors, such as the size particle of adsorbent, the dosage of adsorbent, and the contact time on Jumputan’s dye adsorption. The volume of treated solution was 200 mL. This solution agitated using a Jar Test at 150 rpm. The objectives of this work were to analyze the characteristic of the betel nuts, to analyze the characteristic of the activated carbon and to determine adsorbent’s ability to dye adsorption. Betel nuts compositions were analyzed with proximate analysis method. The adsorbents were carried out by SEM-EDS analysis. The dye adsorptions were analyzed with a portable spectrophotometer. The result shows betel nuts contains 60.86% carbohydrate, 32.56% water, 2.17% fat, 3.35% protein, and 1.06% ash. The major component of the activated carbon is carbon (C) of 86.27%, and the rest is Oxygen (9.18%) and Aurum (4.55%). The best condition is the adsorbent that has a particle size of 250 pm (60 mesh), the dosage of 20 grams, and the contact time of 15 minutes with dye removal of 76.4%.

  14. Pressure production in oral vestibule during gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, M; Ono, T; Yoshinaka, M; Fujiwara, S; Yoshinaka, M; Maeda, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to record oral vestibule pressure (OVP) by the lip and cheek contraction during gum chewing, to examine the characteristics of these pressures and coordination between the OVP and jaw movement. The subjects were eight healthy adult men (mean age of 29·3 ± 3·3 years). An experimental plate that incorporated four pressure sensors on the midline of the upper jaw (Ch. 1), upper right canine (Ch. 2), upper right first molar (Ch. 3) and upper left first molar (Ch. 4) was used for measuring OVP. The right masseter electromyogram (EMG) was recorded simultaneously. Subjects chewed gum on the right side 20 times, and eight consecutive strokes were used for the analysis of the sequential order, maximal magnitude and duration of each OVP. Onset of OVP was observed at the molar on the non-chewing side (Ch. 4) before chewing side (Ch. 3), and offset was largely simultaneous at each site. On the chewing side (Chs. 1-3), OVP onset during the interval of EMG activity reached to the peak around the end of interval and offset in the duration of EMG activity. The maximal pressure was significantly larger at Chs. 1-3 than at Ch. 4, but no significant differences were observed in duration of pressure among each site. These results suggest that OVP is coordinated with jaw movement during gum chewing, and larger pressure is produced on the chewing side than on the non-chewing side. Our findings are quantitative indices for the evaluation of lip and cheek function during mastication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Khat chewing and cirrhosis in Somaliland: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa D. Mahamoud

    2016-07-01

    Results: Eight Somali men aged 27–70 years living in Somaliland were identified with cirrhosis of otherwise unknown cause. All chewed khat habitually for many years (15–128 bundles per day times years of use. A liver biopsy of one man was consistent with khat hepatotoxicity. Four of the eight men died during the study period.Conclusion: Khat chewing may be associated with health consequences including severe hepatotoxicity with cirrhosis.

  16. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Aslani; Sahar Rafiei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Materials and Methods: Nicotine, sugar, liquid...

  17. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences.

  18. Chew on this: No support for facilitating effects of gum on spatial task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Ingo W; Gittler, Georg; Waldherr, Karin; Pietschnig, Jakob

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether chewing of gum facilitates spatial task performance in healthy participants, two behavioral experiments were performed. In the first experiment, spatial task performance of 349 men and women preceding and after treatment administration (saccharated chewing gum, sugar-free chewing gum, no chewing gum) was assessed using effect modeling by means of Item Response Theory. In the second experiment, another 100 participants were either administered sugar-free chewing gum or no chewing gum during spatial task performance. Effects of gum in the second study were assessed by standard means of data analysis. Results indicated no significant effects of either chewing gum or sugar on spatial task performance in either experiment. Our findings are consistent with recent studies investigating the influences of chewing gum on various memory functions, extending them by another measure of cognitive ability. Thus, further doubt is cast on enhancing effects of chewing gum on cognitive task performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities.

  20. Effect of chewing speed on the detection of a foreign object in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paphangkorakit, J; Ladsena, V; Rukyuttithamkul, T; Khamtad, T

    2016-03-01

    Accidentally biting hard on a piece of hard foreign object in food is among the causes of tooth fracturing and could be associated with oral sensibility. This study has investigated the effect of chewing speed on the ability to detect a foreign object in food in human. Fourteen healthy subjects were asked to randomly chew one of 10 cooked rice balls, five of which containing a foreign object made from a tiny uncooked rice grain, until they detected the rice grain. Each subject chewed the test foods both at 50 (slow) and 100 (fast) chews min(-1). The accuracy of detection and the number of chews before detection (CBD) were recorded and compared between the two chewing speeds using paired t-tests. The results showed that almost all subjects detected the foreign object by biting. The accuracy of detection was more than 90% and not significantly different between slow and fast chewing but the mean CBD in slow chewing (11·7 ± 1·3 chews) was significantly different from that in fast chewing (20·7 ± 1·9 chews; P chews before a foreign object in food could be detected and was, presumably, more effective in detecting the object compared to fast chewers. If each chew bears equal probability of teeth encountering the foreign object, slow chewing might also reduce the chance of accidentally biting hard on the foreign object and fracturing the tooth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effectivity of Betel Leaf (Piper betle L. Gel Extract in Shortening Bleeding Time After Deciduous Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Tedjasulaksana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an Indonesian traditional medicine, betel leafis often used to stop nosebleed. Effective substances in betel leaves which serves to stop the bleeding is tannin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the betel leaf ethanol extract gel shortened bleeding time after the revocation of deciduous teeth. Method: This research was conducted at the Department of Dental Nursing Clinic, Health Polytechnic Denpasar.This study is pure experimental research design with Completely Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design. The total sample of 27 respondents were divided into a treatment group and two control groups. Anterior deciduous teeth on the physiological loose grade 3 or 4 is extracted, then the tooth socket is put pure gel for group 1 to group 2, epinephrine gel and gel ethanol extract of betel leaf for group 3. The bleeding time is calculated from the first moment the blood out until there is blood on filter paper that is placed on the tooth socket. Data were statistically analyzed with descriptive test and comparability test with One Way Anova. Result: The results showed bleeding time pure gel groups differ significantly with epinephrine group and the group of ethanol extract of betel leaf gel (p< 0.05. Bleeding time of epinephrine group did not differ significantly with betel leaf ethanol extract group (p>0.05. Conclusion: This means ethanol gel betel leaf extract can shorten bleeding after deciduous tooth extraction and it is suggested that the use of gel ethanol extract of betel leaves to cope with bleeding after tooth extraction.

  2. Intraoperative ultrasound quided iodine-125 seed implantation for unresectable pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junjie; Liu Jiangping; Jiang Yuliang; Jiang Weijuan; Li Jinna; Xiu Dianrong; Ran Weiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the surgical technique, efficacy and side effects of intraoperative ultrasound quided 125 I seed interstitial implantation for pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with biopsy proven unresectable adenocarcinoma of pancreas were treated with 125 I implants during laparotomy. Eleven patients were treated by a combination of bypass surgery. Seed needles were implanted parallel to each other, at 1.0-1.5 cm apart and guided by ultrasound. Mick applicator was applied to each needle to implant seed at 1.0-1.5 cm apart. The radioactive activity ranged 0.40-0.70 mCi; the D 90 were 110-160 Gy. The mean number of 125 I seed were 11-78. Six patients also received external beam radiation at doses of 39-50 Gy. Five patients received 2-4 cycle DDP + gemCitabine chemotherapy also. Results: The incidence of perioperative mortality was 0%. Pain was complete relieved in 15 patients, partial relieved in two, but in the rest three patients there was no response. The response rate was 85%. The starting time of pain relief was 1-30 d, with a median of 5 days. The overall local control rate was 74%. Four patients have died of recurrence, 20 patients died of metastasis, 3 patients died of recurrence and metastasis. The median survival of II + III[ stage patients was 8 months, with a 1- and 2-year survival of 25% and 15%, respectively. The median survival time of IV stage patients was 5 months, with 1-year survival of 8%. The seeds immigrated into the liver in 3 patients. There are no serious side effects such as infection or pancreatic fistula. Conclusions: Intraoperative ultrasound quided 125 I seed implantation is safe, giving high local control, but minimal damage. It is a satisfactorily palliative for pain and causing little noticeable complications. (authors)

  3. Aflatoxin B1 in betel nuts (Areca catechu L.) imported to Pakistan from different regions of South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Iqbal, Javed; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Shamsuddin, Zuzzer Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) levels were evaluated in betel nuts (Areca catechu L.) being imported to Pakistan during 2010-2011. In total, 278 betel nut samples (India = 21, Indonesia = 51, Sri-Lanka = 34 and Thailand = 172) were received from the Department of Customs and were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). All Indian origin betel nuts showed AFB1 contamination ranging from 11.7-262.0 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 92.5 µg kg(-1). Among Indonesian and Sri Lankan shipments, 80.4% and 73.5% betel nuts were contaminated with AFB1 ranging between 3.3-39.2 and 6.5-103.4 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 11.6 and 35.0 µg kg(-1), respectively. However, only 30.2% of Thailand origin samples showed AFB1 contamination ranging 3.3-77.0 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 6.6 µg kg(-1). The widespread occurrence of AFB1 increases the hazard associated with betel nuts. Thus, strict control is a pre-requisite for the production and import/export of psychoactive substances as betel nuts.

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopic study on the effects of chewing on short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mayumi; Hoshi, Yoko; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kida, Ikuhiro

    2011-12-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy, we examined whether chewing gum improves performance in a short-term memory task - immediate recall of random eight-digit numbers - by assessing cerebral hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. We found that the oxyhemoglobin concentration during and after chewing gum was higher than that before chewing; further, the concentration increased during the task, and this increase was reduced with chewing, although non-significantly. Chewing did not improve task performance. Therefore, chewing-induced hemodynamic responses were unrelated to the performance in short-term memory tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-04-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The results revealed a significant main effect of time and a significant interaction between gum chewing and time. The findings suggest that gum chewing differentially affects attention performance. While gum chewing has detrimental effects on sustained attention in earlier stages of the task, beneficial effects on sustained attention were observed at later stages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of food consistency on chewing rate and muscular work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, A; Abbink, J H

    2017-11-01

    Food properties influence the parameters of the masticatory process, such as jaw movement, muscle activity and chewing rate. Firm foods will require more muscle activity than softer foods. However, the influence of food hardness on chewing rate is ambiguous as both slower and higher chewing rates have been reported for harder foods. Rheological characteristics of the food, such as plasticity and elasticity, may help to explain differences in chewing rate. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of food properties on chewing rate and muscular work in five phases of a chewing sequence. Eighty-four participants chewed on five foods, which strongly differed in consistency. Chewing gum was used as a reference food. The phase in the chewing sequence had a large significant effect on cycle duration for the five foods. A significant decrease in cycle duration at the beginning of chewing was followed by an increase in later phases, leading to U-shaped curves. Food type had a small effect on the average cycle duration. However, large significant differences in cycle duration were observed between the foods at the beginning of a chewing sequence. In that phase, the firm foods were chewed much slower than the soft foods. Muscular work was significantly influenced by both chewing phase and food type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chewing Duration Time Of Various Food Textures In Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raísa Coutinho Vitcel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain reference values of chewing time of several food textures in young adults. METHOD: descriptive study with a quantitative approach that was developed in a clinical reference, being the population composed of 40 young adults between 18-30 years of age, of both genres. As exclusion criteria: those with neuromuscular and / or degenerative diseases or consequences thereof, as well as subjects who were making use of any orthodontic / orthopedic resource. We conducted a dental evaluation, followed by a clinical assessment. One at a time, the following foods were offered: French bread, wafer biscuit, roasted cashews, for voluntary chewing.  To measure the food chewing time, we used a stopwatch, and this collection procedure was filmed. Data analysis was performed by means of the SPSS statistics 20.0 (IBM® program. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between the medians of chewing time of French bread, wafer biscuit and cashew nuts, which were 33.0s (interquartile amplitude 29.0 - 40.0, 10.0s (interquartile amplitude 8.25-12.0 and 18.5s (interquartile amplitude 15.0-23.75, respectively. CONCLUSION: The texture of foods influences the length of mastication. The more rigid is the food, the more cycles and mandibular movements, and therefore the longer the duration of chewing.

  8. Impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on chewing efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    BESSADET, Marion; NICOLAS, Emmanuel; SOCHAT, Marine; HENNEQUIN, Martine; VEYRUNE, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Removable partial denture prostheses are still being used for anatomic, medical and economic reasons. However, the impact on chewing parameters is poorly described. Objectives The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on masticatory parameters. Material and Methods Nineteen removable partial denture prosthesis (RPDP) wearers participated in the study. Among them, 10 subjects were Kennedy Class III partially edentulous and 9 with posterior edentulism (Class I). All presented a complete and full dentate opposing arch. The subjects chewed samples of carrots and peanuts with and without their prosthesis. The granulometry of the expectorated boluses from carrot and peanuts was characterized by median particle size (D50), determined at the natural point of swallowing. Number of chewing cycles (CC), chewing time (CT) and chewing frequency (CF=CC/CT) were video recorded. Results With RPDP, the mean D50 values for carrot and peanuts were lower [Repeated Model Procedures (RMP), F=15, p<0.001] regardless of the type of Kennedy Class. For each food, mean CC, CT and CF values recorded decreased (RMP, F=18, F=9, and F=20 respectively, p<0.01). With or without RPD, the boluses' granulometry values were above the masticatory normative index (MNI) determined as 4,000 µm. Conclusion RPDP rehabilitation improves the ability to reduce the bolus particle size, but does not reestablish fully the masticatory function. Clinical relevance This study encourages the clinical improvement of oral rehabilitation procedure. PMID:24212983

  9. The effect of chewing on oral glucoraphanin hydrolysis in raw and steamed broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarvan, Irmela; Klauw, van der Michelle; Oliviero, Teresa; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Chewing disrupts broccoli cells, and myrosinase can effectively hydrolyze the glucosinolate glucoraphanin into the biological active sulforaphane. The influence of chewing time and steaming time on glucoraphanin hydrolysis as well as sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile formation in broccoli was

  10. Oral Submucous Fibrosis – The Indian Scenario: Review and Report of Three Treated Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Rawson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a premalignant condition mainly associated with the practice of chewing betel quid containing areca nut, a habit common among south Asian people. It is characterized by inflammation, increased deposition of submucosal collagen, and formation of fibrotic bands in the oral and paraoral tissues, which increasingly limit mouth opening. In this paper, we review literature on OSF and the different stages of the disease to help dentists make an early diagnosis and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. We also present three cases after treatment with biweekly intralesional injections which resulted in improvement of the subjective symptoms.

  11. Betel leaf toothpastes inhibit dental plaque formation on fixed orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizka Amelia Mayasari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brackets, archwires, ligatures, and other fixed orthodontic appliance components complicate the use of conventional oral-hygiene measures. This often results in significant plaque accumulation around the bracket bases. The addition of betel leaf extract in toothpaste is expected to inhibit the growth of dental plaque. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of betel leaf toothpaste in inhibiting plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Methods: This study was done on dental student of Airlangga University aged 18–24 years, have been wearing fixed orthodontic appliances for 1–2 years, have no systemic diseases. The samples were divided into two groups, consisting of 20 samples. First group of samples brushed their teeth with betel group of samples brushed their teeth with betel brushed their teeth with betel leaf toothpaste and the second using placebo. The subjects were instructed to brush their teeth using Scrub method until reaching zero (0 scor of orthodontic plaque index (OPI. Plaque scores were taken again 4 hours after brushing. The statistical analysis was done by using paired t test. Results: The average of accumulated plaque on group that use betel leaf toothpaste was 25.54 and placebo was 41.09. The result showed that there was significant difference in plaque accumulation between the group with betel leaf toothpaste and placebo 4 hours after brushing (p = 0.001. Conclusion: In conclusion, betel leaf toothpaste is effective in inhibiting the dental plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Latar belakang: Bracket, kawat busur, kawat ligatur dan komponen peranti ortodonti cekat yang lain mempersulit pembersihan gigi secara konvensional. Hal ini sering menyebabkan terjadinya akumulasi plak di sekitar dasar braket. Penambahan ekstrak daun sirih yang mempunyai efek bakterisid pada pasta gigi diharapkan dapat menghambat pertumbuhan plak. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk

  12. Antibacterial, mechanical, and barrier properties of sago starch film incorporated with Betel leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Leila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2014-05-01

    The antimicrobial, mechanical and barrier properties and light transmission of sago starch film incorporated with different percentage of Betel leaf extract (5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) were evaluated. With regard to mechanical properties, tensile strength decreased when the percentage of extract increased. Elongation at break (%) and seal strength (N/m) increased with increasing percentage of extract from 5% to 20%, while decreased for films containing 30% extract due to heterogeneity of films in this percentage. With regard to barrier properties, water vapour and oxygen barrier properties decreased in all samples when percentage of the extract increased. Antimicrobial activity of all the films increased against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as percentage of Betel leaf extract increased, except for Psuedomonas aeruginosa, which was not susceptible at any percentage of the extract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydroxychavicol: a new anti-nitrosating phenolic compound from betel leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhushan, M; Amonkar, A J; Nair, U J; D'Souza, A V; Bhide, S V

    1989-05-01

    Hydroxychavicol and eugenol are the phenolic compounds isolated from betel leaf (piper betel). The modulation of nitrosation of methylurea by sodium nitrite at pH 3.6 and 30 degrees C was studied. The formation of mutagenic N-nitrosomethylurea was monitored by checking the mutagenicity of reaction mixture in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 and TA1535 without S9 mix. Hydroxychavicol and eugenol exhibit dose-dependent suppression of nitrosation in vitro without affecting the survival of the bacteria. Pre- or post-treatment of bacterial cells from S. typhimurium strains TA100 and TA1535 with phenolics did not modify the mutagenicity of nitrosomethylurea. The blocking of hydroxy group(s) in the benzene ring by acetylation abolishes the anti-nitrosating activity of the molecule(s). The nitrosation inhibition by hydroxychavicol is through scavenging of nitrite ions in the media, thus making them non-available for the nitrosation of methylurea.

  14. Evidence against memorial facilitation and context-dependent memory effects through the chewing of gum

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment examined the prediction that chewing gum at learning and/or recall facilitated subsequent word recall. Chewing gum at learning significantly impaired recall, indicating that the chewing of gum has a detrimental impact upon initial word encoding. In addition, a context-dependent memory effect was reported for those participants who both learned and recalled in the absence of gum, however a context dependent effect was not found with chewing gum. The findings contradict previous ...

  15. Evidence against memorial facilitation and context-dependent memory effects through the chewing of gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    The experiment examined the prediction that chewing gum at learning and/or recall facilitated subsequent word recall. Chewing gum at learning significantly impaired recall, indicating that the chewing of gum has a detrimental impact upon initial word encoding. In addition, a context-dependent memory effect was reported for those participants who both learned and recalled in the absence of gum; however, a context-dependent effect was not found with chewing gum. The findings contradict previous research.

  16. Effects of caffeine in chewing gum on mood and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research has shown that even small doses (attention tasks. Previous studies have given the caffeine in a variety of beverages or in capsules and it was of interest to see whether similar effects could be observed when the caffeine was given in gum. In addition, chewing gum has been shown to have behavioural effects and the present study extended our knowledge of this topic. To compare the effects of caffeinated gum (40 mg), placebo gum and no gum conditions on mood and attention. A double blind placebo controlled study was conducted with volunteers being randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Baseline measures of mood and attention were taken prior to chewing and a test session was then conducted. One hundred and eighteen young adults participated in the study. Caffeinated gum was associated with a more positive mood and better performance on tasks requiring sustained attention. The caffeine improved the speed of encoding of new information which is consistent with previous findings. Chewing placebo gum was also found to be associated with more positive mood, both shortly after chewing and at the end of the study. The implications of the present study are that chewing caffeinated gum has been shown to improve performance efficiency and mood by its alerting and energising effects. The profile of caffeine effects is what one would predict from the existing caffeine literature and such effects may be extremely beneficial in real-life situations. Prior chewing of placebo gum was associated with a more positive mood and this also confirms previous findings.

  17. Association between chewing-stimulated salivary flow under the effects of atropine and mixing ability assessed using a color-changeable chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Chieko; Kanazawa, Manabu; Hama, Yohei; Komagamine, Yuriko; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2017-10-01

    To assess the time course of chewing-stimulated salivary flow after oral atropine administration, and determine the association between chewing-stimulated salivary flow and mixing ability using color-changeable chewing gum in dentate adults. Ten healthy dentate adults were administered 1mg oral atropine to induce mouth dryness. The subjects' chewing-stimulated salivary flow was assessed using the Saxon test. They were then asked to rinse their mouth with tap water for 15s, and to chew on color-changeable chewing gum for 60s at a constant rate of 60 cycles per min. This procedure was performed before, and at 10-min intervals for up to 120min after the atropine administration. The experiment was repeated after 1 week. Steel's test was used to compare the chewing-stimulated salivary flow rates at each time point after atropine administration with the baseline value. The effect of the stimulated salivary flow rates on the degree of color change was analyzed using linear mixed effects models, with the stimulated salivary flow rates as fixed factors and subjects as the random factor. Chewing-stimulated salivary flow showed a significant decrease from 50 to 120min after oral atropine administration (Pchewing-stimulated salivary flow had a significant effect on the color change of the color-changeable chewing gum (Pchewing gum and chewing-stimulated salivary flow in dentate subjects. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Piper betel leaf: a reservoir of potential xenohormetic nutraceuticals with cancer-fighting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Sushma R; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-05-01

    Plants contain a much greater diversity of bioactive compounds than any man-made chemical library. Heart-shaped Piper betel leaves are magnificent reservoirs of phenolic compounds with antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties. Widely consumed in South Asian countries, the glossy leaf contains a multitude of biophenolics such as hydroxychavicol, eugenol, chavibetol, and piperols. Convincing data underscore the remarkable chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive potential of betel leaves against a variety of cancer types. The leaf constituents modulate an extensive array of signaling molecules such as transcription factors as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) to control multiple nodes of various cellular proliferation and death pathways. Herein, we provide an overall perspective on the cancer-fighting benefits of the phenolic phytochemicals in betel leaves and a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms responsive to dose-driven ROS-mediated signaling cascades conscripted by bioactive phenolics to confer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive advantages. Intriguingly, these ROS-triggered responses are contextual and may either elicit a protective xenohormetic antioxidant response to premalignant cells to constitute a chemopreventive effect or generate a curative chemotherapeutic response by pro-oxidatively augmenting the constitutively elevated ROS levels in cancer cells to tip the balance in favor of selective apoptosis induction in cancer cells while sparing normal ones. In conclusion, this review provides an update on how distinct ROS levels exist in normal versus cancer cells and how these levels can be strategically modulated and exploited for therapeutic gains. We emphasize the yet untapped potential of the evergreen vine, betel leaf, for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic management of cancer.

  19. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.

    1991-01-01

    Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free...... base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...

  20. Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation : evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing

  1. The influence of food consistency on chewing rate and muscular work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bilt, A.; Abbink, J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Food properties influence the parameters of the masticatory process, such as jaw movement, muscle activity and chewing rate. Firm foods will require more muscle activity than softer foods. However, the influence of food hardness on chewing rate is ambiguous as both slower and higher chewing rates

  2. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The

  3. Uranium trace analysis of a chewable betel-leaf preparation and tea-leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarvarti, S.K.; Nagpaul, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    Common ingredients of a chewable betel-leaf preparation and commercially available tea leaves were investigated for the presence of uranium traces using the fission track technique. Most of the results ranging from 0.012 to 0.046 ppm uranium correspond to α-activity in the range of 0.008-0.031 pCi/g. The single higher result for lime (used in the betel-leaf preparation) of 0.53 ppm, indicates an α-activity of 0.35 pCi/g. This range of uranium concentrations is similar to that found for other biological materials, foods and tobacco. Although it is lower than concentrations of some other α-emitters, e.g. 226 Ra and 232 Th in cereal grains and nuts, the notably high U concentration (50-100 times that of cigarette tobacco) and the high concentration of other trace elements in betel leaves may be potentially hazardous when used frequently in large amounts. (author)

  4. Cumulative trauma disorders in betel pepper leaf-cullers visiting a rehabilitation clinic: experience in Taitung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yi; Pong, Ya-Ping; Wang, Her-Cherng; Su, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsai, Chang-Hsueh; Leong, Chau-Peng

    2005-04-01

    Betel pepper (Piper betle L.) cultivation is an important agricultural industry in Taitung, Taiwan, and culling leaves is very labor-intensive. This case study compares the proportion of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) between cullers and those with other occupations. Patients with musculoskeletal disorders in the rehabilitation clinic of a local hospital in Taitung were enrolled. This all female cohort was divided into a culler group (betel pepper cullers, n = 20), and a non-culler group (other occupations, n = 47). Three cullers were interviewed, and were also recorded to elucidate the related ergonomics. Patients were diagnosed using plain radiography and ultrasonography. The act of culling involves an overhead internal rotation of both shoulders with extended elbows while standing, followed by wrist flexion and forearm pronation. Flexing of the fingers is also required by the tools, 'iron nails' fitted onto both thumbs. The proportions of patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were significantly higher among cullers than non-cullers (0.45 vs. 0.15, p = 0.011 and 0.40 vs. 0.06, p = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, the total frequency of CTDs displayed a positive linear correlation with employment duration (r = 0.618, p = 0.004). Proportions of occupational SIS and CTS were higher among betel pepper cullers than those with other occupations. These CTDs may have resulted from a prolonged static posture and repetitive motions during culling.

  5. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of betel leaf extract against the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, S V; Padma, P R; Amonkar, A J

    1991-01-01

    Earlier studies showed that betel leaf inhibits the mutagenic action of standard mutagens like benzo[a]pyrene and dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Since tobacco-specific nitrosamines are the major carcinogens present in unburnt forms of tobacco, we studied the effect of an extract of betel leaf on the mutagenic and carcinogenic actions of one of the most potent, 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Betel-leaf extract and hydroxychavicol suppressed the mutagenicity of NNK in both the Ames and the micronucleus test. In studies in mice, betel-leaf extract reduced the tumorigenic effects of NNK by 25%. Concurrent treatment with the extract also inhibited the decreases in levels of vitamin A in liver and plasma induced by NNK. Betel leaf thus has protective effects against the mutagenic, carcinogenic and adverse metabolic effects of NNK in mice.

  6. Determinants of alcohol use and khat chewing among Hawassa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Students' alcohol and khat use have been associated with various health related problems. However, its magnitude and associated factors among Ethiopian students are not yet well documented. Objective: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol use, khat chewing and its associated factors ...

  7. INTRODUCTION The habit of chewing khat by the inhabitants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-06-01

    Jun 1, 2000 ... structure of cathinone is similar to amphetamine, and khat produces an ... activation of the serotonin pathways may have an important role in action of ... Pharm. Chem. 1961; 3:323-352. 3. Hughes, P. Khat chewing in Yemen.

  8. Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing Among Students of a College in Gondar Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross‑sectional Study. ... Among chewers, 83.1% (108/130) reported they faced problem associated to sleep disturbance, 82.3% (107/130) loss of appetite, and 80.8% (105/130) ...

  9. Anaphe venata larva extract-induced purposeless chewing in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we investigated the effect of the crude aqueous and Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) extracts of this larva on altered spontaneous rat behavior in a novel environment particularly chewing behaviour, with a view to determine the mechanism(s) involved in these behavioural alteration. Animals were randomly ...

  10. Cigarette smoking and Khat chewing among college students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking and khat chewing among college students. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2001 in the four colleges found in North West Ethiopia. Students in each year of study were selected by systematic sampling technique.

  11. Cigarette smoking and khat chewing among University instructors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking and khat chewing. Design: College based cross sectional. Setting: Four colleges found in north west Ethiopia namely Gondar College of Medical Sciences, Gondar College of Teachers Education, Bahr Dar University Engineering Faculty, and Bahr ...

  12. Effect of experimental chewing on masticatory muscle pain onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Rodrigues Conti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a chewing exercise on pain intensity and pressure-pain threshold in patients with myofascial pain. METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive women diagnosed with myofascial pain (MFP according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria comprised the experimental group and 15 healthy age-matched female were used as controls. Subjects were asked to chew a gum stick for 9 min and to stay at rest for another 9 min afterwards. Pain intensity was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS every 3 min. At 0, 9 and 18 min, the pressure-pain threshold (PPT was measured bilaterally on the masseter and the anterior, medium, and posterior temporalis muscles. RESULTS: Patients with myofascial pain reported increase (76% and no change (24% on the pain intensity measured with the VAS. A reduction of the PPT at all muscular sites after the exercise and a non-significant recovery after rest were also observed. CONCLUSION: The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. there are at least two subtypes of patients with myofascial pain that respond differently to experimental chewing; 2. the chewing protocol had an adequate discriminative ability in distinguishing patients with myofascial pain from healthy controls.

  13. Bite weight prediction from acoustic recognition of chewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amft, O.D.; Kusserow, M.; Tröster, G.

    2009-01-01

    Automatic dietary monitoring (ADM) offers new perspectives to reduce the self-reporting burden for participants in diet coaching programs. This paper presents an approach to predict weight of individual bites taken. We utilize a pattern recognition procedure to spot chewing cycles and food type in

  14. Effect of chewing upon disc reduction in the temporomandibular joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalaykova, S.; Lobbezoo, F.; Naeije, M.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To test whether an intensive chewing exercise influences the moment of disc reduction in subjects with or without reports of intermittent locking of the jaw. Methods: This experimental study included 15 subjects with a reducing anteriorly displaced disc (ADD) and with symptoms of intermittent

  15. Relationship between meat juiciness intensity scores during chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to establish relationships between sensory juiciness intensity scores during chewing. Chicken breast meat was ground, made into 90g patties, and cooked to 78C. Sensory assessment for juiciness was made by a 7-member, trained descriptive panel using a time-intensity method followe...

  16. Phytochemical screening and mineral composition of chewing sticks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening of the stems of Garcinia kola, Dennettia tripetala, Acioa barteri, Dialium guineense, Maesobotrya barteri, Mallotus oppositifolius and Psidium guajava which are commonly used as chewing sticks in southern Nigeria revealed the presence of bioactive compounds comprising saponins, tannins, ...

  17. Association Between Khat ( Catha edulis ) Chewing and Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: KEMRI's Centre for Clinical Research (CCR) and St. Michael's Digestive Disease and Medical Care. Subjects: Ninety three cases were selected using Rome III criteria for functional dyspepsia, and the controls (n=93) were matched on age and gender. Results: Khat Chewing was associated with infection with H.

  18. Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The estimate of the number of people chewing Khat globally ranges from 5 to. 10 million people. ..... Math. 50 (12.5). Physical education. 38 (9.5). Shift of study. Regular. 229 (57.2) ..... Health Studies: A Practical Manual. Geneva: ...

  19. Craving and Chewing Ice: A Sign of Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... constantly craving and chewing ice a sign of anemia? Answers from Rajiv K. Pruthi, M.B.B.S. Possibly. Doctors use the term " ... often associated with iron deficiency, with or without anemia, although the reason is unclear. At least one ...

  20. Chewing ability of the long-term hospitalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Petteri; Vehkalahti, Miira M

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the chewing ability of 260 (25 percent men) long-term hospitalized elderly patients 60 years of age and older in Laakso hospital, Helsinki, Finland, in relation to their mastication capacity, sore mouth and degree of dependence. The subjects' (mean age 83.3 years, SD = 8.1 years) mastication capacity was determined by a specialist dentist by means of: (a) number of functioning teeth and dentures; (b) modified Eichner Index; and (c) the Eichner Score, based on the index. Based on the information given by the nursing staff, an indicator of chewing ability was created. The chewing ability was poor for 55 percent, limited for 17 percent, moderate for 14 percent and excellent for 14 percent. Excellent or moderate ability to chew was related to a subject's lesser degree of dependence (OR = 1.5; p = 0.02) and higher Eichner Score (OR = 1.3; p = 0.000). More attention should be focused on mastication capacity of the hospitalized elderly.

  1. Herbal-caffeinated chewing gum, but not bubble gum, improves aspects of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matthew G

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that standard chewing gum can affect aspects of both attention and memory. The present study examined the effects of Think Gum®, a caffeinated-herbal chewing gum, on both concentration and memory using a series of paper-based and online testing. Compared to standard chewing gum and a no-gum control, chewing caffeinated-herbal gum during testing improved aspects of memory, but did not affect concentration. The findings suggest that caffeinated-herbal chewing gum is an effective memory aid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Xylitol Chewing Gums on the Market: Do They Prevent Caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanzi, Abrar; Soderling, Eva; Varghese, Anisha; Honkala, Eino

    To measure the xylitol content in sugar-free chewing gums available on the market in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the Middle East, in order to identify those products that can provide the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention (6-7 g). Acid production from chewing gums was also measured in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-one chewing gums containing xylitol were identified and collected from the GCC market (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman). Xylitol was extracted and its concentration was analysed using a special enzymatic kit. The pH of extracts was measured during 30-min incubation with Streptococcus mutans. Changes in saliva and plaque pH were noted in four subjects after the consumption of highly concentrated xylitol gums. The xylitol content in grams was clearly mentioned only on one product's label. Twelve products stated the percentage of xylitol (3.5% to 35%). The rest did not specify the amount. The mean measured weight of one piece of gum was 1.67 ± 0.38 g. The mean measured xylitol content/piece was 0.33 ± 0.21 g. Xylitol content was 0.5 g in 5 products. None of the highly concentrated xylitol gums showed a pH drop in vitro or in vivo. One chewing gum, containing xylitol and glucose, resulted in a low pH level (xylitol chewing gums sold on the GCC market do not provide the consumers with the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention. Clear, accurate labeling is recommended.

  3. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory effects: a re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Christopher; Johnson, Andrew J

    2007-03-01

    Two experiments re-examined whether chewing spearmint gum affects initial word learning and/or immediate recall for a word list. Both experiments failed to show effects of chewing gum at learning or recall, nor did they suggest that chewing gum produces a context-dependent memory effect. This was true when extraneous contextual cues at learning and recall were minimised (Experiment 2). Together, the data are inconsistent with [Wilkinson, L., Scholey, A. & Wesnes, K. (2002). Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers. Appetite, 38, 235-236.] claim that chewing gum aids immediate recall of visually presented words. Our results are consistent with [Baker, J. R., Bezance, J. B., Zellaby, E. & Aggleton, J. P. (2004). Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory. Appetite, 43, 207-210.] finding that chewing gum of itself is not a sufficient condition to provoke context-dependent learning with immediate testing.

  4. La teoría de los diferenciales de Salomon Maimon, la pregunta quid juris y la posibilidad de la metafísica como ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pringe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia la teoría de los diferenciales de Salomon Maimon como respuesta a la cuestión quid juris y a la vez como clave para la fundamentación de la posibilidad de la metafísica como ciencia. Se reconstruye primero la crítica de Maimon al tratamiento kantiano de la pregunta quid juris. Luego, se analiza la respuesta del propio Maimon a esa pregunta, para establecer finalmente cómo tal respuesta abre el camino para la explicación de la posibilidad de la metafísica como ciencia.

  5. Preliminary study on fractions' activities of red betel vine (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) leaves ethanol extract toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawaty, Farida Juliantina; Julianto, Tatang Shabur; Tamhid, Hady Anshory

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to identify the antimycobacterial activity of fraction of red betel vine leaves ethanol extract (methanol fraction, ethyl acetate, and chloroform) toward M. tuberculosis. Red betel vine leaves ethanol extract was made with maceration method using ethanol solvent 70%. Resulted extract was then fractionated using Liquid Vacuum Chromatography (LVC) with methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform solvent. Each fractionation was exposed to M. tuberculosis with serial dilution method. Controls of fraction, media, bacteria, and isoniazid as standard drug were included in this research. The group of compound from the most active fraction was then identified. The research found that the best fraction for antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosisis chloroform fraction. The compound group of chloroform fraction was then identified. The fraction contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid. The fraction of methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform from red betel vine leaves has antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosis. Chloroform fraction has the best antimycobacterial activity and it contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid.

  6. Supplementation of Red Betel Leaf (Piper crocatum in Dairy Cattle Feed on Fermentation Characteristics by in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caribu Hadi Prayitno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact and efficiency of red betel leaf’s extract supplementation in the diet of dairy cattle on fermentation characteristics by in vitro.  The research method was experiment by using completely randomized design.  The treatments that were tested were R1: basal feed, R2:  R1 + 15 ppm of  red betel  leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R3: R1 + 30 ppm of  red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R4: R1 + 45 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R5: R1 + 60 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract. The parameters measured in this study were (1Dry MatterDigestibility (DMD,(2Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD  (3 total gas production  (4 methane production (CH4 and (5  total Volatille Fatty Acid (VFA.  The data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed Orthogonal Polynomial Test.The results showed that the suplementation red batel extract in the diet of dairy cow was significant (P < 0.01 on DMD, OMD, total gas production, methane production (CH4  and total VFA.Orthogonal Polynomial test showed the effect of treatment on Dry MatterDigestibility (DMD, total gas and CH4 gas production were in the form of cubic curve, as well as Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD and Volatille Fatty Acid (VFA in the form of quadrate curvewith supplementation of red betel leaf.

  7. Mandibular corpus bone strains during mastication in goats (Capra hircus): a comparison of ingestive and rumination chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan H; Stover, Kristin K; Davis, Jillian S; Montuelle, Stephane J

    2011-10-01

    To compare the mechanical loading environment of the jaw in goats during ingestive and rumination chewing. Rosette strain gauges were attached to the external surface of the mandibular corpus in five goats to record bone strains during the mastication of hay and rumination. Strain magnitudes and maximum physiological strain rates during the mastication of hay are significantly higher than during rumination chewing on the working and balancing sides. Principal strain ratios and orientations are similar between the two chewing behaviours. Loading and chewing cycle duration are all longer during rumination chewing, whereas chew duty factor and variances in load and chewing cycle durations are higher during ingestive chewing. For most of the variables, differences in strain magnitudes or durations are similar at all three gauge sites, suggesting that rumination and ingestive chewing do not differentially influence bone at the three gauge sites. Despite lower strain magnitudes, the repetitive nature of rumination chewing makes it an important component of the mechanical loading environment of the selenodont artiodactyl jaw. However, similarities in principal strain orientations and ratios indicate that rumination chewing need not be considered as a unique loading behaviour influencing the biomechanics of the selenodont artiodactyl jaw. Differences in loading and chewing cycle durations during rumination and ingestion demonstrate flexibility in adult chewing frequencies. Finally, although the low within-sequence variability in chewing cycle durations supports the hypothesis that mammalian mastication is energetically efficient, chewing during rumination may not be more efficient than during ingestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effective concentration of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion as root canal irrigant solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Pangabdian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smear layer is a debris consisting of organic and inorganic particles of calcified tissue, necrotic tissue, pulp tissue, and dentinoblast and microorganism processes that can close the entrance to the dentin tubuli. Smear layer, will not only inhibit the penetration of disinfection materials and sealers to the dentin tubuli, but will also reduce the attachment of root canal filling material so that root canal irrigation solution is needed to dissolve the smear layer. Red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion, on the other hand, contains saponin characterized as “surfactants” which can dissolve smear layer. Nevertheless, the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion has still not been known clearly. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion for cleaning root canal walls from smear layer. Methods: Fiveteen extracted human teeth with straight single roots were randomized into 5 groups (n=3. The specimens were then shaped by using rotary instruments up to a size of 25/.07. During instrumentation, each canal was irrigated with 10, 20, 30 and, 40% red betel leaf infusion for treatment groups, while another was irrigated with aquadest for the control group. Root canal cleanliness was observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results: There were significant differences among treatment groups (p<0.05, except in the treatment groups irrigated with red betel leaf infusion with concentrations of 30% and 40% (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that red betel leaf infusion with a concentration of 30% is effective for cleaning the root canal walls from the smear layer.Latar belakang: Smear layer adalah suatu debris yang mengandung partikel organik dan anorganik dari jaringan terkalsifikasi, jaringan nekrotik, proses dentinoblas, jaringan pulpa dan mikroorganisme yang dapat menutup jalan masuk ke tubuli dentin. Smear layer akan menghalangi penetrasi dari bahan

  9. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children's Chewing Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nanae; Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children's chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes' daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children's chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians.

  10. Analysis of temporal variation in human masticatory cycles during gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Elizabeth A; Rothman, Edward D; Childers, David; Gerstner, Geoffrey E

    2013-10-01

    The study investigated modulation of fast and slow opening (FO, SO) and closing (FC, SC) chewing cycle phases using gum-chewing sequences in humans. Twenty-two healthy adult subjects participated by chewing gum for at least 20s on the right side and at least 20s on the left side while jaw movements were tracked with a 3D motion analysis system. Jaw movement data were digitized, and chewing cycle phases were identified and analysed for all chewing cycles in a complete sequence. All four chewing cycle phase durations were more variant than total cycle durations, a result found in other non-human primates. Significant negative correlations existed between the opening phases, SO and FO, and between the closing phases, SC and FC; however, there was less consistency in terms of which phases were negatively correlated both between subjects, and between chewing sides within subjects, compared with results reported in other species. The coordination of intra-cycle phases appears to be flexible and to follow complex rules during gum-chewing in humans. Alternatively, the observed intra-cycle phase relationships could simply reflect: (1) variation in jaw kinematics due to variation in how gum was handled by the tongue on a chew-by-chew basis in our experimental design or (2) by variation due to data sampling noise and/or how phases were defined and identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of chewing rate between overweight and normal BMI individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy Kristin; Venn, Bernard; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Rush, Elaine; Gallo, Luigi Maria; Yong, Janet Lee Ching; Farella, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Previous attempts to identify an 'obese eating style' have led to conflicting findings. This observational study compared the chewing features of overweight or obese young adults with those of normal range BMI. We hypothesised that chewing features are individual-specific and differ between participants of a normal BMI and high BMI. Fourteen overweight to obese participants (BMI≥25.0) were pairwise matched with 14 normal range BMI participants (18.5chewing episodes, including rate, duration, and power. Masticatory performance was assessed by a sieve test and was expressed as the percentage of particles ≤2mm after a standardised chewing test. Regardless of the meal, chewing rate was remarkably consistent among participants (ICC=0.89; 95% CI=0.79-0.94). Chewing rate did not differ between high and normal BMI participants (p>0.05), whereas chewing power was significantly higher in high BMI participants (pchewing characteristics were found between BMI groups. Participants chewed at similar rate in the natural environment (pizza) and in the laboratory (rice) setting (p>0.05). Masticatory performance did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between the high (55.9%) and normal (52.4%) BMI groups. Within the limitations of the present study, chewing characteristics appear to be individual-specific with wide variability. Overweight participants chew at a similar rate to control participants, albeit slightly stronger. Our preliminary findings need to be replicated in larger samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The influence of excessive chewing gum use on headache frequency and severity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watemberg, Nathan; Matar, Manar; Har-Gil, Miki; Mahajnah, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gum-chewing is underreported as a headache precipitant in children and adolescents. We evaluated the influence of daily excessive gum-chewing in older children and teenagers with chronic headache, emphasizing the impact of habit discontinuation and its reintroduction. Patients with chronic headache and excessive gum-chewing were consecutively recruited and asked to fill questionnaire pertaining headache characteristics, potential triggers, family history of headaches, and gum-chewing habits. These individuals were classified into four groups depending on the number of daily hours of gum-chewing. All children discontinued chewing for 1 month, reintroduced the habit, and were reinterviewed after 2 to 4 weeks. Thirty patients (25 girls) were recruited. Median age was 16 years. Most had migraine-like headaches. Following gum-chewing discontinuation, 26 reported significant improvement, including headache resolution in 19. All 20 patients reinstituting the habit reported symptom relapse within days. Duration of headache before discontinuation and the number of daily hours of chewing had no influence on the response to habit discontinuation. Excessive daily gum-chewing may be associated with chronic headache and should get more attention in the medical literature. Physician and patient awareness of this association could have a meaningful impact on the quality of life of children and adolescents with chronic headache who chew gum excessively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of chewing gum and time-on-task on alertness and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A P; Smith, A P

    2012-07-01

    Chewing gum has been shown to reliably increase subjective alertness whereas the effects on attention are more variable. It has been suggested that chewing gum only enhances attention when the person has been performing a task for some time. The current research aimed to investigate if time-on-task trends enhancing effects of chewing gum could be observed in alertness and attention during and following chewing. Study 1 used tests of reported mood, including reported mood, and tests of attention (categoric search, focussed attention, simple reaction time, and vigilance). These tasks were performed shortly after the start of chewing. Study 2 examined effects of previous and current chewing on reported alertness and the attention tests. Study 1 showed that chewing gum increased reported alertness and hedonic tone and improved performance on the categoric search task. Chewing gum maintained reported alertness across sessions in study 2. In the first experimental session of study 2 gum improved categoric search performance, and during the second session gum broadened focus of attention and quickened vigilance reaction time. This effect on vigilance reaction time was moderated by time-on-task, with an initial negative effect being replaced by a positive effect. The results confirm the robust effect of chewing gum on reported alertness and show that changes in the effects of chewing gum on attention require further investigation. Future research may also determine underlying mechanisms for an alerting effect.

  14. Combined effect of genetic polymorphisms of AURKA and environmental factors on oral cancer development in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsuan Chou

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the sixth and fourth most common cause of cancer death in men worldwide and in Taiwan, respectively. AURKA, which encodes a centrosome-related serine/threonine kinase, is frequently amplified and overexpressed in many human cancers, particularly advanced OSCC. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to estimate AURKA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and environmental risk factors to determine OSCC susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics.We enrolled a total of 876 OSCC patients and 1200 controls. Four SNPs of AURKA, namely rs1047972, rs2273535, rs2064863, and rs6024836, were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Among the 1420 smokers, the AURKA polymorphism carriers with the betel nut chewing habit had a higher risk of oral cancer than AURKA wild-type (WT carriers without the betel nut chewing habit. Patients with the AURKA rs2064863 gene had a 1.365-fold higher risk of stage III or IV OSCC (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.029-1.811 than those with the rs2064863 WT gene. Furthermore, carriers of the AURKA rs1047972/rs2273535/rs2064863 C-A-T haplotype had a 1.736-fold (95% CI 1.110-2.715 higher risk of OSCC than controls (C-T-T, the most common haplotype. Among patients with the betel quid chewing habit, carriers of other haplotypes (C-T-T, C-A-G, T-A-T, T-A-G, T-T-T, and C-T-G had a 12.857-fold (95% CI 10.731-15.404 increased risk, and carriers of the C-A-T haplotype had the highest risk (AOR: 31.120; 95% CI 13.864-69.850 of OSCC, compared with those without the betel quid chewing who harbored other haplotypes.In conclusion, betel nut chewing combined with the AURKA C-A-T haplotypes lead to a high risk of OSCC. These findings reveal a novel genetic-environmental predisposition for oral tumorigenesis.

  15. The underlying mechanism of action for various medicinal properties of Piper betle (betel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslan, H; Suhaimi, F H; Thent, Zar Chi; Das, S

    2015-01-01

    Piper betle (betel) plant belongs to the Piperaceae family. Piper. betle is widely known for its potent medicinal properties. Various active compounds are present in Piper. betle such as allylpyrocatechol, hydroxychavicol, piperbetol, ethylpiperbetol, piperol A, piperol B, chavibetol, and alkaloids which account for these beneficial medicinal properties. In the present narrative review, we looked into the various active compounds present in the Piper betle and attempted to understand their underlying mechanism of action. Proper understanding of the molecular biology involving the mechanism of action may help in better drug formulation and provide better therapeutic actions in the field of alternative and complementary medicine.

  16. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  17. Efficacy of vinegar, sorbitol and sodium benzoate in mitigation of Salmonella contamination in betel leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmaul Husna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to mitigate Salmonella from betel leaf in Mymensingh. A total of 35 betel leaf samples were collected from 2 baroujes and 5 local markets in Mymensingh. The samples were sub-divided into two groups: (i phosphate buffer solution (PBS washed, and (ii grinded sample. There was control and treated (with 1.5% vinegar, sorbitol, and sodium benzoate sub-groups in both groups. Mitigation of Salmonella was determined by comparing Total Viable Count (TVC and Total Salmonella Count (TSAC of control with treated groups. No bacterial growth was observed in the betel leaf samples collected directly from barouj level. At market level, when grinded, there was no growth of bacteria in Plate Count Agar (PCA and Salmonella- Shigella (SS or Xylose Lysine De-oxy-chocolate (XLD in both treated and untreated groups. But when the PBS washed samples were used, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL of betel leaf ranged from 5.16±0.82 to 5.96±1.11, whereas the TSAC value ranged from 4.87±0.58 to 5.56±1.00 for untreated group. In vinegar, there was no growth, but when treated with sorbitol, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.00±0.54 to 5.66±1.09, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.28±0.71 to 4.78±0.64. When treated with sodium benzoate, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.06±0.53 to 5.75±1.02, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.34±0.79 to 4.92±0.64. Data of this study indicates that all the three chemicals were effective in terms of reducing bacterial load but vinegar (1.5% was found to be the most effective against Salmonella as well as some other bacteria when treated for 10 min.

  18. Evaluation of chemopreventive effects of betel leaf on the genotoxicity of pan masala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, A H; Patel, R K; Rawal, U M; Adhvaryu, S G; Balar, D B

    1994-01-01

    The antigenotoxic effect of the aqueous extract of betel leaf (BL-ext.) against the pan masala was tested with the help of cytogenetic endpoints like chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) utilizing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Compared to the cultures treated with aqueous extract of pan masala alone, a reduction in CA and SCE frequencies in CHO cells was observed following a combined treatment with pan masala (with or without tobacco) extract and BL-ext. The protective effect of BL-ext. against the genomic damage caused by pan masala was statistically significant only after treating the cells for a longer period.

  19. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (pbetel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  20. [Effects of coca chewing on the glucose tolerance test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza Guzmán, M; Peñaloza Imaña, R; Echalar Afcha, L; Aguilar Valerio, M; Spielvogel, H; Sauvain, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of coca chewing on the glucose tolerance test were measured. The subjects were 14 habitual coca chewers and 14 non-chewers. All were of Aymara ancestry and came from a rural community from the "Altiplano" close to the city of La Paz. The coca users chewed coca leaves during 3 1/2 hours of the test. The non-chewers showed a significant hypoglycemia at 120 minutes of the test. This effect was not observed in the coca chewers. The hormonal counter-regulation response to hypoglycemia worked perfectly in non-chewers, since glucose levels reached normal values at 180 minutes of the test. These results suggest that coca chewers, at high altitude do not present hypoglycemia, due to an antagonic action of coca metabolites on insulin; allowing a greater availability of glucose in the organism. This would have a positive effect on metabolism in an environment of hypobaric hypoxia, known to lead to situations of hypoglycemia.

  1. Antioxidant capacity of chewing stick miswak Salvadora persica

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Khan, Jalaluddin A

    2013-01-01

    Background Chewing stick (miswak Salvadora persica L.) is an effective tool for oral hygiene. It possessed various biological properties including significant antibacterial and anti-fungal effects. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant compounds in miswak. Method Miswak root was extracted with 80% methanol. Methanol extract as antioxidant was evaluated by using DPPH, ABTS and phosphomolybdenum complex assays and analysis by GC-MS. Peroxidase, catalase and polyphenoloxidase assays...

  2. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  3. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rafiei, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Nicotine, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, different sweetening and taste-masking agents, and a flavoring agent were added to the gum bases at appropriate temperature. The medicated gums were cut into pieces of suitable size and coated by acacia aqueous solution (2% w/v), sugar dusting, followed by acacia-sugar-calcium carbonate until a smooth surface was produced. The gums' weight variation and content uniformity were determined. The release of nicotine was studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using a mastication device which simulated the mastication of chewing gum in human. The Latin Square design was used for the evaluation of organoleptic characteristics of the formulations at different stages of development. Most formulations released 79-83% of their nicotine content within 20 min. Nicotine-containing sugar-coated gums in which aspartame as sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as flavoring agents were incorporated (i.e. formulations F(19-SC) and F(20-SC), respectively) had optimal chewing hardness, adhering to teeth, and plumpness characteristics, as well as the most pleasant taste and highest acceptability to smokers. Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  4. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Makanju, O.V. [Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U.), Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Haque, A.M.I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Cherubini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the {sup 19}F(p,p`{gamma}){sup 19}F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.).

  5. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Haque, A.M.I.; Cherubini, R.

    1996-01-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19 F(p,p'γ) 19 F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  6. Coca leaf chewing as therapy for cocaine maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Gumucio, J

    2000-10-01

    Major ethnic groups in Bolivia (Aymaras and Quechuas) have chewed the coca leaf for generations upon generations without health problems. The effects of coca leaf chewing produce a level of social and economic adaptation that is beyond what is normally possible. This was a major factor during the Spanish colonization of Bolivia, when forced native labor was used extensively. The cocaine base, or "pasta", may be seen as a type of South American crack. Its obligatory method of administration is smoking. A primary condition of the "pasta" smoker is compulsive drug-search behavior and addiction to cocaine base destroys emotional and mental balance. Socio-economic maladjustment is the norm amongst "pasta" addicts. Since 1984 I have recommended the chewing of the coca leaf, between 100 to 200 grams of coca leaf per week for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Since this treatment was dispensed on an ad hoc basis, it was not possible to measure the relapses. However, an assessment was conducted on the basis of mental condition and level of social and economic adaptation before and after treatment. The patent's level of social acceptance, before treatment, only reached 60% at most, and after treatment, 26% improved their level of adaptation. Four patients among 50 reached an adaptation level of 100%. Upon final assessment, the level of social adaptation prior to treatment was only 28%, after treatment as many as 48.8% of the patients were socially adapted.

  7. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  8. Evaluation of Chewing and Swallowing Sensors for Monitoring Ingestive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward S

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring Ingestive Behavior (MIB) of individuals is of special importance to identify and treat eating patterns associated with obesity and eating disorders. Current methods for MIB require subjects reporting every meal consumed, which is burdensome and tend to increase the reporting bias over time. This study presents an evaluation of the burden imposed by two wearable sensors for MIB during unrestricted food intake: a strain sensor to detect chewing events and a throat microphone to detect swallowing sounds. A total of 30 healthy subjects with various levels of adiposity participated in experiments involving the consumption of four meals in four different visits. A questionnaire was handled to subjects at the end of the last visit to evaluate the sensors burden in terms of the comfort levels experienced. Results showed that sensors presented high comfort levels as subjects indicated that the way they ate their meal was not considerably affected by the presence of the sensors. A statistical analysis showed that chewing sensor presented significantly higher comfort levels than the swallowing sensor. The outcomes of this study confirmed the suitability of the chewing and swallowing sensors for MIB and highlighted important aspects of comfort that should be addressed to obtain acceptable and less burdensome wearable sensors for MIB.

  9. Rhythm and amplitude of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity during sleep in bruxers - comparison with gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinpei; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Mikami, Saki; Okada, Kazuki; Gotouda, Akihito; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) during sleep by comparing masseteric EMG (electromyogram) activities of RMMA with gum chewing. The parts of five or more consecutive phasic bursts in RMMA of 23 bruxers were analyzed. Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched pairs and Spearman's correlation coefficient by the rank test were used for statistical analysis. Root mean square value of RMMA phasic burst was smaller than that during gum chewing, but correlates to that of gum chewing. The cycle of RMMA was longer than that of gum chewing due to the longer burst duration of RMMA, and variation in the cycles of RMMA was wider. These findings suggest that the longer but smaller EMG burst in comparison with gum chewing is one of the characteristics of RMMA. The relation between size of RMMA phasic bursts and gum chewing is also suggested.

  10. Ex vivo determination of chewing patterns using FBG and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, L. Z.; Pegorini, V.; Pitta, C. S. R.; Assmann, T. S.; Cardoso, R.; Kalinowski, H. J.; Silva, J. C. C.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports the experimental procedures performed in a bovine head for the determination of chewing patterns during the mastication process. Mandible movements during the chewing have been simulated either by using two plasticine materials with different textures or without material. Fibre Bragg grating sensors were fixed in the jaw to monitor the biomechanical forces involved in the chewing process. The acquired signals from the sensors fed the input of an artificial neural network aiming at the classification of the measured chewing patterns for each material used in the experiment. The results obtained from the simulation of the chewing process presented different patterns for the different textures of plasticine, resulting on the determination of three chewing patterns with a classification error of 5%.

  11. Toksisitas Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah pada Tikus Putih Penderita Diabetes Melitus (TOXICITY OF RED BETEL EXTRACT IN DIABETIC WHITE RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Sagung Kendran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the toxicity of red betel  (Piper crocatum extract in diabeticwhite rat based on ALT and AST activities. This research used 20 male white rats, which randomlydivided into five groups, P1: given only aqua; P2: given alloxan 120mg/kg bw; P3: given alloxan 120 mg/kgbw and red betel leaf extract 50 mg/kg bw; P4: given alloxan 120 mg/kg bw and red betel leaf extract 100mg/kg bw; P5: given alloxan 120 mg/kg bw and glibenclamide suspension 1 mg/kg bw. ALT and ASTactivities were measured by using reflovet plus Machine. The collected data were analyzed by usinganalysis of covariance. The result showed no significant  effect (P>0.05 was observed on giving red betelleaf extract in diabetic white rat for ALT and AST activities.  It can be concluded that red betel leaf extractis potential for diabetic treatment in white rat  and it is not toxic for the rat’s ALT and AST activities.

  12. Cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with Veitchia merrillii betel nuts extract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balqis, Ummu; Hambal, Muhammad; Rinidar; Athaillah, Farida; Ismail; Azhar; Vanda, Henni; Darmawi

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research was to in vitro evaluate the cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with ethanolic extract of betel nuts Veitchia merrillii . Phytochemical screening was done using FeCl 3 , Wagner and Dragendorff reagents, NaOH, MgHCl, and Liebermann-Burchard reaction test. Amount of 16 worms were segregated into four groups with three replicates. Four worms of each group submerged into phosphate buffered saline, 25 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml crude ethanolic extract of V. merrillii , and 15 mg/ml albendazole. The effect of these extract was observed 40 h after incubation as soon as worms death. The worms were sectioned transversally and were explored for any cuticular histopathological changes in their body surface under microscope. We found that the ethanolic extract of V. merrillii betel nuts contains tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and saponins. The ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii induces surface alterations caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms. We concluded that ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii possess anthelmintic activity caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.

  13. Chewing gum, occupational stress, work performance and wellbeing. An intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Chaplin, Katherine; Wadsworth, Emma

    2012-06-01

    An intervention study was carried out to examine the effects of chewing gum on occupational stress and related outcomes. 101 volunteers from Cardiff University completed the study. The results showed that chewing gum reduced stress (both at work and outside work), reduced fatigue, reduced anxiety and depression and led to a more positive mood. Chewing gum was also associated with perceptions of better performance (both at work and outside). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on w...

  15. Chewing gum benefits sustained attention in the absence of task degradation.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Muneem, M.; Miles, C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the effect of chewing gum on sustained attention and associated changes in subjective alertness. METHODS: In a within-participants design, 20 participants completed an extended version of the sustained attention response task (SART: Robertson et al., 1997), both with and without chewing gum. Self-rated measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were taken before and after the SART. RESULTS: Chewing gum was associated with improved attentional tas...

  16. Cardiovascular responses in humans to experimental chewing of gums of different consistencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farella, M; Bakke, M; Michelotti, A; Marotta, G; Martina, R

    1999-10-01

    Although the cardiovascular effects of exercise have been extensively investigated in man, little attention has been paid to such responses to jaw muscle activity. The aim here was to investigate the general cardiovascular effects of chewing activity in a single-blind, cross-over design. Ten healthy individuals performed one of the following chewing tasks in four separate sessions: chewing a very hard gum, chewing a moderately hard gum, chewing a soft gum, and "empty chewing" without a bolus. Unilateral chewing of gum or empty chewing was performed for 20 min on the participant's most convenient chewing side at a constant rate of 80 cycles/min. In each session, heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded together with electromyographic activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles on the chewing side. Ratings of perceived masticatory fatigue were recorded with visual analogue scales. The heart rate and blood pressure were significantly increased (ANOVA; p chewing tasks and the increases were, in parallel with the muscle activity, more pronounced the harder the gum. With the very hard gum, heart rate increased by up to 11 beats/min, the systolic blood pressure was 14 mmHg (1.9kPa) higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was 11 mmHg (1.5kPa) higher. The perceived fatigue was proportional to the level of muscle activity. After 10 min of recovery from exercise, heart rate and arterial blood pressures were slightly but still significantly elevated. The results demonstrate that chewing is associated with general circulatory effects proportional to the bolus resistance.

  17. Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these

  18. Pion-nucleon vertex function and the Chew-Low model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.T.

    1977-01-01

    We provide an interpretation of the cutoff function used in the Chew-Low theory of pion-nucleon scattering. It is shown that this function may be related to the pion-pion interaction which is not explicitly considered in the Chew-Low approach. Using a previously developed model for the pion-nucleon vertex function, we then perform a ''parameter-free'' Chew-Low calculation which predicts the P 33 resonance quite well

  19. Screening for Oral Cavity Cancer: A 1-year Experience of a Regional Hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, T H; Yuan, C H; Chen, R F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the risk factors affecting precancerous lesions, and cancer of oral cavity, and to assess efficacy of visual screening for oral mucosal lesions. The medical records of patients older than 30 years of age with history of habitual cigarette smoking or betel quid chewing that received screening for oral mucosal lesions between January 2012 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' age, gender, risk factors, screening findings, and histopathology results of biopsy were included for further analysis. A total of 1341 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 1080 males and 261 females ranging from 30 to 96 years of age, with a mean age of 53.9±13.6 years. After screening, 226 (16.9%) were found to be positive of oral lesions. Among these 226 patients, 69 (30.5%) underwent biopsy under local anesthesia, and the histopathology showed malignancy in 13 (5.8%). All of the confirmed malignant cases were squamous cell carcinoma. Among them, 12 received further staging examination and one was lost to follow-up resulting in unknown stage. The early stage oral cavity cancer (stage I and II) accounted for 84.6% (11/13). The detection rate of early stage oral cavity cancer in our study was reasonable. Therefore, visual screening for oral cavity cancer is recommended for patients with habitual cigarette smoking or betel quid chewing.

  20. In situ effect of CPP-ACP chewing gum upon erosive enamel loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Ribeiro Barros de ALENCAR

    Full Text Available Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI – Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII – Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII – No chewing gum (control. Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day. After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm. Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p0.05. Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.

  1. Differences in chewing behaviors between healthy fully dentate young and older adults assessed by electromyographic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-01-01

    To characterize changes in chewing behaviors associated with healthy aging, 10 young and 10 older fully dentate healthy participants were enrolled in this study. They chewed carrot samples that differed in hardness until their normal swallowing threshold. Their chewing behaviors were assessed using an electromyographic recording device. Adjusting for gender and body mass index, older adults had a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.020), a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.002), a greater maximal electromyographic voltage (p = 0.003) and a greater muscle activity (p = 0.002) before they could comfortably swallow the food bolus. A statistically significant main effect of food hardness on the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration, chewing rate and muscle activity was also observed (p < 0.001 for all). These results suggest that reduced mastication efficiency is associated with healthy aging in fully dentate adults. This ingestive behavior may contribute to aging-related reduction in appetite in older adults.

  2. A clinical protocol to increase chewing and assess mastication in children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M; Peterson, Kathryn M; Zeleny, Jason R; Piazza, Cathleen C

    2014-09-01

    Children with feeding disorders often cannot or do not chew when presented with table food. Children with chewing deficits also often swallow the bite before masticating it appropriately, which we will refer to as early swallowing. In the current study, we evaluated a clinical protocol to increase chews per bite, assess mastication, and eliminate early swallowing with three children with feeding disorders. The current study adds to a small body of literature on chewing and mastication of children with feeding disorders. Suggestions for future research are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Is Khat (Catha edulis) chewing a risk factor for periodontal diseases? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Al-Maweri, Sadeq-Ali; Al-Shamiri, Hashem-Motahir; Ijaz, Anum; Gamal, Shukri; Dhaifullah, Esam

    2017-10-01

    Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is a highly prevalent habit in the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa, and has recently spread to Western countries. The association between khat chewing and oral mucosal lesions is well documented in the literature. However, there is no concrete evidence on the association between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the influence of khat chewing on periodontal health. A literature search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Sciences databases was carried out to identify relevant articles published from 1990 to May 2017. The inclusion criteria were all clinical studies that assessed the relationship between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The search yielded 122 articles, of which 10 were included in this systematic review. Most of the studies exhibited a positive correlation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Altogether, the analysis of the current evidence reveals that khat chewing is destructive to the periodontium and enhances the risk of periodontal disease progression. However, due to variability of studies, more longitudinal case-controlled studies are highly warranted to establish a causal relation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Key words: Khat chewing, periodontal health, periodontal disease, risk factor.

  4. Influence of chewing behaviour on memory and spatial learning in albino BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Siancas, E E

    2017-05-01

    Since the relationship between chewing and cognitive functions has not been fully elucidated, this study aimed to determine the impact of chewing behaviour on spatial learning and memory in albino male BALB/c mice. Twenty mice aged 8 weeks were divided into 2 equal groups. The regular chewing group was fed with uncrushed grains (the same diet given to all 20 mice since they were weaned) and the limited chewing group was fed with crushed grains. At 16 weeks of age, the mice were evaluated over 5 days, including a 4-day acquisition phase prior to a probe test of spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze on the fifth day. A comparison of the regular chewing group and the limited chewing group found no significant differences in either the acquisition phase or the probe test. However, there were significant differences in the acquisition phase for just the regular chewing group when comparing results from the first day to those from the other 3 days. The results suggest that regular chewing affects spatial learning and memory since mice in the regular chewing group decreased their times to find the hidden platform during the acquisition phase. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of food-borne bacteria in ready to eat betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Mazedul; Sarker, Md Atiqur Rahman; Rifa, Rafia Afroze; Islam, Md Ariful; Khatun, Mst Minara

    2017-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine bacterial load as well as characterize bacterial flora of ready to eat (RTE) betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh city. A total of 25 RTE betel leaf samples were collected from five local markets such as Kamal-Ranjit (KR) market, Shesh more, Kewatkhali, Jobber more, and Ganginar par. Total viable count of bacteria in betel leaf (log 10 mean colony forming unit±standard deviation/ml) was 7.58±0.04 for KR market, 7.72±0.06 for Shesh more, 7.62±0.04 for Kewatkhali, 7.40±0.03 for Jobber more, and 7.60±0.06 for Ganginar par. A total of 98 bacterial isolates belong to five genera ( Escherichia coli , Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus spp.) were identified. The prevalence of E. coli was 17.34%, Salmonella spp. was 25.51%, Vibrio spp. was 19.39%, Bacillus spp. was 18.37%, and Staphylococcus spp. was 19.39%. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolates were sensitive to two antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Four isolates ( E. coli , Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., and Staphylococcus spp.) were resistant to two antibiotics (ampicillin and cephalexin). Antibiogram profile of bacterial isolates of betel leaf suggests that they were multidrug resistance. Data of this study indicate that betel leaf sold at local market harbors multidrug resistance food-borne bacteria which might cause public health hazards if these antibiotic resistant transfer to human through food chain.

  6. Detection of food-borne bacteria in ready to eat betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mazedul Haque

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to determine bacterial load as well as characterize bacterial flora of ready to eat (RTE betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh city. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 RTE betel leaf samples were collected from five local markets such as Kamal-Ranjit (KR market, Shesh more, Kewatkhali, Jobber more, and Ganginar par. Results: Total viable count of bacteria in betel leaf (log10 mean colony forming unit±standard deviation/ml was 7.58±0.04 for KR market, 7.72±0.06 for Shesh more, 7.62±0.04 for Kewatkhali, 7.40±0.03 for Jobber more, and 7.60±0.06 for Ganginar par. A total of 98 bacterial isolates belong to five genera (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were identified. The prevalence of E. coli was 17.34%, Salmonella spp. was 25.51%, Vibrio spp. was 19.39%, Bacillus spp. was 18.37%, and Staphylococcus spp. was 19.39%. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolates were sensitive to two antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Four isolates (E. coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were resistant to two antibiotics (ampicillin and cephalexin. Antibiogram profile of bacterial isolates of betel leaf suggests that they were multidrug resistance. Conclusion: Data of this study indicate that betel leaf sold at local market harbors multidrug resistance food-borne bacteria which might cause public health hazards if these antibiotic resistant transfer to human through food chain.

  7. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Sumarya; Nyoman Adiputra; Putra Manuaba; Dewa Sukrama

    2016-01-01

    Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the S...

  8. Chewing ability in an urban and rural population over 40 years in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Witter, Dick J; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H J

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to assess chewing ability related to dental status. One thousand four hundred sixty-two Chinese subjects over 40 years, dentate in both jaws, were categorized in a hierarchical functional classification system with and without tooth replacements. Chewing ability was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression including five dental conditions ( "≥10 teeth in each jaw"; "complete anterior regions"; "sufficient premolar regions" (≥3 posterior occluding pairs (POPs)); "sufficient molar regions" (bilaterally ≥1 POP); and tooth replacement), adjusted for six background variables. Likelihood ratios for chewing problems were assessed at each level of the hierarchical classification system based on these dental conditions. Seventy-eight to 91 % of subjects reported no or minor chewing problems. The conditions "≥10 teeth in each jaw", and "complete anterior regions" were not associated, whereas "sufficient premolar regions" and "sufficient molar regions" were associated with chewing problems (Ors, 0.33–0.58). If classified hierarchically, the condition "≥10 teeth in each jaw" was relevant for chewing problems (likelihood ratios 3.3–3.7). "Sufficient premolar region" and "sufficient molar region" were relevant to reduce the likelihood ratios for having chewing problems (both approximately with a factor 2), both for soft and for hard foods. Subjects with artificial teeth added had similar chance for chewing problems compared to counterparts with natural teeth only. However, if comparing replaced teeth with natural teeth, subjects with tooth replacement showed higher chance for chewing problems. Chewing ability was strongly associated with dental conditions. The presence of at least 10 teeth in each jaw had highest impact on chewing ability.

  9. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  10. Evaluation of accelerated stability test conditions for medicated chewing gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Lauretta; Conte, Ubaldo; Nhamias, Alain; Grenier, Pascal; Vergnault, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The overall stability of medicated chewing gums is investigated under different storage conditions. Active substances with different chemical stabilities in solid state are chosen as model drugs. The dosage form is a three layer tablet obtained by direct compression. The gum core contains the active ingredient while the external layers are formulated to prevent gum adhesion to the punches of the tableting machine. Two accelerated test conditions (40°C/75% RH and 30°C/65% RH) are performed for 6 months. Furthermore, a long-term stability test at room conditions is conducted to verify the predictability of the results obtained from the stress tests. Some drugs are stable in all the conditions tested, but other drugs, generally considered stable in solid dosage forms, have shown relevant stability problems particularly when stress test conditions are applied to this particular semi-solid dosage forms. For less stable drugs, the stress conditions of 40°C/75% RH are not always predictable of chewing gum stability at room temperature and may produce false negative; intermediate conditions, 30°C/65% RH, are more predictive for this purpose, the results of drug content found after 6 months at intermediate stress conditions and 12 months at room conditions are generally comparable. But the results obtained show that only long-term conditions stability tests gave consistent results. During aging, the semi solid nature of the gum base itself, may also influence the drug delivery rate during chewing and great attention should be given also to the dissolution stability.

  11. Inverse scattering solution of the Chew-Low equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, K.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for solving the inverse scattering problem are applied to the Chew-Low equation to obtain the nucleon form factor directly from the experimental phase shifts. A new dispersion relation is derived for the P 11 wave because of its sign-changing phase shift. A self-consistent solution for each channel is obtained, but the universality of form factor is not confirmed. Also, an iterative procedure based on Omnes' method is developed in order to solve coupled-channel, singular integral equations. (orig.)

  12. Solvents orgànics en electroforesi capil·lar i cromatografia de líquids

    OpenAIRE

    Subirats i Vila, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    La cromatografia de líquids d'alta eficàcia (HPLC) és la tècnica de separació més àmpliament utilitzada, degut a la seva sensibilitat, exactitud de les determinacions quantitatives i aplicabilitat a anàlits no volàtils o termolàbils d'interès científic i industrial. L'electroforesi capil·lar juga un paper fonamental en bioquímica. Aquesta tècnica permet obtenir anàlisis ràpides amb una elevada resolució i un baix consum de reactius auxiliars, fet que minimitza la generació de residus. L'objec...

  13. Chewing and spitting out food as a compensatory behavior in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youn Joo; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that chewing and spitting out food may be associated with severe eating-related pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between chewing and spitting, and other symptoms of eating disorders. We hypothesized that patients who chew and spit as a compensatory behavior have more severe eating-related pathology than patients who have never engaged in chewing and spitting behavior. We divided 359 patients with eating disorders into two groups according to whether they engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior to lose weight or not. After comparing eating-related pathology between the two groups, we examined factors associated with pathologic eating behaviors using logistic regression analysis. Among our 359 participants, 24.5% reported having engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior. The chewing and spitting (CHSP+) group showed more severe eating disorder symptoms and suicidal behaviors. This group also had significantly higher scores on subscales that measured drive for thinness, bulimia, and impulse regulation on the EDI-2, Food Craving Questionnaire, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Chewing and spitting is a common compensatory behavior among patients with eating disorders and is associated with more-pathologic eating behaviors and higher scores on psychometric tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  15. Simultaneous multielement determination of chewing and snuff tobaccos used in India by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    Trace elements present in Indian cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke were reported earlier. This paper presents trace element concentrations in chewing and snuff tobaccos determined by INAA. The levels of Br, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn, etc., present in different brands of chewing and snuff tobaccos are compared in two types of tobacco as well as with similar data from other countires. (author)

  16. Algorithms for the detection of chewing behavior in dietary monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Helal, Abdelsalam; Mendez-Vasquez, Andres

    2009-08-01

    The detection of food consumption is key to the implementation of successful behavior modification in support of dietary monitoring and therapy, for example, during the course of controlling obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Since the vast majority of humans consume food via mastication (chewing), we have designed an algorithm that automatically detects chewing behaviors in surveillance video of a person eating. Our algorithm first detects the mouth region, then computes the spatiotemporal frequency spectrum of a small perioral region (including the mouth). Spectral data are analyzed to determine the presence of periodic motion that characterizes chewing. A classifier is then applied to discriminate different types of chewing behaviors. Our algorithm was tested on seven volunteers, whose behaviors included chewing with mouth open, chewing with mouth closed, talking, static face presentation (control case), and moving face presentation. Early test results show that the chewing behaviors induce a temporal frequency peak at 0.5Hz to 2.5Hz, which is readily detected using a distance-based classifier. Computational cost is analyzed for implementation on embedded processing nodes, for example, in a healthcare sensor network. Complexity analysis emphasizes the relationship between the work and space estimates of the algorithm, and its estimated error. It is shown that chewing detection is possible within a computationally efficient, accurate, and subject-independent framework.

  17. Properties of a color-changeable chewing gum used to evaluate masticatory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Yohei; Kanazawa, Manabu; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Uchida, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    To clarify the basic properties of a color-changeable chewing gum to determine its applicability to evaluations of masticatory performance under different types of dental status. Ten participants with natural dentition aged 26-30 years chewed gum that changes color during several chewing strokes over five repetitions. Changes in color were assessed using a colorimeter, and then L*, a*, and b* values in the CIELAB color system were quantified. Relationships between chewing progression and color changes were assessed using regression analysis and the reliability of color changes was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. We then measured 42 dentate participants (age, 22-31 years) and 47 complete denture wearers (age, 44-90 years) to determine the detectability of masticatory performance under two types of dental status. Regression between the number of chewing strokes and the difference between two colors was non-linear. The intraclass correlation coefficients were highest between 60 and 160 chewing strokes. Dentate and edentulous groups significantly differed (Wilcoxon rank sum test) and values were widely distributed within each group. The color of the chewing gum changed over a wide range, which was sufficient to evaluate the masticatory performance of individuals with natural dentition and those with complete dentures. Changes in the color values of the gum reliably reflected masticatory performance. These findings indicate that the color-changeable chewing gum will be useful for evaluating masticatory performance under any dental status. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluoride and urea chewing gums in an intra-oral experimental caries model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjogren, K; Ruben, J; Lingstrom, P; Lundberg, AB; Birkhed, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing fluoride (F) and urea in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Placebo chewing gums (without any active ingredient) and no gum served as controls. Fifteen subjects participated in a cross-over,

  19. Chewing side preference - Impact on facial symmetry, dentition and temporomandibular joint and its correlation with handedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyasi Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Habitual unilateral chewing develops subconsciously and serves as an example for lateral preference. This study aims to assess the possible impact of chewing side preference to facial asymmetry, temporomandibular joint (TMJ and oral hygiene and existence of any link between the preferred chewing side (PCS and handedness. Materials and Methods: A 2-month cross-sectional (observational study was performed on 76 healthy dentate subjects [24 males (31.6% and 52 females (68.4%] with a mean age of 20.8 ± 1.5 years who participated in this study according to the selection criteria. Results: A total of 75 subjects out of 76 (98.6% were observed to have a PCS. Out of them, 38 chewed on their right and 37 on the left side. Of the 74 right-handed subjects, 48.6% chewed on the right, 50% on the left and 1.4% chewed equally on both the sides. Conclusion: Chewing side preference has a detrimental effect on the TMJ of the corresponding side and is also related to lateral facial asymmetry, which suggests that examination and recording of chewing side preference merit consideration in routine dental examination and treatment planning.

  20. Combined Effects of Chewing Ability and Dietary Diversity on Medical Service Use and Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yuan-Ting C; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Chang, Yu-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2016-06-01

    To examine whether chewing ability affects healthcare use and expenditure and whether improving dietary quality alleviates any such effects. Prospective cohort. The Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000), a nationwide community-based survey of people aged 65 and older. Individuals aged 65 and older (N = 1,793; 903 men, 890 women). Chewing ability (satisfactory or unsatisfactory) was assessed using a questionnaire, and dietary quality was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall as a dietary diversity score. Data on annual medical use and expenditures from the interview date until December 31, 2006, were collected from National Health Insurance claims. Generalized linear models were used to assess the associations between chewing ability, dietary quality, and annual medical usage or expenditure. After 8 years of follow-up, older adults with unsatisfactory chewing ability had considerably higher emergency, hospitalization, and total medical expenditures. Older adults with unsatisfactory chewing ability and a poor diet used fewer annual preventive care and dental services than those with satisfactory chewing ability but had longer hospital stays and higher expenditures. After adjusting for covariates, unsatisfactory chewing ability resulted in significantly longer hospital stays in participants with a poor diet (β = 2.34, 95% confidence interval = 2.02-2.71, P chewing ability and a less-diverse diet together are associated with longer hospital stays and higher medical expenditures. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Gum chewing improves adolescents’ math performance in an SAT preparatory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of gum chewing on students’ performance in a preparatory course for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A total of 182 adolescents enrolled in an SAT preparatory class were randomized into one of two treatments: 1) gum chewing condition (G...

  2. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  3. A generating function for a class of effective Chew-Mandelstam functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.H.

    1982-12-01

    We have obtained the generating function for a class of effective Chew-Mandelstam functions for arbitrary integral angular momentum. From this a closed formula for the Chew-Mandelstam functions themselves is derived in both the simple equal mass case and in the more complicated case of unequal masses

  4. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    comprised three separate series of a 4-min chewing period. These series differed only with respect to CF, i.e., habitual frequency, and 60 and 88 strokes/min. Results showed that more than 50% of the released menthol and menthone could be retrieved in the expired air and saliva. After 2-min of chewing...

  5. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.

  6. Chewing gum: cognitive performance, mood, well-being, and associated physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Smith, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.

  7. Oral submucous fibrosis in children: Report of three cases and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulasi Lakshmi Duggirala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a chronic, insidious, generalized, and debilitating condition of the oral mucosa predominantly encountered in South-East Asian countries. Oral submucous fibrosis is etiologically linked to the consumption of the areca nut in flavored formulations or as an ingredient in the betel quid chewed by the communities in these countries. The sweet supari, in their multicolored attractive pouches, is the most common chewed product in children. It is considered a harmless mouth freshener and therefore is consumed in larger amount and is kept in the mouth for a longer time and swallowed by the ignorant children. Factors involved in the consumption of sweet supari are levels of awareness, household environment, peer pressure, low cost, easy availability, etc. Here, we report three cases of OSMF in a 9-year-old girl, 13-year-old boy and a 15-year-old girl and literature review.

  8. Radioactivity and trace element contents of commercial chewing tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafauti, S.; Pulhani, V.; Dahiya, S.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive elements uranium, thorium and their daughters are present ubiquitously in the environment and are transferred to man through various pathways. Both, U and Th can cause radiological and toxic hazards. The ingestion dose pathway calculations involve analysis of all kinds of food or edible materials. A large population in India and Asian subcontinent are addicted to commercially available chewing tobacco. This practice is reported to have lead to increased consequences of cancer. Trace elements (Fe, Co, Mn, Zn etc.) are essential but may also prove to be toxic if present in excess. Besides these the hazards of heavy elements like Pb and Cd have also increased in the current polluted environment. In this study most of the commercially available brands of gutkha and chewing tobacco were collected. The radioactive elements U and Th were analyzed in them by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Trace elements Fe, Co, Mn, Zn, and toxic heavy elements Pb, Cd, Ni etc. were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The levels of Th and U were in the range 0.02-0.11 mg/g and 0.02-0.08 mg/g respectively. The cancer risk due to U, Th, Pb and Cd were calculated and are found to be low. (author)

  9. Delineating miRNA profile induced by chewing tobacco in oral keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Younis Bhat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The major established etiologic risk factor for oral cancer is tobacco (chewed, smoked and snuffed forms. Chewing form of tobacco is predominantly used in India making it the leading cause of oral cancer. Despite being one of the leading causes of oral cancer, the molecular alterations induced by chewing tobacco remains largely unclear. Carcinogenic effect of chewing tobacco is through chronic and not acute exposure. To understand the molecular alterations induced by chewing tobacco, we developed a cell line model where non-neoplastic oral keratinocytes were chronically exposed to chewing tobacco for a period of 6 months. This resulted in increased cellular proliferation and invasive ability of normal oral keratinocytes. Using this cellular model we studied the differential expression of miRNAs associated with chewing tobacco and the altered signaling pathways through which the aberrantly expressed miRNAs affect tumorigenesis. miRNA sequencing  was carried out using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform  which resulted in the identification of 427 annotated miRNAs of which 10 were significantly dysregulated (≥ 4 fold; p-value ≤ 0.05 in tobacco exposed cells compared to untreated parental cells. To study the altered signaling in oral keratinocytes chronically exposed to chewing tobacco, we employed quantitative proteomics to characterize the dysregulated proteins. Integration of miRNA sequencing data with proteomic data resulted in identification of 36 proven protein targets which (≥1.5 fold; p-value ≤ 0.05 showed expression correlation with the 10 significantly dysregulated miRNAs. Pathway analysis of the dysregulated targets revealed enrichment of interferon signaling and mRNA processing related pathways in the chewing tobacco exposed cells. In addition, we also identified 6 novel miRNA in oral keratinocytes chronically exposed to chewing tobacco extract. Our study provides a framework to understand the oncogenic transformation induced by

  10. Description of chewing and food intake over the course of a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Zandian, Modjtaba; Eriksson-Marklund, Lisa; Bergh, Cecilia; Grigoriadis, Anastasios; Södersten, Per

    2011-10-24

    While the average frequency of chewing and food intake have been reported before, a detailed description of the pattern of chewing and the cumulative intake of food over the course of a meal have not. In order to achieve this goal, video recording of the maxillary-mandibular region of women eating food from a plate was synchronized with video recording of the plate and computer recording of the weight-loss of the plate. Video recording of chewing correlated strongly with chewing identified by magnetic tracking of jaw displacement in a test with chewing gum at three different frequencies, thus ensuring the validity of video recording of chewing. Weight-loss data were corrected by convolution algorithms, validated against human correction, using sliding window filtering to correct errors with video events as reference points. By use of this method, women ate on average 264 g of food over 114 min, they took an average of 51 mouthfuls during the meal and displayed on average 794 chews with 15 chews per chewing sequence. The number of mouthfuls decreased and the duration of the pauses after each mouthful increased in the middle of the meal and these measures were then restored. The ratio between chewing sequences and subsequent pauses remained stable although the weight of each mouthful decreased by the end of the meal, a measure that is hypothesized to be reflected in a decelerated speed of eating. The method allows this hypothesis to be tested and its implication for clinical intervention to be examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  12. Exoproteome and Secretome Derived Broad Spectrum Novel Drug and Vaccine Candidates in Vibrio cholerae Targeted by Piper betel Derived Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barh, Debmalya; Barve, Neha; Gupta, Krishnakant; Chandra, Sudha; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Almeida, Síntia; Thiago Jucá Ramos, Rommel; Augusto Carvalho de Abreu, Vinicius; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Luiz de Paula Castro, Thiago; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Kumar, Anil; Narayan Misra, Amarendra; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Azevedo, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species. PMID:23382822

  13. Exoproteome and secretome derived broad spectrum novel drug and vaccine candidates in Vibrio cholerae targeted by Piper betel derived compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Barh

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.

  14. The accumulation of two neolignan in the leaves, stems, and flower of red betel ( Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartini, Y S; Nugroho, L

    2017-01-01

    Organ for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite is not always a place for its biosynthesis, even the same compound was synthesized in the different organs in different plants. Neolignan is a secondary metabolite, known as an imunostimulant, synthesized through shikimic acid pathway with the important precursor is chorismic acid. The compound was known to be accumulated in the roots, stems and leaves of Piper regnellii with the concentration varies depending on the type of neolignan. It has been investigated the accumulation of two compound neolignans (Pc-1 and Pc-2) isolated from the methanol extract of red betel leaf ( Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav.) in the leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. Chromatographic methods used was Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the Pc-1 with purity of 100%, m/z 460.3 could be detected at the minute of 29.986, while the Pc-2 with purity of 96.681%, m/z 418.3 was detected at the minute of 29.495. The research was then continued to investigate the existence and accumulation of both compounds in leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. The GC-MS chromatogram shows that Pc-1 and Pc-2 could be detected in the leaves, stem and flower with various concentration among plant organs. Moreover, leaves contained the highest concentration of Pc-1 and Pc-2 compared to other plant organs. (paper)

  15. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameera Shamim; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each of OSCC patients - positive control and ten normal buccal mucosa - negative control). Their oral exfoliated cells were scraped, fixed, and studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The statistical analysis was determined using ANOVA, Tukey honestly significant difference, Chi-square test, and statistical SPASS software, P betel nut chewers compared to normal oral mucosa have been tabulated. In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues.

  16. The accumulation of two neolignan in the leaves, stems, and flower of red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartini, Y. S.; Nugroho, L.

    2017-05-01

    Organ for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite is not always a place for its biosynthesis, even the same compound was synthesized in the different organs in different plants. Neolignan is a secondary metabolite, known as an imunostimulant, synthesized through shikimic acid pathway with the important precursor is chorismic acid. The compound was known to be accumulated in the roots, stems and leaves of Piper regnellii with the concentration varies depending on the type of neolignan. It has been investigated the accumulation of two compound neolignans (Pc-1 and Pc-2) isolated from the methanol extract of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav.) in the leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. Chromatographic methods used was Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the Pc-1 with purity of 100%, m/z 460.3 could be detected at the minute of 29.986, while the Pc-2 with purity of 96.681%, m/z 418.3 was detected at the minute of 29.495. The research was then continued to investigate the existence and accumulation of both compounds in leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. The GC-MS chromatogram shows that Pc-1 and Pc-2 could be detected in the leaves, stem and flower with various concentration among plant organs. Moreover, leaves contained the highest concentration of Pc-1 and Pc-2 compared to other plant organs.

  17. Khat chewing and acculturation in East-African migrants living in Frankfurt am Main/Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, Stephan; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2015-04-22

    Khat (Catha edulis, Forsk) is a drug widely used in countries around the Red Sea (East-Africa and Arabian Peninsula). In Germany khat chewing is illegal but nevertheless an often observed habit in immigrants from this region. This study investigates the interrelation between immigrants acculturation processes and traditional khat chewing habits. Sixty-one khat chewers (14 female) from East-African countries were interviewed about their khat chewing habits and acculturation strategy using standardized questionnaires. Results indicate that immigrants׳ khat chewing behaviors are similar to what is common in countries with traditional khat use. But khat chewing tended to be less among immigrants who were relatively more oriented towards their cultures of origin. Chewing khat was subjectively considered to help coping with problems, to forget bad memories and to concentrate better. It was concluded that khat chewing serves a functional use of coping with stressful events in the present or in the past within this sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased sternocleidomastoid, but not trapezius, muscle activity in response to increased chewing load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Nordh, Erik; Eriksson, Per-Olof

    2013-10-01

    Previous findings, during chewing, that boluses of larger size and harder texture result in larger amplitudes of both mandibular and head-neck movements suggest a relationship between increased chewing load and incremental recruitment of jaw and neck muscles. The present report evaluated jaw (masseter and digastric) and neck [sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and trapezius] muscle activity during the chewing of test foods of different sizes and textures by 10 healthy subjects. Muscle activity was recorded by surface electromyography and simultaneous mandibular and head movements were recorded using an optoelectronic technique. Each subject performed continuous jaw-opening/jaw-closing movements whilst chewing small and large boluses of chewing gum and rubber silicone (Optosil). For jaw opening/jaw closing without a bolus, SCM activity was recorded for jaw opening concomitantly with digastric activity. During chewing, SCM activity was recorded for jaw closing concomitantly with masseter activity. Trapezius activity was present in some, but not all, cycles. For the masseter and SCM muscles, higher activity was seen with larger test foods, suggesting increased demand and recruitment of these muscles in response to an increased chewing load. This result reinforces the previous notion of a close functional connection between the jaw and the neck motor systems in jaw actions and has scientific and clinical significance for studying jaw function and dysfunction. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Volitional chewing with a conscious effort alters and facilitates swallowing during feeding sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, J; Hara, A; Nomura, T; Kondo, H

    2014-03-01

    The key objective of mastication is to form a food bolus suitable for smooth swallowing. However, chewing is usually performed without a conscious effort. Poor bolus formation can cause pharyngeal residue and suffocation in elderly individuals with reduced swallowing function. Therefore, chewing with a conscious effort may help the bolus to more easily pass the pharynx. This study aimed to clarify the impact of mastication with a conscious effort on the feeding sequence. Subjects included 25 dentulous volunteers who were informed and provided written consent. Lateral videofluoroscopy was performed during the feeding of solid agar jelly under two conditions: chewing naturally in their usual manner (without volition) and chewing with a conscious effort (with volition). Temporal evaluation was performed for mastication, stage II transport (STII), swallow onset and oropharyngeal transit time. Moreover, bolus volume at swallow onset and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness were measured. Volitional chewing with a conscious effort lengthened the duration of the chewing sequence before and after STII and delayed the swallow onset despite the fact that the bolus volume in the vallecula and hypopharynx (HYP) had significantly increased. Furthermore, with volition, the bolus transit time from swallow onset in the oral cavity, upper oropharynx and HYP was reduced, and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness demonstrated significant improvement. These results suggest that volitional chewing with a conscious effort can alter bolus transport and swallowing, resulting in easier swallowing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Objective assessment of actual chewing side by measurement of bilateral masseter muscle electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yo; Kuwatsuru, Rika; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Oki, Kyosuke; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity of objective assessment of actual chewing side by measurement of electromyographic (EMG) activity of the bilateral masseter muscles upon chewing test foods. The sample consisted of 19 healthy, dentate individuals. The subjects were asked to chew three types of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky, and chewing gum) for 10 strokes on the right side and then on the left side, and instructed to perform maximum voluntary clenching for 3s, three times. EMG activity from the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The data were collected in three different days. The root mean square EMG amplitude obtained from the maximum clenching task was used as the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Then, the level of amplitude against the MVC (%MVC) was calculated for the right and left sides on each stroke. The side with the larger %MVC value was judged as the chewing side, and the concordance rates (CRs) for the instructed chewing side (ICS) and the judged chewing side (JCS) were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the CRs were calculated to evaluate the reproducibility of the method. High CRs between the ICS and JCS for each test food were recognized. There were significant ICCs for beef jerky (R=0.761, Pchewing gum (R=0.785, Pchewing side during mastication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Segmentation and Characterization of Chewing Bouts by Monitoring Temporalis Muscle Using Smart Glasses With Piezoelectric Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Several methods have been proposed for automatic and objective monitoring of food intake, but their performance suffers in the presence of speech and motion artifacts. This paper presents a novel sensor system and algorithms for detection and characterization of chewing bouts from a piezoelectric strain sensor placed on the temporalis muscle. The proposed data acquisition device was incorporated into the temple of eyeglasses. The system was tested by ten participants in two part experiments, one under controlled laboratory conditions and the other in unrestricted free-living. The proposed food intake recognition method first performed an energy-based segmentation to isolate candidate chewing segments (instead of using epochs of fixed duration commonly reported in research literature), with the subsequent classification of the segments by linear support vector machine models. On participant level (combining data from both laboratory and free-living experiments), with ten-fold leave-one-out cross-validation, chewing were recognized with average F-score of 96.28% and the resultant area under the curve was 0.97, which are higher than any of the previously reported results. A multivariate regression model was used to estimate chew counts from segments classified as chewing with an average mean absolute error of 3.83% on participant level. These results suggest that the proposed system is able to identify chewing segments in the presence of speech and motion artifacts, as well as automatically and accurately quantify chewing behavior, both under controlled laboratory conditions and unrestricted free-living.

  2. Chewing side preference in first and all mastication cycles for hard and soft morsels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanlu, Masumeh; Khamnei, Saeed; SalariLak, Shaker; Oskoee, Siavash Savadi; Shakouri, Seyed Kazem; Houshyar, Yousef; Salekzamani, Yaghoub

    2012-01-01

    Preferred chewing side is a still controversial matter and various methods used have yielded some inconsistencies. The aim of this study is to compare the preference determined in different conditions. Nineteen healthy subjects were offered hard (walnut) and soft (cake) foods, while the electromyography was recorded from their masseter muscles, in 2009 in the Research Center of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Four occurrences were determined as the side of the first chews/all chews in the two food types, and then analyzed for correlations and agreements. For hard food 73.68% and for soft food 57.89% of the subjects showed preference. The comparison of all chews showed a highly significant preference towards the right side in both food types (p=0.000 & 0.003). There was both correlation and agreement between the first chew preferences in both food types, and an agreement between the first and all chew preferences in the hard food. Therefore, there seems to exist some laterality in mastication, which is more explicit when using hard food and assessing all chews. PMID:22993653

  3. Relationship between chewing ability and cognitive impairment in the rural elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyong; Lee, Sung Kook; Choi, Youn-Hee; Tanaka, Makiko; Hirotsu, Kimiko; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Jung, Yun-Sook; Amano, Atsuo

    Relationship between masticatory function and cognitive impairment had been suggested but still understudied. We investigated the association between chewing ability and cognitive impairment among the elderly living in a rural region. A total of 295 elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in a rural city of Korea participated in a cross-sectional study. Trained nurses conducted interviews and assessed chewing ability using gum that changed color based on chewing performance. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination for Dementia Screening (MMSE-DS) of Korean vesrsion. Socio-demographic characteristics, activities of daily living (ADL), Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) were also assessed using questionnaires as potential confounders. The mean age of the participants was 81.4 (ranged 70-102) years and 67.8% of them were female. Participants with low chewing ability were significantly older, dependent, and had lower MNA and MMSE-DS scores. The elderly with middle or low chewing ability had significantly higher risk for having cognitive impairment than those with higher chewing ability. Our findings suggest that poor chewing ability is associated with cognitive impairment or dementia in the elderly living in rural area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between masticatory performance using a colour-changeable chewing gum and jaw movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komagamine, Y; Kanazawa, M; Minakuchi, S; Uchida, T; Sasaki, Y

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory performance as determined using a colour-changeable chewing gum and mandibular movements. Subjects comprised 45 fully dentate adults (23 men, 22 women; mean age, 28·1 years). The gum was chewed for a specified number of chewing strokes (20, 40, 60, 80, 120 or 160 strokes) without any instructions as to chewing side. A colourimeter was used to measure L*, a* and b* values (CIE-L*a*b* colour system) for the chewed gum, then the difference between two colours in the CIE-L*a*b* colour space (ΔE) for each number of chewing strokes was calculated according to a formula. Index of masticatory performance (ΔE60) for each subject was obtained using ΔE for 20, 40, 60, 80, 120 and 160 strokes. Mandibular movements were recorded using an opto-electric system with six degrees of freedom. Twelve parameters of mandibular movements relating to amplitude, duration, velocity and angle were computed for each cycle, and mean values for 10 cycles (from cycle 11 to 20) were calculated separately. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified maximum closing velocity and closing angle as predictors accounting for 18% of the variation in ΔE60. These results suggest that lower angles of approach to intercuspation and faster speed during closing duration are associated with colour changes in the colour-changeable chewing gum. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of areca nut chewing in the middle school-going children of Indore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Khandelwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess areca nut chewing habit among middle school-aged children in Indore, India. Areca nut is chewed by itself, and in various scented preparations. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children, and oral submucous fibrosis and may aggravate asthma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective collection of data to evaluate the prevalence of areca nut chewing among 3896 children was done. A simple random sampling was done. Children of both sexes were included in this study. Results: 27.06% of the school-going children (1054/3896 had areca nut chewing habit. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (2:1. 45.42% of school going children of rural area pander to areca nut chewing habit, whereas in urban area 20.09% children are indulged. Government school children are more involved in areca nut chewing habit. 81.02% of the children used sweetened and flavoured form of areca nut. The majority of the users were not aware of harmful effects that the use of areca nut might be harmful for health Conclusion: To diminish the use of areca nut, the Indian Government should consider limiting trade, advertising, and actively communicating its health risks to the public and should deem heavy taxes on it.

  6. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established treatments. Further treatment options are needed since available treatments are often time consuming, expensive and limited regarding their external validity. Recent research demonstrated that gum chewing has beneficial effects on cognition including certain aspects of attention. Therefore, gum chewing may benefit children with ADHD in situations requiring particular cognitive efforts. In a crossover study, attentional functioning of 32 children with ADHD and 32 children without the condition was examined. All participants were assessed with chewing gum and without chewing gum. A computerized test was used for the assessment of vigilance and sustained attention. The findings of the present study suggest that gum chewing during task execution has detrimental effects on vigilance of both healthy children and children with ADHD. Sustained attention was not affected by gum chewing. Chewing gum, therefore, appears not to improve attentional performance in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Peripheral, functional and postural asymmetries related to the preferred chewing side in adults with natural dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Lastra, B; Flores-Orozco, E I; Ayuso-Montero, R; Peraire, M; Martinez-Gomis, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the preferred chewing side and whether chewing side preference is related to peripheral, functional or postural lateral preferences. One hundred and forty-six adults with natural dentition performed three masticatory assays, each consisting of five trials of chewing three pieces of silicon placed into a latex bag for 20 cycles, either freestyle or unilaterally on the right- or left-hand side. Occlusal contact area in the intercuspal position, maximum bite force, masticatory performance and cycle duration were measured and the lateral asymmetry of these variables was calculated. Laterality tests were performed to determine handedness, footedness, earedness and eyedness as functional preferences, and hand-clasping, arm-folding and leg-crossing as postural lateral preferences. The preferred chewing side was determined using three different methods: assessment of the first chewing cycle for each trial, calculation of the asymmetry index from all cycles and application of a visual analogue scale. Bivariate relationship and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Among unilateral chewers, 77% of them preferred the right side for chewing. The factors most closely related to the preferred chewing side were asymmetry of bite force, asymmetry of masticatory performance and earedness, which explained up to 16% of the variance. Although several functional or postural lateral preferences seem to be related to the preferred chewing side, peripheral factors such as asymmetry of bite force and of masticatory performance are the most closely related to the preferred chewing side in adults with natural dentition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. On a new solution of Chew-Low type equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerikh, K.V.

    1985-01-01

    The system is investigated of Chew-Low type equations, defined by the crossing symmetry matrix A(1, 1) for S-matrix elements as dfunctions of the uniformmizing variable w, in terms of which this system is a system of nonlinear difference equations. The quadratic Cremona transformation for unknown functions reducing the initial equations to a vey simple form is found. New particular solutions are obtained as functions of variable exp(cw). Existence of the new first integral γ(w) that is an even periodical function of w is estalished. The structure of the general solution depending on γ(w) and the relation of the found particular solutions with the first integral are discussed

  9. Chewing gum does not induce context-dependent memory when flavor is held constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Amy A; Sun, Justin; Golding, Abbe C; Prevost, Darius

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the effect of chewing gum on memory when flavor is held constant. Four separate groups of participants (total n=101) completed a word recall task. At learning and recall, participants either chewed a piece of gum or sucked a sweet. Each participant completed the memory task twice, once with abstract words and once with concrete words. A significant effect of word type (concrete vs. abstract) was found, however recall performance was not improved by matched oral activity at learning and recall. The results cast further doubt on the ability of chewing gum to induce context-dependent memory effects.

  10. Description and evaluation of a net energy intake model as a function of dietary chewing index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Laura Mie; Markussen, Bo; Nielsen, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...... a value of 2, implying a constant maximum daily chewing time. The intercept NEI0 in the regression of NEI on CINE may be interpreted as metabolic net energy intake capacity of the cows fed without physical constraints on intake. Based on experimental data, the maximum chewing time was estimated as 1...

  11. Effect of chewing gums containing the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on oral malodour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette K; Bardow, Allan; Jensdottir, Thorbjörg

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotic bacteria on oral malodour. The null hypothesis was that no difference would be displayed compared with placebo gums. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy young adults with self-reported malodorous morning breath completed...... this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The design included run-in and wash-out periods interspersed by two intervention periods of 14 days each. The subjects were instructed to chew one gum in the morning and one in the evening containing either two strains of probiotic lactobacilli (L...... lower in the probiotic group compared with the placebo group (p chewing...

  12. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...... and tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  13. A novel colourimetric technique to assess chewing function using two-coloured specimens: Validation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Martin; Christou, Panagiotis; Miyazaki, Hideo; Halazonetis, Demetrios; Herrmann, François R; Müller, Frauke

    2015-08-01

    Chewing efficiency may be evaluated using cohesive specimen, especially in elderly or dysphagic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate three two-coloured chewing gums for a colour-mixing ability test and to validate a new purpose built software (ViewGum©). Dentate participants (dentate-group) and edentulous patients with mandibular two-implant overdentures (IOD-group) were recruited. First, the dentate-group chewed three different types of two-coloured gum (gum1-gum3) for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 chewing cycles. Subsequently the number of chewing cycles with the highest intra- and inter-rater agreement was determined visually by applying a scale (SA) and opto-electronically (ViewGum©, Bland-Altman analysis). The ViewGum© software determines semi-automatically the variance of hue (VOH); inadequate mixing presents with larger VOH than complete mixing. Secondly, the dentate-group and the IOD-group were compared. The dentate-group comprised 20 participants (10 female, 30.3±6.7 years); the IOD-group 15 participants (10 female, 74.6±8.3 years). Intra-rater and inter-rater agreement (SA) was very high at 20 chewing cycles (95.00-98.75%). Gums 1-3 showed different colour-mixing characteristics as a function of chewing cycles, gum1 showed a logarithmic association; gum2 and gum3 demonstrated more linear behaviours. However, the number of chewing cycles could be predicted in all specimens from VOH (all pchewing efficiency, given an elastic specimen is chewed for 20 cycles and could be recommended for the evaluation of chewing efficiency in a clinical and research setting. Chewing is a complex function of the oro-facial structures and the central nervous system. The application of the proposed assessments of the chewing function in geriatrics or special care dentistry could help visualising oro-functional or dental comorbidities in dysphagic patients or those suffering from protein-energy malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  14. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  15. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christrup, L L; Angelo, H R; Bonde, J; Kristensen, F; Rasmussen, S N

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum and tablets (p greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts.

  16. Antioxidant capacity of chewing stick miswak Salvadora persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Khan, Jalaluddin A

    2013-02-21

    Chewing stick (miswak Salvadora persica L.) is an effective tool for oral hygiene. It possessed various biological properties including significant antibacterial and anti-fungal effects. In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant compounds in miswak. Miswak root was extracted with 80% methanol. Methanol extract as antioxidant was evaluated by using DPPH, ABTS and phosphomolybdenum complex assays and analysis by GC-MS. Peroxidase, catalase and polyphenoloxidase assays were performed for crude extract of miswak root. The methanol extract of miswak contained the highest amount of crude extract among the various solvent extracts. The methanol extract showed a concentration dependent scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals with IC50 values 4.8 and 1.6 μg crude extract, respectively. The total antioxidant activities, based on the reduction of molybdenum (VI) to molybdenum (V), increased with increasing crude extract content. The correlation coefficients (R2) between total crude extract and DPPH, ABTS scavenging activities and the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex were 0.97, 0.99 and 0.95, respectively. The GC-MS analysis showed that the methanol extract doesn't contain phenolic and flavonoid compounds or under detected limit. After silylation of methanol extract, three compounds namely 2-furancarboxaldehyde-5-(hydroxymethyl), furan-2-carboxylic acid-3-methyl- trimethylsilyl ester and D-erythro-pentofuranose-2-deoxy-1,3,5-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl) were identified by GC-MS analysis. These furan derivatives as they contain hydroxyl groups could be possessed antioxidant activities. The antioxidant enzymes were also detected in the miswak extract with high level of peroxidase and low level of catalase and polyphenoloxidase. The synergistic actions of antioxidant compounds and antioxidant enzymes make miswak is a good chewing stick for oral hygiene and food purposes.

  17. Dental state and subjective chewing ability of institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelund, R

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the dental state of the elderly, to provide a subjective appraisal of their chewing ability and their inability to eat certain foods because of their poor dental state. The subjects were 480 residents of 24 municipal old people's homes in different parts of Finland. Of the subjects, 153 were men and 327 women, and their ages ranged from 65 to 100 years. The methods used were clinical examination and interview. The clinical examination revealed that 68% of the subjects had no natural teeth, and 22% had neither natural nor artificial teeth. The number of teeth in dentate subjects was small (average 7.6), and the condition mostly poor. Only 2% had any serviceable counterparts. 51% of the subjects wore dentures: 57 subjects in the maxilla alone, three in the mandible alone and 186 in both maxilla and mandible. 41% said that because of their teeth they were unable to eat some foods they would have liked to eat, crisp bread being mentioned most often as such a food (85% of those with chewing difficulties). Edentulous subjects and dentate subjects wearing both maxillary and mandibular dentures said more often than those without dentures that they could eat everything; those without any teeth had most often (59%) to avoid some foods. More attention should be given to the dental condition and the masticatory function of the elderly, especially of those living in institutions, to ensure that they are comfortable physically, psychologically, and socially for the rest of their lives.

  18. GAMBARAN KEPERCAYAAN TENTANG KHASIAT MENYIRIH PADA MASYARAKAT PAPUA DI KELURAHAN ARDIPURA I DISTRIK JAYAPURA SELATAN KOTA JAYAPURA

    OpenAIRE

    Kamisorei, Rahel Violin; Devy, Shrimarti Rukmini

    2018-01-01

    Indonesian people has long know the, betel leaf, areca nut, and lime is material to betel chewing. Chewing the betel leaf is believed can care teeth by ancestors. They are convinced that slacking can strengthen teeth, cure small cuts in the mouth, eliminate bad breath. Indigenous Papuans engage in slaughtering behavior because of the belief inherited from the ancestors. The frequency of betel chewing practiced by indigenous people of Papua is > 2 times a day by consuming more than two areca n...

  19. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  20. [Effects of Betel shisanwei ingredients pill on AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depressive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hai-Ying; Wu, Jisiguleng; Bai, Liang-Feng; Bao, Wu-Ye; Hu, Rilebagen; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yue

    2014-05-01

    To observe the effects of Mongolian pharmaceutical Betel shisanwei ingredients pill on AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depressive rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups according to the sugar consumption test (10 rats in each group), normal control group,model group,fluoxetine group (3.3 mg x kg(-1)) and low dose, medium dose and high dose group (0.25, 0.5, 1 g x kg(-1)) of Betel shisanwei ingredients pill. Except the normal control,the other groups were treated with the chronic unpredictable mild stress stimulation combined with lonely raising for 28 days. 10 mL x kg(-1) of drugs were given to each rat once daily,continuously for 28 days. The AC activity of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were determined by radiation immunity analysis (RIA), while cAMP and PKA quantity were determinated by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA). The AC activity, cAMP and PKA quantity of hippocampus and prefrontal of mouse model of Chronic stress depression decreased significantly than those of control group (P Betel shisanwei ingredients pill group indecreased significantly than those of model group (P Betel shisanwei ingredients pill. The AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depression model of rats is down-regulated, whereas Mongolian pharmaceutical Betel shisanwei ingredients pill could up-regulated it to resist depression.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Piper Betel Leaf Oil, Origanum vulgare Essential Oil and Fluconazole Suspension on Candida albicans − An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Makkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic mucosal infection caused by Candida albicans. It usually responds to topical treatments such as clotrimazole troches, topical fluconazole, chlorhexidine mouthwash and nystatin suspension. Piper betel leaf oil and Origanum vulgare essential oil have shown some topical antifungal activity. Aim: To determine and compare the antifungal efficacy of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension against C. albicans. Materials and Methods: The zone of inhibition was measured by the cup–plate diffusion method using 100 μl volume of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension, which were pipetted into the wells of the inoculated Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plates. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimetres using Vernier calliper. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by the broth macro-dilution test by pouring 1 ml of the respective concentrations of the test material to the individual test tubes along with 10 μl of the diluted test organism inoculum. Finally, MIC was calculated using a reflective viewer. Results: The zone of inhibition for O. vulgare essential oil (>40 mm was more than fluconazole suspension (>35 mm. MIC of O. vulgare essential oil, piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension was 1.6%, 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively. Conclusion: O. vulgare essential oil was found to be a more effective antifungal agent than piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension.

  2. Changes in jaw muscle activity and the physical properties of foods with different textures during chewing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Hiroko; Magara, Jin; Nakamura, Yuki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Ito, Kayoko; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate how the activity of the masseter (Mas) and suprahyoid (Hyoid) muscles is influenced by the physical properties of food, how changes in the rheological properties of food differ between different foods during the process of food reduction, and how different salivary flow rates affect bolus-making capability during masticatory behavior in healthy humans. Ten healthy adults participated in this study. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the Mas and Hyoid muscles, and 15 g of steamed rice and rice cake was prepared as test foods. In the ingestion test, the subjects were asked to eat each food in their usual manner. The chewing duration, number of chewing cycles before the first swallow, Mas and Hyoid EMG activity, and chewing cycle time were compared between the foods. Total chewing duration was divided into three substages: early, middle, and late; chewing cycle time and EMG activity per chewing cycle of each substage were compared between the foods and among the substages. In the spitting test, the rheological properties of the bolus at the end of each substage were compared between the foods and among the substages. Finally, stimulated salivary flow rates were measured and the relationships between salivary flow rate and chewing duration, EMG activity, and changes in physical food characteristics were investigated. There were significant differences in total chewing duration and the number of chewing cycles, but not in chewing cycle time, between the foods, which had similar hardness values. The EMG activity levels of the Mas and Hyoid per chewing cycle for the rice cake were significantly greater than for the steamed rice throughout the recording periods. While Mas activity did not change among the substages during chewing, Hyoid EMG activity decreased as chewing progressed. Chewing cycle time also gradually decreased as chewing progressed. The hardness of both foods initially increased, then gradually decreased

  3. Masticatory performance and chewing experience with implant-retained mandibular overdentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertman, ME; Slagter, AP; van't Hof, MA; van Waas, MAJ; Kalk, W

    The relationship between masticatory performance and chewing experience has not yet been explored for patients with implant-retained overdentures. Although many relationships have been found between parameters of objective and subjective oral function, the structure of these relationships remain

  4. The relative bioavailability of loratadine administered as a chewing gum formulation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr-Jensen, Lene; Damkier, Per; Bidstrup, Tanja Busk

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of loratadine and its active metabolite desloratadine after single-dose administration of loratadine as a conventional tablet, orally disintegrating tablet (smelt tablet) and a chewing gum formulation with and without...... of medicated chewing gum without collection of saliva and a 30-mg portion of medicated chewing gum with collection of saliva. Blood samples were taken at predefined sampling points 0-24 h after medication, and the plasma concentrations of loratadine and desloratadine were determined by high-performance liquid...... chromatography. Each study period was separated by a wash-out period of at least 7 days. RESULTS: The mean dose-corrected area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity AUC(0-infinity) for the chewing gum formulation was statistically significantly increased compared to the tablet...

  5. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis: comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, Casper P; Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Van Amerongen, Barbara M; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Valentijn, Robert M; Vos, Pieter F; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bezemer, Pieter D; ter Wee, Piet M

    2005-04-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White) and a xanthan gum-based artificial saliva (Xialine) in the management of xerostomia in chronic HD patients. Sixty-five HD patients participated in a 6-week crossover trial. The artificial saliva was rated significantly lower than the chewing gum for effectiveness, taste and a global assessment. No preference differences were found for gender and age, although older subjects rated the artificial saliva with a higher mark. Thirty-nine subjects (60%) preferred chewing gum, 15% (n=10) preferred the artificial saliva. Therefore, both chewing gum and artificial saliva could play an important role in the palliative care of xerostomia in HD patients.

  6. Symmetry of fMRI activation in the primary sensorimotor cortex during unilateral chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, M; Domin, M; Kordass, B

    2017-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most advanced techniques to analyze the cerebral effects on many behavior aspects of the oral system such as chewing and mastication. Studies on imaging of the cerebral representation of chewing demonstrated differential results with respect to cortical lateralization during unilateral chewing. The aim of our study is to clarify the effects of cerebral responses during unilateral chewing. We used fMRI to compare brain activities during occlusal function in centric occlusion on natural teeth and chewing on a gum located on the right or the left teeth in 15 healthy subjects. Group data were performed by Talairach normalization and in addition by an assignment of activation maxima to individual anatomical landmarks in order to avoid possible loss of spatial preciseness of activation sites by normalization procedures. Evaluation of group data by Talairach normalization revealed representation sites for occlusal movements in bilateral primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices, primary motor (M1) and premotor cortices, supplementary motor area (SMA) and medial cingulate gyrus, bilateral anterior cerebellar hemispheres and vermis, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, and left pallidum. Right-sided chewing showed no differential activation to left-sided chewing, and both showed activation in areas also involved in bilateral occlusion. Both techniques, the one based on group normalization and the one based on an individual evaluation method, revealed remarkable low differences in activation maximum location in the primary motor, the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, and the anterior cerebellar lobe. All chewing movements tested involved bilateral sensorimotor activation without a significant lateralization of activation intensities. Overall, a general lateralization of occlusion movements to the dominant side could not be verified in the present study. Chewing on the left or on the right

  7. Predictors of chewing ability among community-residing older adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyongok; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son

    2017-01-01

    Decreased chewing ability in older adults can lead to poor nutritional and physical conditions, and eventually death. The present study examined the relationships between chewing ability and related characteristics (e.g. health promotion habits, health status and functional status), and identified predictors of chewing ability in community-residing older adults. Among the total of 11 542 participants in the 2011 National Survey on Older Adults in Korea, data from 10 543 participants were used for analysis. Chewing ability was evaluated using a self-report of chewing ability. Exercise ability was assessed by objective exercise ability and perceived exercise ability in both the upper and lower extremities. Depression and cognitive functions were measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and the Mini-Mental State Examination, respectively. A total of 56.9% of participants had poor chewing abilities. After adjusting for age and sex, logistic regression analysis showed that depression (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.60-1.92), cognitive impairment (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17-1.40), objective exercise ability (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.41), regular exercise habits (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.13-1.34), medical check-up history (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.32), number of chronic diseases (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15) and perceived exercise ability in the lower extremities (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.10) were significant predictors of chewing ability. Chewing ability in older adults should be improved in consideration of mental and general health condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 78-84. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Correlation between the median particle size of chewed frankfurter sausage and almonds during masticatory performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumonsiri, P; Thongudomporn, U; Paphangkorakit, J

    2018-04-27

    The correlation between chewing and gastric function is best reflected when the same food type is used during both tests. We proposed frankfurter sausage as test food for masticatory performance as it can also be used in gastric emptying test. The suitability of frankfurter sausage to determine masticatory performance, however, has never been examined. To examine the correlations between the median particle size of frankfurter sausage and almonds (as standard test food) after different numbers of chewing cycles. Twenty-seven subjects performed masticatory performance tests by chewing 2 types of test foods, that is, a piece of almond or 5-g frankfurter sausage cubes placed in a sealed latex bag, for 5 and 15 chewing cycles. For each individual, right and left sides were tested separately. Chewed samples obtained from both sides were pooled. Median particle sizes were determined using a multiple sieving method. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine any correlation between median particle sizes of the 2 test foods after 5 and 15 cycles. Median particle sizes after 5 and 15 cycles were 2.04 ± 0.87 and 0.95 ± 0.58 mm for almonds and 4.16 ± 0.19 and 3.73 ± 0.25 mm for frankfurter sausage, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the median particle size of chewed frankfurter sausage after 15 cycles and that of chewed almonds after 5 and 15 cycles (r = .76, P < .01 and r = .52, P = .01, respectively). Frankfurter sausage chewed for 15 cycles may be suitable for the determination of masticatory performance in conjunction with gastric emptying test. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of Teucrium Polium-Containing Chewing Gum on Reducing Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Khoramian Tusi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have reported the antibacterial effect of Teucrium polium extract. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of a chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 20 dental students were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group received a chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium, and the control group received a chewing gum without any plant extract. Each person chewed the gum for 20 minutes three times a day (after each meal for three weeks. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment before the use of the gums and one day after the final gum consumption. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR technique was employed to determine the bacterial level. The colonization rate of Streptococcus mutans was compared between the two groups by using t-test in SPSS, version 21. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of Streptococcus mutans counts before the intervention (P>0.05. The consumption of Teucrium polium extract-containing chewing gum in comparison with the placebo gum significantly diminished the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies (P=0.002. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium significantly lowered the colonization rate of Streptococcus mutans in human saliva.

  10. Evolution of Muscle Activity Patterns Driving Motions of the Jaw and Hyoid during Chewing in Gnathostomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Nicolai; Herrel, Anthony; Ross, Callum F.; Williams, Susan H.; German, Rebecca Z.; Sanford, Christopher P. J.; Gintof, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Although chewing has been suggested to be a basal gnathostome trait retained in most major vertebrate lineages, it has not been studied broadly and comparatively across vertebrates. To redress this imbalance, we recorded EMG from muscles powering anteroposterior movement of the hyoid, and dorsoventral movement of the mandibular jaw during chewing. We compared muscle activity patterns (MAP) during chewing in jawed vertebrate taxa belonging to unrelated groups of basal bony fishes and artiodactyl mammals. Our aim was to outline the evolution of coordination in MAP. Comparisons of activity in muscles of the jaw and hyoid that power chewing in closely related artiodactyls using cross-correlation analyses identified reorganizations of jaw and hyoid MAP between herbivores and omnivores. EMG data from basal bony fishes revealed a tighter coordination of jaw and hyoid MAP during chewing than seen in artiodactyls. Across this broad phylogenetic range, there have been major structural reorganizations, including a reduction of the bony hyoid suspension, which is robust in fishes, to the acquisition in a mammalian ancestor of a muscle sling suspending the hyoid. These changes appear to be reflected in a shift in chewing MAP that occurred in an unidentified anamniote stem-lineage. This shift matches observations that, when compared with fishes, the pattern of hyoid motion in tetrapods is reversed and also time-shifted relative to the pattern of jaw movement. PMID:21705368

  11. The potential of dental-protective chewing gum in oral health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Kiet A; Milgrom, Peter; Rothen, Marilynn

    2008-05-01

    The authors provide an overview of chewing gum as a delivery vehicle for dental-protective agents, highlighting xylitol and its potential application in caries-prevention programs for children. The authors reviewed selected clinical investigations and previous reviews associated with chewing gum containing substances such as calcium, bicarbonate, carbamide, chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol and their effects on reducing caries. They searched the MEDLINE database by using the key words "dental caries," "oral health," "calcium," "bicarbonate," "carbamide," "chlorhexidine," "fluoride" and "xylitol." Chewing gum is being used as a delivery vehicle for substances such as calcium, bicarbonate, carbamide, chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol to improve oral health and reduce caries. These substances exhibit properties that are protective of the oral environment and mediate common oral diseases. The debate for advocating xylitol use in caries prevention is advancing; however, chewing gum use by young schoolchildren in the United States is hindered by choking hazard concerns and lack of specific xylitol dosing recommendations. The use of chewing gum containing dental-protective substances, particularly xylitol, in caries-prevention programs can reduce the tooth decay epidemic. Chewing gum use by children in the school setting should be reconsidered.

  12. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior.WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum, sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum, and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum. Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored.We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum.These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.

  13. Chewing gum benefits sustained attention in the absence of task degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Muneem, Mohammed; Miles, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the effect of chewing gum on sustained attention and associated changes in subjective alertness. In a within-participants design, 20 participants completed an extended version of the sustained attention response task (SART: Robertson et al., 1997), both with and without chewing gum. Self-rated measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were taken before and after the SART. Chewing gum was associated with improved attentional task performance. This finding was not contingent upon a general decrease in attentional performance and was apparent at all stages of the task. Subjective measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were higher following the chewing of gum. Changes in sustained attention co-varied with subjective alertness. The effects of chewing gum on attention and alertness are consistent with past literature and were not contingent on declines in attention. Additionally, we found evidence that gum-induced changes in self-rated alertness and attention are related. We found no support for the proposition that chewing gum can impair attention due to the division of resources.

  14. Chewing ability as a parameter for evaluating the disability of patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H; Ohtsuka, A; Kurashina, K; Kopp, S

    2001-05-01

    Restoration of chewing ability is an important aspect of the treatment for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). However, too little attention has been paid to it. We have used a questionnaire to evaluate and score the chewing ability of TMD patients. The questionnaire includes 19 kinds of food and a chewing task. The patient was asked if she/he experiences difficulty in enjoying eating. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations between score of chewing ability (SCA) and other symptoms/signs of TMD. Four hundred and seventy-three consecutive TMD patients were evaluated for SCA and other symptoms/signs including temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, TMJ and muscle tenderness, TMJ noise (clicking and crepitus), and maximum mouth opening. The relationship between SCA and other symptoms/signs were analysed by multiple regression analysis. Score of chewing ability correlated significantly with TMJ pain and mouth opening capacity but not with TMJ noise and muscle tenderness. Age was a background factor but sex was not. The result of this study suggests that SCA correlated with dysfunction of the TMD patients. This method could be used to evaluate the ability of chewing in assessment of TMD.

  15. LIBS coupled with ICP/OES for the spectral analysis of betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, I.; Rehan, K.; Sultana, S.; Khan, M. Z.; Muhammad, R.

    2018-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was optimized and was applied for the elemental analysis and exposure of the heavy metals in betel leaves in air. Pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) in conjunction with a suitable detector (LIBS 2000+, Ocean Optics, Inc) having the optical resolution of 0.06 nm was used to record the emission spectra from 200 to 720 nm. Elements like Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, P, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr, and Zn were found to be present in the samples. The abundances of observed elements were calculated through normalized calibration curve method, integrated intensity ratio method, and calibration free-LIBS approach. Quantitative analyses were accomplished under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and optically thin plasma. LIBS findings were validated by comparing its results with the results obtained using a typical analytical technique of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP/OES). Limit of detection (LOD) of the LIBS system was also estimated for heavy metals.

  16. Protection effect of piper betel leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shun-Chieh; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lin, Jing-Jing; Peng, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2007-01-01

    Piper betel leaves (PBL) are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. PBL has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antimutation. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of PBL extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in a rat model. Fibrosis and hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl(4) (8%, 1 ml/kg body weight) thrice a week for 4 weeks. PBL extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST and ALT activities caused by CCl(4) intoxication. It also attenuated total glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST alpha isoform activity, and on the other hand, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The histological examination showed the PBL extract protected liver from the damage induced by CCl(4) by decreasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-sma) expression, inducing active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression though Ras/Erk pathway, and inhibiting TIMP2 level that consequently attenuated the fibrosis of liver. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of PBL against liver fibrosis.

  17. Quid-Innova 2005-2006: Impacto científico de un programa de formación y promoción de la Investigación en Enfermería Quid-Innova 2005-2006: Scientific impact of a nursing research formation and promotion program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Hueso Montoro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El quid INNOVA es un programa de formación para la promoción del conocimiento y la innovación en cuidados entre las enfermeras andaluzas. El propósito de este estudio es conocer y analizar la producción científica emergente del programa quid-INNOVA en su primer periodo de ejecución, que abarcó los años 2005 y 2006. Metodología: Estudio de carácter evaluativo, exploró indicadores de tipo académico (cobertura, cumplimiento y nivel de adecuación e indicadores de impacto científico (productividad potencial, productividad directa, productividad general y productividad de acción investigadora. Se llevó a cabo un análisis estadístico descriptivo para cada variable. Resultados: Los resultados más llamativos constatan que se han obtenido 6 publicaciones directas de cada 10 alumnos que han participado en alguna actividad formativa de carácter científico, o que más del 70% de los proyectos de investigación generados en el programa y presentados en la convocatoria de investigación de la Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía han conseguido financiación. Conclusiones: El programa quid-INNOVA ha repercutido significativamente en la producción científica, lo que lo convierte en un claro ejemplo de transferencia de la formación a la práctica, puesto que se ha logrado incrementar el conocimiento científico en términos de artículos publicados y de proyectos de investigación financiados. Promoción del conocimiento.Base: The quid-INNOVA is a program of training for the promotion of knowledge and innovation between the nurses of Andalucía. The purpose of this study is to know and analyze the emerging scientific production of quid-INNOVA in its first period of implementation that covered the years 2005 and 2006. Methodology: It studied character assessment that took a unit of analysis from each of the integrated courses of the quid-INNOVA. The variables studied corresponded to indicators of academic type (cover

  18. Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Afnan, Fadia; Ali, Liaquat

    2014-01-01

    Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%), exercise (25%), routine blood glucose testing (32%), foot care (70%), smoking (6%) and betel quid chewing habit (25%). Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013), rural area (P = 0.013) and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043) showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014), older age (P = 0.037) are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045) than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037) and business occupation group (P = 0.039) showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively.

  19. The aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis: the stimulation of collagen synthesis by extracts of areca nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canniff, J P; Harvey, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic disabling disease developing in up to 0.5% of the estimated 500 million habitual chewers of the "betel" quid. The quid, or chew, usually comprises a leaf of the Piper betel vine in which is wrapped fragments of the nut of Areca catechu, together with slaked lime and varied additives, including tobacco. The precise aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) remains obscure, but epidemiological and animal studies have pointed to a close association with the prolonged usage of A. catechu nuts. Epithelial atypia and epidermoid carcinoma have been reported in 15% and 7%, respectively, of patients with established OSF. Preparations from varieties of A. catechu nuts have been tested for their ability to stimulate collagen synthesis in microwell cultures of human fibroblasts, using a pulse of 3H-proline and subsequent analysis of the cultures for radioactive collagen. Crude extracts of three varieties of areca nuts were extracted with ethanol and lyophilised before dilution in the culture medium. Control media contained identical concentrations of ethanol where appropriate. The three extracts at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml stimulated collagen synthesis by approximately 150%, suggesting that this effect might be involved in the aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis.

  20. Patterns of maternal tobacco use among Cambodian women: findings from a nationwide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramil N; Kheam, They; Lopez, Jaime; Job, Jayakaran S; Yel, Daravuth

    2013-09-01

    Although current trends indicate that the rate of cigarette smoking tends to be low among women in the Western Pacific Region (Malaysia) identify that a large proportion of women of reproductive age and older chew tobacco--often as part of a betel quid mixture that includes other potentially harmful ingredients (eg, areca nut). Our findings from currently pregnant women identified during a nationwide survey of adult tobacco use in Cambodia indicate that 13.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8% to 17%) were current users of smoked or smokeless (in the form of a betel quid) tobacco. Most pregnant women who used tobacco indicated that their habit was either initiated (29.1%; 95% CI = 16.3-46.3) or increased (33.7%; 95% CI = 18.3-53.5) during pregnancy. Pregnancy-related symptoms such as morning sickness were reported as the reason for more than half (54.9%; 95% CI = 34.8-73.4) of the currently pregnant users to have started a tobacco habit during their lifetime. Among those pregnant women who did not use tobacco, we found strong associations (odds ratios from 2 to 14) with beliefs about the harmful effects of tobacco on adult health, faith-based beliefs in addictive substances, and beliefs that influential members of the community, health professionals, and children should not use tobacco. Our findings indicate that tobacco cessation and prevention programs in Cambodia should specifically target pregnant and reproductive-age women.

  1. Determining chewing efficiency using a solid test food and considering all phases of mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Wang, Xinmiao; Chen, Jianshe; van der Glas, Hilbert W

    2018-07-01

    Following chewing a solid food, the median particle size, X 50 , is determined after N chewing cycles, by curve-fitting of the particle size distribution. Reduction of X 50 with N is traditionally followed from N ≥ 15-20 cycles when using the artificial test food Optosil ® , because of initially unreliable values of X 50 . The aims of the study were (i) to enable testing at small N-values by using initial particles of appropriate size, shape and amount, and (ii) to compare measures of chewing ability, i.e. chewing efficiency (N needed to halve the initial particle size, N(1/2-Xo)) and chewing performance (X 50 at a particular N-value, X 50,N ). 8 subjects with a natural dentition chewed 4 types of samples of Optosil particles: (1) 8 cubes of 8 mm, border size relative to bin size (traditional test), (2) 9 half-cubes of 9.6 mm, mid-size; similar sample volume, (3) 4 half-cubes of 9.6 mm, and 2 half-cubes of 9.6 mm; reduced particle number and sample volume. All samples were tested with 4 N-values. Curve-fitting with a 2nd order polynomial function yielded log(X 50 )-log(N) relationships, after which N(1/2-Xo) and X 50,N were obtained. Reliable X 50 -values are obtained for all N-values when using half-cubes with a mid-size relative to bin sizes. By using 2 or 4 half-cubes, determination of N(1/2-Xo) or X 50,N needs less chewing cycles than traditionally. Chewing efficiency is preferable over chewing performance because of a comparison of inter-subject chewing ability at the same stage of food comminution and constant intra-subject and inter-subject ratios between and within samples respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Collation of chewing efficiency and dentures with diverse occlusal schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Peddinti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rehabilitation of an edentulous patient nurtures satisfaction and this lies in the chewing ability provided by the prosthesis. Aim: To evaluate and compare the masticatory efficiencies of complete dentures with different occlusal schemes. Materials and Methods: Fourteen completely edentulous patients from the age group of 50-70 years were selected according to the inclusion criteria followed in this study. The dentures were made with three different occlusal schemes, i.e., anatomic occlusion without balancing, anatomic occlusion with balancing, and lingualized occlusion and stored in water till the date of denture insertion. Post-insertion instructions were given to the patients at the time of delivery of the dentures. Patients were recalled after seven days and then masticatory efficiency was performed. The test was performed using boiled peanuts and Sieve system. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test and unpaired t-test were carried out. Results: The obtained masticatory efficiency values with anatomic occlusion without balancing, anatomic occlusion with balancing, and lingualized occlusion LO were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and unpaired “t” test. The tests showed that lingualized scheme had highest masticatory efficiency. Conclusion: Within the scope of this study, it can be concluded that the masticatory efficiency will be generally higher in patients provided with complete dentures fabricated using the lingualized occlusal scheme.

  3. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  4. New records and a new species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera found on Columbidae (Columbiformes in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Naz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The chewing lice (Phthiraptera of Columbidae (Columbiformes from Pakistan are studied. Six species of chewing lice with new host records are recorded and one new species of the genus Colpocephalum is described from Columba livia in the Karachi region. All the columbid chewing lice from Pakistan are keyed out and the new species is illustrated and compared with the closest allied species.

  5. The effect of submersion denture base acrylic resin in a betel leaf ekstract solution against growth Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Izham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Denture base is a protesa which replace some or all of the lost original teeth and surrounding tissues. The Pupose of making protesa is for restore the function, appearance, comfort and impaired health result lost teeth. One part of the denture base is base plate. Microorganisms are often found in the oral cavity is Candida albicans (C.albicans approximately 40% in the oral cavity.C.albicans can penetrate the acrylic resin that can infect the soft tissue and is the cause of denture stomatitis therefore the disinfection of denture base is a important factor that must be done. In general betel leaves contant up to 4.2% essential oil compounds and phenyl propanoid and tannin. These compounds is a antimicroba and antifungal which can inhibit the growth of several type of bacteria among others Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aurens, Klebstella, Pasteurella and can turn off the C.albicans. The purpose of the research is to determine how the effect of submersion denture base acrylic resin in a betel leaf ekstract solution against growth C.albicans.Type of research is an experimental laboratory with a longitudinal design (follow-up study. The sampling method used is total sampling. The results showed that the number of C.albicans colonies n denture base acrylic resin which soaked betel leaf extract solution that the dilution 10-1  with consentration 2.5% total colony count is 2 and the results 2.0 x 101 CFU/ml, on a control solution that the dilution 10-2 total colony 355 and the result 3.55 x 104 CFU/ml, that the dilution  10-3 total colony 62 and the result 6.2 x 104 CFU/ml.

  6. Study protocol: quantitative fibronectin to help decision-making in women with symptoms of preterm labour (QUIDS) part 2, UK Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Lisa M; Boyd, Kathleen Anne; Morris, Rachel K; Jackson, Lesley; Chandiramani, Manju; David, Anna L; Khalil, Asma; Shennan, Andrew; Hodgetts Morton, Victoria; Lavender, Tina; Khan, Khalid; Harper-Clarke, Susan; Mol, Ben; Riley, Richard D; Norrie, John; Norman, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the QUIDS study is to develop a decision support tool for the management of women with symptoms and signs of preterm labour, based on a validated prognostic model using quantitative fetal fibronectin (fFN) concentration, in combination with clinical risk factors. Methods and analysis The study will evaluate the Rapid fFN 10Q System (Hologic, Marlborough, Massachusetts, USA) which quantifies fFN in a vaginal swab. In QUIDS part 2, we will perform a prospective cohort study in at least eight UK consultant-led maternity units, in women with symptoms of preterm labour at 22+0 to 34+6 weeks gestation to externally validate a prognostic model developed in QUIDS part 1. The effects of quantitative fFN on anxiety will be assessed, and acceptability of the test and prognostic model will be evaluated in a subgroup of women and clinicians (n=30). The sample size is 1600 women (with estimated 96–192 events of preterm delivery within 7 days of testing). Clinicians will be informed of the qualitative fFN result (positive/negative) but be blinded to quantitative fFN result. Research midwives will collect outcome data from the maternal and neonatal clinical records. The final validated prognostic model will be presented as a mobile or web-based application. Ethics and dissemination The study is funded by the National Institute of Healthcare Research Health Technology Assessment (HTA 14/32/01). It has been approved by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee (16/WS/0068). Version Protocol V.2, Date 1 November 2016. Trial registration number ISRCTN41598423 and CPMS: 31277. PMID:29674373

  7. Chewing Prevents Stress-Induced Hippocampal LTD Formation and Anxiety-Related Behaviors: A Possible Role of the Dopaminergic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, So; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD) and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior. PMID:26075223

  8. Chewing prevents stress-induced hippocampal LTD formation and anxiety-related behaviors: a possible role of the dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yumie; Koizumi, So; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD) and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior.

  9. Chewing Prevents Stress-Induced Hippocampal LTD Formation and Anxiety-Related Behaviors: A Possible Role of the Dopaminergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Ono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior.

  10. Is the side with the best masticatory performance selected for chewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Lastra, Bernat; Flores-Orozco, Elan Ignacio; Salsench, Juan; Peraire, Maria; Martinez-Gomis, Jordi

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the degree of relationship between masticatory laterality and lateral asymmetry of masticatory performance using silicon pieces enclosed in a latex bag. Forty-two young adults with natural dentition participated in this cross-sectional, observational study. They performed four different masticatory assays, each consisting of five trials of chewing three pieces of silicon for 20 cycles. In one assay, they were asked to masticate unbagged silicon free-style, whilst in the three other assays they were asked to masticate bagged silicon free-style, unilaterally on the right-hand side and unilaterally on the left-hand side. The preferred chewing side was determined by calculating the asymmetry index for both the free-style assays. Masticatory performance was determined by sieving the silicon particles and the cycle duration was also recorded. Data were analysed using independent samples or paired t-test and linear regression. Masticatory function using the bagged silicon was similar to that using the unbagged silicon. A significant and positive relationship was observed between the preferred che