WorldWideScience

Sample records for beta radiography

  1. An ISPA-camera for $\\beta$-radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Puertolas, D; Leutz, H; Gys, Thierry; D'Ambrosio, C

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new type of beta-camera based on an Imaging Silicon Pixel Array (ISPA)-tube combined with planar plastic scintillators or with SiY2O5(Ce)-scintillating powder. The ISPA-tube consists of a photocathode viewed at 3 cm distance by a silicon anode divided into 1024 rectangular (75 microm x 500 microm) detector pixels, each bump-bonded to its equally-sized electronic pixel. Depending on the beta-detector thickness we achieved spatial resolutions (FWHM) between 105 microm (63Ni source and 30 microm thick plastic scintillator) and 240 microm (90Sr-90Y source and 120 microm thick plastic scintillator) by covering the detectors with brass templates. With their four 60 microm wide slits oriented parallel to the long pixel edges we simulated small sized beta-strips. The impact of detector thickness is explained by multiple scattering, angular aperture of the template slits and scintillating light distribution at the ISPA-photocathode. Beta detection sensitivities were measured with calibrated...

  2. Neutron Radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, A. R.; Rao, M. V. N.

    2012-01-01

    The field of neutron radiography with special reference to isotopic neutron radiography has been reviewed. Different components viz., sources, collimators, imaging systems are described. Various designs of neutron radiography facilities, their relative merits and demerits , the appropriateness of each design depending on the object to be radiographed, and economics of each technique are also dealt. The applications of neutron radiography are also briefly presented.

  3. Neutron Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Reddy

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of neutron radiography with special reference to isotopic neutron radiography has been reviewed. Different components viz., sources, collimators, imaging systems are described. Various designs of neutron radiography facilities, their relative merits and demerits , the appropriateness of each design depending on the object to be radiographed, and economics of each technique are also dealt. The applications of neutron radiography are also briefly presented.

  4. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radiography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method which allows components to be examined for flaws without interfering with their usefulness. It is one of a number of inspection methods which are commonly used in industry to control the quality of manufactured products and to monitor their performance in service. Because of its involvement in organizing training courses in all the common NDT methods in regional projects in Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean and in many country programmes, the Agency is aware of the importance of standardizing as far as possible the syllabi and training course notes used by the many experts who are involved in presenting the training courses. IAEA-TECDOC-628 ''Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing'' presents syllabi which were developed by an Agency executed UNDP project in Latin America and the Caribbean taking into account the developmental work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing. Experience gained from using the radiography syllabi from TECDOC-628 at national and regional radiography training courses in the Agency executed UNDP project in Asia and the Pacific (RAS/86/073) showed that some guidance needed to be given to radiography experts engaged in teaching at these courses on the material which should be covered. The IAEA/UNDP Asia and Pacific Project National NDT Coordinators therefore undertook to prepare Radiography Training Course Notes which could be used by experts to prepare lectures for Level 1,2 and 3 radiography personnel. The notes have been expanded to cover most topics in a more complete manner than that possible at a Level 1, 2 or 3 training course and can now be used as source material for NDT personnel interested in expanding their knowledge of radiography. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, J S

    2006-01-01

    Digital radiography has been used in human medical imaging since the 1980s with recent and rapid acceptance into the veterinary profession. Using advanced image capture and computer technology, radiographic images are viewed on a computer monitor. This is advantageous because radiographic images can be adjusted using dedicated computer software to maximize diagnostic image quality. Digital images can be accessed at computer workstations throughout the hospital, instantly retrieved from computer archives, and transmitted via the internet for consultation or case referral. Digital radiographic data can also be incorporated into a hospital information system, making record keeping an entirely paperless process. Digital image acquisition is faster when compared to conventional screen-film radiography, improving workflow and patient throughput. Digital radiography greatly reduces the need for 'retake' radiographs because of wide latitude in exposure factors. Also eliminated are costs associated with radiographic film and x-ray film development. Computed radiography, charged coupled devices, and flat panel detectors are types of digital radiography systems currently available. PMID:16971994

  6. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This introduction is addressed to an audience active in diverse forms of neutron source applications but not directly familiar with neutron radiography. Neutron radiography is, of course, similar to, and complementary to, radiography using x-rays. However, neutrons, being sensitive to the nuclear properties of materials, provide information fundamentally different from x-rays. For example, neutrons can penetrate many dense metals such as uranium, lead, bismuth or steel, and can reveal details of internal hydrogenous components: explosives, lubricants and gaskets. For nuclear fuel inspection neutron radiography offers the ability to penetrate dense uranium-238 and contrast the isotopes U-235 or Pu-239 and also offers the ability to discriminate against unwanted interference from gamma radiation. In addition to advantages in industrial applications, there are special situations in fields such as medical diagnostics, dentistry, agriculture and forensic science. Comprehensive accounts of applications in the field can be found in the proceedings of the world conferences on neutron radiography: USA (1981), FRANCE (1986). A third conference in this series is scheduled for May 1989 in Japan

  7. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is meant to be a manual for industrial radiography. As such the manual concentrates on the practical aspects, presenting existing radiographic system and techniques of operation to satisfy specified quality requirements. The manual also reviews the safety aspect of performing radiographic work. (author) systems

  8. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digital processing of the neutron radiography images gives the possibility for data quantification. In this case an exact relation between the measured neutron attenuation and the real macroscopic attenuation coefficient for every point of the sample is required. The assumption that the attenuation of the neutron beam through the sample is exponential is valid only in an ideal case where a monochromatic beam, non scattering sample and non background contribution are assumed. In the real case these conditions are not fulfilled and in dependence on the sample material we have more or less deviation from the exponential attenuation law. Because of the high scattering cross-sections of hydrogen (σs=80.26 barn) for thermal neutrons, the problem with the scattered neutrons at quantitative radiography investigations of hydrogenous materials (as PE, Oil, H2O, etc) is not trivial. For these strong scattering materials the neutron beam attenuation is no longer exponential and a dependence of the macroscopic attenuation coefficient on the material thickness and on the distance between the sample and the detector appears. When quantitative radiography (2 D) or tomography investigations (3 D) are performed, some image correction procedures for a description of the scattering effect are required. This thesis presents a method that can be used to enhance the neutron radiography image for objects with high scattering materials like hydrogen, carbon and other light materials. This method uses the Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, to simulate the neutron radiography process and get the flux distribution for each pixel of the image and determine the scattered neutrons distribution that causes the image blur and then subtract it from the initial image to improve its quality.

  9. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the full texts of nearly all the papers read at the meeting (including illustrations and citations) as well as the summaries of discussions about the individual topics. The subjects of main interest during the congress were the fundamentals and uses of digital radiography (13 contributions); transmission and retrieval systems for digital image data (7 contributions); evaluation and promotion of digital image information (3 contributions); lessening of risks from examinations using contrast media (6 contributions); and work-in-progress reports by manufacturers (8 contributions) and users (4 contributions). (orig.)

  10. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of radiography is developing rapidly, both regarding imaging technology and data hardware, and software technology. More and more advanced systems are marketed by the radiological companies. The wide product range makes it difficult to get an overview over principles and components. By closer inspection, however, the number of basic components and technologies is limited. Moreover, the components seem rather well known from other technologies, due to the long times of development in radiology. This report gives a survey of some new principles and components in the video chain. As components may deteriorate or age fast by irradiation, the radiation levels in the chain are evaluated. 13 refs

  11. neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography (or radiology) is a diverse filed that uses neutrons of various energies, subthermal, thermal, epithermal or fast in either steady state or pulsed mode to examine objects for industrial, medical, or other purposes, both microscopic and macroscopic. The applications include engineering design, biological studies, nondestructive inspection and materials evaluation. In the past decade, over 100 different centers in some 30 countries have published reports of pioneering activities using reactors, accelerators and isotopic neutron sources. While film transparency and electronic video are most common imaging methods for static or in motion objects respectively, there are other important data gathering techniques, including track etch, digital gauging and computed tomography. A survey of the world-wide progress shows the field to be gaining steadily in its diversity, its sophistication and its importance. (author)

  12. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 https://edms.cern.ch/file/346848/LAST_RELEASED/PRP30.pdf The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address: http://cern.ch/rp-radio

  13. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified. PMID:23986937

  14. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  15. Magnification radiography in osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteomyelitis often eludes early diagnosis because plain film radiography is too insensitive and radionuclide bone scanning is nonspecific. In this study, 90 diabetic patients were studied with plain film and magnification radiographs of their feet. Among the 24 patients with osteomyelitis, plain radiographs suggested the diagnosis in 14 patients and magnification radiography was diagnostic in 18 of these patients. Thus, magnification radiography offers some diagnostic advantage in patients suspected of having osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  16. Radiography - A conceptual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The purpose of this article is to describe interdisciplinary comparison of the attributes of the concept of radiography in health sciences, physics and technology on the grounds of concept analysis. Background: The concept of radiography is widely used in health sciences, physics and technology. However, the content of the concept may vary. In order to clarify the concept of radiography, the concept must be systematically examined and defined in linguistic form. Method: The concept of radiography was analysed by using the evolutionary method of concept analysis. The data were collected through discretionary sampling and consisted of literature and Internet pages. Qualitative content analysis was employed for analysing the data. Findings: As a result of concept analysis, the concept of radiography in health sciences was determined as expertise of radiographers in the use of radiation, which is dual, dynamic, social and situation-related in nature, and typically based on versatile synthesis. Regarding the attributes identified, the concept of radiography has both similarities and differences between health sciences, physics and technology. Conclusions: The concept of radiography was found to be more abstract, wider, more complex and more radiographer-centred in health sciences than in other disciplines. The content of the concept of radiography seems to vary according to the discipline

  17. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian; Thomsen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...... one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of...... conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  18. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chest radiography is one of the most common examinations in radiology departments. In 2013 approximately 80,000 chest x-rays were performed on women in the fertile age. Even low dose for the examinationCorrect collimation Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on...... collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years...... of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of clinical supervisors. Optimal collimation is determined by European...

  19. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  20. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    OpenAIRE

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing (BJNDT) has agreed to publish the INRNL in i t s column "NDT Bookcase". The Revue Practique de Control Industriel has also agreed to publish the French version of the INRNL. Up t i l l now 12 issues of...

  1. Recent developments in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in radiography are reviewed and eighty-one references are cited to provide additional information. The review includes information on x-ray sources in terms of output, portability and imaging geometry and detectors in terms of films and screens, electrostatic methods, real-time techniques and solid state devices. Inspection methods utilizing radiations other than x-rays, neutrons and charged particles, expand the inspection problems suitable for radiography. Techniques such as tomography, digital radiography and image enhancement are described. Tomography, in particular, provides excellent capability to characterize materials and discontinuities

  2. High quality neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the neutron radiography which is reported in this paper, the radiographs which cannot be obtained by X-ray radiography such as the distribution of water flow in a metal vessel or high radioactive substances can be obtained. As the imaging methods of neutron radiography, there are TV method, film method, track etching method and so on. As for these devices, the dynamic range is small, and there is the limit in quantitative evaluation. Consequently, the semiconductor light-receiving element made by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. developed for measuring weak light was used as a new device. It is called PCD linear image sensor as a plasma coupled device (PCD) is used as the shift register. The basic research on imaging neutron flux distribution by using a cooled type PCD linear image sensor and a honeycomb collimator and analyzing it quantitatively was carried out. The principle of neutron radiography, the PCD linear image sensor system and its cooling unit, the principle and the method of quantitative neutron radiography, the experiment on neutron radiography and its results, and the example of the application to CT are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Radiography at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    What is industrial radiography? It is a non-destructive method with a wide variety of applications, such as inspecting the quality of a weld. It uses high-energy radioactive sources or an X-ray generator.   Is this inspection technique used at CERN? Yes, it is widely used at CERN by the EN-MME Group, which outsources the work to one or more companies, depending on the workload. Is it possible to carry out radiography anywhere at CERN? Yes, it is possible to carry out radiography in any building/accelerator/experiment area at CERN (including in areas which are not normally subject to radiological hazards). When is radiography carried out? It normally takes place outside of working hours (7 p.m. to 6 a.m.). How will I know if radiography is taking place in my building? If this activity is planned in a CERN building, notices will be affixed to all of its main entrance doors at least 24 hours in advance. What are the risks? There is a risk of exposure to very high levels of radiation, dep...

  4. Broadening the radiography spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text discuses the mammography in breast screening and evaluation of breast cancer; Small parts ultrasounds at plaza imaging solutions; role of a Radiographer in mammography-new perspective; Medical imaging education in africa; Caring for the paediatric patient as to broaden radiotherapy spectrum; Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy; Paediatric radiotherapy, management and side effects; The principles of pattern recognition of skeletal structures; the place of distance learning education in broadening the radiography spectrum; the curriculum and budgeting image; sonographer's guide; Computed radiography- X-Ray with vision; digital Radiography in Kenya today; Particle Therapy at Ithemba Labs; The role of lung perfusion and ventilation study in the evaluation of the pulmonary embolism and lastly, an overview of Head and neck treatment at Kenyatta National hospital radiotherapy

  5. Are radiography lecturers, leaders?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article aims to explore the concept of radiography lecturers acting as leaders to their student followers. Through a brief review of the literature, a definition of leadership is suggested and some leadership theories explored. The path-goal theory, leader–member exchange theory and the contemporary theory of transformational leadership are examined more closely. Links between lecturer-leader behaviour and student motivation and learning are tentatively suggested with transformational leadership appearing to offer the optimal leadership style for lecturers to adopt. The paucity of literature relating directly to radiography is acknowledged and areas for further research are suggested. The article concludes with some of the author's practical ideas for incorporating transformational leadership styles and behaviours into radiography education today

  6. Radiography of pressure ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with longstanding and/or deep pressure ulcers radiology is usually consulted. Survey radiography and sinography in 14 patients with pressure ulcers (6 over the tuber ischii and 8 over the femoral trochanter) were evaluated. Osteomyelitic involvement of adjacent bone was revealed in 9 patients on survey radiography. However, it was usually impossible to assess whether or not bony involvement represents healed or active osteomyelitis. Sinography did not contribute to the assessment of whether or not adjacent cortical bone was involved. However, when a fistulation to an adjacent joint was revealed this contributed substantially to the preoperative planning of resection. We therefore recommend that survey radiography and sinography should be included in the evaluation of these patients but that the results from such examinations are critically evaluated. Joint involvement should be taken seriously as progression of septic arthritis usually occurs rapidly. (orig.)

  7. Real-time radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  12. The stationary neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide the high intensity neutron beam and support systems necessary for radiography, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System was constructed at McClellan Air Force Base. The Stationary Neutron Radiography System utilizes a one megawatt TRIGA reactor contained in an Aluminium tank surrounded by eight foot thick concrete walls. There are four neutron beam tubes at inclined angles from the reactor core to separate radiography bays. In three of the bays, robotic systems manipulate aircraft components in the neutron beam, while real-time imaging systems provide images concurrent with the irradiation. Film radiography of smaller components is performed in the remaining bay

  13. Neutron radiography with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique using thermal neutrons was demanded because of its inspection ability to show hydrogeneous material such as plastics, water, explosives or composite materials and irradiated nuclear fuel capsules. This paper describes some experimental results and applications in neutron radiography by the use of several small cyclotrons producing neutrons by Be(p,n) reaction. (author)

  14. Ultrasonography X gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulated experience in the last ten years of substitution to essays by gamma radiography to essay by ultrasonography, starting of the systematic comparison and tabulation of the results obtained by both essays applied in welding joints, in field, in steel pipelines of the SABESP. (V.R.B.)

  15. Scanning equalization radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is in the field of radiography and seeks to reduce the undesirable effects on a radiographic image due to variations in thickness of the irradiated object which cause large variations in exposure at the image plane that can exceed the practical or desirable exposure range of the film or other imaging medium. 17 figs

  16. Neutron induced electron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper a new radiography technique, the 'Neutron Induced Electron Radiography' - NIER, to inspect low thickness samples on the order of micra, has been developed. This technique makes use of low energy electrons as penetrating radiation generated from metallic gadolinium screens when irradiated by thermal neutrons. The conditions to obtain the best image for the conventional X-ray film Kodak-AA were determined by using a digital system to quantify the darkening level of the film. The irradiations have been performed at a radiography equipment installed at the beam-hole no. 8 of the 5 MW IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The irradiation time to obtain the best radiography was 100 seconds and for such condition the technique was able to discern 1 μm in 24 μm of aluminum at a resolution of 32 μm. By visual comparison the images obtained by the NIER shown a higher quality when compared with the ones from other usual techniques the make use of electrons a penetrating radiation and films for image registration. Furthermore the use of the digital system has provided a smaller time for data acquisition and data analysis as well as an improvement in the image visualization. (author)

  17. Manual on industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is intended as a source of educational material to personnel seeking certification as industrial radiographers, and as a guide and reference text for educational organizations that are providng courses in industrial radiography. It covers the basic principles of x-ray and gamma radiation, radiation safety, films and film processing, welding, casting and forging, aircraft structures and components, radiographic techniques, and records

  18. Radiography – How do students understand the concept of radiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Radiography as a concept has mainly been associated with the functional role of the radiographer. The concept has been studied from a theoretical point of view. However, there is a lack of a theoretical foundation and research on the actual substance of the term radiography used in education. It is therefore important to undertake an investigation in order to determine how students after three years education understand the subject of radiography. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse how students in the Swedish radiographers' degree program understand the concept of radiography. Method: A concept analysis was made according to the hybrid model, which combines theoretical, fieldwork and analytical phases. A summative content analysis was used to identify the number and content of statements. The empirical data were collected from questionnaires answered by radiography students at four universities in Sweden. Findings: All radiography students' exemplified radiography with statements related to the practical level although some of them also identified radiography at an abstract level, as a subject within a discipline. The attribute ‘An interdisciplinary area of knowledge’ emerged, which is an attribute on the abstract level. The practical level was described by four attributes: Mastering Medical Imaging’, ‘To accomplish images for diagnosis and interventions’, ‘Creating a caring environment’ and ‘Enabling fruitful encounters’. Conclusion: The hybrid model used was a versatile model of concept development. The results of this study have increased the understanding of what characterizes the concept of radiography in a Swedish context. - Highlights: • This concept analysis of radiography was undertaken according to a hybrid model. • In radiography humanistic aspects are emphasized, a shift from the technological perspective. • The attributes demonstrate the essence and interdisciplinary nature of radiography. • This

  19. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  20. Radiography with Polarised Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The combination of neutron radiography with one dimensional polarisation analysis developed in this thesis allows the spatially resolved determination of the magnetic properties of weakly ferromagnetic substances. This method can yield valuable information on the nature of the underlying phase transition. The requirements for all components of the experimental setup and their influence on the maximum spatial resolution are discussed extensively in this work. Radiographic as well as tomographi...

  1. Digital radiography in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rob; Campbell, Mark R

    2002-06-01

    With the permanent habitation of the International Space Station, the planning of longer duration exploration missions, and the possibility of space tourism, it is likely that digital radiography will be needed in the future to support medical care in space. Ultrasound is currently the medical imaging modality of choice for spaceflight. Digital radiography in space is limited because of prohibitive launch costs (in the region of $20,000/kg) that severely restrict the volume, weight, and power requirements of medical care hardware. Technological increases in radiography, a predicted ten-fold decrease in future launch costs, and an increasing clinical need for definitive medical care in space will drive efforts to expand the ability to provide medical care in space including diagnostic imaging. Normal physiological responses to microgravity, in conjunction with the high-risk environment of spaceflight, increase the risk of injury and could imply an extended recovery period for common injuries. The advantages of gravity on Earth, such as the stabilization of patients undergoing radiography and the drainage of fluids, which provide radiographic contrast, are unavailable in space. This creates significant difficulties in patient immobilization and radiographic positioning. Gravity-dependent radiological signs, such as lipohemarthrosis in knee and shoulder trauma, air or fluid levels in pneumoperitoneum, pleural effusion, or bowel obstruction, and the apical pleural edge in pneumothorax become unavailable. Impaired healing processes such as delayed callus formation following fracture will have implications on imaging, and recovery time lines are unknown. The confined nature of spacecraft and the economic impossibility of launching lead-based personal protective equipment present significant challenges to crew radiation safety. A modified, free-floating radiographic C-arm device equipped with a digital detector and utilizing teleradiology support is proposed as a

  2. Proton radiography in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, L., E-mail: luca.volpe@mib.infn.it [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della scienza 3, Milano 20126 (Italy); Batani, D.; Morace, A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della scienza 3, Milano 20126 (Italy); Nicolai, Ph.; Regan, C. [CELIA, Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, F33405 (France); Ravasio, A. [LULI, UMR 7605, CNRS, CEA, Universite Paris VI, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2011-10-11

    Generation of high intensity and well collimated multi-energetic proton beams from laser-matter interaction extends the possibility to use protons as a diagnostic tool to image imploding target in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments. Due to the very large mass densities reached during implosion, protons traveling through the target undergo a very large number of collisions. Therefore the analysis of experimentally obtained proton images requires care and accurate numerical simulations using both hydrodynamic and Monte Carlo codes. The impact of multiple scattering needs to be carefully considered by taking into account the exact stopping power for dense matter and for the underdense plasma corona. In our paper, density, temperature and ionization degree profiles of the imploding target are obtained by 2D hydrodynamic simulations performed using CHIC code. Proton radiography images are simulated using the Monte Carlo code (MCNPX; adapted to correctly describe multiple scattering and plasma stopping power) in order to reconstruct the complete hydrodynamic history of the imploding target. Finally we develop a simple analytical model to study the performance of proton radiography as a function of initial experimental parameters, and identify two different regimes for proton radiography in ICF.

  3. First experience with digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digital radiogram is explained, its advantages being the various possibilities of image processing, loss-free transmission, recording and storage capabilities, and in special cases, prompt availability of processed images. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and the high-resolution method of digital, luminescent radiography, which replaced the conventional film-foil radiography, are explained as the first developments for the introduction of digital radiography, which today already is an applicable technique. (orig./MG)

  4. Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    OpenAIRE

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    In 1979 a Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) was constituted within Buratom with the participation of all centers within the European Community at which neutron facilities were available. The main purpose of NRWG was to standardize methods and procedures used in neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel as well as establish standards for radiographic image quality of neutron radiographs. The NRWG meets once a year in each of the neutron radiography centers to review the progress made ...

  5. Quality assurance in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, there is no standard way of evaluating performance characteristics of digital radiography systems. Continuous measurements of performance parameters are necessary in order to obtain images of high quality. Parameters of quality assurance in digital radiography, which can be evaluated with simple, quick methods, are spatial resolution, low-contrast detectability, dynamic range and exposure dose. Spatial resolution was determined by a lead bar pattern, whereas the other parameters were measured by commercially available phantoms. Performance measurements of 10 digital subtraction angiography (DSA) units and one digital radiography system for unsubtracted digital radiography were assessed. From these results, recommendations for performance parameter levels will be discussed. (author)

  6. Quality assurance in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, there is no standard way of evaluating performance characteristics of digital radiography systems. Continuous measurements of performance parameters are necessary in order to obtain images of high quality. Parameters of quality assurance in digital radiography, which can be evaluated with simple, quick methods, are spatial resolution, low-contrast detectability, dynamic range and exposure dose. Spatial resolution as determined by a lead bar pattern whereas other parameters were measured by commercially available phantoms. Performance measurements of 10 digital subtraction angiography (DSA) units and one digital radiography system for unsubtracted digital radiography were assessed. Recommendations for performance parameter levels are discussed. (author)

  7. Gamma radiography and its technological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the presentation of gamma radiography and X-ray radiography, the author compare both techniques showing, in particular, the greater utility of gamma radiography in industrial diagnostic and more particularly on works site diagnostic. Problem of using radiography and safety consideration will be studied. Figures shows two radiography equipment which have been designed for gamma radiography respecting the safety regulations required by the Radioisotope Inter-ministerial Commission. In the second part, different techniques and uses of gamma radiography are briefly described : xerography, neutron radiography, fluoroscopy and imaging amplifier, tomography, betatrons and linear accelerators. Cost analysis will discussed in conclusion. (M.P.)

  8. Fast neutron radiography using photoluminescent imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast neutron radiography (FNR) and resonance neutron radiography (RNR) are complementary to the conventional radiography with high energy gamma-rays or brems-strahlung radiation used for the inspection of thick metal objects. In both non-destructive methods, the contrast sensitivity and the penetration power can be improved by using higher energy neutrons. At present direct techniques based either n Solid State Nuclear Track detectors (SSNTDs) or scintillating screens and transfer techniques using activation threshold detectors and radiographic films are applied for the detection of fast neutron images. Rather low detection sensitivity of film and SSNTD based fast neutron imaging methods and also rather poor inherent image contrast of SSNTD pose a problem for FNR in the fast neutron energy region 1-15 MeV interesting for NDT. For more efficient detection of fast neutron images the use of novel highly sensitive photoluminescent imaging plates (IP) in combination with threshold at the KFKI research reactor. The conventional IP produced by FUJI Photo Film Co. for the detection of beta and X-ray radiation were used. The threshold activation detectors were the reactions 115In(n, n') 115mIn, 64Zn(n,p) 64Cu, 56Fe(n, p)56Mn, 24Mg(n, p)24Na and 27Al(n, α)24Na. These threshold reactions cover the fast neutron energy region between 0,7 MeV and 12 MeV. Pure, commercially available metals 0,1 mm to 0,25 mm thick made of In, Zn, Fe, Mg and Al were used as converter screens. The very high sensitivity of IP, the linearity of their response over 5 decades of exposure dose and the high dynamic digitalisation latitude enabled fast neutron radiography of image quality comparable to the quality of thermal NR. In our experimental conditions (φn∼ 108 n/cm2s, RCd ∼ 2) the neutron exposure and IP exposure periods were still practical and comparable to the half life of the corresponding reaction products (half an hour to several hours). Even with the 27Al(n.α)24Na reaction having a

  9. Pediatric musculoskeletal computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. In conventional radiography, a film-screen system serves as the X-ray detector and the film also functions as an archival and display medium. Unlike film-screen radiography, these functions are uncoupled in computed radiography (CR). CR uses conventional radiographic equipment to expose an image on a storage phosphor plate instead of a film-screen combination. Objective. To review the basic concepts of CR and to provide a background for discussion of specific musculoskeletal applications of CR in children. Materials and methods. Various aspects of musculoskeletal CR in children are presented based on our 4 years' experience and a review of the literature. Results. A greater amount of scatter capture occurs with storage phosphor CR than with a film-screen system in the 70- to 120-kVp range. This is attributed to a lower K-absorption edge of barium in the barium fluorohalide (BaFBr) compound used in the imaging plate. A significant reduction of scatter to primary radiation, improvement in bony trabecular sharpness, and improvement in line pair resolution can be achieved in pediatric musculoskeletal imaging using an air gap without an increase in the skin entrance dose as compared to the non-grid table top technique. With CR, in addition to proper radiographic exposure technique, one needs to preprogram and select the optimal processing technique for each anatomic region, projection and age group of the child. Conclusion. The main advantages of CR in pediatric musculoskeletal imaging consist of a reduction in radiation dose for many applications, improved contrast resolution, near elimination of repeat radiographs related to exposure errors, and digital processing capabilities for image enhancement, storage, retrieval, display and transmission. The current limitations of CR include the moderately high start-up cost, the long learning curve to produce optimal films, and the reduced spatial resolution. (orig.). With 8 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Radiography with polarised neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Michael L.

    2010-08-20

    In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni{sub 3}Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T{sub C} on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with

  11. Radiography with polarised neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd1-xNix and Ni3Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd1-xNix and Ni3Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni3Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature TC on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with different ordering temperatures. This procedure was

  12. Xeroradiography in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Tamarozzi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Xeroradiographic investigations of the skull, hand, and elbow were performed on 27 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia. The results were compared with plain radiographic examinations. Xeroradiography, because of its technical properties (i.e. edge contrast enhancement and wide latitude), was shown to demonstrate cortical thinning of long bones, swelling of the diploic space in the skull, and reticulated patterns in the elbow better than standard radiography. Moreover, the use of 'positive' mode imaging was shown to have advantages in the study of the skull and extremities.

  13. An advanced neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stationary Neutron Radiography System (SNRS) nuclear reactor and radiography systems and their performance are described. The primary mission of the SNRS is to conduct neutron radiographic inspections of aircraft components to detect corrosion and moisture. Preliminary measurements indicate that the facility is capable of producing high quality real-time and film radiography. The reactor is capable of providing various additional services including sample irradiations, nuclear harness testing, in-core irradiations, in-core pneumatic rabbit system irradiations, neutron activation analysis, and pulse and square wave operation. 2 refs

  14. Digital radiography: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Edwin T; Williamson, Gail F

    2002-11-15

    Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, film has been the primary medium for capturing, displaying, and storing radiographic images. It is a technology that dental practitioners are the most familiar and comfortable with in terms of technique and interpretation. Digital radiography is the latest advancement in dental imaging and is slowly being adopted by the dental profession. Digital imaging incorporates computer technology in the capture, display, enhancement, and storage of direct radiographic images. Digital imaging offers some distinct advantages over film, but like any emerging technology, it presents new and different challenges for the practitioner to overcome. This article presents an overview of digital imaging including basic terminology and comparisons with film-based imaging. The principles of direct and indirect digital imaging modalities, intraoral and extraoral applications, image processing, and diagnostic efficacy will be discussed. In addition, the article will provide a list of questions dentists should consider prior to purchasing digital imaging systems for their practice. PMID:12444400

  15. Resonance neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of images by the use of neutrons having energies in the resonance region is described. Two-dimensional position-sensitive neutron detectors are used to produce transmission images using neutron time-of-flight techniques at the National Bureau of Standards' electron linac facility. Two types of detectors are described. The first is a crossed-wire proportional counter using 3He as the neutron-sensitive component. The second type utilizes a multichannel plate electron multiplier and a resistive anode readout. A lithium glass scintillator is the neutron-sensitive component in the latter detector. Resonance neutron radiography, using these detectors, has the capability of producing images with isotopic and chemical element discrimination in a complex matrix with a resolution of 1 mm or better. (Auth.)

  16. Multiple-image radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, Miles N.; Wirjadi, Oliver; Chapman, Dean; Zhong, Zhong; Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Yang, Yongyi; Brankov, Jovan G.; Oltulu, Oral; Anastasio, Mark A.; Muehleman, Carol

    2003-12-01

    Conventional radiography produces a single image of an object by measuring the attenuation of an x-ray beam passing through it. When imaging weakly absorbing tissues, x-ray attenuation may be a suboptimal signature of disease-related information. In this paper we describe a new phase-sensitive imaging method, called multiple-image radiography (MIR), which is an improvement on a prior technique called diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI). This paper elaborates on our initial presentation of the idea in Wernick et al (2002 Proc. Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging pp 129-32). MIR simultaneously produces several images from a set of measurements made with a single x-ray beam. Specifically, MIR yields three images depicting separately the effects of refraction, ultra-small-angle scatter and attenuation by the object. All three images have good contrast, in part because they are virtually immune from degradation due to scatter at higher angles. MIR also yields a very comprehensive object description, consisting of the angular intensity spectrum of a transmitted x-ray beam at every image pixel, within a narrow angular range. Our experiments are based on data acquired using a synchrotron light source; however, in preparation for more practical implementations using conventional x-ray sources, we develop and evaluate algorithms designed for Poisson noise, which is characteristic of photon-limited imaging. The results suggest that MIR is capable of operating at low photon count levels, therefore the method shows promise for use with conventional x-ray sources. The results also show that, in addition to producing new types of object descriptions, MIR produces substantially more accurate images than its predecessor, DEI. MIR results are shown in the form of planar images of a phantom and a biological specimen. A preliminary demonstration of the use of MIR for computed tomography is also presented.

  17. Euratom neutron radiography working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1979 a Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) was constituted within Euratom with the participation of all centers within the European Community at which neutron facilities were available. The main purpose of NRWG was to standardize methods and procedures used in neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel as well as establish standards for radiographic image quality of neutron radiographs. The NRWG meets once a year in each of the neutron radiography centers to review the progress made and draw plans for the future. Besides, ad-hoc sub-groups on different topics within the field of neutron radiography are constituted. This paper reviews the activities and achievements of the NRWG and its sub-groups. (author)

  18. Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    In 1979 a Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) was constituted within Buratom with the participation of all centers within the European Community at which neutron facilities were available. The main purpose of NRWG was to standardize methods and procedures used in neutron radiography of nuclear...... reactor fuel as well as establish standards for radiographic image quality of neutron radiographs. The NRWG meets once a year in each of the neutron radiography centers to review the progress made and draw plans for the future. Besides, ad-hoc sub-groups or. different topics within the field of neutron...... radiography are constituted. This paper reviews the activities and achievements of the NRWG and its sub-groups....

  19. Physical principles of digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified overview is given of the physical principles of digital radiography as used in X-ray transmission computed tomography and digital fluoroscopy. The advantages of the digital method over conventional radiography are pointed out. After discussing the analogue to digital conversion stage, the storage space and resolution constraints are considered as well as the resulting limitations on the maximum frame rates for picture acquisition. (U.K.)

  20. Angular signal radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panyun; Zhang, Kai; Bao, Yuan; Ren, Yuqi; Ju, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yan; He, Qili; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Zhu, Peiping

    2016-03-21

    Microscopy techniques using visible photons, x-rays, neutrons, and electrons have made remarkable impact in many scientific disciplines. The microscopic data can often be expressed as the convolution of the spatial distribution of certain properties of the specimens and the inherent response function of the imaging system. The x-ray grating interferometer (XGI), which is sensitive to the deviation angle of the incoming x-rays, has attracted significant attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the comprehensive and analytical theoretical framework is yet to be presented. Herein, we propose a theoretical framework termed angular signal radiography (ASR) to describe the imaging process of the XGI system in a classical, comprehensive and analytical manner. We demonstrated, by means of theoretical deduction and synchrotron based experiments, that the spatial distribution of specimens' physical properties, including absorption, refraction and scattering, can be extracted by ASR in XGI. Implementation of ASR in XGI offers advantages such as simplified phase retrieval algorithm, reduced overall radiation dose, and improved image acquisition speed. These advantages, as well as the limitations of the proposed method, are systematically investigated in this paper. PMID:27136780

  1. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin ... then there is a 25% chance with each pregnancy that their child will inherit two abnormal beta ...

  2. Portable digital electronic radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography is a standard nondestructive technique in the industrial testing of materials and components. It is routinely used during the construction, maintenance and repair of nuclear plants. Traditionally, radiography is performed using photographic film (film radiography, FR). Recent developments in solid-state area imaging radiation detectors, miniature electronics and computer software/hardware techniques have brought electronic alternatives to FR. In recent years various electronic radiography (ER) techniques have served as alternatives to FR, these proved beneficial in some applications. While originally developed to provide real time imaging, ER may offer other advantages over FR, depending on the application. Work was undertaken at CRL to review progress in ER techniques and evaluate the possibility of constructing a portable DER (digital electronic radiography) system, for the inspection of power plant components. A suitable DER technique has been developed and a proof of principle portable system constructed. As this paper demonstrates, a properly designed ER system can be small and compact, while providing radiographic examination with acceptable image quality and the benefits of ER imaging. The CRL DER system can operate with radioactive sources typical of FR. While it does not replace FR, our DER system is expected to be beneficial in specific applications for Candu maintenance, reducing cost, labour and time. Practical, cost saving applications of this system are expected to include valve monitoring and foreign object location during maintenance at Candu reactors

  3. Computed radiography in NDT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed Radiography, or digital radiography by use of reusable Storage Phosphor screens, offers a convenient and reliable way to replace film. In addition to the reduced cost on consumables, the return on investment of CR systems is strongly determined by savings in exposure time, processing times and archival times. But also intangible costs like plant shutdown, environment safety and longer usability of isotopes are increasingly important when considering replacing film by Storage Phosphor systems. But more than in traditional radiography, the use of digital images is a trade-off between the speed and the required quality. Better image quality is obtained by longer exposure times, slower phosphor screens and higher scan resolutions. Therefore, different kinds of storage phosphor screens are needed in order to cover every application. Most operations have the data, associated with the tests to be performed, centrally stored in a database. Using a digital radiography system gives not only the advantages of the manipulation of digital images, but also the digital data that is associated with it. Smart methods to associate cassettes and Storage screens with exposed images enhance the workflow of the NDT processes, and avoid human error. Automated measurements tools increase the throughput in different kinds of operations. This paper gives an overview of the way certain operations have decided to replace film by Computed Radiography, and what the major benefits for them have been. (author)

  4. Computed radiography in NDT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed Radiography, or digital radiography by use of reusable Storage Phosphor screens, offers a convenient and reliable way to replace film. In addition to the reduced cost on consumables, the return on investment of CR systems is strongly determined by savings in exposure time, processing times and archival times. But also intangible costs like plant shutdown, environment safety and longer usability of isotopes are increasingly important when considering replacing film by Storage Phosphor systems. But mote than in traditional radiography, the use of digital images is a trade-off between the speed and the required quality. Better image quality is obtained by longer exposure times, slower phosphor screens and higher scan resolutions. Therefore, different kinds of storage phosphor screens are needed in order to cover every application. Most operations have the data, associated with the tests to be performed, centrally stored in a database. Using a digital radiography system gives not only the advantages of the manipulation of digital images, but also the digital data that is associated with it. Smart methods to associate cassettes and Storage screens with exposed images enhance the workflow of the NDT processes, and avoid human error. Automated measurements tools increase the throughput in different kinds of operations. This paper gives an overview of the way certain operations have decided to replace film by Computed Radiography, and what the major benefits for them have been.

  5. Neutron radiography for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography is similar to X-ray inspection in that both depend upon use of radiation that penetrates some materials and is absorbed by others to provide a contrast image of conditions not readily available for visual inspection. X-rays are absorbed by dense materials, such as metals, whereas neutrons readily penetrate metals, but are absorbed by materials containing hydrogen. The neutron radiography has been successfully applied to a number of inspection situations. These include the inspection of explosives, advanced composites, adhesively bonded structures and a number of aircraft engine components. With the availability of Californium-252, it has become feasible to construct mobile neutron radiography systems suitable for field use. Such systems have been used for in-situ inspection of flight line aircraft, particularly to locate and measure hidden corrosion

  6. Accelerator system for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of x-ray radiography is well established for doing non-destructive evaluation of a vast array of components, assemblies, and objects. While x-rays excel in many radiography applications, their effectiveness diminishes rapidly if the objects of interest are surrounded by thick, high-density materials that strongly attenuate photons. Due to the differences in interaction mechanisms, neutron radiography is highly effective in imaging details inside such objects. To obtain a high intensity neutron source suitable for neutron imaging a 9-MeV linear accelerator is being evaluated for putting a deuteron beam into a high-pressure deuterium gas cell. As a windowless aperture is needed to transport the beam into the gas cell, a low-emittance is needed to minimize losses along the high-energy beam transport (HEBT) and the end station. A description of the HEBT, the transport optics into the gas cell, and the requirements for the linac will be presented

  7. Neutron-induced alpha radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new radiography technique to inspect thin samples was developed. Low energy alpha particles, generated by a boron based screen under thermal neutron irradiation, are used as penetrating radiation. The solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used to register the image. The interaction of the α - particles with the CR-39 gives rise to damages which under an adequate chemical etching became tracks the basic units forming the image. A digital system was developed for data acquisition and data analysis as well as for image processing. The irradiation and etching conditions to obtain the best radiography are 1,3 hours and 25 minutes at 70 deg C respectively. For such conditions samples having 10 μm in thickness can be inspected with a spatial resolution of 32 μm. The use of the digital system has reduced the time spent for data acquisition and data analysis and has improved the radiography image visualization. Furthermore, by using the digital system, it was possible to study several new parameters regarding the tracks which are very important to understand and study the image formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors, the one used in this thesis. Some radiography images are also shown which demonstrate the potential of the proposed radiography technique. When compared with the other radiography techniques already in use to inspect thin samples, the present one developed in the present paper allows a smaller time to obtain the image, it is not necessary to handle liquid radioactive substances, the detector is insensitive to β, γ, X-ray and visible light. (author)

  8. Radiation protection in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In considering the special provisions required in dental radiography, investigations were conducted in Iran. Radiation dose levels in dental radiography were found to be high. Patient exposure from intraoral radiographic examination was calculated, using 50kV X-ray. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were fastened to the nasion, eyes, lip, philtrum, thyroid, gonads and to the right and left of the supra-orbital, infra-orbital temporomandibular joints of live patients. The highest exposure value was for the lower lip. Recommendations concerning educational training and protection of staff and patients were included

  9. Educational aspects of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of art of training and education in non-destructive testing in India, with special reference to industrial radiography is reviewed. Basic requirement of industry and potential of radioisotopes in industrial inspection are also described. Need for an organised training programme in industrial isotope radiography to exploit potentials for benefit of industry concurrent with the safety is stressed. A comprehensive training programme tailored to meet the needs of Indian industry is outlined. Benefits obtained from the course to the industry since the beginning of the training programme are briefly reviewed. (auth.)

  10. Use of radiography in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Radiography is a versatile technique with many applications to archaeological and art historical artefacts. It can be used to assess the condition of objects before conservation treatment, to gain insight into materials used and methods of construction and to reveal the secrets of the embalmers art, hidden within mummified remains. X-ray radiography is an invaluable investigative technique that is non-destructive, quick and cost effective. The study described below covers the investigations of the archaeological artefacts in order to determine their corrosion conditions and production histories which are important for restoration, conservation, replica, dating and inventory works

  11. Radiation protection in technical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In on-site inspections, e.g. double-plate radiography of circumferential pipe welds Ir-192 is most frequently used. Methods, controlled area, possible personnel doses, and radiation protection measures for the inspection and construction personnel are briefly discussed. (HP)

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam requires little to no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What are some ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  16. Holographic techniques in stereo radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some methods for stereo-radiography based on holographic technique are described. A new method has been proposed in which the wavefront reconstruction process is involved. It appears that this method could be used for the useful clinical radio-diagnostic purposes. (author)

  17. Industrial Radiography: Principle and Practical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful and effectiveness of radiography method as a tool to increase quality level and safety of the engineering system and processing plants depend with the level of radiographer knowledge as service provider and also as supervisor. This book was published as effort several local experts to give their knowledge, theory and practical related to radiography technique to the involved public directly or indirectly. This book started with basic physic knowledge that becomes a root to radiography technology. Then, followed by discussion on tools and device that used in radiography work including x-ray machine, gamma projector, film, dark room, and others. Each aspect of radiograph quality also mentioned here to guide the reader on how to produce good radiograph that filled the specification wanted. The good radiograph does not mean anything if it failed to be interpreted correctly. Because of that, this book also explain how to choose good radiograph that qualified to be interpreted and after that how interpretation and evaluation process of object quality inspected was implemented based on image digestion that showed in radiograph. Several code and standard that usually applied in this country also will be referred as well for this work.

  18. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  19. Endobronchial Tuberculosis and Chest Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial tuberculosis and chest radiography I read, with interest, the article entitled “Clinical and Para-clinical Presentations of Endobronchial Tuberculosis” by Ahmadi Hoseini H. S. et al. (1 published in this journal. I would like to focus on some details about the chest X-ray of patients as elaborated by the authors in the results section. Accordingly, the findings of chest radiography in the available patients were as follows: pulmonary consolidation (75%, reduced pulmonary volume (20%, and hilar adenopathy (10%. This is an incomplete statement because the authors did not explain whether there was any normal chest radiography in the study population. In addition, it is not clear whether the X-ray examinations of the patients were normal, how many abnormal plain films yielded the presented data. On the other hand, the fact that the studied patients had no normal chest radiography is  controversial since in the literature, 10-20% of the patients with endobronchial tuberculosis are reported to have normal chest X-ray (2, 3. In fact, this is one of the problems in the diagnosis of the disease, as well as a potential cause of delayed diagnosis and treatment of the patients. Therefore, the absence of normal chest radiographs is in contrast to the available literature, and if not an error, it could be a subject of further investigation.

  20. Material examination by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography as a non-destructive testing technique has played a prominent role in the development of fuel for research and power reactors; studying of dimensional changes due to irradiation; inspection of corrosion in airframe structures and propeller blades; detection of light components and materials in explosive an investigation of diffusion of water into building materials etc. The development of neutron radiography facility by extracting a beam of thermal neutrons through a radial beam port around the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 is described. Graphite block of 30 cm thickness and bismuth block of 25 cm thickness have been used to boost-up thermal neutrons flux level and filter out high energy gamma radiation from the beam respectively. Thermal neutron flux level of the order of 1.06x10/sup 6/ n.cm/sup -2/. s/sup -1/ and a neutron to gamma ratio of the order of 10/sup 5/ n.cm/sup -2/.mR/sup -1/ have been measured at the object position which make the facility useful for investigation of material characteristics an properties applying direct neutron radiography method. The facility has been subjected to modifications and changes in order to enhance thermal neutron flux level and reduce the exposure time for better image quality at the object position. The use of beam purity and sensitivity indicators for determining the beam constituents and resolution of the technique is discussed. Visibility of holes under the lead and acrylic step wedges categorize the facility for direct applications. Neutron cross-sections for different metallic as well as composite materials have been determined by applying neutron radiographic technique. The use of neutron radiography as a complimentary technique to ensure the quality of nuclear fuel in addition to other applications like detection of light components in explosives and pyrotechnic devices is investigated. Detection of corrosion in aluminum joints, deformation in aeronautical components and honeycomb structures is

  1. CT based radiography simulations for both industrial and medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important issues in the simulation work is proper representation of the simulated objects. The geometrical shapes of the simulated objects may range from very simple to very complicated geometries. In addition, a lot of objects come with heterogeneous material properties that need to be included into simulations. These two issues play important roles in both industrial and medical radiography simulations. CT (computed tomography) became widely available to the radiography community in the recent years. Since this technology provides two-dimensional images, CT images can be used to build models toward using in simulation work. In this work, we developed a CT image based algorithm to account for object shape complexities and heterogeneities. The resulting algorithm and absorbed energy doses in a human body part and ideal detector images obtained through the algorithm will be presented

  2. Comparison of flat-panel radiography and computed radiography in urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of digital flat-panel radiography in uro-radiology the i.v. urograms of patients who had been examined with computed radiography and digital flat-panel radiography were compared regarding image quality. Methods: 50 patients who underwent clinically indicated i.v. urography were examined with digital flat-panel radiography and computed radiography. In order to avoid unnecessary double exposure to X-rays, patients were examined either by flat-panel or computed radiography before injection of contrast media. Each further clinically indicated exposure after administration of contrast media was done by alternating the other examination technique. The digital images were compared by 4 radiologists regarding image quality for the detection of defined anatomic structures. Results: Digital flat-panel radiography showed an image quality of the liver, spleen and both kidneys that was similar to computed radiography. The urinary tract, lumbar spine, pelvis and psoas muscle were significantly better visible on flat-panel radiography images. Conclusions: Compared to computed radiography there is no loss of image information by using digital flat-panel radiography in uro-radiology. On the contrary, some anatomic structures on abdominal survey images show better image quality. In conclusion, digital flat-panel radiography has the potential to replace computed radiography in uroradiologic examinations. (orig.)

  3. Industrial Radiography Safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first applications of the imaging capability of X-rays were non-medical. Roentgen produced images of his shotgun, a compass and a set of weights in a closed box to show his colleagues. Prior to 1912, X-rays were used little outside the realms of medicine and dentistry because the X-ray tubes failed under the higher voltages required for industrial purposes. However, that changed in 1913 when high vacuum X-ray tubes designed by Coolidge became available. In 1922, industrial radiography took another step forward with the advent of the 200,000-volt X-ray tube that allowed radiographs of thick steel parts to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. In 1931 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) permitted approval of fusion welded pressure vessels by x-ray, which promoted an acceptance and use of the method. That application continues. Radium became the initial gamma ray source for industrial radiography. The material allowed radiography of castings up to 30cm thick. During World War II, industrial radiography grew significantly as part of the US Navy's shipbuilding-program, and in 1946 gamma ray sources such as cobalt 60 and iridium 192 became available. These new sources gained rapid popularity because they emitted more intense radiation than radium and were less expensive. Present state: the majority of industrial radiography techniques have changed little since their inception. An image is captured, processed and analysed for evidence of fault or defect. Today however, the images are of higher quality and greater sensitivity, through the use of better quality films, smaller radiation sources and automated processing. Developments in electronics and computers now allow technicians to create a digital image, enhance it, transmit it or store it indefinitely. The most noticeable change in industrial radiography equipment from the technician's view would be the reduction in weight of the equipment for a given kV output. Never the less it remains

  4. Industrial radiography X and Gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication gives a practical orientation on industrial radiography. The first chapters deal with basic facts that are useful for professional work in this field. It comprises topics such as generation of X-rays, equipment being used, radiographic films, sensibility, and the penetrameters used. This publication also describes the most used radiographic techniques and the processing of the radiographic film. It contains practical recommendations on how to obtain a good radiographic inspection. It states the reasons for defects in the radiographies. Two annexes are attached which include tables for the selection of penetrameters according to the ASME and DIN codes as well as the time needed for development and fixing according to the temperature

  5. System for uncollimated digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Han; Hall, James M.; McCarrick, James F.; Tang, Vincent

    2015-08-11

    The inversion algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) removes unwanted effects in high energy imaging resulting from an uncollimated source interacting with a finitely thick scintillator. The algorithm takes as input the image from the thick scintillator (TS) and the radiography setup geometry. The algorithm then outputs a restored image which appears as if taken with an infinitesimally thin scintillator (ITS). Inversion is accomplished by numerically generating a probabilistic model relating the ITS image to the TS image and then inverting this model on the TS image through MEM. This reconstruction technique can reduce the exposure time or the required source intensity without undesirable object blurring on the image by allowing the use of both thicker scintillators with higher efficiencies and closer source-to-detector distances to maximize incident radiation flux. The technique is applicable in radiographic applications including fast neutron, high-energy gamma and x-ray radiography using thick scintillators.

  6. Digital radiography vs conventional radiography - a comparison along with its image quality and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In digital radiography, information is represented in the form of discrete units, i.e., numbers, and involve the use of computers, whereas in conventional radiography, information is represented in analog or continuous form rather than in discrete fashion

  7. Radiological security for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report comprises the basic notions of nucleonics, simple calculations for point sources, X-rays, calculations for coatings, standards for radiation protection and industrial radiography instruments. The preceding sums up with the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This is a guide for people who wish to pass examinations, to get the license for radiological safety, for operators on gamma-graphic sources, which work in the country. It is a requirement for work with this kind of radioactive sources

  8. Material examination by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography as a non-destructive testing technique has played a prominent role in the development of fuel for research and power reactors; studying of dimensional changes due to irradiation; inspection of corrosion in airframe structures and propeller blades; detection of light components and materials in explosives and investigation of transport of water into building materials etc. The development of a neutron radiography facility by extracting a beam of thermal neutrons through a radial beam port around the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 is described. Graphite block of 30 cm thickness and bismuth block of 25 cm thickness have been used to boost-up thermal neutrons flux level and filter out high energy gamma radiation from the beam respectively. Thermal neutron flux level of the order of 1.06 x 106n cm-2 s-1 and a neutron flux to gamma ray dose ratio of the order of 105 n cm-2 /mR have been measured at the object position which make the facility useful for investigation of material characteristics and properties applying direct neutron radiography method. The facility has been subjected to modifications and changes in order to enhance thermal neutron flux level and reduce the exposure time for better image quality at the object position. The use of beam purity and sensitivity indicators for determining the beam constituents and spatial resolution of the technique is discussed. Visibility of holes under the lead and acrylic step wedges categorize the facility for direct applications. Neutron cross-sections for different metallic as well as composite materials have been determined by applying neutron radiographic technique. The use of neutron radiography as a complimentary technique to ensure the quality of nuclear fuel in addition to other applications like detection of light components in explosives and pyrotechnic devices is investigated. Detection of corrosion in aluminum joints, deformation in aeronautical components and honeycomb structures is discussed

  9. Radiation safety for site radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance is an update of the 1975 Code of Practice for Site Radiography and is for the use of employers and their radiographers who carry out site work. The subject is discussed under the following headings: Administrative organization, Personnel requirements, Equipment (x-ray and gamma-ray equipment, security, pipeline crawler equipment and safety equipment) Work methods and monitoring, Carriage of sources, Contingency plans, Legal considerations. (U.K.)

  10. Recent trends in development of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the recent trends in the development of radiation sources, radiation detectors and imaging systems in industrial radiography. Among those developmental trends mentioned are the development of mini and microfocal X-ray equipment that produces high definitions radiographs for micro-radiography; the potentials of using lasers for production of low-energy X-rays in high intensity new fields of applications in micro radiography and flash radiography for radiation sources. Other developments in detectors in imaging systems (films, plastic sheets, fluoroscopy screens, electrostatic imaging), radiometry, and image information processing (real time radiography, computerized tomography (CT), gamma-ray-scattering NDE, simultaneous dynamic neutron and gamma radiography, and isotope containers). In 20 years, NDT measurements are expected on the following: on-line detection of laminations in steel during hot rolling, automatic inspection of castings before machining, detection of defects between weld passes and inspection of bonding surfaces before gluing. (ELC). 7 tabs., 7 refs., 15 figs

  11. Patient doses in chiropractic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In New Zealand chiroptractic radiography is of the spinal column and pelvis. A wide variety of different techniques is used and in particular because of their need to assess the relationships of bone and spinal structures to each other, chiropractors tend to use large x-ray field sizes. This in turn gives rise to the use of beam-shaping filters and diaphragms, to improve image quality over areas of the body where the body thickness may vary markedly, and to reduce the patient dose. Reference doses and examples of good radiographic technique for chiropractic radiography have been derived using the survey data. The examples of good chiroptractic radiographic technuique have some similarities with those for medical radiography of corresponding body parts, with the addition of the use of beam shaping filters and diaphragms whter appropriate. The diagnostic requiremnets for each chiroptractic radiographic projection have not been specifies. It is hoped that the chiroptractic profession can provide this information. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  12. Digital and analogue industrial radiography, application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reusable phosphor screens for computer radiography (CR), amorphous selenium screens for direct radiography (DR), film digitalisation (FD) constitute imaging methods accepted by industry and are used for non-destructive radiographic testing (RT). Economic pressures are involving and affecting digital RT technology. Standards and codes for film radiography and radioscopy qualification do no longer cover the wide range of digital RT applications. It will be our task to optimise the performance of digital RT characterisation and to create appropriate examination methods to use all these new and existent technologies. In the meantime, an increasing automation and control of manual methods of analogue radiography can as well be expected. (author)

  13. Neutron radiography by using JSW baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, JSW baby cyclotrons are mostly used for the production of the radioisotopes for medical use. The attempt to use this baby cyclotron for neutron radiography began already in 1981. The feasibility of the neutron radiography for the explosives in metallic cases which are used for H1 rockets was investigated. In 1983, it was shown that the neutron radiography by using the baby cyclotron in Muroran Works, Japan Steel Works, Ltd. was able to be carried out as a routine work. Since then, the nondestructive inspection by neutron radiography has been performed for rocket pyrotechnic articles, and contributed to heighten their reliability. Further, the radiography by using fast neutrons was developed and put to practical use for recent large H2 rockets. The JSW baby cyclotron BC 168 which has been used for neutron radiography can accelerate 16 MeV protons or 8 MeV deuterons up to 50 μA. The principle of thermal neutron radiography is the generation of fast neutrons by irradiating a Be target with the proton beam accelerated by a baby cyclotron, the moderation of the fast neutrons, the formation of the thermal neutron flux of uniform distribution with a collimator, the thermal neutron flux hitting the Gd plate in a film cassette through an object, and the exposure of an X-ray film to electrons from the Gd plate. Fast neutron radiography apparatus, and commercial neutron radiography are described. (K.I.)

  14. Neutron radiography at the HFR Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the five papers on neutron radiography activities at the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR) presented at the Third World Conference on Neutron Radiography which was held in May 1989 in Osaka, Japan. In addition, a survey on neutron radiography in Europe for industry and research as presented at the SITEF NDT symposium 1989 on European Advances in Non-Destructive Testing, held in Toulouse/France in October 1989 is included. The papers compiled here are concerned with: the neutron radiography services available in Petten; the experience with and applications of neutron radiography at Petten; image evaluation and analysis techniques at Petten; the practical utilization of nitrocellulose film in neutron radiography in Europe; an introduction into the basic principles of neutron radiography; an overview of the neutron radiography facilities in Europe for industry and research; and a survey of typical applications of neutron radiography in industry, research and sciences. It is the intention of this compilation to provide a comprehensive overview of the present Petten activities and European facilities in this young and promising field of non-destructive testing of materials and components from the nuclear and the non-nuclear industries and research organizations, and from the sciences

  15. Applications of image plates in neutron radiography and neutron diffraction at BARC, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography techniques based on Gd, Dy and In metallic foils and X-ray film have been used at this centre since early seventies for various NDT and R and D work in nuclear, defence and aerospace industries. In recent years use of photostimulated luminescence based phosphor imaging plate has been introduced in our work. This has enabled to achieve higher sensitivities and dynamic ranges of recording radiographs with acceptable spatial resolution. It also provides digital image information which is more convenient for quantitative evaluations. Neutron image plates have been used in variety of radiography techniques such as conventional neutron radiography (NR), neutron induced beta radiography (NIBR), hydrogen sensitive epithermal neutron radiography (HYSEN) and for neutron powder diffractometry using Apsara, CIRUS and Dhruva reactors as neutron sources. Recently the image plates have also been used for characterization of thermalized neutron beam from a plasma focus neutron source and recording neutron radiographs. Prior to the utilization image plates have been characterised for their performance. Details of the measurements and applications will be presented. (author)

  16. Radiography of the chest and upper airway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques of radiography of the chest in all pediatric-age groups differ only slightly from those used in adult radiography. The technologist's principal challenge, however, relates to optimum handling of the patient with respect to positioning and radiation protection. The hints provided in this chapter should permit the conscientious radiographer to obtain high quality radiographs on all pediatric patients

  17. ARG portable neutron radiography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report all available neutron radiographic data, including results of tests run at LANL, McClellan AFB, and University of Virginia, will be combined to outline specific transportable neutron radiography systems that could achieve the desired results as a complement to x-radiography capabilities for the Accident Response Group (ARG)

  18. Better imaging: the advantages of digital radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.F. van der Stelt

    2008-01-01

    Background. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years, but it has not replaced conventional film-based radiography completely. This could be because of the costs involved in replacing conventional radiographic equipment with a digital imaging system, or because imple

  19. Radiography of the abdominal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography is a very important part of the diagnostic procedure in many small animal diseases. Technically perfect X-rays are essential for the exact diagnosis. The general appearance of the abdominal cavity should be evaluated at first, e.g. the overall contrast and the definition of the visualized organs. Then particular attention should be paid, if there is any peritoneal effusion or free air in the peritoneal cavity. Subsequently each radiographically visible organ has to be evaluated for its position, size, shape and radiographic density

  20. Multiple imaging radiography at LNLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M.G. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelohonnicke@yahoo.com.br; Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19091, 81531-990 Curitiba(Brazil); Antunes, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Safatle, A.M.V.; Barros, P.S.M. [Laboratorio de Oftalmologia Experimental e Comparativa, Departamento de Cirurgia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Morelhao, S.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-01-11

    An analyzer-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging (ABI) setup has been mounted at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) for multiple imaging radiography (MIR) purposes. The algorithm employed for treating the MIR data collected at LNLS is described, and its reliability in extracting the distinct types of contrast that can be obtained with MIR is demonstrated by analyzing a test sample (thin polyamide wire). As a practical application, the possibility of studying ophthalmic tissues, corneal sequestra in this case, via MIR is investigated.

  1. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  2. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, P. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Donner, R. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Birngruber, E. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Thodberg, H.H. [Visiana Aps, Sollerodvej 57C, DK-2840 Holte (Denmark); Kainberger, F. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Langs, G. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: georg.langs@meduniwien.ac.at

    2009-11-15

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  3. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  4. Digital chest radiography: collimation and dose reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian;

    Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...... one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance of...... conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  5. Direct detector radiography versus dual reading computed radiography: feasibility of dose reduction in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The image quality of dual-reading computed radiography and dose-reduced direct radiography of the chest was compared in a clinical setting. The study group consisted of 50 patients that underwent three posteroanterior chest radiographs within minutes, one image obtained with a dual read-out computed radiography system (CR; Fuji 5501) at regular dose and two images with a flat panel direct detector unit (DR; Diagnost, Philips). The DR images were obtained with the same and with 50% of the dose used for the CR images. Images were evaluated in a blinded side-by-side comparison. Eight radiologists ranked the visually perceivable difference in image quality using a three-point scale. Then, three radiologists scored the visibility of anatomic landmarks in low and high attenuation areas and image noise. Statistical analysis was based on Friedman tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests at a significance level of P<0.05. DR was judged superior to CR for the delineation of structures in high attenuation areas of the mediastinum even when obtained with 50% less dose (P<0.001). The visibility of most pulmonary structures was judged equivalent with both techniques, regardless of acquisition dose and speed level. Scores for image noise were lower for DR compared with CR, with the exception of DR obtained at a reduced dose. Thus, in this clinical preference study, DR was equivalent or even superior to the most modern dual read-out CR, even when obtained with 50% dose. A further dose reduction does not appear to be feasible for DR without significant loss of image quality. (orig.)

  6. Radiation protection in equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During radiography of the carpus of horses calcium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to measure the radiation exposure to the hand of an assistant positioning the x-ray film. Three portable x-ray machines and a mobile machine were used during the recordings. The effects of x-ray machine, radiographic technique, and lead rubber gloves upon radiation exposure to the hand were investigated. The size of the primary beam of the x-ray machine was found to be the major factor in determining the dose of radiation received by the hand. The highest radiation exposures were recorded when using two portable machines which were fitted with beam limiting devices that permitted only one primary beam size. The lowest exposures were measured when radiographs were taken with the mobile machine that was fitted with a light beam diaphragm. The control of primary beam size with a light beam diaphragm was found to be the most effective method of reducing radiation dosage to the hand. It is strongly recommended that for equine radiography a light beam diaphragm be fitted to and used on all x-ray machines, and a cassette holder be used to keep the hands out of the primary beam. (author)

  7. Radiation exposure during equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All personnel present in the X-ray examination room during equine radiography were monitored using low energy direct reading ionization chambers (pockets dosimeters) worn outside the lead apron at neck level. The individuals' task and dosimeter readings were recorded after each examination. Average doses ranged from 0 to 6 mrad per study. The greatest exposures were associated with radiography of the shoulder and averaged less than 4 mrad. The individual extending the horse's limb was at greatest risk although the individual holding the horse's halter and the one making the X-ray exposure received similar exposures. A survey of the overhead tube assembly used for some of the X-ray examinations also was performed. Meter readings obtained indicated an asymetric dose distribution around the tube assembly, with the highest dose occurring on the side to which the exposure cord was attached. Although the exposures observed were within acceptable limits for occupational workers, we have altered our protocol and no longer radiograph the equine shoulder unless the horse is anesthetized. Continued use of the pocket dosimeters and maintenance of a case record of radiation exposure appears to make the technologists more aware of radiation hazards

  8. Survey of neutron radiography facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A directory of neutron radiography facilities around the world was informally compiled about ten years ago under the auspices of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Subcommittee E7.05 (Radiology, Neutron). The work lay dormant for a number of years, but was revived in earnest in the fall of 1995. At that time, letters were mailed to all the facilities with available addresses in the original directory, requesting updated information. Additionally, information was gathered at the Second Topical meeting on neutron Radiography Facility System Design and Beam Characterization (November, 1995, Shonan Village, Japan). A second mailing was sent for final confirmation and updates in January, 1996. About 75% of the information in the directory has now been confirmed by the facility management. This paper presents a summary of the information contained in the facility directory. An electronic version of the directory in Wordperfect 6.1, uuencode, or rtf format is available by sending e-mail to the authors at imel at sign anl.gov or imel at sign baobab.cad.cea.fr. A WWW site for the directory is presently under construction

  9. Neutron-induced alpha radiography; Radiografia com particulas alfa induzida por neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marco Antonio Stanojev

    2008-07-01

    A new radiography technique to inspect thin samples was developed. Low energy alpha particles, generated by a boron based screen under thermal neutron irradiation, are used as penetrating radiation. The solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used to register the image. The interaction of the {alpha} - particles with the CR-39 gives rise to damages which under an adequate chemical etching became tracks the basic units forming the image. A digital system was developed for data acquisition and data analysis as well as for image processing. The irradiation and etching conditions to obtain the best radiography are 1,3 hours and 25 minutes at 70 deg C respectively. For such conditions samples having 10 {mu}m in thickness can be inspected with a spatial resolution of 32 {mu}m. The use of the digital system has reduced the time spent for data acquisition and data analysis and has improved the radiography image visualization. Furthermore, by using the digital system, it was possible to study several new parameters regarding the tracks which are very important to understand and study the image formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors, the one used in this thesis. Some radiography images are also shown which demonstrate the potential of the proposed radiography technique. When compared with the other radiography techniques already in use to inspect thin samples, the present one developed in the present paper allows a smaller time to obtain the image, it is not necessary to handle liquid radioactive substances, the detector is insensitive to {beta}, {gamma}, X-ray and visible light. (author)

  10. Charter of good practices in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes good practices in the field of industrial radiography. After having presented the main prevention and radiation protection principles, the actors inside and outside of the company, and actors intervening during an operation subcontracting in industrial radiography, this report analyzes the activity: prerequisites for work preparation, prevention coordination, work preparation, transportation, work achievement, return on experience. It addresses personnel training and information, and the dosimetric and medical monitoring of technicians in industrial radiography. Some aspects are addressed in appendix: principles (justification, optimization, and limitation), regulations, intervention form, exposure form, and so on

  11. Corrosion Surveillance In Pipe By Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed Radiography (CR) is a technique of digital industrial radiology which is developed to replace conventional radiography. With a CR system, the detection of the outer and inner wall surface of the pipe is done usually by edge detection and filter algorithms of the profile line at the position under investigation. Applying in industries, radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure. This paper summarizes collected knowledge and experimental results to establish a procedure for radiography applications in monitoring corrosion in small bore pipes. (author)

  12. Neutron radiography with sealed tube generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography (or radioscopy) with sealed tube generators may be used for the inspection of aircraft turbine blades, aircraft structures, pyrotechnical components and new materials assemblies. SODERN has developed a neutron generator (GENIE 46) as part of the DIANE Eureka programme. The first SODERN industrial generator is in operation at the IABG neutron radiography laboratory (Ottobrunn - Germany). This system is representative of mobile equipment. Results obtained in the detection of corrosion in civil aircraft structures are presented. Another neutron radiography laboratory is developing at SODERN as pattern of static equipment for inspection of small objects with high image resolution; the conceiving of this laboratory is described. (author)

  13. New developments in flash radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Arne

    2007-01-01

    The paper will review some of the latest developments in flash radiography. A series of multi anode tubes has been developed. These are tubes with several x-ray sources within the same vacuum enclosure. The x-ray sources are closely spaced, to come as close as possible to a single source. The x-ray sources are sequentially pulsed, at times that can be independently chosen. Tubes for voltages in the range 150 - 500 kV, with up to eight x-ray sources, will be described. Combining a multi anode tube with an intensified CCD camera, will make it possible to generate short "x-ray movies". A new flash x-ray control system has been developed. The system is operated from a PC or Laptop. All parameters of a multi channel flash x-ray system can be remotely set and monitored. The system will automatically store important operation parameters.

  14. The radiography of Swaythling Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The particular application of high energy radiography described in this paper was developed by the Harwell Nondestructive Testing Centre (NDTC) under the sponsorship of Radiation Dynamics Ltd, (RDL) who manufacture the 'Super-X' linear accelerator (Linac) used for the work. An initial evaluation determined the limits for thickness of concrete structures which could be radiographed with the linac under practical conditions. The technique was then applied to carry out a test on a bridge carrying a main trunk road over a small river in an urban environment. A situation which demanded the utmost care in deciding safety parameters and minimal disturbance to the surrounding environment. The safety parameters were defined by the Environmental and Medical Sciences Division of AERE Harwell (EMSc). The test was successfully carried out, within all the control parameters laid down beforehand, and very important engineering data were obtained for the Bridge Engineering Departments of Hampshire County Council and Southampton City Council. (author)

  15. Multidimensional analysis in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF uses non-destructive testing by X or gamma-ray radiography for routine nozzle inspection in nuclear power plants. The images obtained are examined by radiographic specialists in order to detect, identify and quantify any defects, but the quality of the radiograms and the small size of the defects make their work extremely difficult. It is for these reasons that EDF developed ENTRAIGUES, a digital package for the processing and aid in interpretation of images generated by radiographical inspections, aimed at: -digitizing the radiographic films to be appraised, - facilitating analysis of the digitized radiograms. Defect orientation is estimated by 3D reconstruction of the component being inspected, based on a limited number of its projections. (authors). 11 figs., 6 refs

  16. Advances in neutron radiography - applications and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the neutron radiography as a technique of nondestructive materials testing was determined comprehensively in the aerospace sector, electrical engineering/electronics, mechanical engineering, constructional engineering and material engineering. Potential applications showed up in particular during the maintenance and inspection of aerospace equipment, the testing of airplane turbine blades and of pyrotechnical elements as well as in the case of the manufacturing control of fiber reinforced composites and ceramics. In order to enable an industrial utilization of the neutron radiography a high-performance, flexible and mobile neutron radiography system is being developed by the IABG in a EUREKA project with the partners SODERN (France), SENER (Spain) and LTV (USA) on the basis of a neutron generator newly designed by SODERN. The first prototype of this neutron generator, built-in into the IABG neutron radiography system procured within the framework of the project, is at present being tested. (orig.)

  17. Three examples of neutron radiography testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three examples of neutron radiography concerning small components of pyrotechnical devices are given: an example of testing a detonating fuse, detonating fuse ends and an explosive channel inside a metallic part

  18. Multi-purpose neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design is given for a low cost, multipurpose radiography system suited for the needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The proposed neutron source is californium-252. One purpose is to provide an in-house capability for occasional, reactor quality, neutron radiography thus replacing the recently closed Omega-West Reactor. A second purpose is to provide a highly reliable standby transportable neutron radiography system. A third purpose is to provide for transportable neutron probe gamma spectroscopy techniques. The cost is minimized by shared use of an existing x-ray facility, and by use of an existing transport cask. The achievable neutron radiography and radioscopy performance characteristics have been verified. The demonstrated image qualities range from high resolution gadolinium - SR film, with L:D = 100:1, to radioscopy using a LIXI image with L:D = 30:1 and neutron fluence 3.4 x 105 n/cm2

  19. Examination of welds by digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Industrial radiography is the oldest and most reliable non-destructive test method in the examination and two dimensional evaluation of weld defects. Digital radiographic methods provide more sensitive, faster and more reliable evaluation of defect images. One of the most important factors influencing the contrast and consequently the image quality is the noise on the film caused by scattered radiation. The digital image processing technique can eliminate the noise and improve the image quality. Digital radiography also enables three dimensional evaluation of weld defects. This work describes the use of digital radiography in the evaluation of defects in welds of different configurations by using a laser film digitizing system and an appropriate software programme. Advantages and limitations of the digital technique and conventional film radiography were discussed

  20. Corrosion Inhibitors as Penetrant Dyes for Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid/vapor-phase corrosion inhibitors (LVCIs) have been found to be additionally useful as penetrant dyes for neutron radiography (and perhaps also x-radiography). Enhancement of radiographic contrasts by use of LVCIs can reveal cracks, corrosion, and other defects that may be undetectable by ultrasonic inspection, that are hidden from direct optical inspection, and/or that are difficult or impossible to detect in radiographs made without dyes.

  1. Imaging beamline for high energy proton radiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Tao; YANG Guo-Jun; LONG Ji-Dong; WANG Shao-Heng; HE Xiao-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiography is a new tool for advanced hydrotesting.This article will discuss the basic concept of proton radiography first,especially the magnetic lens system.Then a scenario of 50 GeV imaging beamline will be described in every particular,including the matching section,Zumbro lens system and imaging system.The simulation result shows that the scenario of imaging beamline performs well,and the influence of secondary particles can be neglected.

  2. Statistical Uncertainty in Quantitative Neutron Radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Piegsa, Florian M.; Kaestner, Anders P.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel procedure to calibrate neutron detection systems commonly used in standard neutron radiography. This calibration allows determining the uncertainties due to Poisson-like neutron counting statistics for each individual pixel of a radiographic image. The obtained statistical errors are necessary in order to perform correct quantitative analysis. This fast and convenient method is applied to real data measured at the cold neutron radiography facility ICON at the Paul Scher...

  3. Detective quantum efficiency for neutron radiography detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging performances of neutron radiography detectors, which consist of neutron-optical photon converter, image optics subsystem and CCD cameral were analyzed elaborately. Firstly, the variation of detective efficiency with the thickness of scintillator and the difference on quantum gain of two typical coupling methods between converter and CCD were discussed. Secondly, modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency with different lens coupling methods were described. Lastly, noise equivalent number of quanta was introduced to compare radiography detectors in theory. (authors)

  4. The neutron radiography programme at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first KAERI neutron radiography facility, which was installed at the research reactor KRR-2(2MW) in early 1980's to utilize for the inspection of the nuclear and non-nuclear objects, was closed at the end of 1995. As a continued programme, a new neutron radiography facility has been installed at HANARO with various upgrades. In this article, its design features, performance characteristics and utilization programme are outlined.

  5. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    OpenAIRE

    Kedar, S.; H. K. M. Tanaka; C. J. Naudet; Jones, C. E.; J. P. Plaut; F. H. Webb

    2012-01-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size...

  6. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    OpenAIRE

    Kedar, S.; H. K. M. Tanaka; C. J. Naudet; Jones, C. E.; J. P. Plaut; F. H. Webb

    2013-01-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size...

  7. Motivations for muon radiography of active volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muon radiography represents an innovative tool for investigating the interior of active volcanoes. This method integrates the conventional geophysical techniques and provides an Independent way to estimate the density of the volcano structure and reveal the presence of magma conduits. The experience from the pioneer experiments performed at Mt. Asama, Mt. West Iwate, and Showa-Shinzan (Japan) are very encouraging. Muon radiography could be applied, in principle, at any stratovolcano. Here we focus our attention on Vesuvius and Stromboli (Italy). (author)

  8. Image registration in intra-oral radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, CC; Yiu, KL; Zee, KY; Tsui, WK

    2005-01-01

    Image registration is one of the image processing methods which is widely used in computer vision, pattern recognition, and medical imaging. In digital subtraction radiography, image registration is one of the important prerequisites to match the reference and subsequent images. In this paper, we propose an automatic non-rigid registration method namely curvature-based registration that relies on a curvature based penalizing term and its application on dental radiography. The regularizing ter...

  9. Simulation of proton radiography terminal at IMP

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Yan; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Wang, Jie; Yao, Ze-En; Wang, Jun-Run; Wei, Zheng; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Yuan, You-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography is used for advanced hydrotesting as a new type radiography technology due to its powerful penetration capability and high detection efficiency. A new proton radiography terminal will be developed to radiograph static samples at Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Science (IMP-CAS). The proton beam with the maximum energy of 2.6 GeV will be produced by Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooling Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR). The proton radiography terminal consists of the matching magnetic lens and the Zumbro lens system. In this paper, the design scheme and all optic parameters of this beam terminal for 2.6GeV proton energy are presented by simulating the beam optics using WINAGILE code. My-BOC code is used to test the particle tracking of proton radiography beam line. Geant4 code and G4beamline code are used for simulating the proton radiography system. The results show that the transmission efficiency of proton without target is 100%, and the effect of secondary particles ca...

  10. Digital radiography versus conventional radiography during excretory urography: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a computed radiographic system employed to generate and archive digital images in intravenous urography. For each exposure the system produces two digital images: the first (left image) simulates a conventional screen-film radiograph, the second (right image); enhances some spatial frequencies and emphasizes the margins of the structures. These images can be modified in their chief parameters and then printed by a laser-printer and archived on optical disks. Four experienced radiologists evaluated digital images with regard to some chief diagnostic parameters and, in 50 patients, they compared digital images with conventional screen-film radiographs and submitted the results to statistical analysis. For some of the chosen parameters, particularly for the evaluation of renal margins before and after contrast medium injection, digital images gave statistically better results than conventional films, while, no statistically significant different was observed for the other parameters. From the results of this preliminary study digital radiography was found to be useful in intravenous urography by reducing the patient's exposition dose, by always obtaining images of good quality, and by enhancing some particular features of the standard image; on the other hand there were many unsolved problems regarding the communicating and archiving system (PACS), because of the slowness of the image transfer procedure, difficulties in data transmission and complexity of referential procedures

  11. Specialism in radiography - a contemporary history of diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim and method: Specialism is relative comparing the unusual to a norm. Origins of radiographers' perceptions of what is a specialism are identified. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 practitioners and 10 leading voices whose combined practice span 1932-2001. Findings: Findings show that the exclusive nature of practice is influential on what is perceived as a specialism. Radiographers held career aspirations that included greater recognition, clinical involvement, autonomy and challenging work. Career aspirations were clinical rather than managerial and extended across modality boundaries. A key barrier to career progression was inequality of opportunity as local medical career requirements were dominant. Characteristics of specialism of diagnostic radiography are identified. Factors influencing the formation of specialism are also identified. Summary: Specialisation was dominant but not necessarily constructive to career progression or additional autonomy. Specialism relates to new areas of practice and is facilitated by service need, clear practice boundaries, visionary management, medical support, role development leading to increased autonomy and additional training and education.

  12. Vertebral Fracture Assessment in Supine Position : Comparison by Using Conventional Semiquantitative Radiography and Visual Radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Ilone C.; van der Laan, Johan G.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Nieboer, Patrick; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Kreeftenberg, Herman G.; Jager, Pieter L.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) performed with the patient in the supine position and conventional semiquantitative radiography of the spine by using conventional visual radiography of the spine as the reference standard. Materials and Methods

  13. Interaction between radiography and metallography for explanation of nonrelevant indications in radiography [Paper II-e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interdependence of radiography and metallography is stressed. Often radiographers come across indications which are not commonly encountered in radiography. Role of metallography to explain them and to assist in making decisions about acceptability or otherwise is highlighted through certain case histories. (author)

  14. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamonti, C., E-mail: cinzia.talamonti@unifi.i [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Reggioli, V. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Marrazzo, L. [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Menichelli, D. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Pallotta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2010-01-11

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  15. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  16. Mobile real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights ∼38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility

  17. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  18. Interprofessional working in diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers interprofessional working within one diagnostic imaging department. The literature is still divided about the long-term impact of interprofessional learning in pre-registration health and social care education, and its impact on the quality of care provided. When reading the literature about interprofessional working the main topics considered by other authors are team working, communication between professionals, stereotyping and tribalism. The results presented are from an ethnographic study in one department with participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The three main aspects discussed in this paper are; tribalism and culture within the diagnostic radiography profession, communication between different professional groups, and a lack of understanding of the roles of other professional groups. It was evident from the results of this study that tribalism and culture, and a lack of understanding were significant barriers to interprofessional working. It was felt by the authors that pre-registration and post-registration interprofessional education could be significant in changing the culture of the NHS in the future as more professionals learn from and about one another

  19. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  20. Modified Bootstrap Sensitometry In Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    1981-04-01

    A new modified bootstrap approach to sensitometry is presented which provides H and D curves that show almost exact agreement with those obtained using conventional methods. Two bootstrap techniques are described; both involve a combination of inverse-square and stepped-wedge modulation of the radiation field and provide intensity-scale sensitometric curves as appropriate for medical radiography. H and D curves obtained with these modified techniques are compared with those obtained for screen-film combinations using inverse-square sensitometry as well as with those obtained for direct x-ray film using time-scale sensitometry. The stepped wedge of the Wisconsin X-Ray Test Cassette was used in the bootstrap approach since it provides sufficient exposure latitude to encompass the useful density range of medical x-ray film. This approach makes radiographic sensitometry quick and convenient, allowing accurate characteristic curves to be obtained for any screen-film cassette using standard diagnostic x-ray equipment.

  1. Radiography of the equine stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  2. Estimation of Absorbed Dose in Occlusal Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to estimate absorbed dose of each important anatomic site of phantom (RT-210 Head and Neck Section R, Humanoid Systems Co., U.S.A.) head in occlusal radiography. X-radiation dosimetry at 12 anatomic sites in maxillary anterior topography, maxillary posterior topography, mandibular anterior cross-section, mandibular posterior cross-section, mandibular anterior topographic, mandibular posterior topographic occlusal projection was performed with calcium sulfate thermoluminescent dosimeters under 70 Kvp and 15 mA, 1/4 second (8 inch cone ) and 1 second (16 inch cone) exposure time. The results obtained were as follows: Skin surface produced highest absorbed dose ranged between 3264 mrad and 4073 mrad but there was little difference between projections. In maxillary anterior topographic occlusal radiography, eyeballs, maxillary sinuses, and pituitary gland sites produced higher absorbed doses than those of other sites. In maxillary posterior topographic occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site produced high absorbed doses. In mandibular anterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, all sites were produced relatively low absorbed dose except eyeball sites. In Mandibular posterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site were produced relatively higher absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular anterior topographic occlusal radiography, maxillary sinuses, submandibular glands, and thyroid gland sites produced high absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular posterior topographic occlusal radiography, submandibular gland site of the exposed side produced high absorbed dose than other sites and eyeball site of the opposite side produced relatively high absorbed dose.

  3. Estimation of Absorbed Dose in Occlusal Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Young Ah; Choi, Karp Shick [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpuk National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Han [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate absorbed dose of each important anatomic site of phantom (RT-210 Head and Neck Section R, Humanoid Systems Co., U.S.A.) head in occlusal radiography. X-radiation dosimetry at 12 anatomic sites in maxillary anterior topography, maxillary posterior topography, mandibular anterior cross-section, mandibular posterior cross-section, mandibular anterior topographic, mandibular posterior topographic occlusal projection was performed with calcium sulfate thermoluminescent dosimeters under 70 Kvp and 15 mA, 1/4 second (8 inch cone) and 1 second (16 inch cone) exposure time. The results obtained were as follows: Skin surface produced highest absorbed dose ranged between 3264 mrad and 4073 mrad but there was little difference between projections. In maxillary anterior topographic occlusal radiography, eyeballs, maxillary sinuses, and pituitary gland sites produced higher absorbed doses than those of other sites. In maxillary posterior topographic occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site produced high absorbed doses. In mandibular anterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, all sites were produced relatively low absorbed dose except eyeball sites. In Mandibular posterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site were produced relatively higher absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular anterior topographic occlusal radiography, maxillary sinuses, submandibular glands, and thyroid gland sites produced high absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular posterior topographic occlusal radiography, submandibular gland site of the exposed side produced high absorbed dose than other sites and eyeball site of the opposite side produced relatively high absorbed dose.

  4. Time of flight fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography with fast or thermal neutrons is a standard technique for non-destructive testing (NDT). Here we report results for fast neutron radiography both as an adjunct to pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA) and as a stand-alone method for NDT. PFNA is a new technique for utilizing a collimated pulsed neutron beam to interrogate items and determine their elemental composition. By determining the time of flight for gamma-rays produced by (n,n' gamma X) reactions, a three dimensional image can be produced. Neutron radiography data taken with the same beam provides an important constraint for image reconstruction, and in particular is important in inferring the amount of hydrogen within the interrogated item. As a stand-alone device, the radiography measurement can be used to image items as large as cargo containers as long as their density is not too high. The use of a pulsed beam gives the further advantage of a time of flight measurement on the transmitted neutrons. By gating the radiography signal on the time of flight appropriate to the energy of the primary neutrons, most build-up from scattered neutrons can be eliminated. The pulsed beam also greatly improves the signal to background and extends the range of the neutron radiography. Simulation results will be presented which display the advantage of this constraint in particular for statistically limited data. Experimental results will be presented which show some of the limitations likely in a PFNA system utilizing neutron radiography data. Experimental and simulation results will demonstrate possible uses for this type of radiographic data in identifying contraband substances such as drugs. (orig.)

  5. Radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiation, particularly in medicine and industry, is growing throughout the world, with further expansion likely as technical developments result from research. One of the longest established applications of ionizing radiation is industrial radiography, which uses both X radiation and gamma radiation to investigate the integrity of equipment and structures. Industrial radiography is widespread in almost all Member States. It is indispensable to the quality assurance required in modern engineering practice and features in the work of multinational companies and small businesses alike. Industrial radiography is extremely versatile. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. It may be highly portable and capable of being operated by a single worker in a wide range of different conditions, such as at remote construction sites, offshore locations and cross-country pipelines as well as in complex fabrication facilities. The associated hazards demand that safe working practices be developed in order to minimize the potential exposure of radiographers and other persons who may be in the vicinity of the work. The use of shielded enclosures (fixed facilities), with effective safety devices, significantly reduces any radiation exposures arising from the work. This Safety Report summarizes good and current state of the art practices in industrial radiography and provides technical advice on radiation protection and safety. It contains information for Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers, equipment manufacturers and client organizations, with the intention of explaining their responsibilities and means to enhance radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

  6. Dose assessment in panoramic dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper author deals with the problem of dosimetry at panoramic radiography. Panoramic radiography is a rather complex technique, based on the simultaneous movement of an X-ray tube and an image receptor. A panoramic exposure is acquired by rotating the x-ray tube in an arc around the patients jaw. A thin X-ray beam oriented perpendicular to direction of the motion passes through the jaws at a slight upward angulation with respect to the occlusal plane. Due to this geometry of an examination, it is not straightforward, how to express a dose delivered to a patient during the examination. Because of a similarity with CT examinations, a dose descriptor product of kerma and length PKL is used in panoramic radiology also. However, the way of measurement is different. Currently, no dose descriptor in panoramic radiography is measured in the Czech Republic during the quality control measurements. Therefore, it would be appropriate to accept the product of kerma and length as a standard dose descriptor for panoramic radiography. This measurement should be included in QC procedures as well. Methods of dosimetry at panoramic radiography are discussed. (author)

  7. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kedar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays to image the interior of large scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  8. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kedar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  9. Collaboration in radiography: A bibliometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Increasing research activity is an aim of the radiography profession, but there is a lack of knowledge of how this can be achieved. Collaboration between clinical and academic centres as well as between individuals has increased productivity in other professions and has been suggested as a strategy for radiography. This bibliometric study maps the current contribution to the radiography evidence base through a single journal. Method: All articles published in Radiography from 1997 to 2011 were reviewed to identify collaboration trends together with article type and subject. Analysis also enabled comparison of research and publication patterns. Results: 706 articles were published by 1205 individual authors. 63.0% were written by UK based authors, although this varied over time. Over 80% of authors published only single article. Two thirds of articles were collaborative with an increase in clinical-academic co-authorship over the 15 years of the study. Although the majority of articles were diagnostic imaging based, the pattern mirrors the UK workforce profile. Clinicians, including clinical-academic co-authors, tend to write about clinical practice and roles, whereas academics write about a broader range of topics. Conclusions: There has been a growth in research and scholarship within the UK radiography journal and both clinical and academic radiographers are contributing to the evidence base through increased collaboration.

  10. Clinical application of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observer performance tests were performed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of digitized storage phosphors and conventional radiography in the detection of microcalcification in the breast and pulmonary nodules. Clustered microcalcifications (0.125-0.177 mm, 0.210-0.250 mm) were randomly superimposed on a human breast specimen. Two types of screen-film systems (Toshiba MM6/Fuji MINC, Kodak MinR/Kodak MinR) and CR images either with unsharp mask or with no image processing (unprocess) were used as imaging systems. Nine readers assessed the capability of screen-films, and unsharp-masked and unprocessed mammograms to detect microcalcifications. Observer performance data were evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Both the area under ROC curve and the true positive localization fraction were used as performance indexes. Two screen-film images provided a higher detectability of microcalcifications than CR images. In the detectability of microcalcifications, unsharp-masked images were superior to unprocessed images, with no statistically significant difference. CR images showed higher false positive fraction than screen-film systems. To assess the detectability of pulmonary nodules, 15 radiologists compared the diagnostic accuracy of screen-film system and CR images, including unprocessed, unsharp-masked, reversed and paired images, in 18 normal volunteers and 18 patients with pulmonary nodules. Overall diagnostic accuracy of CR images, except for reversed images, were comparable to the screen-film system. In case of definite, large nodules, unprocessed, unsharp-masked, and paired images were superior to the screen-film and reversed images. Screen-film and unprocessed images were helpful in cases of tiny nodules without definite contrast. The detectability of pulmonary nodules may be affected by image processing conditions, radiologist' experiences, and characteristics of nodules themselves. (N.K.) 59 refs

  11. Image analysis in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants remains a major EDF objective for the coming decades. To facilitate diagnosis, the expert must be provided with elaborate decision-making aids: contrasted images, noise-free signals, pertinent parameters, ''meaningful'' images. In the field of industrial radiography, the inspector's offer of a portable system for digitalization and subsequent processing of radiographs (ENTRAIGUES) is an improvement in the inspection of primary circuit nozzles. Three major directions were followed: - improvement of images and localization of flaws (2D approach); techniques such as Markov modelling were evaluated and tested, - development of a system which can be transported on site, for digitalization, processing and subsequent archiving on inspection radiographs, known as ENTRAIGUES, - development of a program for aid in analysis of digitized radiographs (''bread-board'' version), offering an ergonomic interface and push-button processing, which is the software component in ENTRAIGUES and uses sophisticated methods: contrast enhancement, background flattening, segmentation. An other objective is to reconstruct a three-dimensional volume on the basis of a few radiographs taken at different incidences and to estimate the flaw orientation within a piece understudy. This information makes sense to experts, with regards to the deterioration rate of the flaw; the equipment concerned includes the formed bends in the primary coolant nozzles. This reconstruction problem is ill-posed and a solution can be obtained by introducing a priori information on the solution. The first step of our algorithm is a classical iterative reconstruction A.R.T. type method (Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques) which provides a rough volumic reconstructed tridimensional zone containing the flaw. Then, on this reconstructed zone, we apply a Bayesian restoration method introducing a Markov Random Field (MRF) modelling. Conclusive results have been obtained. (author

  12. Computed radiography- the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the advantages obtained with the radiographic inspection, the risks inherent to the exposure of ionizing radiations not always represented the major limiters regarding the employment of the technique. However, with the arrival of the computed radiography, the industrial radiology gets space again due to the benefits provided by the new technology, among which the following are outstanding: possibility of reduction of the time of radiography exposure and, consequently, of the marking area, direct acquisition of images, reduction of consumables and chemical waste and possibility of using again the detectors (imaging plates). Before such a favorable scenario, the computed radiography is being highlighted as the solution for almost all the problems, even without the full knowledge of its advantages and restrictions. This work briefly presents the state of the art related with the industrial applications (in-service inspection of wall loss and weld inspection) and the limitations noticed up to the moment are discussed. (author)

  13. Problems associated with veterinary dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice

  14. The industrial radiography of defects inside the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of the industrial radiography applied to defect invesigation is defined. The following topics are successively discussed: the development of the industrial 'defect radiography', apparatus and auxiliary equipments used in the field, the market, the constructors, trade currents in 'defect radiography' inside the Community and in the outer market; prognostics on future requirements in the fields

  15. Advantages of digital radiography: The DSI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience gained over a period of several months, applying the digital and image-enhanced radiography with the DSI system for examination of some hundreds of patients, has confirmed in our eyes the system's diagnostic and economic efficiency, and the important achievement of radiation dose abatement. Looking at the current results and improvements under way (Release 2), there is reason enough to support an extension of the range of indications, especially regarding arteriography and interventional radiography. According to our experience, the DSI system meets the requirements of a modern radiology department: reduction of operating costs, limitation of radiation dose, efficiency enhancement by digital imaging. (orig.)

  16. [Conventional dental radiography and future prospectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssefzadeh, S; Gahleitner, A; Bernhart, D; Bernhart, T

    1999-12-01

    Until recently, conventional dental radiology was performed by dentists and orofacial surgeons. Due to the rapid development of radiological technique, the demand of radiological advice is increasing. The radiologists see more and more dental patients in their daily routine. The aim of this article is to give an overview on established dental radiology and a glimpse into the future. Conventional dental radiology and digital radiography are presently in use. Intraoral technique comprises dental films, bite-wing views and occlusal radiographs. Panoramic views and cephalometric radiographs are done with extraoral technique. Digital radiography lacks all processes in behalf of film development. It leads to dose reduction and enables image manipulation. PMID:10643025

  17. Layout optimization for flash radiography with scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper investigates the layout optimization for flash radiography with scatter using CCD to improve the imaging quality. The best layout is gained with the best factor of merit. The best magnification of the radiography system is 2 with the experimentally measured blur and Gaussian style assumption. The distance from the object to back windows is 50 cm. The best system length is related to the noise, and more noise leads to shorter system. The range of the best length is 3 to 5 m. The test has verified the above results. (authors)

  18. Proton Radiography: Its uses and Resolution Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariam, Fesseha G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has used high energy protons as a probe in flash radiography for over a decade. In this time the proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons, provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose over five-hundred dynamic experiments in support of stockpile stewardship programs as well as basic materials science. Through this effort significant experience has been gained in using charged particles as direct radiographic probes to diagnose transient systems. The results of this experience will be discussed through the presentation of data from experiments recently performed at the LANL pRad.

  19. Statistical Uncertainty in Quantitative Neutron Radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Piegsa, Florian M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel procedure to calibrate neutron detection systems commonly used in standard neutron radiography. This calibration allows determining the uncertainties due to Poisson-like neutron counting statistics for each individual pixel of a radiographic image. The obtained statistical errors are necessary in order to perform correct quantitative analysis. This fast and convenient method is applied to real data measured at the cold neutron radiography facility ICON at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Moreover, from the results the effective neutron flux at the beam line is determined.

  20. Absorbed dose in the full-mouth periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and zonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of substitution of the zonography for the full-mouth periapical radiography in aspect of radiation protection. Rando phantom and LiF TLD chips were used for dosimetry. The absorbed doses at brain, skin above the TMJ, parotid gland, bone marrow in the mandibular body, and thyroid gland during the full-mouth periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and zonography were measured. From the zonography, the absorbed doses to the brain, the skin over the TMJ, and the parotid gland were relatively high, but the absorbed doses to the bone marrow in the mandibular body and, especially, the thyroid gland were very low. The zonography can be an alternative to the full-mouth periapical radiography in aspect of radiation protection.

  1. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.j.murphy@salford.ac.uk; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-02-15

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  2. Safety Testing of Industrial Radiography Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted the Savannah River Technology Center to verify the relevancy of the 10 CFR Part 34 requirements for the normal use of portable gamma radiography systems and to propose recommendations for changes or modifications to the requirements

  3. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  4. Performances of some mobile neutron radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present paper describes shortly three different mobile neutron radiography systems in term of characteristic, performances, flexibility, and their main applications for non destructive testing of materials, devices and structures. Examples of applications in different fields, with particular attention to aeronautics (early corrosion detection, turbine blades quality control inspection) and pyrotechnic devices / specific parts inspection, are presented.(author)

  5. Radiography of oral cavity disorders [dentistry, stomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic examination in odonto-stomatology can he made easier by using intra-oral dental films and a dental X-ray machine. Parallel and bissecting angle techniques allow X-ray pictures to be taken with intra-and extra-oral films. Radiography provides information for diagnosis but it also allows the evaluation of dental treatments

  6. Infection control practices for dental radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenik, Charles John

    2004-06-01

    Infection control for dental radiography employs the same materials, processes, and techniques used in the operatory, yet unless proper procedures are established and followed, there is a definite potential for cross-contamination to clinical area surfaces and DHCP. In general, the aseptic practices used are relatively simple and inexpensive, yet they require complete application in every situation. PMID:15218669

  7. Use of computed radiography for portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares image quality of conventional film based portal images with the quality of portal images based on computed radiography (CR). The paper concludes that portal imaging with CR imaging plates instead of the conventional film provides images which have a significantly higher image quality. CR based portal images permit better visualization of important landmarks

  8. Drop attack during chest radiography: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest radiography is the first line of thoracic imaging performed in patients with thoracic diseases. It is probably the most frequently performed type of X-ray examination. It is recommended to be performed in the full upright position except where the patient's condition will not permit. This is because the erect technique allows full expansion of the lungs, prevents engorgement of pulmonary vessels and also helps in fluid level evaluation. However, little is reported on the negative effects associated with erect radiography. Herein, we present a case of drop attack during erect chest radiography. - Highlights: • Radiographers should be aware of the possibilities of drop attach during erect chest radiography. • A patient's determination to stand for chest radiograph may not always relate with the ability. • The causes of some drop attacks may be unknown. • Watching patients during radiographic exposure is essential. • Being alert and working very fast during erect chest examinations is important

  9. Code of practice in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research is to developing a draft for a new radiation protection code of practice in industrial radiography without ignoring that one issued in 1998 and meet the current international recommendation. Another aim of this study was to assess the current situation of radiation protection in some of the industrial radiography department in Sudan. To achieve the aims of this study, a draft of a code of practice has been developed which is based on international and local relevant recommendations. The developed code includes the following main issues: regulatory responsibilities, radiation protection program and design of radiation installation. The practical part of this study includes scientific visits to two of industrial radiography departments in Sudan so as to assess the degree of compliance of that department with what state in the developed code. The result of each scientific visits revealed that most of the department do not have an effective radiation protection program and that could lead to exposure workers and public to unnecessary dose. Some recommendations were stated that, if implemented could improve the status of radiation protection in industrial radiography department. (Author)

  10. Efficacy of daily bedside chest radiography as visualized by digital luminescence radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the diagnostic impact of daily bedside chest radiography in comparison with digital luminescence technique (DLR; storage phosphor radiography) and conventional film screen radiography, a prospective randomized study was completed in 210 mechanically ventilated patients with a total of 420 analysed radiographs. The patients were allocated to two groups: 150 patients underwent DLR, and 60 patients underwent conventional film screen radiography. Radiological analysis was performed consensually and therapeutic efficacy was assessed by the clinicians. There was no statistical significant difference between the frequency of abnormal findings seen on DLR and conventional film screen radiography. In total, 448 abnormal findings were present in 249 of 300 DLR and 97 of 120 conventional film screen radiographs. The most common findings were signs of overhydration (41 %), pleural effusion (31%), partial collapse of the lung (11%) and pneumothorax (2%). One hundred and twenty-three of 448 (27%) of these abnormal findings were thought to have a considerable impact on patient management. The high rate of abnormal findings with significant impact on patient management suggests that the use of daily bedside chest radiography may be reasonable. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. Radiography - A new field among health sciences in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to secure high quality X-ray services and efficient operation of clinical radiography, a study programme in radiography science was implemented at the University of Oulu in 1999. The need for a specific field of science has emerged as a result of social changes, such as the aging population, and the fast development of technology that has caused significant changes in the radiological working environment and clinical radiography. A need for a new, research-based informational foundation of clinical radiography is the basis for the programme. As service producers, radiographers need vast knowledge as well as specific expertise. The research object of radiography science is clinical radiography. If it was studied from the viewpoint of other sciences, the key professional skills of a radiographer would remain unexplored. Implementing an own field of science has enabled the development of radiography from its own bases. Basic research in the field is represented, for example, by the concept analysis of radiography in health sciences. Radiography science should produce research results for both clinical radiography and the instruction of radiography. So far, research results have dealt with the professional decision-making of a radiographer, the influences of computer technology on a radiographer's work and measuring the radiation exposure of a population

  12. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  13. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  14. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  15. Radiography and bone scintigraphy in multiple myeloma: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging for detecting skeletal lesions was compared with that of radiography by evaluating 573 different anatomical sites in 41 patients with multiple myeloma. Radiography revealed a significantly greater number of myeloma-related bone lesions than did radionuclide imaging. Of the 179 myeloma-related bone lesions detected when both techniques were applied, 163 were seen by radiography and 82 by radionuclide imaging. Ninety-seven lesions were detected by radiography alone and 16 lesions seen by scintiscanning only, yielding a sensitivity of 91% for the former and of 46% for the latter technique. Radionuclide imaging proved superior to radiography only occasionally in the rib cage, and rarely in other anatomical sites. These findings suggest that radiography is the method of first choice in obtaining a skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma. In cases with continued pain, unexplained by standard radiography, the skeletal survey should be supplemented by tomography and radionuclide imaging. (author)

  16. Spatial resolution requirements in digital skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital technology use requires definition of spatial resolution parameters necessary to maintain diagnostic quality. Skeletal radiography requirements differ from past applications focusing on chest imaging. In this study radiographs of 56 nondisplaced fractures and matched normal studies are digitized to varying spatial resolution, evaluated by 10 radiologists, and analyzed with receiver operating characteristic curves. Pixel size greater than 0.16 mm (2.88 1p/mm) results in significantly lower diagnostic accuracy than that of conventional radiographs. Spatial resolution requirements are more demanding in skeletal radiography than in many other digital applications. Implications concerning digital systems (including teleradiology) and methods of using available technology to satisfy image quality demands need to be determined

  17. Evaluation of pyrotechnic devices by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrotechnic devices of different types are used in launch vehicles and satellites to carry out specific functions. Thermal neutron radiography is the suitable NDT technique for the inspection and evaluation of pyro-devices. An accelerator based neutron radiography (NR) source was realised by attaching uranium and beryllium target with polyethylene moderator to a 15 MeV x-ray linac. Neutron flux of 1.1 x 106 n/cm2/s with L/D ratio of 16 is used for inspection based on dysprosium transfer technique. Neutron technique parameters are optimised to produce an image resolution of 0.025 mm as measured by ASTM sensitivity indicator, for routine inspection of pyro-devices and evaluation. (author)

  18. Current and future neutron radiography standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only two organizations are actively producing standards which are used in neutron radiology (NR): the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Six ASTM standards exist that address the neutron radiography method. Two of the ASTM standards have been extensively used world-wide. ISO has a working group which is developing three standards that also address the neutron radiography method. Two of these are currently making their way through the ISO approval system. No ASTM or ISO standards exist for the neutron radioscopic method. Future ASTM standards will address the neutron radioscopic method and neutron radiologic system characterization. It is expected that similar efforts will be undertaken in ISO. Given the relatively small community providing neutron radiologic services, international cooperation and the need for ISO standards will most likely continue to grow.(author)

  19. Point projection radiography with the FXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography techniques utilizing large area x-ray sources (typically ≤ 7 keV) and pinhole-imaging gated x-ray diagnostics have long been used at the Nova laser facility. However, for targets requiring higher energy x-ray backlighters (> 9 keV), low conversion efficiencies and pinhole losses combine to make this scheme unworkable. The technique of point projection radiography has been improved upon to make imaging at high x-ray energies feasible. In this scheme a open-quotes pointclose quotes source of x-rays, usually a small diameter (≤25 μm) fiber, is illuminated with a single, 100 ps pulse from the Nova laser. A gated x-ray imager with a 500 ps electronic gate width is used to record the projected image. The experimental challenges this technique presents and experimental results will be discussed

  20. Dosimetry studies for an industrial radiography accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 5 June 1979, an industrial worker who was not involved with radiography found an 192Ir source that had accidently become detached and lost from its shielded camera. He placed the source in the hip pocket of his coveralls and returned to work, keeping the 192Ir source for some time before taking it to the plant manager. The biophysical calculations for the determination of exposure and depth-dose calculations are the basis for this paper

  1. Hybrid pixel detector development for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 7-year project has been initiated to develop hybrid pixel detectors for medical radiography. Crystalline semiconductor will be bonded to a pixellated readout chip where individual integrated circuits process each event, transferring the position, energy and timing information to the data acquisition controller. Chips will be tiled to produce a large area detector, capable of energy dispersive photon counting at moderate spatial resolution. Preliminary results from studies examining the design features and operation of the device are presented

  2. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs

  3. Patient dose management in digital radiography

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To present the experience in patient dose management and the development of an online audit tool for digital radiography. Materials and methods: Several tools have been developed to extract the information contained in the DICOM header of digital images, collect radiographic parameters, calculate patient entrance doses and other related parameters, and audit image quality. Results: The tool has been used for mammography, and includes images from over 25,000 patients, over 75,000 ches...

  4. Beam characterization at the Neutron Radiography Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The project characterized the beam at the Neutron Radiography Reactor. • Experiments indicate that the neutron energy spectrum model may not be accurate. • The facility is a category I radiography facility. • The beam divergence and effective collimation ratio are 0.3 ± 0.1° and >125. • The predicted total neutron flux at the image plane is 5.54 × 106 n/cm2 s. -- Abstract: The quality of a neutron-imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, potential image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This paper provides a characterization of the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio and potential image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. The NRAD has an effective collimation ratio greater than 125, a beam divergence of 0.3 ± 0.1°, and a gold foil cadmium ratio of 2.7. The flux profile has been quantified and the facility is an ASTM Category 1 radiographic facility. Based on bare and cadmium covered foil activation results, the neutron energy spectrum used in the current MCNP model of the radiography beamline over-samples the thermal region of the neutron energy spectrum

  5. Calculation methods for neutron radiography spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial resolution is an important parameter for neutron radiography facility. In this paper, different methods to define the spatial resolution,such as point spread function (PSF), line spread function (LSF), edge spread function (ESF) and modulation transfer function (MTF), are analyzed and compared. MTF turns out to be the best, as it is derived from the linear system theory in a given frequency domain, and gives the maximum amount of useful information on system signal modulation. (authors)

  6. Installation NR-31R for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NR-31R installation, intended for neutron radiography of extended radioactive items using horizontal neutron beam from the nuclear reactor of WWER-type, is described. The installation is located directly in the reactor hall. It comprises the following main units: collimator, radiographic chamber, two containers (upper and bottom), neutron beam trap, distance and local control pannels. Obtaining neutron images of the controlled items is possible at NR-31R installation both by the method of direct exposure, and by the transfer method

  7. Panoramic radiography and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoramic radiography is a term that is applied to the radiographic techniques which record is the dental arches and related structures on one or two extraoral films. It consists of two methods, one using the intraoral anode, and the other employing tomography. Because of an increase in practical application, about 10 kinds of panoramic dental X-ray units were commercially available in U.S.A.

  8. Neutron radiography in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with some theoretical considerations, the paper describes the experimental basis for neutron radiography in the plasma focus. With an appropriate combination of scintillator and image converter, average optical density can already be reached at neutron density of about 5 x 104 n/cm2. Contrast studies near the plasma focus with the aid of neutrons have thus become possible for the first time. (author)

  9. Real-Time Neutron Radiography at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Lin-feng; HAN; Song-bai; WANG; Hong-li; WU; Mei-mei; WEI; Guo-hai; WANG; Yu

    2012-01-01

    <正>A real-time detector system for neutron radiography based on CMOS camera has been designed for the thermal neutron imaging facility under construction at China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). This system is equipped with a new scientific CMOS camera with 5.5 million pixels and speed up to 100 fps at full frame. The readout noise is less than 2.4 electron per pixel. It is capable of providing

  10. Radiological protection procedures for industrial applications of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its very particular characteristics, industrial radiography is responsible for roughly half of the relevant accidents in nuclear industry, in developed as well as in developing countries, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Thus, safety and radiological protection in industrial gamma radiography have been receiving especial treatment by regulatory authorities of most Member States. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate, from the radioprotection point of view, the main advantages of computed radiography (CR) for filmless industrial radiography. In order to accomplish this, both techniques, i.e. conventional and filmless computed radiography were evaluated and compared through practical studies. After the studies performed at the present work it was concluded that computed radiography significantly reduces the inherent doses, reflecting in smaller restricted areas and costs, with consequent improvement in radiological protection and safety. (author)

  11. Bacteriological research for the contamination of equipment in chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Gu; Song, Woon Heung; Kweon, Dae Cheol [Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose is to determine the degree of contamination of the equipment for infection control in chest radiography of the radiology department. We confirmed by chemical and bacterial identification of bacteria of the equipment and established a preventive maintenance plan. Chest X-ray radiography contact area on the instrument patients shoulder, hand, chin, chest lateral radiography patient contact areas with a 70% isopropyl alcohol cotton swab were compared to identify the bacteria before and after sterilization on the patient contact area in the chest radiography equipment of the department. The gram positive Staphylococcus was isolated from side shoots handle before disinfection in the chest radiography equipment. For the final identification of antibiotic tested that it was determined by performing the nobobiocin to the sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chest radiography equipment before disinfecting the handle side of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were detected using a disinfectant should be to prevent hospital infections.

  12. Digital radiography: description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented document arises from the work of the group 'Digital Radiography and sensors' of COFREND. It is a collective work of synthesis aimed to analyze the quality parameters of digital images influencing the answer and the diagnosis brought to a given industrial problem. Five families of digital sensors have been studied: 1. Image Intensifier coupled with CCD devices - 2. scintillators coupled with a CCD device- 3. Flat Panels with indirect conversion - 4. Flat Panels with direct electric conversion - 5. Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Screens). In particular, concerning a complete imaging chain, it deals with the notions of magnification, blur (unsharpness) (geometrical, kinetic or internal to the very sensor), noises, scattered radiation, spatial resolution, which is different from the one of analog detectors such as films, Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR), sensitivity using IQIs, dynamic range, detection quantum efficiency, persistence and temporal resolution. This document is not a standard; it must be understood as a user's guide, and it approaches some essentials corrections to bring to a sensor in order to optimize his efficiency without losing information during the pre-processing phase in the radiographic acquisition. It also introduces some image processing tools commonly used. It can be used as a source document to the future elaboration of a standardisation document. It augurs not at all of the choice of a digital sensor with regard to the traditional radiographic film, but gives bases of reflection to a radio user for a sensible transfer from the classic radiography to the digital radiography. (authors)

  13. Xenon ionization detector for digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenon gas x-ray detectors have been used successfully in CT scanners; however, they have been found to be unsuitable for digital radiography. We have designed and built a new type of xenon x-ray detector array and tested its suitability for digital radiography. The detector consists of two parallel plates separated by a 0.5-mm gap, filled with xenon gas at a pressure of about 30 atm. One of the plates is the high-voltage electrode, while the other is a circuit board etched to form an array of metal collector strips focused on the x-ray source. Since there are no metal septa separating the individual detector elements, the dose efficiency of the detector is high, but image degradation will occur due to cross-talk between detector elements. Measurements of the cross-talk show that about an 18% reduction in contrast will occur, when a low contrast object, subtending one detector element, is imaged. We have also measured a detector MTF of 14% at 2 lp/mm, a signal of 10 pC for a 1-mR x-ray exposure at the detector entrance, a 6% nonlinearity in the detector signal over about 3 orders of magnitude in x-ray exposure, and a charge collection time (time response) of about 0.1 ms. From these results it is concluded that this new detector design is feasible for digital radiography

  14. Observation of DNB phenomena by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design of LWRs, the forecast of critical heat flux (CHF) is important. The existing CHF correlation equations include the arbitrary constants based on experimental data, therefore, their range of application is limited. For advancing the research and development of high conversion LWRs or passive safety reactors, the development of more general CHF forecasting technique has been demanded. In order to elucidate the mechanism of CHF occurrence and construct the general forecasting model based on physical phenomena, the detailed observation of flow phenomena near a heat generation surface is indispensable. The experiment of observing boiling two-phase flow and CHF phenomena by applying neutron radiography technique was carried out. The utilization of neutron radiography in the field of heat-transferring flow is explained. The experimental setup and the experimental method, the experimental conditions, and the results of the observations of boiling two-phase flow and CHF are reported. By applying real time neutron radiography technique, the observation of the flow mode of boiling two-phase flow and CHF phenomena has become feasible. The measurement of void fraction distribution near a heating surface at the time of DNB occurrence and the study on the state of mechanism shift between low quality DNB and high quality dry-out are carried out hereafter. (K.I.)

  15. Novel embossed radiography system utilizing energy subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Akihiro; Sato, Eiichi; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Abderyim, Purkhet; Tanaka, Etsuro; Izumisawa, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Akira; Sato, Shigehiro

    2008-08-01

    Digital subtraction is useful for carrying out embossed radiography by shifting an x-ray source, and energy subtraction is an important technique for imaging target region by deleting unnecessary region in vivo. X-ray generator had a 100-μm-focus tube, energy subtraction was performed at tube voltages of 40 and 60 kV, and a 3.0-mm-thick aluminum filter was used to absorb low-photon-energy bremsstrahlung x-rays. Embossed radiography was achieved with cohesion imaging using a flat panel detector (FPD) with pixel sizes of 48×48 μm, and the shifting distance of the x-ray source in horizontal direction and the distance between the x-ray source and the FPD face were 5.0 mm and 1.0 m, respectively. At a tube voltage of 60 kV and a tube current of 0.50 mA, x-ray intensities without filtering and with filtering were 307 and 28.4 μGy/s, respectively, at 1.0 m from the source. In embossed radiography of non-living animals, the spatial resolution measured using a lead test chart was approximately 70 μm, and we observed embossed images of fine bones, soft tissues, and coronary arteries of approximately 100 μm.

  16. Gamma radiography applied to aircraft maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-radiography as used in aircraft maintenance was introduced in the 1960's and is almost entirely focussed on the jet engine. It is used to identify cracking, corrosion, distortion, distress, assembly, alignment and wear. The general arrangement of an axial flow engine will permit the placement of a radiographic source in the central shaft. The radiations emitted may be directed at an appropriate angle to the part examined to produce a radiographic image. The techniques presented here are used to monitor the condition of specific rotating and non-rotating components in the gas flow path of high by-pass jet engines. Conventional gamma radiography equipment is used. The source is almost always Iridium-192, of between 800-3000 GBq. It has effective energies of 400-600 kV and a half-life of about 75 days. Exposure control and positioning apparatus is the same as for other industrial radiography with rigid guide tubes to locate the source centrally within the engine. The use of this inspection technique is realised as lower maintenance expenses than would otherwise be possible for the equivalent level of reliability. 19 refs., 12 figs

  17. Assessment of cold neutron radiography capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors goals were to demonstrate and assess cold neutron radiography techniques at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Manual Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center), and to investigate potential applications of the capability. The authors have obtained images using film and an amorphous silicon detector. In addition, a new technique they have developed allows neutron radiographs to be made using only a narrow range of neutron energies. Employing this approach and the Bragg cut-off phenomena in certain materials, they have demonstrated material discrimination in radiography. They also demonstrated the imaging of cracks in a sample of a fire-set case that was supplied by Sandia National Laboratory, and they investigated whether the capability could be used to determine the extent of coking in jet engine nozzles. The LANSCE neutron radiography capability appears to have applications in the DOE stockpile maintenance and science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) programs, and in industry

  18. Proton radiography for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, L.; Batani, D. [University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Baton, S.; Perez, F.; Koenig, M. [LULI Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS-UPMC, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Nicolai, Ph.; Vauzour, B.; Santos, J. J. [CELIA, University de Bordeaux (France)

    2011-11-15

    Generation of high-intensity and well collimated multi-energetic proton beams from laser-matter interaction extend the possibility for using protons as a diagnostic to image imploding targets in inertial confinement fusion experiments in the framework of the experimental road map of the Hiper project (the European High Power laser Energy Research facility Project). Due to the very large mass densities reached during implosion processes, protons traveling through the target undergo a very large number of collisions which deviate the protons from their original trajectories reducing the proton radiography resolution below our expectations. Here we present a simple analytical model to study the performance of proton radiography as a function of the main experimental parameters, such as the proton beam energies and targets areal density. This approach leads to define two different criteria for proton radiography resolution (called the 'strong' and the 'weak' conditions) describing different experimental conditions. Finally, numerical simulations using both hydrodynamic and Monte Carlo codes are presented to validate the analytical predictions.

  19. Applications and trends of industrial neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial applications of neutron radiography have expanded over the last 10 to 12 years as this relatively new nondestructive testing technique has been accepted as a necessary and routine test procedure. In the late 60's, neutron radiography was considered only for inspection of space systems components and other high reliability and/or man-rated systems. As the space program slowed, applications narrowed to inspection of components for military aircraft and missiles. In most cases, the principal use was for inspection of explosive-actuated devices such as shielded mild detonating cord, separation bolts, severance assemblies, gas cartridges and power devices. In recent years, although the explosive device inspection applications have continued to grow, other applications have expanded to share equally in the use of neutron radiography for routine inspection. These applications include inspection of ceramic capacitors and electronic filters along with other electronic devices, complex mechanical assemblies, and detection of contaminants or residual core material in complex machined assemblies and gas cooled aircraft turbine blades. (Auth.)

  20. Visualization of frosting phenomena by using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the frost formation on the fin-tube heat exchanger using neutron radiography. The visualization of the frost formation was estimated by the attenuation of the neutron beam through the water. The visualization image of the neutron radiography shows clearly the frost formation phenomena on the fin-tube heat exchanger. The rapid frost formation was observed at the fin and tube edges. Local mass transfer coefficient can be calculated from the differential images of the neutron radiography. (author)

  1. Digital radiography and advanced imaging techniques in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Keles Evlice; Haluk Oztunc

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of x-rays in 1895, film has been the primary medium for capturing, displaying and storing radiographic images. Digital or filmless radiography is slowly being adopted by the dental profession. Digital radiography offers a number of capabilities compared with conventional radiography, such as postprocessing, electronic archiving, concurrent access to images, and improved data distribution. Computer based applications which are used for quantitative measurements and evaluati...

  2. Radiation safety in industrial radiography in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents the application of radiography in almost all sectors of the industry from construction stage of plants, in oil and gas, petrochemical and power industry which are the biggest users of radiography. Industrial radiography is being conducted using a set of operational procedures developed by the level 3 radiographer and approved by the Radiological Health and Safety Officer (RHSO) to ensure safe and successful completion of the activity

  3. Radiography and fluoroscopy, 1920 to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohmer, J S

    1989-11-01

    A survey of radiological procedures carried out in 1980 by J. L. Johnson and D. L. Abernathy indicated that of the 181 million procedures performed in that year, there were 77.5% plain radiographic studies, 12.7% contrast studies, 4.0% sonographic studies, 3.2% nuclear medicine studies, 1.8% CT studies and 0.8% special vascular procedures and cardiac catheterizations. Note that over 90% of all the studies were of the "conventional" type and that fewer than 2% were CT studies. In the early 70's when CT was introduced, it was predicted that it would soon take over most of radiography; some 7 or 8 years later, it was obvious that this would not take place. According to Tanako of the Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd., conventional radiography has resisted being pushed aside because of its very high information content: 4-6 megabytes per image. A CT image contains about 0.5 megabytes. If a system is to take over from conventional radiography, it will have to overcome this large difference in information content. Digital or computed radiography seems capable of this, but probably not for some time (perhaps, 10 or 20 years). It seems unlikely that there will be much change, except for refinement, in the image intensified fluoroscopy equipment used for observing dynamic processes, and it will probably not be replaced. Another situation which will preclude the rapid demise of conventional radiography is financial inertia: There is between 5 and 10 billion dollars worth of diagnostic equipment in hospitals in this country and significant amount more in private offices and clinics. It is true that the amount has diminished in recent years, but this has been more because of DRG's than because of "takeover" by new modes of imaging. It is not likely that this investment will be given up quickly or easily. One must also keep in mind that the film digitization and the photostimulable phosphor digital systems, described above, do use existing radiographic equipment, and the image

  4. New development of neutron radiography with a small cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of neutron radiography testing has been performed for several years by using a small accelerator called 'Baby Cyclotron' manufactured by Japan Steel Works, Ltd. The Baby Cyclotron produces fast neutrons at the rate of 4x1012 n/cm2s, and enables to perform neutron radiography imaging by various techniques. The most important application of this Baby Cyclotron radiography system is the non-destructive testing (NDT) of various explosive devices prepared for space launch vehicles. It is assured that thermal neutron radiography testing is a very useful means for the NDT. Also fast neutron radiography testing is in progress. The fast neutron radiography with a CR39 track-etch image recorder was developed, and it was shown to be the very useful NDT means when the thicker objects used for new H-2 launch vehicles had to be examined. Because thermal neutron radiography has the high detectability of hydrogenous materials, organic elastomers such as O-rings and explosive powder are clearly observable through the opaque steel walls of containers. The Baby Cyclotron and the neutron radiography facility, thermal neutron and fast neutron radiography testings and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Heavy-ion radiography applied to charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the heavy-ion radiography research program applied to the clinical cancer research program of charged particle radiotherapy have a twofold purpose: (1) to explore the manner in which heavy-ion radiography and CT reconstruction can provide improved tumor localization, treatment planning, and beam delivery for radiotherapy with accelerated heavy charged particles; and (2) to explore the usefulness of heavy-ion radiography in detecting, localizing, and sizing soft tissue cancers in the human body. The techniques and procedures developed for heavy-ion radiography should prove successful in support of charged particle radiotherapy

  6. BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low

  7. Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography for estimation of canal length in curved canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohtavipour, Seiedeh Tahereh; Dalili, Zahra; Azar, Nasim Gheshlaghi [Faculty of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional and digital radiography in the estimation of working length in mandibular molars. Sixty molar teeth were selected and divided into three groups in the basis of canal curves (0-15 degree, 15-30 degree, >30 degree). After the placement of a 15 K-file, radiographs were taken with a conventional film (F-speed) and a digital sensor. Canal lengths were measured in these images by two observers. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures of ANOVA and paired sample t-test with 95% confidence. There was a high inter-observer agreement on the measurements of working length in conventional and digital radiographs. There was no significant difference between the mean values of measurements in conventional and digital radiography. Moreover, there was no significant difference between conventional and digital radiography with the actual values in the basis of canal curves. The accuracy of conventional and digital radiography in the determination of the working length was in an acceptable range.

  8. Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography for estimation of canal length in curved canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional and digital radiography in the estimation of working length in mandibular molars. Sixty molar teeth were selected and divided into three groups in the basis of canal curves (0-15 degree, 15-30 degree, >30 degree). After the placement of a 15 K-file, radiographs were taken with a conventional film (F-speed) and a digital sensor. Canal lengths were measured in these images by two observers. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures of ANOVA and paired sample t-test with 95% confidence. There was a high inter-observer agreement on the measurements of working length in conventional and digital radiographs. There was no significant difference between the mean values of measurements in conventional and digital radiography. Moreover, there was no significant difference between conventional and digital radiography with the actual values in the basis of canal curves. The accuracy of conventional and digital radiography in the determination of the working length was in an acceptable range.

  9. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  10. Dual energy radiography using active detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technology has been implemented using an open-quotes active-detectorclose quotes comprised of two computed radiography (CR) imaging plates in a sandwich geometry for dual-energy radiography. This detector allows excellent energy separation, short exposure time, and high signal to noise ratio (SNR) for clinically robust open-quotes bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images with minimum patient motion. Energy separation is achieved by two separate exposures at widely different kVp's: the high energy (120 kVp + 1.5 mm Cu filter) exposure is initiated first, followed by a short burst of intense light to erase the latent image on the front plate, and then a 50 kVp (low energy) exposure. A personal computer interfaced to the x-ray generator, filter wheel, and active detector system orchestrates the acquisition sequence within a time period of 150 msec. The front and back plates are processed using a CR readout algorithm with fixed speed and wide dynamic range. open-quotes Bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images are calculated by geometric alignment of the two images and application of dual energy decomposition algorithms on a pixel by pixel basis. Resultant images of a calibration phantom demonstrate an increase of SNR2 / dose by ∼73 times when compared to a single exposure open-quotes passive-detectorclose quotes comprised of CR imaging plates, and an ∼8 fold increase compared to a screen-film dual-energy cassette comprised of different phosphor compounds. In conclusion, dual energy imaging with open-quotes active detectorclose quotes technology is clinically feasible and can provide substantial improvements over conventional methods for dual-energy radiography

  11. Diagnostics of coated fuel particles by neutron and synchrotron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nondestructive monitoring of coated fuel particles has been performed using contact neutron radiography and refraction radiography based on synchrotron radiation. It is shown that these methods supplement each other and have a high potential for determining the sizes, densities, and isotopic composition of the particle components.

  12. Preliminary Study of Indirect Neutron Radiography Method at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Guo-hai; HAN; Song-bai; WANG; Hong-li; HE; Lin-feng; WANG; Yu; WU; Mei-mei; LIU; Yun-tao; CHEN; Dong-feng

    2013-01-01

    The Indirect Neutron Radiography is a powerful technique for non-destructively measuring specimens with radioactivity in the nuclear industrial field.China Advanced Research Reactor(CARR)is an excellent platform for Indirect Neutron Radiography and the experimental conditions based on CARR,mainly the first and the second exposure time,have been calculated and analyzed by the Monte Carlo

  13. Computed radiography imaging plates and associated methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nathaniel F.; Moses, Alex K.

    2015-08-18

    Computed radiography imaging plates incorporating an intensifying material that is coupled to or intermixed with the phosphor layer, allowing electrons and/or low energy x-rays to impart their energy on the phosphor layer, while decreasing internal scattering and increasing resolution. The radiation needed to perform radiography can also be reduced as a result.

  14. Proceeding of 6th short conference on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6th short conference on neutron radiography was held on August 30 and 31, 1983, at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto niversity, as a part of the joint research program of the Institute. During the period since the first meeting in November, 1970, steady development was made in both research and practical use of neutron radiography in Japan owing to the persistent effort of the persons concerned. In the conference, 70 persons participated, and 21 papers were presented. The problems treated were the apparatuses of neutron television, neutron radiography and neutron photography, the various application of neutron radiography, the standard of neutron radiography and others. The high value of neutron radiography and the increasing demand to use this technique were shown in this meeting. Considering the recent rapid development of new technology, it is expected that neutron radiography will find the wide varieties of application in the near future. The proceedings of the conference are published by collecting the gists of papers, hoping to enhance joint effort and the exchange of information to develop neutron radiography. (Kako, I.)

  15. Proceedings of 7th short conference on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first short period conference on neutron radiography was held in 1970, and now the 7th meeting was held. The works to develop neutron radiography in Japan are as active as those in western countries, and the research is in progress by using neutrons from reactors, radioisotopes and accelerators in order to achieve the technology of high standard. In this conference, 26 papers and six comments were presented, and the themes covered the equipment for radiography, the practical application, and the related research. The second World Conference on Neutron Radiography will be held in Paris in June, 1986, and the further promotion of the spread of neutron radiography can be expected. The proceedings of the conference is published with the hope that joint effort and information exchange are further enhanced in coming years to develop the neutron radiography in Japan. The neutron radiography using the Kinki University reactor, the Rikkyo Triga-2 reactor, the Musashi reactor, the Kyoto research reactor, a 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator in Toyota, a subcompact cyclotron in Sumitomo, a baby cyclotron-dual collimator in National Space Development Agency and so on, Cf-252 based thermal neutron radiography, CT with Sb-124/Be neutrons, pulse power neutron source, imaging converters, neutron radiographic image processing, computed tomography using neutron television systems and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Medium range energy proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is concerned with a new application of the strong nuclear interaction aiming to radiographic analysis. In this work, some physical processes have been analyzed with detail; these processes play a fundamental role in method quality and limitations; they have been detailed to facilitate comprehension to scientists who are not nuclear physicists. To better appreciate specific qualities of the RDN (Radiography par Diffusion Nucleaire), a chapter reviews strong nuclear interaction properties. Then, the experimental device is described, processing and acquisition system. Spatial resolution and sensitivity limits are studied. Results are presented

  17. Improving protection standards in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRPB's Dental Monitoring Service is a well established postal method for radiological safety assessment of dental radiography equipment and procedures. Currently about 2,000 assessments are made annually. The results of this programme indicate there is scope for reduction in doses to patients, and in most cases this will be accompanied by an improvement in radiographic quality and diagnostic information. The frequency with which features of the X-ray equipment, image receptor, and processing techniques could be improved in dental practice is presented, and the means by which dose reduction could be effected are discussed. (author)

  18. Hot Fuel Examination Facility's neutron radiography reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-West is located near Idaho Falls, Idaho, and is operated by the University of Chicago for the United States Department of Energy in support of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, LMFBR. The Hot Fuel Examination Facility, HFEF, is one of several facilities located at the Argonne Site. HFEF comprises a large hot cell where both nondestructive and destructive examination of highly-irradiated reactor fuels are conducted in support of the LMFBR program. One of the nondestructive examination techniques utilized at HFEF is neutron radiography, which is provided by the NRAD reactor facility (a TRIGA type reactor) below the HFEF hot cell

  19. Technique for chest radiography for pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine radiographic chest examinations have been performed using a variety of techniques. Although chest radiography is one of the most commonly performed radiographic examinations, it is often difficult to obtain consistently good quality roentgenograms. This publication provides a simple guide and relatively easy solution to the many problems that radiologic technologists might encounter. The language is purposely relatively simple and care has been taken to avoid difficult mathematical and physical explanations. The intent is to provide an easily referrable text for those who may encounter difficulties in producing acceptable chest radiographs

  20. Advances in neutron radiography at UJV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is given of the development of neutron radiography and of planned development of neutron sources, imaging methods, evaluation methods and instrumentation. Experimental equipment and the application fields are described. The method is used in the metrology of fuel elements, for the study of the penetration of aggressive substances into building materials, for the diagnosis of bone tumors between surgeries, in archaeology, in crack detection of glued joints of honeycombed structures and in imaging the crystalline structure of castings of nickel-based superalloys. (J.P.)

  1. Application of digital radiography to roentgen tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative clinical studies were made between digital radiography applied to roentgen tomography and conventional tomography using routine X-ray films. Digitization of pictures was carried out for 2 kinds of tomogram, i. e.,a) tomogram by FCR of Fuji Photo's make and b) tomogram by DR SMIS of Konishiroku Photo's make. Clinical effects of tonal conversion and spatial frequency modification applied to digitized information were described. Something noteworthy of the kind and extent of any processing to be applied according to the property of the focus was also described. (author)

  2. Application of neutron radiography to building industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography (NR) technique has been adopted to study the characteristics of some Bangladeshi building materials, e.g. bricks, ceramic bricks, heavy concrete, MS rod and shielding materials (borax mixed and boron mixed shields) and some Slovanian building materials, local names of which are Siporex, Malta, Opeka and Beton. Measurements were made to determine defects in all the samples and water absorption behaviour of the Slovanian building materials. Optical density of the neutron radiographs was adopted for measurements in both the cases. (author)

  3. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  4. The value of panoramic radiography in assessing maxillary sinus inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the value of panoramic radiography in diagnosing maxillary sinus inflammation. A total of 214 maxillary sinuses from 114 panoramic radiographs were assessed in this study. Two independent experienced oral radiologists evaluated the images in random order for sinus inflammation. Using Cone beam CT images as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of panoramic radiography were calculated, and inter- and intraobserver agreement for panoramic interpretation were obtained. The mean sensitivity and specificity of panoramic radiography were 81.0% and 85.6%, respectively. The weighted kappas for inter- and intraobserver agreement of panoramic radiography were 0.56 and 0.60, respectively. Panoramic radiography is a reasonably accurate method for diagnosing maxillary sinus inflammation and can be used for screening. However, additional examinations should be considered in patients with potentially significant pathology.

  5. Ensuring Safety in Transition to Digital Radiography in Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are currently transitioning from screen-film radiography to digital radiography. Most principles for dose reduction in screen-film radiography, including justification, are relevant to digital systems. However, digital systems have the potential to significantly increase patient dose, possibly due to lack of awareness among imaging personnel. Examination parameters, such as tube voltage, tube current and filtration, have been adopted from screen-film technology without further adjustments. The imaging parameters must be optimized according to the best performance of a particular system. Current safety issues with clinical digital radiography are discussed; these are technology factors, such as automatic exposure factors and exposure index; and human factors, such as inappropriate exposure, no collimation and overexposure. Digital techniques increasingly offer options for dose reduction. Therefore, implementation of dose indicators and dose monitoring is mandatory for digital radiography in practice. Finally, the advantages and challenges of radiographer performed fluoroscopy will also be discussed. (author)

  6. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging

  7. Phase-contrast radiography with a polychromatic neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase-contrast imaging is based not only on the absorption contrast like in the conventional radiography but also on the contributions of the phase shifts induced by the propagation of a coherent radiation through the investigated sample. The strong phase changes on the borders between two media can be observed as sharp intensity variations on the radiography image. So the phase-contrast method is an edge-enhancement method which allows to visualize very fine structures where the conventional radiography provides unsatisfactory results. For the aims of the phase-contrast imaging a radiation with a high spatial but not necessarily chromatic coherence is required. In this way phase-contrast radiography experiments with a polychromatic thermal neutron beam possessing a high spatial transversal coherence can be performed. The reported results show that the developed phase-contrast neutron radiography can be used as a standard non-destructive investigation method

  8. The value of panoramic radiography in assessing maxillary sinus inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate the value of panoramic radiography in diagnosing maxillary sinus inflammation. A total of 214 maxillary sinuses from 114 panoramic radiographs were assessed in this study. Two independent experienced oral radiologists evaluated the images in random order for sinus inflammation. Using Cone beam CT images as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of panoramic radiography were calculated, and inter- and intraobserver agreement for panoramic interpretation were obtained. The mean sensitivity and specificity of panoramic radiography were 81.0% and 85.6%, respectively. The weighted kappas for inter- and intraobserver agreement of panoramic radiography were 0.56 and 0.60, respectively. Panoramic radiography is a reasonably accurate method for diagnosing maxillary sinus inflammation and can be used for screening. However, additional examinations should be considered in patients with potentially significant pathology.

  9. The practice of industrial gamma radiography in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the practice of industrial gamma radiography in the Philippines vis-a-avis radiation protection and safety involving the regulatory authority, NDT operating organizations, clients and suppliers of radiographic exposure devices and sources. The presentation summarizes the activities of the nuclear regulations and licensing activities, the NDT operating organizations and its personnel and suppliers of radiographic exposure devices and radiography sources. This paper also describes the types of radiographic exposure devices and sources used, the status of permanent radiography exposure facilities, practices in on-site radiography, storage and movement of radiography sources, and implementation of radiological emergency programs and procedures. Finally, a discussion of the recommendations to improve the effective implementation of regulating and licensing involving the gamma radiation sources and compliance of the NDT operating organizations, the radiological health and safety officers, the radiographers and radiographer's assistants, and suppliers are presented. (Author)

  10. Digital Radiography of a Drop Tested 9975 Radioactive Materials Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the use of radiography as a tool for evaluating damage to radioactive material packaging subjected to regulatory accident conditions. The Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 71, presents the performance based requirements that must be used in the development (design, fabrication and testing) of a radioactive material packaging. The use of various non-destructive examination techniques in the fabrication of packages is common. One such technique is the use of conventional radiography in the examination of welds. Radiography is conventional in the sense that images are caught one at a time on film stock. Most recently, digital radiography has been used to characterize internal damage to a package subjected to the 30-foot hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) drop. Digital radiography allows for real time evaluation of the item being inspected. This paper presents a summary discussion of the digital radiographic technique and an example of radiographic results of a 9975 package following the HAC 30-foot drop

  11. Nuclear track radiography of 'hot' aerosol particles

    CERN Document Server

    Boulyga, S F; Kievets, M K; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V; Yaroshevich, O I; Perelygin, V P; Petrova, R I; Brandt, R; Vater, P

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear track radiography was applied to identify aerosol 'hot' particles which contain elements of nuclear fuel and fallout after Chernobyl NPP accident. For the determination of the content of transuranium elements in radioactive aerosols the measurement of the alpha-activity of 'hot' particles by SSNTD was used in this work, as well as radiography of fission fragments formed as a result of the reactions (n,f) and (gamma,f) in the irradiation of aerosol filters by thermal neutrons and high energy gamma quanta. The technique allowed the sizes and alpha-activity of 'hot' particles to be determined without extracting them from the filter, as well as the determination of the uranium content and its enrichment by sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Pu isotopes. Sensitivity of determination of alpha activity by fission method is 5x10 sup - sup 6 Bq per particle. The software for the system of image analysis was created. It ensured the identification of track clusters on an optical imag...

  12. Testing of capsules used in radiography cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-182 non-radioactive (dummy) radiography capsules manufactured by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited were mechanically tested by performing a prescribed number of cycles under preset conditions in a Model 100-3 Pneumat- A-Ray radiography camera. The capsules were observed throughout the cycling trials and tested for changes in dimension, weight, and leakage. After completion of the prescribed cycling trials each capsule was further tested for potential leakage by dye penetrant examination, sectioned at the equator and each half tested by dye penetrant examination, then sectioned again longitudinally and metallurgically examined. The results indicate that the capsules cycled under typical field conditions can become significantly deformed, and that deformation is generally related to the number of cycles that the capsules undergo. The deformation occurs almost exclusively on the end of the capsule entering the camera first. When the headhose cushion is removed the deformation occurs on both ends of the capsule. The deformation is related only to the pneumatic operating mode of the camera and there was no evidence for deformation when the camera was used under pipeline mode of operation. The only leak observed in this series of tests was not related to the deformed end of the capsule, but rather to the weld end of the capsule when the non weld end of the capsule was deformed from entering the camera. The leak was shown by dye penetrant examination and by photomicrographs of the cross section of the affected capsule

  13. A system for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this system, objects as small as a coin and as large as a 19 liter container have been radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3 x 10[sup 10] neutrons/second with an average energy of 14. 5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available light-tight cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to produce protons from the neutron beam through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9 x 10[sup 7] n/cm[sup 2] to 3.8 x 10[sup 8] n/cm[sup 2] depending on the type of screen and film. The optimum source-to-film distance was found to be 150 cm. At this distance, the geometric unsharpness was determined to be approximately 2.2-2.3 mm and the smallest hole that could be resolved in a 1.25 cm thick sample had a diameter of 0.079 cm

  14. Sealed 192 Ir sources for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results obtained by the Post-Irradiation Examination Laboratory (LEPI) of INR Pitesti in production and selling of sealed 192 Ir sources for industrial radiography. The sealed 192 Ir sources are obtained by encapsulating iridium disks in stainless steel capsules by TIG welding. The iridium disks have the characteristics: - radionuclidic purity, at least 95% Ir; - density, at least 12 g/cm3; - height, 0.5 mm; - diameter, 3 mm. Tests for radioactive tightness of the capsules containing the 192 Ir sources are done by immersing the sealed source in water at 323 K temperature for 4 h and measuring the radioactivity of immersion water samples. The source is accepted as tightly enclosed if the water activity is less than 0.2 kBq (5 nCi). Six types of sealed 192 Ir sources are produced with maximum activity 4.4 TBq (120 Ci); 2.310 TBq (70 Ci); 1.155 TBq (35 Ci); 0.555 TBq (15 Ci); 0.185 TBq (5 Ci) and 0.037 TBq (1 Ci), with focal spots varying between 3 x 3 mm and 0.5 x 0.5 mm. The technological flux is described. In the period 1993-2000 LEPI has produced 350 sealed 192 Ir sources for industrial radiography with a total activity of 518 TBq (14,000 Ci) which were delivered to about 100 users of national industry

  15. Void fraction measurements using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time neutron radiography is being evaluated for studying the dynamic behavior of two-phase flow and for measuring void fraction in vertical and inclined water ducts. This technique provides a unique means of visualizing the behavior of fluid flow inside thick metal enclosures. An air-water flow system was constructed to simulate vapor conditions encountered in a fluid flow duct. Air was injected into the bottom of the duct at flow rates up to 0.47 ell/s (1 ft3/min). The water flow rate was varied between 0 and 3.78 ell/min (0 to 1 gal/min). The experiments were performed at the Pennsylvania State University nuclear reactor facility using a real-time neutron radiography camera. With a thermal neutron flux on the order of 106 n/cm2·s-1 directed through the thin duct dimension, the dynamic behavior of the air bubbles was clearly visible through 5-cm (2-in.)-thick aluminum support plates placed on both sides of the duct wall. Image analysis techniques were employed to extract void fractions from the data, which were recorded on videotape. This consisted of time averaging 256 video frames and measuring the gray level distribution throughout the region. The distribution of the measured void fraction across the duct was determined for various air-water mixtures. Details of the results of experiments for a variety of air and water flow conditions are presented

  16. Void fraction measurements using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time neutron radiography is being evaluated for studying the dynamic behavior of two phase flow and for measuring void fraction in vertical and inclined water ducts. This technique provides a unique means of visualizing the behavior of fluid flow inside thick metal enclosures. To simulate vapor conditions encountered in a fluid flow duct, an air-water flow system was constructed. Air was injected into the bottom of the duct at flow rates up to 0.47 I/s (1 cfm). The water flow rate was varied between 0--3.78 I/m (0--1 gpm). The experiments were performed at the Pennsylvania State University nuclear reactor facility using a real-time neutron radiography camera. With a thermal neutron flux on the order of 106n/cm2/s directed through the thin duct dimension, the dynamic behavior of the air bubbles was clearly visible through 5 cm (2 in.) thick aluminum support plates placed on both sides of the duct wall. Image analysis techniques were employed to extract void fractions from the data which was recorded on videotape. This consisted of time averaging 256 video frames and measuring the gray level distribution throughout the region. The distribution of the measured void fraction across the duct was determined for various air/water mixtures. Details of the results of experiments for a variety of air and water flow conditions are presented

  17. Dose and Risk in Dental Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental panoramic tomography (DPT) is a technique by which an image of the entire dentition may be obtained on a single film, without superimposition of structures superficial or deep to the teeth and jaws. This is achieved by wrapping a flat tomographic plane around the curve of the jaw. A facility of modern units is the ability to select programmes which image specific areas of the mandible and dentition. One such programmable DPT unit (Siemens Orthophos) was used to irradiate an anthropomorphic phantom loaded with lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosemeters. For each of the 12 programmes available, organ absorbed dose and effective dose (E) were calculated. The suitability of entrance surface dose (ESD) and effective dose (as defined by ICRP) for use as reference doses is discussed. ESD may be a poor indicator of organ absorbed dose distribution due to the complex nature of the dynamic beam geometry; and E underestimates the cancer risk for head-and-neck radiography as a whole due to the exclusion of highly irradiated organs (salivary tissue) from its calculation. A modification of the calculation of E to include the salivary tissue may provide an appropriate quantity for use as a reference dose, but the time and facilities required to measure the organ doses necessary for its calculation may limit its widespread adoption. Energy imparted may be the easiest quantity to measure for use as a reference dose, but the adequacy with which it represents the risk for head-and-neck radiography is open to question. (author)

  18. Hydrogen transport studies using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron cross-sections and their angular and energy-dependence as characteristics of neutron interaction with hydrogen isotopes and compounds are presented. It is shown how deuteration and different molecular modifications (e.g. ortho and parahydrogen) affect the cross-sections and hence the beam attenuation. A comparison of neutron radiographic methods with other neutron techniques used for hydrogen detection is made and the necessary formalism to describe diffusion processes is given. The results obtained by neutron radiography on the measurement of hydrogen motion in various substances are reviewed, in particular diffusion measurements made on liquids (water, liquid hydrogen and methanol) and of hydrogen in metals (β-titanium, vanadium, niobium and tantalum). Finally, neutron-radiographic measurements of water transport in concrete and of carburetor icing are discussed. The advantages of the high detection efficiency of hydrogen by neutron radiography and the integral sample scan technique are simultaneously used for such measurements. Some typical results of this detection method in the field of physical and applied research are shown. (author)

  19. Development of flat panel digital radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed the Digital Radiography System CXDI-11 which digitizes the X-ray image in high quality by using a self-developed flat panel detector. The CXDI-11 has a large image area of 43 cm x 43 cm (17'' x 17''), and it can display the image on the pre-view monitor after only 3 seconds of exposure. In this report, we present the principle and the physical characteristics of the CXDI-11. The X-ray detector installed in the CXDI-11 is a combination of a rare-earth scintillator and an amorphous silicon flat panel detector (LANMIT). The X-ray is converted to the visible fluorescent light at the scintillator and the light is detected by the LANMIT. The image-processed data is transferred to the DICOM3.0 conformed devices such as the diagnosis work station, the archiver and the laser imager through the network. We also show some measurement results of the dynamic range, the pre-sampling Modulation Transfer Function and the tube voltage dependent sensitivity. The CXDI-11 is superior in real time operation and image quality, thus it is the digital radiography system of the next generation. (author)

  20. Optimization and quality control of computed radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E.; Weiser, John C.; Leckie, Robert G.; Romlein, John R.; Norton, Gary S.

    1994-05-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is a relatively new technique for projection radiography. Few hospitals have CR devices in routine service and only a handful have more than one CR unit. As such, the clinical knowledge base does not yet exist to establish quality control (QC) procedures for CR devices. Without assurance that CR systems are operating within nominal limits, efforts to optimize CR performance are limited in value. A complete CR system includes detector plates that vary in response, cassettes, an electro-optical system for developing the image, computer algorithms for processing the raw image, and a hard copy output device. All of these subsystems are subject to variations in performance that can degrade image quality. Using CR manufacturer documentation, we have defined acceptance protocols for two different Fuji CR devices, the FCR 7000 and the AC1+, and have applied these tests to ten individual machines. We have begun to establish baseline performance measures and to determine measurement frequencies. CR QC is only one component of the overall quality control for totally digital radiology departments.

  1. Neutron radiography working group test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scope and results of the Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group Test Program are described. Seven NR centers from six European Community countries have performed this investigation using eleven NR facilities. Four test items were neutron radiographed using 30 different film/converter combinations. From film density measurements neutron beam components were determined. Radiographic sensitivity was assessed from visual examinations of the radiographs. About 25,000 dimensional measurements were made and were used for the assessment of accuracies of dimensional measurements from neutron radiographs. The report gives a description of the test items used for the Test Program, the film density and dimensional measurements, and concentrates on the assessment of the measuring results. The usefulness of the beam purity and sensitivity indicators was assessed with the conclusion that they are not suitable for neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel. Ample information is included in the report about measuring accuracies which can be reached in dimensional measurements of fuel pins. After a general comparison of measuring accuracies is discussed. Results from different NR facilities are treated separately as are the different kinds of dimensions of the fuel pins. Finally human and instrument factors are discussed. After presenting final conclusions (which take into account the above-mentioned factors) results of other investigations about dimensional measurements are shortly reviewed

  2. Imaging characteristics in rotational panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is concerned with imaging quality in rotational panoramic radiography. This imaging technique records an image of a curved layer within the object radiographed. The shape of this layer normally corresponds with the average form of the dental arch. In the centre of the layer a plane can be found which is depicted with a minimum of unsharpness. Unsharpness increases and the horizontal magnification changes as distance increases from that central plane. The image quality of the layer has been analyzed with the use of mathematical models to estimate the performance of the radiographic diagnostic system. Despite the application of these increasingly sophisticated models the question remains: will the results of the calculations based on these models adequately predict the diagnostic effectiveness of this type of imaging system? In this study a comparison is made between the theoretically determined quality of the system and the diagnostic quality using the observer as a measuring instrument. Experiments were carried out to measure the total unsharpness occurring in rotational panoramic radiography. 116 refs.; 114 figs.; 54 tabs

  3. Ecological and economical solutions for film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Film radiography may be perceived as technology with environmental concerns, involving the application of chemicals and the discharge of drained waters with high silver levels. Ecological legislation concerning silver content of the wash water differs from country to country. GE Inspection Technologies now offers industrial radiographers several ways to address regulatory limits silver in drained waters. First, two brand new film processors, the Agfa NDT Si and M eco, are introduced to the NDT market. Both machines are equipped with Cascade Fixing Technology, which reduces silver content in the wash water and increases the ability to comply with stricter discharge standards. Next the new eco Film System is presented. This system is based on the new machines, specially adapted films and carefully developed new chemicals. Eco stands for ecological and economic performance. The customer can now process films in a very short cycle, saving money while increasing its ability to comply with environmental limits on discharges of silver into drained waters. This paper will also address other means to reduce the silver freight in the wash water. Opportunities but most of all issues involved in the application of these technologies will be highlighted. Thus the presenter of this paper will demonstrate how film radiography responds to environmental concerns without causing extra financial burdens for the user. (author)

  4. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  5. Neutron radiography at the HFR Petten compilation of HFR Petten contributions to the second world conference on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet summarizes the six papers on neutron radiography activities at the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR), presented at the Second World Conference on neutron radiography, held in June 1986 in Paris, France. The conference was organized by the French CEA and COFREND, and JRC Petten, HFR Division, with joint sponsorship of the national societies on Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) from the Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom, Japan and the United States. The Petten papers are concerned with: (i) the work of the Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG), an expert group operating under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities represented by JRC Petten, HFR Division; (ii) applications of neutron radiography in research programmes performed at HFR; (iii) neutron radiography facilities at HFR; and (iv) image evaluation techniques

  6. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, Melvin, A.; Gary, Charles, K.; Harris, Jack, L. Williams, David, J.; Jones, Glenn, E.; Vainionpaa, J. , H.; Fuller, Michael, J.; Rothbart, George, H.; Kwan, J., W.; Ludewigt, B., A.; Gough, R.., A..; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-12-08

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  7. A study of television imaging system for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron radiography with fast neutron beam is a very useful imaging technique for thicker objects, especially those composed of hydrogen-rich materials which are sometimes difficult to image by thermal neutron radiography. The fast neutron radiography has not been studied so much as the thermal neutron radiography. The fast neutron radiography has been studied at the fast neutron source reactor 'Yayoi' of the University of Tokyo built in Tokai-mura. The average neutron energy of the Yayoi is about 1 MeV, and the peak neutron flux at the core center is 0.8 x 1012 at the maximum operating power of 2 kW. In the experiment on fast neutron radiography, a CR39 nuclear track detector has been used successfully. But in the Yayoi radiography procedure, about 24 hours were required for obtaining an imaging result. To get a prompt imaging result and a real-time imaging result, it is necessary to develop a fast neutron television system, and in this paper, a new fast neutron TV system is proposed. The main difference is the converter material sensitive to fast neutrons. The study on the fast neutron TV system was carried out by using the Baby Cyclotron of Japan Steel Works, and the good images were realized. (K.I.)

  8. A review of digital radiography technology for valve inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are thousands of valves in a nuclear power plant (NPP) used for control, safety and checks in various plant systems, so there is a well-identified need for fast and reliable inspection and diagnostics of valves. Digital radiography can provide considerable improvements to the inspection and testing procedures for valves in comparison to classical film radiography. These improvements can lead to significant financial advantages by providing real-time inspection results, significantly reduced inspection and decision-making time, and reduced operational cost. Digital image processing, including digital image enhancement, digital archiving, and digital communication of the images and the results, is also a considerable advantage over classical film radiography technology. Another advantage of digital radiography technology is the improved safety and the reduced environmental impact due to reduced exposure/test times, use of smaller exclusion zones, elimination of chemical processing, and absence of disposable materials. This paper reviews the existing technology and evaluates the potential of digital radiography for inspection and diagnostics of valves. Station needs and requirements are assessed, and the safety, environmental and economical constraints of digital radiography techniques estimated. The advantages and disadvantages of different digital radiography equipment are compared, and their limitations and characteristics studied. (author)

  9. Comparison of conventional radiography and MDCT in suspected scaphoid fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cyrus; Behzadi; Murat; Karul; Frank; Oliver; Henes; Azien; Laqmani; Philipp; Catala-Lehnen; Wolfgang; Lehmann; Hans-Dieter; Nagel; Gerhard; Adam; Marc; Regier

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of conventional radiography and multidetector computed tomography(MDCT) in suspected scaphoid fractures.METHODS: One hundred twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled in our study who had suffered from a wrist trauma and showed typical clinical symptoms suspicious of an acute scaphoid fracture. All patients had initially undergone conventional radiography. Subsequent MDCT was performed within 10 d because of persisting clinical symptoms. Using the MDCT data as the reference standard, a fourfold table was used to classify the test results. The effective dose and impaired energy were assessed in order to compare the radiation burden of the two techniques. The Wilcoxon test was performed to compare the two diagnostic modalities.RESULTS: Conventional radiography showed 34 acute fractures of the scaphoid in 124 patients(42.2%). Subsequent MDCT revealed a total of 42 scaphoid fractures. The sensitivity of conventional radiography for scaphoid fracture detection was 42.8% and its specificity was 80% resulting in an overall accuracy of 59.6%. Conventional radiography was significantly inferior to MDCT(P < 0.01) concerning scaphoidfracture detection. The mean effective dose of MDCT was 0.1 m Sv compared to 0.002 m Sv of conventional radiography.CONCLUSION: Conventional radiography is insufficient for accurate scaphoid fracture detection. Regarding the almost negligible effective dose, MDCT should serve as the first imaging modality in wrist trauma.

  10. Control dose in chest radiography after the installation of the computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to verify patient does after the installation of the computed radiography. Entrance surface doses were obtained from a measurement of the output of the x-ray tube and exposure factor used at posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) chest in 50 adult patients before and after the installation. The obtained average values were 0.28±0.10mGy in the PA view and 0.8±0.5 mGy in the LAT view with the conventional screen-film system 0.27±0.06 mGy in PA view and 0.69±0.18 mGy in LAT view with the digital radiography system. The results do not exceed the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and are constant after the change of system. (Author)

  11. Detectability of the mediastinal lines : comparison of conventional film-screen radiography and digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using dynamic range compression (DRC) processing, this study compared the detectability of mediastinal lines by conventional film screen radiography (FS) and by storage phosphor digital radiography (DR). We selected 200 normal consecutive chest radiographs (100 FS, 100 DR); dynamic range compression was applied to DR processing and moving grids were used in both systems. Seven mediastinal lines (left paraspinal, right paraspinal, azygoesophageal, left para-aortic, posterio junctional, anterior junctional and right paratracheal) were scored from 0 point to 3 point (0: not visible, 1 : suspiciously visible, 2 : visible, but not clear, 3: clearly visible) according to visibility and sharpness, as agreed by a radiologist and a resident. The differences between the two modalities were compared and analyzed by chi-square test. DR processed with DRC visualizes mediastinal lines more frequently and clearly than conventional FS, and is therefore thought to be useful for the evaluation of mediastinal diseases. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  13. Applications and characteristics of imaging plates as detector in neutron radiography at SINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Kolbe, H; Gunia, W; Körner, S

    1999-01-01

    Imaging plate technique is a commonly accepted method in many fields as in medicine, biology and physics for detection of the distribution of beta- and gamma-radiation or X-rays on large areas. Recently a new type of imaging plate sensitive to neutrons has been developed. The storage layer is doped with gadolinium, which, after absorption of neutrons, produces radiation detectable by the same sensitive crystals used in conventional imaging plates. At the spallation neutron source, SINQ, at the Paul Scherrer Institut (CH) some of the characteristics of the neutron radiography station in combination with the imaging plate technique were investigated. The intensity distribution of the source was measured to check the accuracy for quantification of the image data. Also, the reproducibility of results obtained by this detection system was stated. For a test object, the high selectivity for different neutron absorption is demonstrated at details with low contrast. The obtainable spatial resolution was determined re...

  14. Artifacts Found During Quality Assurance Testing of Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Honey, Ian D.; MacKenzie, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    A series of artifact images, obtained over 5 years of performance testing, of both computed radiography (CR) and integrated digital radiographic X-ray imaging detectors are presented. The images presented are all either flat field or test object images and show artifacts previously either undescribed in the existing literature or meriting further comment. The artifacts described are caused by incorrect flat field corrections, a failing amplifier, damaged detector lines affecting their neighbo...

  15. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return of the...

  16. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward-...

  17. Fundamental of neutron radiography and the present of neutron radiography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography refers to the application of transmitted neutrons to analysis. In general, thermal neutron is used for neutron radiography. Thermal neutron is easily absorbed by light atoms, including hydrogen, boron and lithium, while it is not easily absorbed by such heavy atoms as tungsten, lead and uranium, permitting detection of impurities in heavy metals. Other neutrons than thermal neutron can also be applied. Cold neutron is produced from fast neutron using a moderator to reduce its energy down to below that of thermal neutron. Cold neutron is usefull for analysis of thick material. Epithermal neutron can induce resonance characteristic of each substance. With a relatively small reaction area, fast neutron permits observation of thick samples. Being electrically neutral, neutrons are difficult to detect by direct means. Thus a substance that releases charged particles is put in the path of neutrons for indirect measurement. X-ray film combined with converter screen for conversion of neutrons to charge particles is placed behind the sample. Photographing is carried out by a procedure similar to X-ray photography. Major institues and laboratories in Japan provided with neutron radiography facilities are listed. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Management Waste Of Of Radiography Of Personal Certification Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Have been conducted analysis of waste of Radiography Personnel Certification Level 1 and Level 2 to measure whether Certification NDE Radiography activity to effect environment or not. The result of waste analysis to be compared with standard is 0.05 ppm. Three locations are selected to get waste sample continuously are : Fixer Tank, Back of 71 Building and Control Main Drain Box. Result of analysis from three selected locations of waste flow have reduced silver containment. The Silver containment of waste to be release to environment is below 0.05 ppm; it means that Radiography of Personnel Certification Process is not effect environmental

  19. Pet fish radiography: technique and case history reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography can be used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of pet fish diseases. Handling, restraint and radiographic technique for the radiographic examination of pet fish is described. Quality diagnostic images can be obtained with standard radiographic equipment and radiographic techniques. Fishes with undifferentiated sarcoma, swim bladder herniation and scoliosis are three clinical examples that are described where radiography was used in the management of the patient. Conventional radiography appears to be best for evaluating skeletal and swim bladder diseases. Alternate imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may enhance the evaluation of coelomic soft tissue structures

  20. Digital radiography simulation for industrial applications with MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edmilson M. de; Correa, Samanda C.A.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Oliveira, Davi F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)], E-mail: emonteiro@con.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The energy dependent response of a BaFBr Image Plate detector was modeled and introduced in MCNPX radiography tally input. To convert MCNPX radiography tally output in 16 bits digital images, a post processing program called PROGRAMA IMAGEM is presented. Simulate images of a steel tube containing corrosion alveoli and grinded defects were compared with experimental images. The radiography technique used in all tests was double wall single image, DWSI, using an Iridium source ({sup 192}Ir) touching the adjacent wall. Visual and perfilometric analysis showed that the methodology used for sensible material simulation and data post-processing makes simulate digital images comparable to experimental images. (author)

  1. Review and prospects of neutron radiography in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though the first neutron radiographs were made in the FRG by Kallmann and Kuhn nearly 50 years ago, this NDT method has never found wide-spread application in the FRG. With the development and availability of more powerful mobile sources and real-time inspection systems with neutron image intensifiers, neutron radiography may find greater application in industry. New applications for mobile neutron radiography will be in aircraft inspection, the testing of fibre-reinforced polymers and certain types of ceramics, civil engineering, corrosion and lubricating investigations. In addition, many previous solution in neutron radiography will come alive with the availability of inexpensive testing facilities. (author)

  2. Recent developments in digital radiography detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorkston, John

    2007-10-01

    Medical projection radiography is currently undergoing a major transformation into the digital age. New digital X-ray detectors are providing improved image quality as well as increased functionality. These advances promise to significantly change the practice of radiology in the coming years. This review paper will describe some of the issues associated with the new digital detectors, their design, capabilities and limitations as well as a few of the promising new clinical applications being enabled by their introduction. The review will focus mainly on the new amorphous silicon flat-panel detectors but will also touch on other technologies and promising new developments that may be introduced into the clinical environment in the not too distant future.

  3. 3-ns flash X-radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In intense particle beam interaction with targets, flash X-radiography (FXR) has become the standard technique used to observe the target dynamic response to particle irradiation. Most of the development was motivated by the particle-beam inertial-confinement fusion program. The FXR technique is required to observe the hydrodynamic behavior of the critical regions of interest: the interfaces between the target ablator and the pusher, and between the pusher and the fuel. In making these measurements, the instruments developed must overcome an intense X-ray and EMP background associated with the production of particle beams. In the FXR systems described, microchannel plates (MCP) are used extensively as X-ray converters, gated shutters, and intensifiers to provide signal detection, background discrimination, and signal amplification. The MCP's play an important role in the development of these systems. (Auth.)

  4. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  5. Digital radiography exposure indices: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital radiography (DR) technologies have the advantage of a wide dynamic range compared to their film-screen predecessors, however, this poses a potential for increased patient exposure if left unchecked. Manufacturers have developed the exposure index (EI) to counter this, which provides radiographers with feedback on the exposure reaching the detector. As these EIs were manufacturer-specific, a wide variety of EIs existed. To offset this, the international standardised EI has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The purpose of this article is to explore the current literature relating to EIs, beginning with the historical development of the EI, the development of the standardised EI and an exploration of common themes and studies as evidenced in the research literature. It is anticipated that this review will provide radiographers with a useful guide to understanding EIs, their application in clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research

  6. In search of optimum chest radiography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nation-wide study of chest radiography in Sweden previously revealed a large variation in the physical and technical factors involved, in particular radiation dose. In this study image quality could not be assessed unambiguously. The aim was to try to establish correlation between visual grading of radiographs and physical and technical factors in order to find the optimum chest X-ray system. The physical and technical performance of 24 chest units was evaluated. Radiographs were taken of an anthropomorphic chest phantom supplied with test structures simulating various pathologies. Image quality was assessed by visual grading analysis of the radiographs. The physical and technical parameters of the units rated best were used to exemplify good radiographic practice. Results were in agreement with the recommendations issued by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). It was also shown that low radiation dose is compatible with high-quality radiographic imaging of the chest. (Author)

  7. Femoral anteversion measured by ultrasonography and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic and real-time ultrasound measurements of femoral anteversion were compared in an anatomic study of 20 dried adult femurs. The real anteversion (AV) angle was determined by biplanar radiography. In four ultrasound measurements, the linear transducer was kept either horizontal or tilted. The measuring lines were either the anterior tangent of the femoral head-greater trochanter or the anterior tangent of the femoral neck. With the tilted transducer, the correlation between the head-trochanter AV angle and the real AV angle was high (r=0.9452), and slightly less when the anterior neck AV angle was used (r=0.9142). The clinical relevance is that the tilted transducer technique with the head-trochanter tangent is recommended for AV screening in patients with clinical signs of increased femoral anteversion. In adults 8.50 has to be subtracted in order to obtain an approximation of the real AV angle. (orig.)

  8. KSTAR Application for Fast Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is a magnetic fusion device being built at the National Fusion Research Institute in Daejon, Korea. After the successful first operation in 2008, the plasma performance is enhanced and duration of H-mode is extended to around 50 sec. In addition to long-pulse operation, the operational boundary of the H-mode discharge is extended over MHD no-wall limit. The basic design of the setup, based on the typical configuration, was decided for the first step of the experiments. Several type of scintillator is being ready to be examined for the best performance. The first setup will be applied in KSTAR 2015 campaign, and it can characterize the neutron radiation from KSTAR. Based on the data, the optimum design of the setup for fast radiography can be derived

  9. Is digital better in dental radiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Slovenia, dental radiography was the first field in which projection x-ray imaging using digital detectors was done. At present around 30% of intraoral dental x-ray units use digital detectors. Annual test results were analysed to compare digital systems with film-based ones. The survey results show significantly lower doses of exposure in digital systems. In our opinion digital systems are especially suitable for practitioners who perform a low number of x-ray examinations (e.g. private dentists), because of problems that may arise due to developing a limited number of films. The problem with digital systems could be the ease of deleting an image and performing another examination, the extent of which was not investigated. (authors)

  10. Reduction of population dose in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, the relationship between tumor induction especially in thyroid gland and salivary gland as exposure injuries and dental x-ray examination on human group was mentioned. Presumption of population exposure dose at time of examination was discussed from standpoint of genetically significant dose, per caput mean bone marrow dose, leukemia significant dose, and collective dose in thyroid gland. As the result, improvement of space distribution of a dose in intraoral radiography was discussed from standpoints of quality of x-ray and the size of irradiation field, and the distance from a focus to skin in considereation of reduction of exposure dose, and it was further considered by using x-ray film with high sensitivity of nonscreen type film and introducing screen. (Kanao, N.)

  11. Present applications of neutron radiography in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful second launch of the European heavy launcher ARIANE 5 has completely erased the failure of the first one. After the third qualification test which is scheduled for next autumn, the future of industrial use of neutron radiography (NR) in France will be ensured for twenty years. More than 30000 pyrotechnic devices have been submitted so far to NR testing on CEA nuclear reactors for civil space programmes. This field has always been the main area of NR application in France and is carried out in the ORPHEE reactor beam tube. Nuclear fuel examinations are also extremely useful for comprehensive behaviour studies during incidental events such as power ramp tests. The OSIRIS reactor underwater facility have a good work load in this field. Quantitative information can also be reached by analysing the radiographs. An example of processing is shown on mixed oxide fuel pin used in a Light Water Reactor

  12. Proton radiography of strongly coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Experimental investigations of strongly coupled plasma produced by shock and detonation waves have been conducted at proton radiography facility developed at the ITEP Terawatt Accelerator (TWAC-ITEP). The 800 MeV proton beam intensity in these experiments is about 1010 particles per pulse. A single beam bunch consists of four consequent 70 ns long micro bunches with 250 ns intervals between them. The spatial resolution of the facility that was measured in static experiments is about 50 am. For the generation of shock waves the energy of high explosives (HE) is used, therefore experimental targets are placed within the explosive containment chamber that is certified for the use of up to 100 g of HE in TNT equivalent. The results of latest experiments are presented, including results on propagation of the shock and detonation waves and measurements of the equation of state of strongly coupled shock-induced plasma of argon and xenon. Detonation waves in condensed HE were studied as a dynamic test object at the facility. Series of radiographic images of areal density (i.e. density along the proton beam) of detonating HE charges were obtained in those experiments. On the basis of these images calculations of detonation wave velocities were performed and volume density profiles along the axes of charges were reconstructed. The analysis of these profiles shows that in the vicinity of Chapman - Jouget point, as well as in the following region of unloading, they give not only qualitative but also good quantitative agreement with the known experimental data obtained by other measurement techniques. The experimental investigation of shock-induced strongly coupled plasma of argon and xenon is being conducted at the TWAC-ITEP proton radiography facility now. The shock pressure P in recent argon tests was from 100 to 1000 bars, temperature T was 8-20 kK with non-ideality parameter Γ of about 1. In similar tests with xenon the values of P=4

  13. Oral history in radiography: Listening to pioneers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the professional value of the collection and analysis of oral histories in the history of radiography. Drawing on oral histories collected from radiographers, we analyse accounts of experiences to identify common themes, some of which are of current significance, whilst others have faded from existence. 15 oral histories were collected from radiographers whose combined practice spans the years 1930-1973. The sample consists of 6 male and 9 female radiographers. Themes identified in the oral histories include radiographers as invisible pioneers who worked in professionally unclaimed territory and their dangerous working environment. The oral histories reveal the working world of the radiographer as having encompassed a practice ethos where challenges became an accepted part of work. We gain insight into less observable aspects of the radiographer's role, the difficulties they faced, how they invented techniques and equipment, and how they managed their practice including protecting the public from ionising radiation sources.

  14. Machine learning applied to proton radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Nicholas Fang Yew; Ceurvorst, Luke; Ratan, Naren; Sadler, James; Levy, Matthew; Trines, Raoul; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Proton radiography is a technique extensively used to resolve magnetic field structures in high energy density plasmas, revealing a whole variety of interesting phenomena such as magnetic reconnection and collisionless shocks found in astrophysical systems. Existing methods of analyzing proton radiographs give mostly qualitative results or specific quantitative parameters such as magnetic field strength, and recent work showed that the line-integrated transverse magnetic field can be reconstructed in specific regimes where many simplifying assumptions were needed. Using artificial neural networks, we suggest a novel 3-D reconstruction method that works for a more general case. A proof of concept is presented here, with mean reconstruction errors of less than 5 percent even after introducing noise. We demonstrate that over the long term, this approach is more computationally efficient compared to other techniques. We also highlight the need for proton tomography because (i) certain field structures cannot be r...

  15. NBS work on neutron resonance radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NBS has been engaged in a wide-ranging program in Neutron Resonance Radiography utilizing both one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive neutron detectors. The ability to perform a position-sensitive assay of up to 16 isotopes in a complex matrix has been demonstrated for a wide variety of sample types, including those with high gamma activity. A major part of the program has been the development and application of the microchannel-plate-based position-sensitive neutron detector. This detector system has high resolution and sensitivity, together with adequate speed of response to be used with neutron time-of-flight techniques. This system has demonstrated the ability to simultaneously image three isotopes in a sample with no interference

  16. Muscle parameters estimation based on biplanar radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, G; Rouch, P; Bonneau, D; Gennisson, J L; Skalli, W

    2016-11-01

    The evaluation of muscle and joint forces in vivo is still a challenge. Musculo-Skeletal (musculo-skeletal) models are used to compute forces based on movement analysis. Most of them are built from a scaled-generic model based on cadaver measurements, which provides a low level of personalization, or from Magnetic Resonance Images, which provide a personalized model in lying position. This study proposed an original two steps method to access a subject-specific musculo-skeletal model in 30 min, which is based solely on biplanar X-Rays. First, the subject-specific 3D geometry of bones and skin envelopes were reconstructed from biplanar X-Rays radiography. Then, 2200 corresponding control points were identified between a reference model and the subject-specific X-Rays model. Finally, the shape of 21 lower limb muscles was estimated using a non-linear transformation between the control points in order to fit the muscle shape of the reference model to the X-Rays model. Twelfth musculo-skeletal models were reconstructed and compared to their reference. The muscle volume was not accurately estimated with a standard deviation (SD) ranging from 10 to 68%. However, this method provided an accurate estimation the muscle line of action with a SD of the length difference lower than 2% and a positioning error lower than 20 mm. The moment arm was also well estimated with SD lower than 15% for most muscle, which was significantly better than scaled-generic model for most muscle. This method open the way to a quick modeling method for gait analysis based on biplanar radiography. PMID:27082150

  17. Longitudinal changes in extended roles in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to identify the extent and scope of changes to radiography practice. Method: Questionnaires were sent to radiology managers at acute National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in 2000 as a follow-up to an initial survey conducted in 1998. Information was sought on region, teaching/non-teaching status, the nature of extended role tasks undertaken and the year in which these tasks were first undertaken. Results: Some 172 questionnaires were returned from a total of 253 dispatched (68%). In 161 hospitals radiographers administered intravenous injections and performed barium enemas in 119 hospitals, while a red-dot system was in operation in 141 hospitals. Reporting by radiographers had increased since 1998. Replies indicated that, at 124 hospitals, radiographers were reporting in ultrasound. Skeletal reporting was the second most-frequently-reported activity, with 63 hospitals indicating that radiographers reported in this modality, while barium enemas were reported by radiographers in 34 hospitals. Reporting was also undertaken by radiographers in mammography, nuclear medicine, paediatrics and chest radiography in a small minority of hospitals. There was no statistically significant difference between the adoption of tasks in non-teaching and teaching hospitals with the exception of radiographer-performed barium enemas (P=0.014) and red-dot systems (P=0.05). Radiographers were more likely to undertake both of these activities at non-teaching hospitals than in teaching hospitals. Regional differences were apparent in reporting, with a greater prevalence in the English regions than Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Conclusion: The study provided data that demonstrated the extent to which hospitals are utilizing the developing skills of radiographers. This has important implications for future education and training needs for radiographers and for delivery of imaging services

  18. Comparing weld inspection codes: radiography vs. ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for weld quality are continually increasing. This is due to a combination of factors: increased public awareness; bigger legal penalties; improved and thinner steels; better analysis techniques such as Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA); higher material costs. Weld quality is primarily dictated by construction codes, which should reflect the needs of society and industry: safety, the environment, society, and cost-effectiveness. As R and D produces new products, techniques and procedures, ideally these developments should be reflected in the codes. While pressure vessel and structural welding are certainly included here, it is really pipeline weld inspections that are setting the pace on new developments. For pipelines, a major shift was made from radiography to ultrasonics in Alberta some decades ago. This was driven by the 'need for speed', plus the requirement to size defects in the vertical plane for ECA (also called Fracture Mechanics or Fitness-For-Purpose). One of the main objectives of ECA was to benefit from the calculated fracture toughness of materials, and not to rely on the overly conservative workmanship criteria in radiography. In practice, performing repairs on higher quality material often does more harm than good; changing the microstructure can seriously compromise the material properties. Rising steel costs are another major driving force, so higher strength, thinner materials are being used. Under these conditions, ECA and defect sizing are critical. This paper compares where the various North American codes for pipelines, pressure vessels and structural welds stand on using advanced inspection techniques: ultrasonics, phased arrays, ECA, sizing techniques. For those codes which are not using the latest technologies, there are typical routes for incorporating them. (author)

  19. Progress in radiography for industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the 2nd World War, the mass production of reactor-made radioisotopes enabled γ-ray radiography to be used industrially. The non-destructive testing of thick steel components by using 60Co and the inspection of steel pipes by using 192Ir came into practical use. The non-destructive testing (NDT) by 1 approximately 2 MeV industrial Van de Graaff accelerators was commercialized in the USA, and the use of 15-MeV betatrons for non-destructive inspection has increased rapidly in Japan. During the last 10 years, linear accelerators for NDT have spread throughout the world. Neutron radiography, which was commercialized for the inspection of nuclear fuel elements by using small nuclear reactors as a neutron source, has been applied recently for inspecting various aircraft components by using an isotropic neutron source, 252Cf. The first private company for non-destructive inspection in Japan appeared in 1955, and now there are more than 200 such companies. The field of NDT covers aircraft, vehicles, power stations, chemical plants, building, civil engineering, etc. Among the categories of industry for which 106 inspection companies are working, the most important is the oil industry, while chemical plants and pressure vessels come next. From a survey of inspection companies, it appears that the most promising industry for the near future is nuclear energy, after which are the oil and chemical industries. The system of certifying inspectors for non-destructive testing has already been initiated in many countries such as Japan, the United States of America, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, etc. In Japan, a similar system is in operation by the Japan Nondestructive Inspection Society. The examination and certification are given by this society, and the certification is valid within all enterprises in Japan. (author)

  20. Noise analysis of a digital radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of noise in a digital video subtraction angiography system were identified and analyzed. Signal-to-noise ratios of digital radiography systems were measured using the digital image data recorded in the computer. The major sources of noise include quantum noise, TV camera electronic noise, quantization noise from the analog-to-digital converter, time jitter, structure noise in the image intensifier, and video recorder electronic noise. A new noise source was identified, which results from the interplay of fixed pattern noise and the lack of image registration. This type of noise may result from image-intensifier structure noise in combination with TV camera time jitter or recorder time jitter. A similar noise source is generated from the interplay of patient absorption inhomogeneities and patient motion or image re-registration. Signal-to-noise ratios were measured for a variety of experimental conditions using subtracted digital images. Image-intensifier structure noise was shown to be a dominant noise source in unsubtracted images at medium to high radiation exposure levels. A total-system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 750:1 was measured for an input exposure of 1 mR/frame at the image intensifier input. The effect of scattered radiation on subtracted image SNR was found to be greater than previously reported. The detail SNR was found to vary approximately as one plus the scatter degradation factor. Quantization error noise with 8-bit image processors (signal-to-noise ratio of 890:1) was shown to be of increased importance after recent improvements in TV cameras. The results of the analysis are useful both in the design of future digital radiography systems and the selection of optimum clinical techniques

  1. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality

  2. Revisit image control for pediatric chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the fraction defectiveness and efficacy of the patient immobilization device (PID) for pediatric chest radiography. We examined 840 plain chest radiographs in six hospitals, including four children's hospitals and two general hospitals. The mean age of the patients was 1.9 years (range 0-5 years). Two boardqualified pediatric radiologists rated (into three grades, by consensus) the degree of inspiration, rotation, lordosis, scoliosis, and cutoff or coning as well as the quality of the chest radiographs. The incidence of ''poor'' and ''very poor'' quality examinations was 2/140 and 3/140 in each of two children's hospitals using PID. The corresponding figures were 9/139 and 17/140 in the two children's hospitals that did not use PID. The general hospital using PID had 14/140 ''poor'' and ''very poor'' examinations. The general hospital that did not use PID had 28/140 ''poor'' and ''very poor'' examinations. Thus, statistically better quality chest radiography was obtained with the use of PID (P<0.001). Likewise, rotation, lordosis, and scoliosis were less frequently diagnosed as present when PID was used (P<0.001, 0.001, 0.05). Cutoff or coning had no relation to the use of PID (P=0.13). No significant difference was found between the degree of inspiration and the use of PID (P=0.56). Fraction defectiveness in the general hospital that did not use PID was as much as 14 times higher than that of the children's hospitals that used PID. The patient immobilization device is recommended for hospitals with technologists not specifically trained for pediatric examination. (author)

  3. Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treimer, Wolfgang, E-mail: treimer@helmholtz-berlin.de [University of Applied Sciences, Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin, Department Mathematics Physics and Chemistry, Luxemburgerstr. 10, D-13353 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Department G – GTOMO, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Neutron imaging became important when, besides providing impressive radiographic and tomographic images of various objects, physical, quantification of chemical, morphological or other parameters could be derived from 2D or 3D images. The spatial resolution of approximately 50 µm (and less) yields real space images of the bulk of specimens with more than some cm{sup 3} in volume. Thus the physics or chemistry of structures in a sample can be compared with scattering functions obtained e.g. from neutron scattering. The advantages of using neutrons become more pronounced when the neutron spin comes into play. The interaction of neutrons with magnetism is unique due to their low attenuation by matter and because their spin is sensitive to magnetic fields. Magnetic fields, domains and quantum effects such as the Meissner effect and flux trapping can only be visualized and quantified in the bulk of matter by imaging with polarized neutrons. This additional experimental tool is gaining more and more importance. There is a large number of new fields that can be investigated by neutron imaging, not only in physics, but also in geology, archeology, cultural heritage, soil culture, applied material research, magnetism, etc. One of the top applications of polarized neutron imaging is the large field of superconductivity where the Meissner effect and flux pinning can be visualized and quantified. Here we will give a short summary of the results achieved by radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons. - Highlights: • Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons yield new results concerning the suppressed Meissner effect and magnetic flux trapping. • Suppressed Meissner effect was observed in pure lead samples and niobium. • Trapped magnetic fields in cylindrical Pb samples are squeezed around the rod axis. • The shape and the amount of trapped fields could be determined and quantified.

  4. Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron imaging became important when, besides providing impressive radiographic and tomographic images of various objects, physical, quantification of chemical, morphological or other parameters could be derived from 2D or 3D images. The spatial resolution of approximately 50 µm (and less) yields real space images of the bulk of specimens with more than some cm3 in volume. Thus the physics or chemistry of structures in a sample can be compared with scattering functions obtained e.g. from neutron scattering. The advantages of using neutrons become more pronounced when the neutron spin comes into play. The interaction of neutrons with magnetism is unique due to their low attenuation by matter and because their spin is sensitive to magnetic fields. Magnetic fields, domains and quantum effects such as the Meissner effect and flux trapping can only be visualized and quantified in the bulk of matter by imaging with polarized neutrons. This additional experimental tool is gaining more and more importance. There is a large number of new fields that can be investigated by neutron imaging, not only in physics, but also in geology, archeology, cultural heritage, soil culture, applied material research, magnetism, etc. One of the top applications of polarized neutron imaging is the large field of superconductivity where the Meissner effect and flux pinning can be visualized and quantified. Here we will give a short summary of the results achieved by radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons. - Highlights: • Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons yield new results concerning the suppressed Meissner effect and magnetic flux trapping. • Suppressed Meissner effect was observed in pure lead samples and niobium. • Trapped magnetic fields in cylindrical Pb samples are squeezed around the rod axis. • The shape and the amount of trapped fields could be determined and quantified

  5. The Enhanced Workflow and Efficiency of the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)-Based Direct Digital Radiography (DDR) Portable Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Tsz-Lung; Wong, Edward Ting-Hei; Ng, Kris Lap-Shun; Jeor, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Lo, Gladys Goh

    2015-06-01

    With the implementation of the PACS in the hospital, there is an increasing demand from the clinicians for immediate access and display of radiological images. Recently, our hospital has installed the first wireless local area network (WLAN)-based direct digital radiography (DDR) portable radiography system. The DDR portable radiography system allows wireless retrieval of modality worklist and wireless transmission of portable X-ray image on the console to the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), via WLAN connection of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi). The aim of this study was to analyze the workflow and performance between the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system and the old practice using conventional portable X-ray machine with computed radiography (CR) system. A total of 190 portable chest X-ray examinations were evaluated and timed, using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR from March to April of 2012 and using the new DDR portable radiography system on December of 2012 (n = 97 for old system and n = 93 for DDR portable system). The time interval of image becoming available to the PACS using the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system was significantly shorter than that of the old practice using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR (6.8 ± 2.6 min for DDR portable system; 23 ± 10.2 min for old system; p WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system can enhance the workflow of portable radiography by reduction of procedural steps. PMID:25561071

  6. Constancy tests radiography X-ray devices with CR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the changes in QAP (Quality Assurance Program) as consequence of digitalisation of medical facilities. Digitalisation brings many advantages - more comfort for personal use, images are easy achievable and transferable to workstation, fine quality images by postprocessing are easily achievable. But it must be taken into account that due to simplicity of image make it is sometimes taken more images then necessary .There are two possible ways of digitalisation in radiography: to exchange conventional developer machine by Computer Radiography (CR), that means to use CR reader and cassette with phosphor plate - un-direct digitalisation or to use special radiography X-ray devices with flat-panel detector -direct radiography. (authors)

  7. How to create a degree course in radiography: a recipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article explains how an undergraduate programme is devised and validated. Since 1993, all courses in radiography have been of graduate level with radiography education being based in higher educational institutions. Before a new degree is implemented a review of the existing programme is undertaken. The proposed degree philosophy and learning outcomes need to be determined before the content; its mode of delivery and assessment are developed. Input from stakeholders (such as clinical colleagues) is necessary as well as adherence to policies and strategies for radiography education. Throughout the development process compliance with policy, both national and local, is critical. All radiography programmes have to be validated/accredited by representatives from national organisations--such as The Society and College of Radiographers (SCoR). These representatives scrutinise the proposed degree course documentation; often they may also inspect the clinical and university facilities in which the education and training will take place

  8. Establishment of Guidance Levels in General Radiography and Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordinated project report IAEA ARCAL LXXV-RLA/9/048 Pilot Exercise for Developing and Setting Levels Reference in General Radiography and Mammography as a Tool for Optimizing Radiation Protection and Reduce Patient Exposure in Latin America

  9. NECTAR: Radiography and tomography station using fission neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Bücherl, Thomas; Söllradl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    NECTAR, operated by the Technische Universität München, is a versatile facility for the non-destructive inspection of various objects by means of fission neutron radiography and tomography, respectively.

  10. The zinc sulphide scintillator for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a mathematical model was established to estimate luminescence of the neutron radiography scintillator made of ZnS and polypropylene. Scintillators in different thicknesses and compositions were prepared for a radiography experiment using 14 MeV neutrons. The results showed that the optimum parameters of the scintillator were 3-mm in thickness and 1 : 1 to 2 : 1 of weight ratio of ZnS and polypropylene. (authors)

  11. Validity of compton radiography in soft tissue imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compton radiography was shown to be capable of delineating subcutaneous and hepatic inflammations as well as normal muscles and fatty tissues with positive tomoimages. This is an noteworthy feature in contrast to the ordinary x-ray radiography. Computer assistance would probably cultivate its various clinical applicability. Radiological diagnosis of soft tissue morbidities can possibly be assisted to an appreciable degree by this technique. (author)

  12. Dynamic neutron radiography instrumentation and applications in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic features of simultaneous dynamic neutron and gamma radiography installations built in the last ten years at the Budapest/Hungary and at the Seibersdorf/Austria research reactors are surveyed. For image detection scintillation detectors and a low-light level television camera with video output are used, thereby providing the possibility for visualizing medium speed movements inside the investigated object. The radiography stations have been used for inspecting industrial products, with the aim of research and development. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of root perforation, external resorption and fractures using cone-beam computed tomography, panoramic radiography and conventional & digital periapical radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Mitsunari Takeshita

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: CBCT showed the best results in the diagnosis of ERR and VRF. The diagnosis of ERR was the least accurate, panoramic radiography being not appropriate for its diagnosis. CBCT and conventional periapical radiography obtained similar results for the evaluation of RP. So for, RP indicate the conventional periapical radiography because CBCT has a higher radiation dose.

  14. Lateral radiography of the knee with single-leg standing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to accomplish reproducible radiography of single-leg standing lateral radiography of the knee by adjusting lateral rotation using a ruler to measure foot position. After preliminary assessment of three-dimensional CT of the knees of normal volunteers, the best adjustment of external rotation was estimated. A ruler was made for use in adjusting the angle of knee rotation by measuring foot rotation. Based on the foot rotation measured by this ruler, the positioning of radiography was adjusted to correct rotation. Rotation was estimated by the distance between the posterior edges of the lateral and medial femoral condyles. Fifteen-degree and 17.5-degree rotations were used for correction. Correction of rotation was 17 degrees on average. This helped not only to correct external rotation in the initial radiography but also to correct rotation for repeat radiography. Our method is quantitative and highly reproducible, and it increases the success rate of lateral knee radiography. (author)

  15. Chest X ray effective doses estimation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional chest radiography is technically difficult because of wide in tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Computed radiography (CR) offers a different approach utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. photostimulable phosphors overcome some image quality limitations of chest imaging. The objective of this study was to estimate the effective dose in computed radiography at three hospitals in Khartoum. This study has been conducted in radiography departments in three centres Advanced Diagnostic Center, Nilain Diagnostic Center, Modern Diagnostic Center. The entrance surface dose (ESD) measurement was conducted for quality control of x-ray machines and survey of operators experimental techniques. The ESDs were measured by UNFORS dosimeter and mathematical equations to estimate patient doses during chest X rays. A total of 120 patients were examined in three centres, among them 62 were males and 58 were females. The overall mean and range of patient dosed was 0.073±0.037 (0.014-0.16) mGy per procedure while the effective dose was 3.4±01.7 (0.6-7.0) mSv per procedure. This study compared radiation doses to patients radiographic examinations of chest using computed radiology. The radiation dose was measured in three centres in Khartoum- Sudan. The results of the measured effective dose showed that the dose in chest radiography was lower in computed radiography compared to previous studies.(Author)

  16. Koedam {beta} factors revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J.E. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Doughty, D.A. [Perkin-Elmer Optoelectronics, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Lister, G.G. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc., Beverly, MA (United States)

    2002-07-21

    A Koedam {beta} factor makes it possible to compute the total output power in line radiation from a positive column discharge using a single radiance measurement normal to an aperture in the wall. The results of analytic derivations of {beta} factors are presented for columns with uniform ({beta}=1.0) and parabolic ({beta}=0.75) excitation rates per unit volume and with negligible opacity. A Monte Carlo code for simulating radiation trapping with a spatially uniform density of absorbing atoms is then used to determine {beta} factors as a function of opacity. The code includes partial frequency redistribution and a Voigt line shape with radiative broadening, resonance collisional broadening, and Doppler broadening. The resulting {beta} factors are found to be nearly independent of opacity over a wide range of column radii for spectral line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening or by resonance collisional broadening. Additional Monte Carlo simulations are used to study {beta} factors as a function of a non-uniform density of absorbing atoms from radial cataphoresis with line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening, foreign gas broadening, and resonance collisional broadening. Radial cataphoresis is found to increase {beta} factors in all cases. Geometrical effects, refraction, and imperfect transmission at the glass wall are studied and found to decrease {beta} factors. (author)

  17. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  18. Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treimer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Neutron imaging became important when, besides providing impressive radiographic and tomographic images of various objects, physical, quantification of chemical, morphological or other parameters could be derived from 2D or 3D images. The spatial resolution of approximately 50 µm (and less) yields real space images of the bulk of specimens with more than some cm3 in volume. Thus the physics or chemistry of structures in a sample can be compared with scattering functions obtained e.g. from neutron scattering. The advantages of using neutrons become more pronounced when the neutron spin comes into play. The interaction of neutrons with magnetism is unique due to their low attenuation by matter and because their spin is sensitive to magnetic fields. Magnetic fields, domains and quantum effects such as the Meissner effect and flux trapping can only be visualized and quantified in the bulk of matter by imaging with polarized neutrons. This additional experimental tool is gaining more and more importance. There is a large number of new fields that can be investigated by neutron imaging, not only in physics, but also in geology, archeology, cultural heritage, soil culture, applied material research, magnetism, etc. One of the top applications of polarized neutron imaging is the large field of superconductivity where the Meissner effect and flux pinning can be visualized and quantified. Here we will give a short summary of the results achieved by radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons.

  19. Optimal beam quality for chest digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the optimal beam quality for chest computed radiography (CR), we measured the radiographic contrast and evaluated the image quality of chest CR using various X-ray tube voltages. The constant between lung and rib or heart increased on CR image obtained by lowering the tube voltage from 140 to 60 kV, but the degree of increase was less. Scattered radiation was reduced on CR images with a lower tube voltage. The Wiener spectrum of CR images with a low tube voltage showed a low value under identical conditions of amount of light stimulated emission. The quality of chest CR image obtained using a lower tube voltage (80 kV and 100 kV) was evaluated as being superior to those obtained with a higher tube voltage (120 kV and 140 kV). Considering the problem of tube loading and exposure in clinical applications, a tube voltage of 90 to 100 kV (0.1 mm copper filter backed by 0.5 mm aluminum) is recommended for chest CR. (author)

  20. Positioning of the wrist for scaphoid radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, Ferenc [Department of Traumatology and Hand Surgery, Medical School of Pecs University, PF.: 99, Akac utca 1, H-7601 Pecs (Hungary)], E-mail: tothf2@yahoo.com; Sebestyen, Andor [Baranya County Health Insurance Fund, Nagy Lajos kiraly utja 3, 7623 Pecs (Hungary); Balint, Lehel [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical School of Pecs University, Ifjusag u. 13, 7643 Pecs (Hungary); Mester, Sandor [Szent Gyorgy County Hospital, Seregelyesi u. 3, 8000 Szekesfehervar (Hungary); Szabo, Gyorgy [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical School of Pecs University, Ifjusag u. 13, 7643 Pecs (Hungary); Nyarady, Jozsef [Department of Traumatology and Hand Surgery, Medical School of Pecs University, PF.: 99, Akac utca 1, H-7601 Pecs (Hungary); Weninger, Csaba [Department of Radiology, Medical School of Pecs University, Ifjusag u. 13, 7643 Pecs (Hungary); Angyal, Miklos [Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical School of Pecs University, Ifjusag u. 13, 7643 Pecs (Hungary); Lovasz, Gyorgy [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical School of Pecs University, Ifjusag u. 13, 7643 Pecs (Hungary)

    2007-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this cadaver study was to determine the ideal position of the wrist for scaphoid radiography. Materials and methods: Four cadaver wrists were rotated around their longitudinal axis in 15 deg. increments and exposures were taken. Seven postero-anterior images were taken as well. Thus, 18 images of each wrist were available for assessment. Views were determined in which the main anatomic regions of the scaphoid were visualized undistorted. The size and localization of the overlap of other carpal bones were also evaluated. Finally, views with the best visualization of anatomic landmarks were selected. The results of these three investigations were compared to literature data. Results: We consider the following four images the most valuable in the diagnostic imaging of scaphoid bone: (1) Postero-anterior view in ulnar deviation of wrist and fist position of the hand; (2) oblique view in 60 deg. of pronation; (3) oblique view in 60 deg. of supination; (4) lateral view. Conclusion: We concluded that our four views are sufficient for proper radiographic evaluation of the scaphoid.

  1. Computer radiography-X-ray with vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer radiography describes an entire process of creating a digital image including acquiring, processing, presenting and managing the image data. the cassettes are special in that they use an imaging plate instead of films. the imaging plate is coated with storage phosphors which captures x-ray as they pass through the patient. the imaging plate is read with a bar code reader and the imaging plate number recorded in the computer. The cassette is then loaded in the reader unit where it is read using infra-red light which excites the particles on the plate which in turn illuminates and picked by photo-sensors which converts the signal into digital pulses. the pulses then run through a board which converts it into an image which is then displayed on the control console. The plate then runs through the erasure section where it is exposed to yellow light, which erases the plate. The IP is then put back in the cassette and locked and can be reused for the next episode

  2. A dose monitoring system for dental radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chena; Kim, Jo-Eun; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Lee, Woo-Jin; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yeom, Heon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The current study investigates the feasibility of a platform for a nationwide dose monitoring system for dental radiography. The essential elements for an unerring system are also assessed. Materials and Methods An intraoral radiographic machine with 14 X-ray generators and five sensors, 45 panoramic radiographic machines, and 23 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) models used in Korean dental clinics were surveyed to investigate the type of dose report. A main server for storing the dose data from each radiographic machine was prepared. The dose report transfer pathways from the radiographic machine to the main sever were constructed. An effective dose calculation method was created based on the machine specifications and the exposure parameters of three intraoral radiographic machines, five panoramic radiographic machines, and four CBCTs. A viewing system was developed for both dentists and patients to view the calculated effective dose. Each procedure and the main server were integrated into one system. Results The dose data from each type of radiographic machine was successfully transferred to the main server and converted into an effective dose. The effective dose stored in the main server is automatically connected to a viewing program for dentist and patient access. Conclusion A patient radiation dose monitoring system is feasible for dental clinics. Future research in cooperation with clinicians, industry, and radiologists is needed to ensure format convertibility for an efficient dose monitoring system to monitor unexpected radiation dose. PMID:27358817

  3. The forgotten cousins : dental and chiropractic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection surveillance methods should be appropriate to the particular use of x-rays employed. Dentists use small fixed position radiation fields with low output machines, making frequent routine visits unnecessary. There are also large numbers of them. On the other hand chiropractors use large fields and potentially high doses as well as a wide variety of projections and filters, which makes routine visits necessary. These differences have not unsurprisingly led to the National Radiation Laboratory adopting quite different approaches to monitoring these domains. In dental radiography past surveys have shown that the x-ray units themselves to be very robust and stable. A simple postal test was developed for dentists. A small number of visits are also made to dental x-ray facilities per year. Because of the greater possible level of hazard involved routine visits are made to chiropractic establishments. Chiropractic radiation protection surveys have now been extended to include calculating patient doses. The wide variety of projections and the extensive use of beam shaping filters and diaphragms means that we had to develop a program (called Chirodos) to allow for these filters in calculating the chiropractic patient doses. Data collected during the radiation protection surveys includes technique factors, filter materials, positions, and shielding. A national database of chiropractic doses has led us to establish reference doses for chiropractic x-ray exams. (author)

  4. Neutron radiography and its image resolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography (NR) is widely applied especially for non-destructive inspection of industrial products. An outline of NR technique is given in this report with few examples of industrial applications. The quality of a NR image depends on many factors. The values of L, D, and L/D are main factors to define a geometrical unsharpness of NR images. A device for accurate measurements of those parameters is proposed and fabricated. Degree of confidence is estimated for measurements of those parameters in detail. Values of L, D, and L/D are measured for our NR facilities with different geometrical conditions by use of the device and the values are compared to the designed values. The quality of the NR image also depends on an inherent unsharpness of its imaging device. The inherent unsharpness is measured as an edge spread function (ESF) and a modulation transfer function (MTF) is derived from the ESF with a technique of the discrete fast Fourier transform (DFFT). Results are compared to theoretically calculated MTF. (author)

  5. Computed radiography dose optimization in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose reduction in pediatric X-ray imaging is especially important because of children radiation sensitivity. For any radiographic examination performed at a fixed radiographic tube potential, the patient absorbed dose is directly proportional to the value of milliampere-seconds (mAs) selected by the operator. Nevertheless, reducing X-ray exposure has the unavoidable disadvantage of increasing the quantum noise in the resultant image. The objective of this work is to identify the minimum tube current setting required for maintaining accurate examinations, to modify, if required, the daily protocols applied at La Fe de Valencia University Hospital. To accomplish this goal, a noise addition software has been developed in order to study the diagnostic accuracy as a function of reducing dose by artificially increasing the image noise. The noise addition tool has been applied to several thorax images acquired from pediatric unit to simulate new lower dose radiographies and allow medical researchers to study how lower dose affects the patient pneumonia diagnosis. (author)

  6. Evaluation and testing of computed radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of film replacement digital radiographic imaging systems throughout Europe is now gathering momentum. Such systems create the foundations for totally digital departments of radiology, since radiographic examinations constitute the most prevalent modality. Although this type of development will lead to improvements in the delivery and management of radiological service, such widespread implementation of new technology must be carefully monitored. The implementation of effective QA tests on installation, at periodic intervals and as part of a routine programme will aid this process. This paper presents the results of commissioning tests undertaken on a number of computed radiography imaging systems provided by different manufacturers. The aim of these tests was not only to provide baseline performance measurements against which subsequent measurements can be compared but also to explore any differences in performance, which might exist between different units. Results of measurements will be presented for (1) monitor and laser printer setup; (2) imaging plates, including sensitivity, consistency and uniformity; (3) resolution and contrast detectability; and (4) signal and noise performance. Results from the latter are analysed in relationship with both system and quantum noise components. (authors)

  7. Evaluation and testing of computed radiography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, P; Connolly, P A; Hughes, D; Moores, B M

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of film replacement digital radiographic imaging systems throughout Europe is now gathering momentum. Such systems create the foundations for totally digital departments of radiology, since radiographic examinations constitute the most prevalent modality. Although this type of development will lead to improvements in the delivery and management of radiological service, such widespread implementation of new technology must be carefully monitored. The implementation of effective QA tests on installation, at periodic intervals and as part of a routine programme will aid this process. This paper presents the results of commissioning tests undertaken on a number of computed radiography imaging systems provided by different manufacturers. The aim of these tests was not only to provide baseline performance measurements against which subsequent measurements can be compared but also to explore any differences in performance, which might exist between different units. Results of measurements will be presented for (1) monitor and laser printer set-up; (2) imaging plates, including sensitivity, consistency and uniformity; (3) resolution and contrast detectability; and (4) signal and noise performance. Results from the latter are analysed in relationship with both system and quantum noise components. PMID:15933109

  8. Performance evaluation of computed radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommended methods to test the performance of computed radiography (CR) digital radiographic systems have been recently developed by the AAPM Task Group No. 10. Included are tests for dark noise, uniformity, exposure response, laser beam function, spatial resolution, low-contrast resolution, spatial accuracy, erasure thoroughness, and throughput. The recommendations may be used for acceptance testing of new CR devices as well as routine performance evaluation checks of devices in clinical use. The purpose of this short communication is to provide a tabular summary of the tests recommended by the AAPM Task Group, delineate the technical aspects of the tests, suggest quantitative measures of the performance results, and recommend uniform quantitative criteria for the satisfactory performance of CR devices. The applicability of the acceptance criteria is verified by tests performed on CR systems in clinical use at five different institutions. This paper further clarifies the recommendations with respect to the beam filtration to be used for exposure calibration of the system, and the calibration of automatic exposure control systems

  9. Neutron radiography in Indian space programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrotechnic devices are indispensable in any space programme to perform such critical operations as ignition, stage separation, solar panel deployment, etc. The nature of design and configuration of different types of pyrotechnic devices, and the type of materials that are put in their construction make the inspection of them with thermal neutrons more favourable than any other non destructive testing methods. Although many types of neutron sources are available for use, generally the radiographic quality/exposure duration and cost of source run in opposite directions even after four decades of research and development. But in the area of space activity, by suitably combining the X-ray and neutron radiographic requirements, the inspection of the components can be made economically viable. This is demonstrated in the Indian space programme by establishing a 15 MeV linear accelerator based neutron generator facility to inspect medium to giant solid propellant boosters by X-ray inspection and all types of critical pyro and some electronic components by neutron radiography. Since the beam contains unacceptable gamma, transfer imaging technique has been evolved and the various parameters have been optimised to get a good quality image

  10. Computed radiography dose optimization in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose reduction in pediatric X-ray imaging is especially important because of children radiation sensitivity. For any radiographic examination performed at a fixed radiographic tube potential, the patient absorbed dose is directly proportional to the value of milliampere-seconds (mAs) selected by the operator. Nevertheless, reducing X-ray exposure has the unavoidable disadvantage of increasing the quantum noise in the resultant image. The objective of this work is to identify the minimum tube current setting required for maintaining accurate examinations, to modify, if required, the daily protocols applied at La Fe de Valencia Universitary Hospital. To accomplish this goal, a noise addition software has been developed in order to study the diagnostic accuracy as a function of reducing dose by artificially increasing the image noise. The noise addition tool has been applied to several thorax images acquired from pediatric unit to simulate new lower dose radiographies and allow medical researchers to study how lower dose affects the patient pneumonia diagnosis. (author)

  11. Beam Characterization at the Neutron Radiography Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarah Morgan; Jeffrey King

    2013-01-01

    The quality of a neutron imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This project characterized the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio and image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. Improvement of the existing NRAD MCNP beamline model includes validation of the model’s energy spectrum and the development of enhanced image simulation methods. The image simulation methods predict the radiographic image of an object based on the foil reaction rate data obtained by placing a model of the object in front of the image plane in an MCNP beamline model.

  12. Radiographers' preconditions for evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential in today's health care, but its establishment requires several preconditions from individuals and organizations (e.g. knowledge, understanding, attitudes, abilities, self-confidence, support, and resources). Previous studies suggest that radiographers do generate and use evidence in their work, but evidence-based radiography (EBR) is not yet used routinely as established practice, especially in terms of research utilization. This paper aims to describe radiographers' preconditions for EBR, and their participation in research activities. Main focus is on research utilization. Using an electronic questionnaire developed for this study, a survey was conducted: data collected from Finnish radiographers and radiotherapists (N = 438) were analysed both statistically and qualitatively. The final response rate was 39%. The results suggest radiographers' preconditions for EBR to consist of knowledge of research, significance of research activities, research-orientated way of working, and support. In addition, adequate resourcing is essential. Reading scientific journals, participation in research activities, a higher degree of education, and senior post seem to be significant promoters of EBR and research utilization. The results support the notion that EBR, and especially research utilization, are not yet well-established in Finland, and radiographers' viewpoints concerning the role and significance of research evidence and research activities still seem to vary.

  13. Low activity radiography with an imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The imaging plate has many striking performances of radiation detection and can detect very weak radioactivity of 10-4 Bq in a spot of 1 mm2 or less in area with several hours of exposure. Improvement of the S/N ratio is important to low activity radiography because the long time accumulation of exposure dose is indispensable for the imaging plate. In this report, the factor, N of the S/N at imaging was discussed focusing on the shielding of environmental radiations effective on the imaging plate. Shielding effects were determined using various materials including iron, lead and polyethylene bricks, suggesting that reduction of the fog formation is attained to the extent of nearly 10-1 with lead a few cm in thick, but further reduction would not be expected by increasing the thick of lead stacking on the iron box. Since a high S/N ratio is obtainable without ROI setting, discrimination of radiation types and the energy determination of radiation particles are made effectively in the system. (M.N.)

  14. Study of a transportable neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study a transportable neutron radiography system for a 185 GBq 241 Am-Be (α, η) source with a neutron yield roughly 1,25 x 107 n/s. Studies about moderation, collimation and shielding are showed. In these studies, a calculation using Transport Theory was carried out by means of transport codes ANISN and DOT (3.5). Objectives were: to obtain a maximum and more homogeneous thermal neutron flux in the collimator outlet to the image plain, and an adequate radiation shielding to attend radiological protection rules. With the presented collimator, it was possible to obtain for the thermal neutron flux, at the collimator outlet and next to the image plain, a L/D ratio of 14, for neutron fluxes up to 4,09 x 102 n.cm-2.s-1. Considering the low intensity of the source, it is a good value. Studies have also been carried out for L/D ratios of 22 and 30, giving thermal neutron fluxes at the image plain of 1,27 x 102 n.cm-2.s-1 and 2,65 x 102 n.cm-2.s-1, respectively. (author). 30 refs, 39 figs, 9 tabs

  15. Radiography by electrons from metallic screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography by photoelectrons from metallic screens is a nondestructive method for testing thin organic materials like for example foils of plastics or paper sheets. Using the common arrangement of X-ray source, screen and film the test object is placed between the screen and the film and is radiographed by the photoelectrons produced in the screen. Soft X-rays decrease contrast and must be absorbed by filters. The energy spectra of electrons emerging the screen and the test object were calculated taking into account the X-ray spectra, the cross section for photoelectric effect and the energy losses of electrons in the screen and in the object; also the influence of tube voltage, type and thickness of filter, type and thickness of screen and object thickness was studied. Shape and structure of the electron spectra can be interpretated by the single steps of calculation. Measurements of the electron spectra between 24 keV and 400 keV electron energy were in rough agreement with calculations of the spectra, the optimal screen thickness and the attenuation coefficients. The parameters mentioned above were optimized by using X-ray film as integrating detectors. Furthermore it could be shown by calculation and measurement that a formalism long since used for describing the contrast of X-ray exposures is also suitable for describing the contrast of electron exposures. (orig./HP)

  16. High speed motion neutron radiography of two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current research in the area of two-phase flow utilizes a wide variety of sensing devices, but some limitations exist on the information which can be obtained. Neutron radiography is a feasible alternative to ''see'' the two-phase flow. A system to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events which occur on the order of several milliseconds has been developed at Oregon State University. Two different methods have been used to radiograph the simulated two-phase flow. These are pulsed, or ''flash'' radiography, and high speed movie neutron radiography. The pulsed method serves as a ''snap-shot'' with an exposure time ranging from 10 to 20 milliseconds. In high speed movie radiography, a scintillator is used to convert neutrons into light which is enhanced by an optical intensifier and then photographed by a high speed camera. Both types of radiography utilize the pulsing capability of the OSU TRIGA reactor. The principle difficulty with this type of neutron radiography is the fogging of the image due to the large amount of scattering in the water. This difficulty can be overcome by using thin regions for the two-phase flow or using heavy water instead of light water. The results obtained in this paper demonstrate the feasibility of using neutron radiography to obtain data in two-phase flow situations. Both movies and flash radiographs have been obtained of air bubbles in water and boiling from a heater element. The neutron radiographs of the boiling element show both nucleate boiling and film boiling. (Auth.)

  17. The stationary neutron radiography system: a TRIGA-based production neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Atomics (GA) is under contract to construct a Stationary Neutron Radiography System (SNRS) - on a turnkey basis - at McClellan Air Force Base in Sacramento, California. The SNRS is a custom designed neutron radiography system which will utilize a 1000 KW TRIGA reactor as the neutron source. The partially below-ground reactor will be equipped with four inclined beam tubes originating near the top of the reactor graphite reflector and installed tangential to the reactor core to provide a strong current of thermal neutrons with minimum gamma ray contamination. The inclined beam tubes will terminate in four large bays and will interface with rugged component positioning systems designed to handle intact aircraft wings, other honeycomb aircraft structures, and pyrotechnics. The SNRS will be equipped with real-time, near real-time, and film radiographic imaging systems to provide a broad spectrum of capability for detection of entrained moisture or corrosion in large aircraft panels. GA is prime contractor to the Air Force for the SNRS and is specifically responsible for the TRIGA reactor system and a portion of the neutron beam system design. Science Applications International Corporation and the Lionakis-Beaumont Design Group are principal subcontractors to GA on the project. (author)

  18. Contemporary practice education: Exploring student perceptions of an industrial radiography placement for final year diagnostic radiography students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: There is a paucity of evidence in diagnostic radiography evaluating a career path into industrial imaging despite several higher education institutes stating this route as a career option on graduation. The link between a career in industrial radiography and diagnostic routes is unknown although there are anecdotal examples of individuals transferring between the two. Successfully obtaining a first post job following graduation in diagnostic radiography can be challenging in the current financial climate. A partnership was formed with an energy sector company that offered non-destructive testing/non-destructive evaluation (NDT/NDE) employing industrial radiographic technicians. Method: As an initial pilot, 5 (n = 5) final year diagnostic radiography students visited an industrial radiography site and underwent theoretical and practical training. Following this placement they engaged in a focus group and the student perceptions/responses were explored and recorded. Results: Common themes were identified and categorised via a thematic analysis. These were; radiation safety, physics and technology, widening access, graduate attributes/transferable skill sets and working conditions. Conclusion: Student discussion focussed around the benefits of working conditions in healthcare, the value of technology, safety and physics education in alternative placements and the transferability of skills into other/industrial sectors (e.g. NDT/NDE). Contemporary practice placements are a useful pedagogical approach to develop complex conceptual theoretical constructs, such as radiation physics. An in depth evaluation between the two industries skill sets is postulated. Additionally, this could offer alternative/emerging roles to interested diagnostic radiographers potentially meeting the skill shortage in industrial radiography. - Highlights: • Research in this area is novel. No evidence could be found to evaluate the links. • Students had theoretical

  19. Double beta decay experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  20. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  1. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for...

  2. A benchmark for comparison of dental radiography analysis algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Lee, Jia-Hong; Li, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Siao, Ming-Jhih; Lai, Tat-Ming; Ibragimov, Bulat; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Ronneberger, Olaf; Fischer, Philipp; Cootes, Tim F; Lindner, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Dental radiography plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, treatment and surgery. In recent years, efforts have been made on developing computerized dental X-ray image analysis systems for clinical usages. A novel framework for objective evaluation of automatic dental radiography analysis algorithms has been established under the auspices of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging 2015 Bitewing Radiography Caries Detection Challenge and Cephalometric X-ray Image Analysis Challenge. In this article, we present the datasets, methods and results of the challenge and lay down the principles for future uses of this benchmark. The main contributions of the challenge include the creation of the dental anatomy data repository of bitewing radiographs, the creation of the anatomical abnormality classification data repository of cephalometric radiographs, and the definition of objective quantitative evaluation for comparison and ranking of the algorithms. With this benchmark, seven automatic methods for analysing cephalometric X-ray image and two automatic methods for detecting bitewing radiography caries have been compared, and detailed quantitative evaluation results are presented in this paper. Based on the quantitative evaluation results, we believe automatic dental radiography analysis is still a challenging and unsolved problem. The datasets and the evaluation software will be made available to the research community, further encouraging future developments in this field. (http://www-o.ntust.edu.tw/~cweiwang/ISBI2015/). PMID:26974042

  3. Pediatric digital radiography summit overview: state of confusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Feb. 4, 2010, the Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Radiology held a Pediatric Digital Radiography Summit. The goal was for radiologists, radiologic technologists, medical physicists, and vendor representatives, including engineers, medical physicists and education specialists, to discuss the challenges to achieving the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in pediatric digital radiography and to lay the groundwork for overcoming these obstacles. This article focuses on the state of confusion that exists for radiologists and radiologic technologists who use digital radiography equipment. Radiologists might have a difficult time accepting lower dose (noisy images), and radiologic technologists might respond by increasing patient exposures, which results in excessive patient doses. For reporting exposures, vendors have a history of using proprietary terms that confuse users. In addition, technical parameters cannot be easily exported for quality assurance, and there is no national standard for digital radiography. Presentations in this minisymposium focus on suggestions for the cooperative development of new technical standards, education and training to improve the quality of digital radiography in pediatric patients and promote radiation protection for children. (orig.)

  4. Application of digital radiography in the analysis of cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific examination of artworks has gained increasing interest in the last years, allowing the characterization of materials and techniques employed by the artists. This analysis can be extremely valuable to conservation and restoration treatments. However, the fact that every artworks is a unique piece emphasizes the necessity of working with non-destructive techniques. Although radiography has been used in the technical examination of museum objects for many decades, digital radiography is rapidly becoming a preferred modality for this essential tool in the advanced examination of works of art. The ability to electronically combine images from the large painting into a single composite image file was extremely valuable and results in higher quality images than those achieved with conventional radiography. These images can be also processed and improved using adequate software. Additional advantages of digital radiography include the possibility of an almost immediate analysis of the results, use of an only recording film and absence of chemical processing. Radiographic imaging can be applied to the analysis of virtually all media including paintings, sculptures, woodworks, engravings, etc. This paper reports some case studies of the use of digital radiography in the study of paintings and sculptures, showing the feasibility and advantages of this technique for this kind of purpose. The radiographic images revealed the conservation state of the analyzed objects and various details of its execution in order to assist recently restoration processes. (author)

  5. Pediatric digital radiography summit overview: state of confusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don, Steven [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2011-05-15

    On Feb. 4, 2010, the Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Radiology held a Pediatric Digital Radiography Summit. The goal was for radiologists, radiologic technologists, medical physicists, and vendor representatives, including engineers, medical physicists and education specialists, to discuss the challenges to achieving the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in pediatric digital radiography and to lay the groundwork for overcoming these obstacles. This article focuses on the state of confusion that exists for radiologists and radiologic technologists who use digital radiography equipment. Radiologists might have a difficult time accepting lower dose (noisy images), and radiologic technologists might respond by increasing patient exposures, which results in excessive patient doses. For reporting exposures, vendors have a history of using proprietary terms that confuse users. In addition, technical parameters cannot be easily exported for quality assurance, and there is no national standard for digital radiography. Presentations in this minisymposium focus on suggestions for the cooperative development of new technical standards, education and training to improve the quality of digital radiography in pediatric patients and promote radiation protection for children. (orig.)

  6. Syndesmotic Malreduction after Ankle ORIF; Is Radiography Sufficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Manafi Rasi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Ankle fractures, especially those resulting from external rotation mechanisms are associated with injury to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. Some authors have recommended performing CT scanning after open ankle surgery to evaluate the reduction of syndesmosis. In this current study, we aimed to investigate the sensitivity of plain radiography in diagnosing syndesmosis malreduction after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF in patients with ankle fractures.   Methods: Thirty patients with ankle fractures participated in this prospective study. ORIFs were performed with respect to all of the technical guidelines shown in orthopedic literature for exact syndesmosis reduction, such as fibular length and proper settings. In the operating room, plain radiography was performed in anteroposterior, mortise and lateral views to assess whether syndesmosis was malreduced. If malreduction was detected, the patient was revised. As the gold standard, patients underwent postoperative bilateral CT scanning to investigate the syndesmosis reduction which was then compared to the healthy side. Finally, the sensitivity of plain radiography in the diagnosis of syndesmosis malreduction was determined by comparing this method to CT scanning. Results: In both of the methods we did not find any patient with syndesmosis malreduction. Hence, the sensitivity of plain radiography was determined 100%. Conclusion: Based on our findings, there is no need to perform CT scanning to evaluate syndesmosis reduction after ankle ORIF in patients with ankle fractures. Plain radiography is sufficient and has satisfactory sensitivity in these patients.

  7. The establishment of dose reducing protocols using rare earth filters in paediatric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief article demonstrates how, in a radiography department, rare earth filter technology was rescued from being a little understood and largely mistrusted phenomenon to become a totally acceptable radiography system providing radiation dose savings to many children. (UK)

  8. Extremity exams optimization for computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed radiography (CR) has become the most used device for image acquisition, since its introduction in the 80s. The detection and early diagnosis, obtained through CR examinations, are important for the successful treatment of diseases of the hand. However, the norms used for optimization of these images are based on international protocols. Therefore, it is necessary to determine letters of radiographic techniques for CR system, which provides a safe medical diagnosis, with doses as low as reasonably achievable. The objective of this work is to develop an extremity homogeneous phantom to be used in the calibration process of radiographic techniques. In the construction process of the simulator, it has been developed a tissues' algorithm quantifier using Matlab®. In this process the average thickness was quantified from bone and soft tissues in the region of the hand of an anthropomorphic simulator as well as the simulators' material thickness corresponding (aluminum and Lucite) using technique of mask application and removal Gaussian histogram corresponding to tissues of interest. The homogeneous phantom was used to calibrate the x-ray beam. The techniques were implemented in a calibrated hand anthropomorphic phantom. The images were evaluated by specialists in radiology by the method of VGA. Skin entrance surface doses were estimated (SED) corresponding to each technique obtained with their respective tube charge. The thicknesses of simulators materials that constitute the homogeneous phantom determined in this study were 19.01 mm of acrylic and 0.81 mm of aluminum. A better picture quality with doses as low as reasonably achievable decreased dose and tube charge around 53.35% and 37.78% respectively, compared normally used by radiology diagnostic routine clinical of HCFMB-UNESP. (author)

  9. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  10. Electron radiography in the evaluation of solitary nodules in the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography and more recently xeroradiography have been used in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. We have found electron radiography (ERG, Xonics Medical Systems) superior to both, in that ERG provides better edge enhancement and detection of soft-tissue calcification than conventional radiography and produces less radiation dose than xeroradiography. However, in a controlled study of 101 patients with solitary nodules of the thyroid, radiography was of only limited value in patient management decisions. The study is reviewed here

  11. The development of specialisation in diagnostic radiography : concepts, contexts and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Christine Margaret

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project is to examine how specialisation in diagnostic radiography has occurred. In particular, this research aims to examine the contemporary ethos of specialism in diagnostic radiography; how the higher status of technology has developed over patient-centredness; the impact of the working relationship between radiology and diagnostic radiography on this development; the relationship between gender and the nature of occupation in the development of diagnostic radiography. ...

  12. The analysis of the imaging speed of the neutron digital radiography system based CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The imaging speed is the main character of the neutron digital radiography system, and the calculating method of neutron digital radiography based CCD is put forward according to the characters of CCD and the principal of neutron digital radiography and optics. Then the imaging speed of neutron radiography system in SPRR-300 is calculated by the method. The experiment shows the counted value basically tallies with the measured value, then the calculating method is believable. (authors)

  13. Clinical applications of extra-oral periapical radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha S Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiographic examination forms an integral part of clinical dentistry, with some form of radiographs necessary on the majority of patients. Intra-oral periapical (IOPA radiographs form the backbone of imaging for diagnosis and follow-up of various dento-facial pathologies. However, certain patient populations are unable to tolerate intra-oral films/sensors due to various reasons. A not-so recent development called extra-oral periapical (EOPA radiography may be a useful adjuvant to such a situation, at least in the near future. It is essentially a technique where the film is placed extra-orally overlying the tooth of interest. The following manuscript is an attempt to throw light on this technique and the impact it may have on various disciplines of dental practices. The advantages and disadvantages of EOPA radiography and it′s comparison to IOPA radiography has been discussed.

  14. Deterministic simulation of thermal neutron radiography and tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Chowdhury, Rajarshi; Liu, Xin

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, thermal neutron radiography and tomography have gained much attention as one of the nondestructive testing methods. However, the application of thermal neutron radiography and tomography is hindered by their technical complexity, radiation shielding, and time-consuming data collection processes. Monte Carlo simulations have been developed in the past to improve the neutron imaging facility's ability. In this paper, a new deterministic simulation approach has been proposed and demonstrated to simulate neutron radiographs numerically using a ray tracing algorithm. This approach has made the simulation of neutron radiographs much faster than by previously used stochastic methods (i.e., Monte Carlo methods). The major problem with neutron radiography and tomography simulation is finding a suitable scatter model. In this paper, an analytic scatter model has been proposed that is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Storage phosphor radiography in the detection of trabecular bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of trabecular bone lesions is a critical imaging task in skeletal radiography. The authors of this paper document the equivalence of digital storage phosphor radiography (SR) to film-screen radiography (FR) and to evaluate the impact of unsharp mask filtering for this type of lesion. FR images (G-film/Lanex medium screen, Kodak) were compared with isodose SR images (2K x 2K x 10 bit) presented in one unfiltered and five-edge-enhanced modes in the detection of 50 simulated trabecular defects (3- 10-mm diameter) in 100 excised femoral segments (heads or condyles). Three modes enhanced high, medium, and low spatial frequencies (kernal length, 1.5, 5, and 15 mm) with a constant enhancement factor of 4. For the two remaining modes, the enhancement factors (kernel length, 15 mm) were reduced to 0.5 and 1.5. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed on 5,600 observations by seven readers

  16. Occupational exposure in Greek industrial radiography laboratories (1996-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 40 industrial radiography laboratories are operating in Greece using X-ray or gamma-ray sources and more than 250 workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation in these facilities are monitored on a regular basis. This study presents the evolution of individual doses received by radiographers during the past years. The mean annual dose (MAD) of all workers as well as of exposed workers is estimated, and correlated to the types of laboratories and practices applied. The MAD of the exposed workers in industrial radiography is compared with the doses of workers in other specialties and with the doses of radiographers in other countries. Furthermore, the study attempts to propose dose constraints for the practices in industrial radiography, according to the BSS European directive and the relevant Greek radiation protection legislation. The proposed value was defined as the dose below which the annual doses of 75% of the exposed radiographers are expected to be included. (authors)

  17. Experimental Study on Neutron Radiography Device Based on Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Jin; PENG; Dan; HAO; Qian; YU; Bo-xiang; LI; Yi-guo

    2012-01-01

    <正>Neutron radiography is a non-destructive testing developing fast recently, which requires stable and proper neutron source with low γ background. Neutrons from In-hospital Neutron Irradiator (IHNI) could meet this requirement. Based on the neutron beams of IHNI, a collimator is designed and built for neutron radiography. The experiment results show that in the case of IHNI working at normal rated power, the neutron flux at the end of the collimator is 1.43×106 cm-2·s-1; The max collimation ratio (L/D) is 58; the γ dose rate is 6.3×106 mSv/s. In a word, the collimator could be used for neutron radiography.

  18. Evaluation of radiography careers information on the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether information about radiography careers that was placed on the Internet was accessible, accurate, understandable, comprehensive, abundant and attractive to a sample of school children. Additionally this paper investigated whether the sample of school children had access to the Internet and whether they knew how to use it. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess views on the radiography information, Internet access and knowledge of how to use the Internet. Questionnaire data were then analysed and the Websites were ranked. Thirty-three Websites were evaluated; these gave varying qualities of information with questionnaire scores ranging from 188 to 76. This investigation showed that there are many Websites available about radiography as a career. The site that performed most successfully overall in this evaluation was the NHS Careers Website. This site was ranked highest for the design section but the University of Salford's Website performed top for content

  19. Study of pipe thickness loss using a neutron radiography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this preliminary work is to study for thickness changes in objects using neutron radiography. In doing the project, the technique for the radiography was studied. The experiment was done at NUR-2 facility at TRIGA research reactor in Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Malaysia. Test samples of varying materials were used in this project. The samples were radiographed using direct technique. Radiographic images were recorded using Nitrocellulose film. The films obtained were digitized to processed and analyzed. Digital processing is done on the images using software Isee!. The images were processed to produce better image for analysis. The thickness changes in the image were measured to be compared with real thickness of the objects. From the data collected, percentages difference between measured and real thickness are below than 2%. This is considerably very low variation from original values. Therefore, verifying the neutron radiography technique used in this project

  20. Improved track-etch neutron radiography using CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently most state-of-the-art setups for neutron radiography use scintillator screens and CCD cameras for imaging. However, in some situations it is not possible to use a CCD and alternatives must be considered. One such alternative is the well-established technique of track-etch neutron radiography, which has as main disadvantages requiring a long time for image recording and generating images with a relatively low contrast. In this work we address these negative issues and report significant improvements to recording and digitizing images using an improved setup consisting of an enriched 10B converter, a CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector and a flatbed scanner. The improved setup enables a significant reduction of the fluence required to obtain a neutron radiography image using this technique. Comparisons are made with imaging using two CCD models in the same beam line, so that the results can be extrapolated for other facilities

  1. Studies of solid propellant combustion with pulsed radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godai, T.; Tanemura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Shimizu, M.

    1987-01-01

    Pulsed radiography was applied to observe solid propellant surface regression during rocket motor operation. Using a 150 KV flash X-ray system manufactured by the Field Emission Corporation and two kinds of film suppliers, images of the propellant surface of a 5 cm diameter end burning rocket motor were recorded on film. The repetition frame rate of 8 pulses per second and the pulse train length of 10 pulses are limited by the capability of the power supply and the heat build up within the X-ray tube, respectively. The experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of pulsed radiography for observing solid propellant surface regression. Measuring the position of burning surface images on film with a microdensitometer, quasi-instantaneous burning rate as a function of pressure and the variation of characteristic velocity with pressure and gas stay time were obtained. Other research items to which pulsed radiography can be applied are also suggested.

  2. Proton Radiography as an electromagnetic field and density perturbation diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Patel, P; Town, R; Edwards, M; Phillips, T; Lerner, S; Price, D; Hicks, D; Key, M; Hatchett, S; Wilks, S; King, J; Snavely, R; Freeman, R; Boehlly, T; Koenig, M; Martinolli, E; Lepape, S; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Audebert, P; Gauthier, J; Borghesi, M; Romagnani, L; Toncian, T; Pretzler, G; Willi, O

    2004-04-15

    Laser driven proton beams have been used to diagnose transient fields and density perturbations in laser produced plasmas. Grid deflectometry techniques have been applied to proton radiography to obtain precise measurements of proton beam angles caused by electromagnetic fields in laser produced plasmas. Application of proton radiography to laser driven implosions has demonstrated that density conditions in compressed media can be diagnosed with MeV protons. This data has shown that proton radiography can provide unique insight into transient electromagnetic fields in super critical density plasmas and provide a density perturbation diagnostics in compressed matter . PACS numbers: 52.50.Jm, 52.40.Nk, 52.40.Mj, 52.70.Kz

  3. Magnifying lens for 800 MeV proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the design and performance of a magnifying magnetic-lens system designed, built, and commissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for 800 MeV flash proton radiography. The technique of flash proton radiography has been developed at LANL to study material properties under dynamic loading conditions through the analysis of time sequences of proton radiographs. The requirements of this growing experimental program have resulted in the need for improvements in spatial radiographic resolution. To meet these needs, a new magnetic lens system, consisting of four permanent magnet quadrupoles, has been developed. This new lens system was designed to reduce the second order chromatic aberrations, the dominant source of image blur in 800 MeV proton radiography, as well as magnifying the image to reduce the blur contribution from the detector and camera systems. The recently commissioned lens system performed as designed, providing nearly a factor of three improvement in radiographic resolution.

  4. NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY (NRAD) REACTOR 64-ELEMENT CORE UPGRADE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA (registered) (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The interim critical configuration developed during the core upgrade, which contains only 62 fuel elements, has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The final 64-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has also been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (approximately +/-1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  5. A methodology for radiological accidents analysis in industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of 34 published severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, that happened in 15 countries, from 1960 to 1988, was performed. The most frequent causes, consequences and dose estimation methods were analysed, aiming to stablish better procedures of radiation safety and accidents analysis. The objective of this work is to elaborate a radiological accidents analysis methodology in industrial gamma radiography. The suggested methodology will enable professionals to determine the true causes of the event and to estimate the dose with a good certainty. The technical analytical tree, recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency to perform radiation protection and nuclear safety programs, was adopted in the elaboration of the suggested methodology. The viability of the use of the Electron Gamma Shower 4 Computer Code System to calculate the absorbed dose in radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, mainly at sup(192)Ir radioactive source handling situations was also studied. (author)

  6. The applicability of imaging plates in fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast neutron radiography (FNR) is an attractive non-destructive inspection technique in terms of the excellent penetration characteristics of fast neutrons in matter. FNR can be the only approach for non-destructive inspection of industrial products which are too thick or too dense for thermal neutron radiography. The imaging plate detector, a two dimensional detector for ionizing radiations, can be over 100 times more sensitive than conventional radiography films. At Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, an FNR system based on D-T accelerator neutron source has been established, with a spatial resolution of 1 mm. In this paper, we report its detector structure and the laboratorial test results. (authors)

  7. Costs and benefits of skull radiography for head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a period of 10 weeks, nine accident-and-emergency units in England, Wales, and Scotland took part in an investigation into the use of skull radiography in the management of patients with head injury. The yield of potentially important radiological findings in 4829 patients with uncomplicated head injury was 2 basal, 1 frontal, and 64 vault fractures. In 4 of these patients intracranial haematomas developed, of which 3 would have been suspected clinically and the patients admitted for observation even if skull radiography had not been available. At best, skull radiography could have contributed to the detection of only 1 of the 4 intracranial haematomas. The incidence of unsuspected intracranial haematoma with skull fracture among patients with uncomplicated head injury currently radiographed in the United Kingdom is therefore 1 in 4800. The radiological cost of identifying this 1 patient in our series was Pound43,200. (author)

  8. Diagnostic Reference Level Arising from Dental Panoramic Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes a study in which, based on patient dose measurements, thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to obtain the diagnostic reference level arising from panoramic radiography. Ten panoramic units and a sample of 15 patients per X-ray unit were studied. Two thermoluminescent dosimeter chips were placed on the skin surface of selected organs. Mean value of two ESDs was taken as the measured representation dose at the point of interest. Mean ESD on parotid glands derived from panoramic radiography was equal to 369.2 μGy. Individual patients' dose value varied from 180.1 to 470.3 μGy. Third quartile of mean absorbed dose distribution arising from a particular examination has been adopted as diagnostic reference level. Based on this definition, local diagnostic reference level arising from panoramic radiography of the greater Khorasan province is equal to 400 μG.

  9. Wind Turbine Blade Nondestructive Testing with a Transportable Radiography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming widely used as they are an environmentally friendly way for energy production without emissions; however, they are exposed to a corrosive environment. In addition, as wind turbines typically are the tallest structures in the surrounding area of a wind farm, it is expected that they will attract direct lightning strikes several times during their operating life. The purpose of this paper is to show that the radiography with a transportable unit is a solution to find defects in the wind turbine blade and reduce the cost of inspection. A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating an Sb–Be source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. The simulated system has a wide range of radiography parameters.

  10. Evaluation of radiography careers information on the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxall, Amy; Holmes, Ken E-mail: k.g.holmes@salford.ac.uk

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether information about radiography careers that was placed on the Internet was accessible, accurate, understandable, comprehensive, abundant and attractive to a sample of school children. Additionally this paper investigated whether the sample of school children had access to the Internet and whether they knew how to use it. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess views on the radiography information, Internet access and knowledge of how to use the Internet. Questionnaire data were then analysed and the Websites were ranked. Thirty-three Websites were evaluated; these gave varying qualities of information with questionnaire scores ranging from 188 to 76. This investigation showed that there are many Websites available about radiography as a career. The site that performed most successfully overall in this evaluation was the NHS Careers Website. This site was ranked highest for the design section but the University of Salford's Website performed top for content.

  11. Scattering corrections in neutron radiography using point scattered functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardjilov, N.; de Beer, F.; Hassanein, R.; Lehmann, E.; Vontobel, P.

    2005-04-01

    Scattered neutrons cause distortions and blurring in neutron radiography pictures taken at small distances between the investigated object and the detector. This defines one of the most significant problems in quantitative neutron radiography. The quantification of strong scattering materials such as hydrogenous materials—water, oil, plastic, etc.—with a high precision is very difficult due to the scattering effect in the radiography images. The scattering contribution in liquid test samples (H 2O, D 2O and a special type oil ISOPAR L) at different distances between the samples and the detector, the so-called Point Scattered Function (PScF), was calculated with the help of MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code. Corrections of real experimental data were performed using the calculated PScF. Some of the results as well as the correction algorithm will be presented.

  12. Real-time transfer and display of radiography image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information process network of cobalt-60 container inspection system is a local area network based on PC. The system requires reliable transfer of radiography image between collection station and process station and the real-time display of radiography image on process station. Due to the very high data acquisition rate, in order to realize the real-time transfer and display of radiography image, 100 M Ethernet technology and network process communication technology are adopted in the system. Windows Sockets is the most common process communication technology up to now. Several kinds of process communication way under Windows Sockets technology are compared and tested. Finally the author realized 1 Mbyte/s' inerrant image transfer and real-time display with blocked datagram transfer technology

  13. NEW INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENT METHODS: Medical ion radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafranova, M. G.; Shafranov, M. D.

    1980-06-01

    The aim of this review is to acquaint the reader with the principles and methods of ion radiography—a method of studying the inner structure of an object by using heavy charged particles. Along with the refinement of the traditional x-ray method of diagnostics and the development of a number of new methods, such as positron tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance, and in spite of the great advances attained in x-radiography in recent years, a persistent search continues for new, refined methods. First of all, efforts are directed toward seeking effective methods of early diagnosis of tumor lesions with less danger than in x-radiography. Studies have been conducted in a number of countries in the past decade on the possibility of applying heavy charged particles of relatively high energies for these purposes. Ion radiography enables one to obtain a higher contrast image than x-radiography at lower doses of irradiation, and to differentiate soft tissues and to detect in them anomalies of small dimensions. It opens up the possibility of obtaining new diagnostic information. Theoretical studies in the field of ion radiography and experiments on animals, on human tissues, and in a number of cases, on patients, have shown the promise offered by using ions for diagnosing not only tumors, but also a number of other serious lesions. This new field of study has incorporated the experience of particle and nuclear physics and widely employs its variety of investigational methods. This article also treats problems involving the application of accelerators for ion radiography and specifications for the beam parameters and for the particle detectors. This review gives an account of the advances in this new field of studies and the prospects for its development and the difficulties on the pathway of introducing it into practice.

  14. Weld testing by radiography for boilers and high pressure pipes in fertilizer industry at erection sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography has been an effective tool for quality control of weldments. The importance of radiography inspection at erection sites in fertilizer industry has been brought out. A brief description of procedures to be followed and problems encountered in the site radiography are presented with a few typical cases of interest. (author)

  15. High resolution radiography of ambers with pixel detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, F.; Beneš, J.; Sopko, V.; Jandejsek, I.; Pflegerová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2013), C03024. ISSN 1748-0221. [Conference: International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detector s /14./. Figueira da Foz, 01.07.2012-05.07.2012] Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101; GA Mšk(CZ) LA08032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : X-ray detector s * Inspection with x-rays * X-ray radiography and digital radiography (DR) Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/8/03/C03024/

  16. Finger printing of medieval investment cast idols by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the various methods, radiography is an important technique that can be used to fingerprint an idol. This is because, these idols are cast structures, and radiography is the most reliable technique for the detection of internal features like casting defects. This paper presents the radiographic methodology adopted and the results of the studies to characterise radiographically three medieval cast idols belonging to different periods 9th, 13th, and 16th century obtained from the government museum Madras. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Fast Neutron Radiography at an RFQ Accelerator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, G. C.; Franklyn, C. B.; Dangendorf, V.; Buffler, A.; Bromberger, B.

    This work introduces the Necsa Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator facility and its work concerning fast neutron radiography (FNR). Necsa operates a 4-5 MeV, up to 50 mA deuteron RFQ. The previous deuterium gas target station has been modified to enable producing a white neutron beam employing a solid B4C target. Furthermore, the high energy beam transport (HEBT) section is under adjustment to achieve a longer flight-path and a better focus. This work presents an overview of the facility, the modifications made, and introduces past and ongoing neutron radiography investigations.

  18. Neutron radiography and tomography facility at IBR-2 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlenko, D. P.; Kichanov, S. E.; Lukin, E. V.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Belushkin, A. V.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Savenko, B. N.

    2016-05-01

    An experimental station for investigations using neutron radiography and tomography was developed at the upgraded high-flux pulsed IBR-2 reactor. The 20 × 20 cm neutron beam is formed by the system of collimators with the characteristic parameter L/D varying from 200 to 2000. The detector system is based on a 6LiF/ZnS scintillation screen; images are recorded using a high-sensitivity video camera based on the high-resolution CCD matrix. The results of the first neutron radiography and tomography experiments at the developed facility are presented.

  19. Testing the durability of concrete with neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of concrete to withstand the penetration of liquid and oxygen can be described as the durability of concrete. The durability of concrete, can in turn, be quantified by certain characteristics of the concrete such as the porosity, sorptivity and permeability. The quantification of neutron radiography images of concrete structures and, therefore, the determination of concrete characteristics validate conventional measurements. This study compares the neutron radiography capability to obtain quantitative data for porosity and sorptivity in concrete to laboratory or conventional measurements. The effects that water to cement ratio and curing time have on the durability of concrete are investigated

  20. Use of radiography by the Swiss general practitioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1998 nationwide survey of the exposure of the Swiss population by medical X-rays indicated that 5.4 million X-ray examinations (dental excluded) were performed annually in Switzerland (762 per 1000 population), leading to an annual collective dose to the population of 7100 Sv and an average annual effective dose of 1.0 mSv/caput. The contribution of conventional radiography was found to be 84% of the total in terms of frequency and 42% in terms of the collective dose. The study showed also that general practitioners (GP) contributed 27% to the total frequency and 9.5% to the collective dose. The present work aimed at assessing the variation over the years of the frequency of radiographies carried out by general practitioners in Switzerland. A sample of 49 general practitioners stratified on the seven Swiss geographic regions was surveyed. A questionnaire was sent to them and they were asked to give the annual number of examinations they performed during 2004, 2005 and 2006 for the 30 types of X-ray types of examinations most commonly used by GPs. The results of the study were compared to the data obtained in earlier surveys: 1998 and 2003. 37 GPs filled in the questionnaire properly (response rate of 76%). In 2006 a GP carried out on average 488 radiographies (about 2 per working day), showing a 4% decrease compared to 2003. The most frequent type of examination is chest radiography with an annual frequency of 133/GP per year, which represents 30% of all radiographies performed by GPs. It is followed by radiographies of the knee (45/GP), the finger (34/GP) and the ankle (34/GP). The most significant change revealed by this investigation is related to chest radiography with a steady decrease from 1998 to 2006 (15.4% fall over a period of 8 years). This is a real trend, in accordance with the results obtained in the 1998 survey, which showed that the frequency of chest radiography dropped by a factor of 2 in twenty years (1978-1998). (author)

  1. A radiological health study of industrial gamma radiography in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an occupational group, industrial radiographers receive radiation doses second only to reactor workers. This report is a result of a study carried out to research the causes for this relatively high dose and determine if and how it can be improved. The data presented herein were obtained from questionnaires and field visits to organizations involved in gamma radiography and from the Canadian National Dose Registry. Some applications of radiography such as pipeline work give rise to higher than average doses. When all safety measures are conscientiously aplied, the doses are reasonalbe. However, ignorance, carelessness and indifference account for much unnecessary exposure to radiation. (Auth)

  2. Energy efficiency in the radiography department: An Irish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Previous research has demonstrated that individual radiology departments do not use energy efficiently. Such studies have commented that radiologists hold a ‘unique role’ in the promotion of ‘eco-friendly’ radiology departments. Improving energy efficiency can save both energy and money and can therefore be viewed as a means of tackling – albeit on a minor scale – both global economic and environmental issues. The current research aimed to present an Irish perspective of radiology energy efficiency and more specifically the radiography department – a department primarily staffed by radiographers. Method: Out-of-hours end-use energy surveys were undertaken in four Irish departments. Ancillary electrical equipment and lighting, if any, not powered off were recorded and the energy such equipment consumes in the out-of-hours setting annually was quantified. Additionally, all desktop and workstation displays – regardless of their power-state – were recorded for comparison both between studied departments and to previous research. Results: A range of equipment including desktop and workstation displays, computers and CR plate readers are left on in closed departments. Lighting is not powered off in radiography departments, notably within X-ray suites and changing rooms. Estimated annual savings in individual radiography departments ranges from 6656 kWh to 27,542 kWh and €1095.58 – €4533.41 (£865.50 – £3581.39). Conclusion: Irish radiography departments are energy inefficient and radiographers, as the primary staff in this area, have a role in the promotion of improved radiology energy efficiency. This study focused on radiography departments, but improvements are also likely to be achievable in the wider hospital. - Highlights: • We aim to highlight energy efficiency in Irish radiography departments. • We focused on energy consumed after the main radiography department closes. • Irish radiography departments do not use

  3. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, Sky K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  4. Neutron radiography of nuclear fuel pins: an album

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography technique has been employed for the evaluation of various types of nuclear fuels. Thermal neutron beam from the Apsara reactor was used as neutron source. Experimental mixed oxide fuel pins were radiographed for their characterisation and quality assurance. Dimension measurement has been carried out from the neutron radiographs of nuclear fuel pins. The resolution capability of the Apsara neutron radiography facility has been evaluated. A collection of neutron radiographs of various types of nuclear fuel pins generated over a period of time is presented. (author)

  5. Visualization of oil flow in engine by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suitable for the technology the neutron radiography that makes the inside of the object visible by the difference of the amount of penetration of the radiation, and making liquid in metal flow visible. The oil flow in the engine four strokes was made to visible, and observed by using this technology. In this research, with the neutron radiography, I try to observe the mechanism and oil flow when the engine operates. In a past technique, the image of making to visible of irregular movement like the oil behavior was not able to be acquired, but neutron II enable me to make oil flow in engine visualize. (author)

  6. Radiation Exposure in the NICU: Computed Radiography versus Digital Detector Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Medical radiation exposure to pediatric patients has gained national attention in the last few years. New guidelines encourage technologists, managers, radiologists, and equipment manufacturers to tailor imaging to smaller sized patients. With the advent of computed radiography, patient radiation doses have doubled. This literature review addresses how cumulative doses received by highly radiosensitive infants in neonatal intensive care units correspond to similar doses received by infants that later developed radiation induced cancers. While technologist expertise is important for dose management with any receptor technology, converting to digital flat panel detectors can reduce dose to these areas by > 50%, and minimize risks for radiation induced cancers that often do not present until several decades after exposure. PMID:26710555

  7. Real-time radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography for nonintrusive waste drum characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating and developing the application of x-ray nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) methods to nonintrusively characterize 208-liter (55-gallon) mixed waste drums. Mixed wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive materials. We are investigating the use of x-ray NDE methods to verify the content of documented waste drums and determine if they can be used to identify hazardous and nonconforming materials. These NDE methods are also being used to help waste certification and hazardous waste management personnel at LLNL to verify/confirm and/or determine the contents of waste. The gamma-ray NDA method is used to identify the intrinsic radioactive source(s) and to accurately quantify its strength. The NDA method may also be able to identify some hazardous materials such as heavy metals. Also, we are exploring techniques to combine both NDE and NDA data sets to yield the maximum information from these nonintrusive, waste-drum characterization methods. In this paper, we report an our x-ray NDE R ampersand D activities, while our gamma-ray NDA activities are reported elsewhere in the proceedings. We have developed a data, acquisition scanner for x-ray NDE real-time radiography (RTR), as well as digital radiography transmission computed tomography (TCT) along with associated computational techniques for image reconstruction, analysis, and display. We are using this scanner and real-waste drums at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In this paper, we discuss some issues associated with x-ray imaging, describe the design construction of an inexpensive NDE drum scanner, provide representative DR and TCT results of both mock- and real-waste drums, and end with a summary of our efforts and future directions. The results of these scans reveal that RTR, DR, and CT imaging techniques can be used in concert to provide valuable information about the interior of low-level-, transuranic-, and mock-waste drums without

  8. Technical and clinical breast cancer screening performance indicators for computed radiography versus direct digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, Hilde; Lemmens, Kim; Zanca, Federica; Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Hauwere, An de; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, QCC, Ghent (Belgium); Herck, Koen van; Bleyen, Luc; Mortier, Griet [Ghent University, Centrum voor Preventie en Vroegtijdige Opsporing van Kanker, Department of Public Health, Ghent (Belgium); Martens, Patrick [Vroegtijdige Opsporing Borstklierkanker West-Vlaanderen vzw, Bruges (Belgium); Putte, Gretel vande; Kellen, Eliane; Limbergen, Erik van [Leuven University Center of Cancer Screening, Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    To compare technical and clinical screening performance parameters between computed radiography (CR) and direct digital radiography (DR) systems. The number of women screened with CR was 73,008 and with DR 116,945. Technical and patient dose survey data of 25 CR and 37 DR systems were available. Technical performance was expressed by threshold thickness values at the mean glandular dose (MGD) level of routine practice. Clinical indicators included recall rate (RR), cancer detection rate (CDR), percentage of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), percentage of cancers with T-scores smaller than 1 cm and positive predictive value (PPV). Contrast threshold values for the 0.1-mm gold disk were 1.44 {mu}m (SD 0.13 {mu}m) for CR and 1.20 {mu}m (SD 0.13 {mu}m for DR). MGD was 2.16 mGy (SD 0.36 mGy) and 1.35 mGy (SD 0.32 mGy) for CR and DR respectively. We obtained for CR, respectively DR, the following results: RR in the first round of 5.48 % versus 5.61 %; RR in subsequent rounds of 2.52 % versus 2.65 %; CDR of 0.52 % versus 0.53 %; DCIS of 0.08 % versus 0.11 %; a rate of cancers with T-scores smaller than 1 cm of 0.11 % versus 0.11 %; PPV of 18.45 % versus 18.64 %; none of them was significantly different. Our screening indicators are reassuring for the use of CR and DR, with CR operating at 60 % higher MGD. (orig.)

  9. Potential exposures in mobile industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation protection conditions of the mobile or open industrial radiography facilities were analyzed in the period from 1992 to 1996 to estimate the value of the potential exposure risk, the mean annual dose and the dose distribution function of the workers. To estimate the potential exposure the concepts described in ICRP 64 and Safety Series 104 were used. The annual mean value of abnormal events occurred in the operations of to remove and to retract the radioactive source of exposure device recorded in data bank of National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), in a period of 5 years, were used to obtain the risk value. To evaluate the worker exposures, data obtained by accompaniment the radiographic testing in 5 installations, representative of all radiographic facilities in Brazil and the data bank of CNEN were used. To obtain the statistical dose distribution data from individual monitoring of the workers of these installations were used, data from additional individual monitoring and data bank of CNEN. The absorbed mean dose value in the period from 1992 to 1996 maintained about 0.2 mSv/year like as in the period from 1990 to 1994, with a maximum value of 0.55 mSv/year in 1988. The statistical distribution in a period from January to December 1996, behavior likes as long-normal type. The estimated risk value for potential exposure was 4x10-6 per year, in the period from 1992 to 96. Using the data bank of CNEN, in a period from 1976 to 1992, the estimate value was 6.6x10-6 per year, using the same methodology. The comparison of the failed operation probability value of operator/device/local system, in a period from 1976 to 1992 and in 1996, shows an increasing of 0.5x10-11 to 1.1x10-11 per year, due mainly to the radiographic device and accessories become oldest, in spite of maintenance care. However, due to the radiation procedure improvements, the potential risk value reduced about 40%, that is from 6.6x106 to 4x10-6 per year. (author)

  10. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ewert, Uwe [BAM

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to

  11. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  12. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and deterioration of the lining of the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking beta-carotene by mouth doesn’t appear to prevent the development of oral mucositis during radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Pancreatic cancer. Taking ...

  13. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given. (author)

  14. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  15. [High beta tokamak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 20 months of the present grant period can be divided into six areas: reconstruction and modeling of high beta equilibria in HBT; measurement and analysis of MHD instabilities observed in HBT; measurements of impurity transport; diagnostic development on HBT; numerical parameterization of the second stability regime; and conceptual design and assembly of HBT-EP. Each of these is described in some detail in the sections of this progress report

  16. High beta multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta

  17. Autoregressive conditional beta

    OpenAIRE

    Yunmi Kim

    2012-01-01

    The capital asset pricing model provides various predictions about equilibrium expected returns on risky assets. One key prediction is that the risk premium on a risky asset is proportional to the nondiversifiable market risk measured by the asset's beta coefficient. This paper proposes a new method for estimating and drawing inferences from a time-varying capital asset pricing model. The proposed method, which can be considered a vector autoregressive model for multiple beta coefficients, is...

  18. Digital image processing in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography is a method for the visualization of the macroscopic inner-structure and material distributions of various materials. The basic experimental arrangement consists of a neutron source, a collimator functioning as beam formatting assembly and of a plane position sensitive integrating detector. The object is placed between the collimator exit and the detector, which records a two dimensional image. This image contains information about the composition and structure of the sample-interior, as a result of the interaction of neutrons by penetrating matter. Due to rapid developments of detector and computer technology as well as deployments in the field of digital image processing, new technologies are nowadays available which have the potential to improve the performance of neutron radiographic investigations enormously. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a state-of-the art digital imaging device, suitable for the two neutron radiography stations located at the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten and furthermore, to identify and develop two and three dimensional digital image processing methods suitable for neutron radiographic and tomographic applications, and to implement and optimize them within data processing strategies. The first step was the development of a new imaging device fulfilling the requirements of a high reproducibility, easy handling, high spatial resolution, a large dynamic range, high efficiency and a good linearity. The detector output should be inherently digitized. The key components of the detector system selected on the basis of these requirements consist of a neutron sensitive scintillator screen, a CCD-camera and a mirror to reflect the light emitted by the scintillator to the CCD-camera. This detector design enables to place the camera out of the direct neutron beam. The whole assembly is placed in a light shielded aluminum box. The camera is controlled by a

  19. Assessment of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool: review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the possibility of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool. This report was carried out by review of the literatures. Panoramic radiography has sufficient diagnostic accuracy in dental caries, periodontal diseases, and other lesions. Also, the effective dose of panoramic radiography is lower than traditional full-mouth periapical radiography. Panoramic radiography will improve the efficacy of dental examination in national oral examination. However, more studies are required to evaluate the benefit, financial cost, and operation time and also to make selection criteria and quality management program.

  20. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body.

  1. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  2. Radiation protection program of Petrobras in industrial radiography area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial hygiene has as main purpose the preservation of employees physical integrity when exposed to certain agressive agents. PETROBRAS Industrial hygiene program forecasts preventive policies in several specific fields. For the ionizing radiations area it was developed the ''Radiologic Protection Program'' which also deals with specific actions in industrial radiography jobs. These actions are hereinafter presented. (C.M.)

  3. Radiography Capabilities for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) experimental facility will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges. This new facility will provide the new tools scientists need to develop next-generation materials that will perform predictably and on-demand for currently unattainable lifetimes in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility is based on upgrades to the existing LANSCE 800-MeV proton linac and a new 12-GeV electron linac and associated X-ray FEL to provide simultaneous multiple probe beams, and new experimental areas. In addition to the high-energy photon probe beam, both electron and proton radiography capabilities will be available at the MaRIE facility. Recently, detailed radiography system studies have been performed to develop conceptual layouts of high-magnification electron and proton radiography systems that can meet the experimental requirements for the expected first experiments to be performed at the facility. A description of the radiography systems, their performance requirements, and a proposed facility layout are presented.

  4. Experimental Setup for High Resolution Radiography and Tomography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Holý, T.; Jakůbek, J.; Jakůbek, M.; Vykydal, Z.

    New Jersey : Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, 2005. s. 147-147 [Nuclear Science Symposium. 23.10.2005-29.10.2005, San Juan] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/04/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : Digital radiography * Tomography * Beam hardening correction Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  5. General radiation hygiene and safety aspects in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation of all essential aspects concerning practical radiation hygiene in dental radiography is given. The report reflects the established opinion and practice of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene evolved through many years of experience in this field. The principal target group includes all dental staff members in Norway

  6. Optimization of digital radiography techniques for specific application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low cost digital radiography system (DRS) for testing weld joints and castings in laboratory was assembled. The DRS is composed from X-ray source, scintillator, first surface mirror with Aluminum coating, charged coupled device (CCD) camera and lens. The DRS was used to test flawed carbon steel welded plates with thicknesses up to 12 mm. The comparison between the digital radiographs of the plates weldments and the radiographs of the same plates weldments using medium speed film type had shown that, the detection capability of the weld flaws are nearly identical for the two radiography techniques, while the sensitivity achieved in digital radiography of the plates weldments was one IQI wire less than the sensitivity achieved by conventional radiography of the same plates weldments according to EN 462-1. Further, the DRS was also successfully used to test (100 x 100 x 100) mm Aluminum casting with artificial flaws of varied dimensions and orientations. The resulted digital radiographs of the casting show that, all the flaws had been detected and their dimensions can be measured accurately, this confirm that, The proposed DRS can be used to detect and measure the flaws in the Aluminum and others light metals castings accurately. (author)

  7. Digital radiography for automated wall thickness measurement at insulated pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digital radiography system AMICA-410 enables the measurement of pipe wall thickness as well as pipe cross section at insulated and non-insulated pipework, and on stream processing and analysis of data with the integrated software. The hardware and software of the system and its performance are explained in the context of the scanning tasks. (orig./CB)

  8. Evaluation of opaque glasses by the radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opaque glasses can be inspected by the radiography technique because of the metal-oxide contents in them as opaqueness or colored materials. In this study, radiographic exposure parameters for the applications on the opaque glasses are defined and some examples are given with ancient samples. Evaluation can be realized for moding and glass base structure non-destructively. (author)

  9. Accidents in industrial radiography in Brazil from 2005 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of accidents occurring in industrial radiography in Brazil from 2005 until 2010 led to the study of the main characteristics of the events, their risks and dangers. This study outlines the main doubts on the subject, through a simplified analysis of the contents of high dose reports sent to CNEN by the companies that provide services for industrial radiography and from examining the growing number of radioactive sources for industrial radiography in Brazil, over this period. We classified the recorded events, as incidents, accidents, negligence, sabotage, and others, and studied their main consequences. We concluded that from 76 accidents that occurred during that period - 25 were real accidents, 13 minor accidents and 22 were inadvertent incidents. We found that the rate of growth in the number of sources is much greater than the rate of growth of accidents, with a ratio of 7.57 between them. The continuation of this study over some years, will allow the construction of a pyramid of accidents like the one developed by the Insurance Company of North America, specifically for industrial radiography to forecast the number of incidents and accidents that lead to serious or fatal injury. (author)

  10. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randon, Rafael Henrique Nunes [Stomathology and Oral Diagnostic Program, School of Dentistry of Sao Paulo, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara [Biology Dental Buco Graduate Program, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil); Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro do [Psychobiology Graduate Program, School of Philosophy, Science and Literature of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body.

  11. Mobile equipment for neutron radiography using a californium-252 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirements for successful neutron radiography are first summarised and the use of 252Cf is placed in perspective by comparing its properties with those of sources based on the Be (γ, n) and Be (α, n) reactions which have a broadly similar range of applications. The more essential design features of mobile neutron radiography equipment are next examined in some detail, to show how the often conflicting requirements of optimum beam production and adequate shielding may be reconciled. An assembly with a maximum dimension around 1 m with a source of 1 mg is used as an example. The design data used are reproduced in graphical form to permit designs to be scaled to suit the source available and the requirements. The selection of suitable image recorders for 252Cf radiography is discussed with the conclusion that the gadolinium foil-film combinations are likely to remain the normal choice. Demonstration radiographs are presented with particular reference to the location of residual casting sand in gas-cooled turbine blades. Finally, it is suggested that other applications for mobile 252Cf-based neutron radiography equipment will be found in the ordnance, aero-space, chemical and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. (author)

  12. Radiographer interpretation of trauma radiographs: Issues for radiography education providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The role of radiographers with respect to image interpretation within clinical practice is well recognised. It is the expectation of the professional, regulatory and academic bodies that upon qualification, radiographers will possess image interpretation skills. Additionally, The College of Radiographers has asserted that its aspiration is for all radiographers to be able to provide an immediate written interpretation on skeletal trauma radiographs by 2010. This paper explores the readiness of radiography education programmes in the UK to deliver this expectation. Method: A postal questionnaire was distributed to 25 Higher Education Institutions in the UK (including Northern Ireland) that provided pre-registration radiography education as identified from the Society and College of Radiographers register. Information was sought relating to the type of image interpretation education delivered at pre- and post-registration levels; the anatomical range of image interpretation education; and education delivery styles. Results: A total of 19 responses (n = 19/25; 76.0%) were received. Image interpretation education was included as part of all radiographer pre-registration programmes and offered at post-registration level at 12 academic centres (n = 12/19; 63.2%). The anatomical areas and educational delivery methods varied across institutions. Conclusion: Radiography education providers have embraced the need for image interpretation education within both pre- and post-registration radiography programmes. As a result, UK education programmes are able to meet the 2010 College of Radiographers aspiration.

  13. Qualitative methods in radiography research: a proposed framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: While radiography is currently developing a research base, which is important in terms of professional development and informing practice and policy issues in the field, the amount of research published by radiographers remains limited. However, a range of qualitative methods offer further opportunities for radiography research. Purpose: This paper briefly introduces a number of key qualitative methods (qualitative interviews, focus groups, observational methods, diary methods and document/text analysis) and sketches one possible framework for future qualitative work in radiography research. The framework focuses upon three areas for study: intra-professional issues; inter-professional issues; and clinical practice, patient and health delivery issues. While the paper outlines broad areas for future focus rather than providing a detailed protocol for how individual pieces of research should be conducted, a few research questions have been chosen and examples of possible qualitative methods required to answer such questions are outlined for each area. Conclusion: Given the challenges and opportunities currently facing the development of a research base within radiography, the outline of key qualitative methods and broad areas suitable for their application is offered as a useful tool for those within the profession looking to embark upon or enhance their research career

  14. Neutron radiography visualization of internal processes in refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic neutron radiography was used to visualize the characteristic features of evaporation, condensation, fluid flow and clogging points in absorption-type refrigerators. Environment friendly new constructions of compression-type refrigerators were investigated. The results provide an effective tool for manufacturers to improve their products. (orig.)

  15. Neutron radiography for maintenance inspection of military and civilian aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a program to develop new and advanced nondestructive inspection techniques, a series of projects has been conducted to develop and evaluate neutron radiography as a nondestructive inspection tool. A major portion of this effort has been directed toward the application of neutron radiography as a maintenance inspection tool for military and civilian aircraft. The availability of 252Cf as a neutron source has enabled the use of neutron-radiography systems in normal maintenance environments for the inspection of flight-line aircraft with a minimum of interference. Neutron radiography has been demonstrated to be a powerful nondestructive inspection tool for a variety of applications involving the detection of organic or non-metallic compounds. Its ability to detect surface and subsurface corrosion in aircraft structure is unmatched by any other inspection technique. This capability of detecting corrosion without component disassembly is particularly significant when corrosion is hidden behind thick metallic structural members. The neutron radiographic technique has been applied successfully to detect corrosion in wing tanks, rear stabilators, aft spar, starboard and port wing, rudder, fuselage skin, and nose landing gears of a variety of fixed-wind aircraft, as well as rotary blades and rotary tail flaps of heliocopters

  16. Radiography Capabilities for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garnett, Robert William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chapman, Catherine A. B [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salazar, Harry Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otoole, Joseph Alfred [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barber, Ronald L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gomez, Tony Simon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-28

    The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) experimental facility will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges. This new facility will provide the new tools scientists need to develop next-generation materials that will perform predictably and on-demand for currently unattainable lifetimes in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility is based on upgrades to the existing LANSCE 800-MeV proton linac and a new 12-GeV electron linac and associated X-ray FEL to provide simultaneous multiple probe beams, and new experimental areas. In addition to the high-energy photon probe beam, both electron and proton radiography capabilities will be available at the MaRIE facility. Recently, detailed radiography system studies have been performed to develop conceptual layouts of high-magnification electron and proton radiography systems that can meet the experimental requirements for the expected first experiments to be performed at the facility. A description of the radiography systems, their performance requirements, and a proposed facility layout are presented.

  17. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng [University of Chicago Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  18. Diagnostic value of full-mouth radiography in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective-To determine the diagnostic value of full-mouth radiographyin cats.Sample Population-115 cats referred for dental treatment without a previous full-mouth radiographic series available. Procedure-In a prospective nested case-control analysis of multiple outcomes in a hospital cohort of cats referred for dental treatment, full-mouth radiography was done prior to oral examination and charting. After treatment, the clinical and radiographic findings were compared, with reference to presenting problems, main clinical findings, additional information obtained from radiography and unexpected radiographic findings. Importance of the radiographic findings in therapeutic decision making was assessed. Results-The main clinical findings were radiographically confirmed in all cats. Odontoclastic resorption lesions, missed on clinical examination, were diagnosed in 8.7% of cats. Analysis of selected presenting problems and main clinical findings yielded significantly increased odds ratios for a variety of other conditions, either expected or unexpected. Radiographs of teeth without clinical lesions yielded incidental or clinically important findings in 4.8 and 41.7% of cats, respectively, and were considered of no clinical value in 53.6%. Radiographs of teeth with clinical lesions merely confirmed the findings in 13.9% of cats, but yielded additional or clinically essential information in 53.9 and 32.2%, respectively. Clinical Relevance-The diagnostic yield of full-mouth radiography in new feline patients referred for dental treatment is high, and routine use of full-mouth radiography is justifiable

  19. Neutron induced electron radiography; Radiografia com eletrons induzida por neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcos Leandro Garcia

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper a new radiography technique, the 'Neutron Induced Electron Radiography' - NIER, to inspect low thickness samples on the order of micra, has been developed. This technique makes use of low energy electrons as penetrating radiation generated from metallic gadolinium screens when irradiated by thermal neutrons. The conditions to obtain the best image for the conventional X-ray film Kodak-AA were determined by using a digital system to quantify the darkening level of the film. The irradiations have been performed at a radiography equipment installed at the beam-hole no. 8 of the 5 MW IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The irradiation time to obtain the best radiography was 100 seconds and for such condition the technique was able to discern 1 {mu}m in 24 {mu}m of aluminum at a resolution of 32 {mu}m. By visual comparison the images obtained by the NIER shown a higher quality when compared with the ones from other usual techniques the make use of electrons a penetrating radiation and films for image registration. Furthermore the use of the digital system has provided a smaller time for data acquisition and data analysis as well as an improvement in the image visualization. (author)

  20. Measurement of Soot Deposition in Automotive Components Using Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 40% of air pollution is generated by vehicles and transportation. The particulate matter (PM) emission significantly impacts human health. Fine particles below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) can enter the lungs and lead to respiratory problems. These particles not only influence human health, but also reduce the capability of many automobile exhaust heat exchanging devices. Neutron radiography is a non-destructive method of analyzing carbonaceous PM. While neutron radiography has been demonstrated for soot measurement in the past, the application has not considered the presence of unburned hydrocarbons, significant amounts of moisture nor examined complex geometrical configurations. The purpose of this work is to study a reliable non-destructive testing methodology using neutron radiography for measurement of soot distribution in automotive components. A soot standard (aluminium target) was designed and manufactured as a calibration tool. The standard is radiographed and used to measure the differences between various soot thickness and compositions. The radiograph images are analyzed to determine a calibration curve based upon the composition of the materials which can then be used for analysis of the automotive components. Experiments are performed using a diesel engine to produce soot deposits on exhaust piping. Soot distribution on exhaust piping is measured using neutron radiography. (authors)

  1. Training and development of the Assistant Practitioners (APs) in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixed methods study conducted over three phases (Phase I – scoping exercise, Phase II – questionnaire and Phase III – semi-structured interviews) aimed to explore the role and integration of the assistant practitioner (AP) practitioner in radiography from the AP perspective. Findings of the overall study are presented across a range of articles where this publication only presents the findings in relation to the training and education of APs from all three phases. Results showed the educational routes undertaken by APs in radiography during training. Training whilst working in the clinical department has highlighted a number of key issues relating to educational pathways and delivery methods. Findings showed that APs felt that more could be done to prepare the individual for clinical practice thereby increasing their confidence and facilitating role development. Results also identified a number of challenges in the training and education of APs in radiography. Clear routes of progression and career pathways are not available to APs in radiography. In conclusion the findings suggest the need for a review of existing educational programmes and future standardisation. The need exists to clarify the justifiable methods of training and differentiate between recognised educational qualifications to enable informed career development decisions by APs and their employers

  2. Principles and applications of the digital luminescent radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital luminescent radiography is a novel technique for routine diagnostics that allows the establishment of digital projection radiograms. Two goals are pursued: Best possible utilisation of the image data contained in the radiation field, and integration of these data into a digital communication system. (orig.)

  3. Digital radiography: are the manufacturers' settings too high? Optimisation of the Kodak digital radiography system with aid of the computed radiography dose index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manufacturers offer exposure indices as a safeguard against overexposure in computed radiography, but the basis for recommended values is unclear. This study establishes an optimum exposure index to be used as a guideline for a specific CR system to minimise radiation exposures for computed mobile chest radiography, and compares this with manufacturer guidelines and current practice. An anthropomorphic phantom was employed to establish the minimum milliamperes consistent with acceptable image quality for mobile chest radiography images. This was found to be 2 mAs. Consecutively, 10 patients were exposed with this optimised milliampere value and 10 patients were exposed with the 3.2 mAs routinely used in the department of the study. Image quality was objectively assessed using anatomical criteria. Retrospective analyses of 717 exposure indices recorded over 2 months from mobile chest examinations were performed. The optimised milliampere value provided a significant reduction of the average exposure index from 1840 to 1570 (p<0.0001). This new ''optimum'' exposure index is substantially lower than manufacturer guidelines of 2000 and significantly lower than exposure indices from the retrospective study (1890). Retrospective data showed a significant increase in exposure indices if the examination was performed out of hours. The data provided by this study emphasise the need for clinicians and personnel to consider establishing their own optimum exposure indices for digital investigations rather than simply accepting manufacturers' guidelines. Such an approach, along with regular monitoring of indices, may result in a substantial reduction in patient exposure. (orig.)

  4. National data analysis of general radiography projection method in medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su; Seo, Deok Nam; Choi, In Seok [Dept. of Bio-Convergence Engineering, Korea University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-09-15

    According to database of medical institutions of health insurance review and assessment service in 2013, 1,118 hospitals and clinics have department of radiology in Korea. And there are CT, fluoroscopic and general radiographic equipment in those hospitals. Above all, general radiographic equipment is the most commonly used in the radiology department. And most of the general radiographic equipment are changing the digital radiography system from the film-screen types of the radiography system nowadays. However, most of the digital radiography department are used the film-screen types of the radiography system. Therefore, in this study, we confirmed present conditions of technical items for general radiography used in hospital and research on general radiographic techniques in domestic medical institutions. We analyzed 26 radiography projection method including chest, skull, spine and pelvis which are generally used in the radiography department.

  5. National data analysis of general radiography projection method in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to database of medical institutions of health insurance review and assessment service in 2013, 1,118 hospitals and clinics have department of radiology in Korea. And there are CT, fluoroscopic and general radiographic equipment in those hospitals. Above all, general radiographic equipment is the most commonly used in the radiology department. And most of the general radiographic equipment are changing the digital radiography system from the film-screen types of the radiography system nowadays. However, most of the digital radiography department are used the film-screen types of the radiography system. Therefore, in this study, we confirmed present conditions of technical items for general radiography used in hospital and research on general radiographic techniques in domestic medical institutions. We analyzed 26 radiography projection method including chest, skull, spine and pelvis which are generally used in the radiography department

  6. Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral dental radiography in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yun Hoa [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to survey the radiographic exposure parameters, to measure the patient doses for intraoral dental radiography nationwide, and thus to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental X-ray examination in Korea. One hundred two intraoral dental radiographic machines from all regions of South Korea were selected for this study. Radiographic exposure parameters, size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration of machine, and type of dental X-ray machine were documented. Patient entrance doses (PED) and dose-area products (DAP) were measured three times at the end of the exit cone of the X-ray unit with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography, and corrections were made for room temperature and pressure. Measured PED and DAP were averaged and compared according to the size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration, and type of dental X-ray machine. The mean exposure parameters were 62.6 kVp, 7.9 mA, and 0.5 second for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography. The mean patient dose was 2.11 mGy (PED) and 59.4 mGycm2 (DAP) and the third quartile one 3.07 mGy (PED) and 87.4 mGycm{sup 2} (DAP). Doses at university dental hospitals were lower than those at dental clinics (p<0.05). Doses of digital radiography (DR) type were lower than those of film-based type (p<0.05). We recommend 3.1 mGy (PED), 87.4 mGycm{sup 2} (DAP) as the DRLs in adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography in Korea.

  7. Development of automatic cable winder for industrial radiography projector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography is a well-established technique that is widely used to detect internal flaws in welds and castings and to check for mis-construction in assemblies. In general it used to verify weld quality in engineering structures such as the fabrication of pressure vessels, pipelines and storage tanks. It can be used on all metals, from light metals such as aluminium to dense metals such as copper. One of the technique is industrial radiography projector. Industrial radiography projector is used to store radioactive materials when it is not required to expose the material under test. The projector will come together with a guide tube, cable and cable winder. When the source is to be used to radiograph an item, the cable winder will wind-out the source from projector to the desired location through a guide tube. Upon completion of the work the source will be retracted back into its safe shielded position in this projector. In common procedure, the operator has to be close to the exposures projector while wind-out or wind-in the source from and into the projector. This made the radiography operator receive the highest exposure among the radiation operator and this is agreed by IAEA body. This paper describes a winder cable that can be used to guide the movement of radiography source out of and into the projector that can be controlled by a remote control system. The system comprises of a gear, reversible motor and low frequency automatic controller. This system is powered by DC chargeable battery. (Author)

  8. Low cost automatic cable winder for industrial radiography projector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography is a well-established technique that is widely used to detect internal flaws in welds, castings and to check for misconstruction in assemblies. In general it is to verify weld quality in engineering structures such as the fabrication of pressure vessels, pipelines and storage tanks. It can be used on all metals, from light metals such as aluminium to dense metals such as lead. One of the techniques is industrial radiography projector. Industrial radiography projector is used to store radioactive materials when it is not required to expose the material under test. The projector will come together with a guide tube and control unit (cable winder and drive cable). When the source is to be used to radiograph an item, the cable winder will wind-out the source from projector to the desired location through a guide tube. Upon completion of the work the source will be retracted back into its safe shielded position in this projector. In common procedure, the operator has to be close to the exposures projector while wind-out or wind-in the source from and into the projector. This made the radiography operator receive the highest exposure among the radiation operator and this agreed by IAEA. This paper describes a winder cable that can be used to guide the movement of radiography source out of and into the projector that can be controlled by a remote control system. The system comprises of a gear, reversible motor and low frequency automatic controller. This system is powered by DC chargeable battery. (author)

  9. Radiation-absorbed doses and energy imparted from panoramic tomography, cephalometric radiography, and occlusal film radiography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examinations of children, using panoramic tomography (PTG), cephalometric radiography (CPR), and maxillary frontal occlusal overview (FOO), were examined. The absorbed dose at various sites of the head were measured with TL dosimeters in a phantom and in patients. The energy imparted was calculated from measurements of areal exposure using a planparallel ionization chamber. The maximum absorbed doses for panoramic tomography were located around the lateral rotation center, for cephalometric radiography in the left (tube side) parotid region, and for frontal occlusal radiography in the nose. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroid gland, and skin are discussed and compared with previous reports and, for the most part, are found to be in agreement. The mean energy imparted from all three examination methods is 5 mJ with about 57 percent from panoramic, 33 percent from cephalometric, and 10 percent from frontal occlusal examinations. The energy imparted from cephalometric radiography can be reduced to about 10 percent with the use of an improved examination technique, leaving panoramic tomography responsible for contributing about 80 percent of the total energy imparted

  10. New features in cold neutron radiography and tomography Part II: applied energy-selective neutron radiography and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron attenuation coefficient drops for many solid materials quite drastically at a defined cold neutron energy known as a Bragg-cut-off in the cross-section diagrams. In many cases, the drop in attenuation for the corresponding elements is significant and this behavior can be exploited to change the material contrast in radiography and tomography images by modifying the spectrum of the applied neutron beam. The energy-dependent experiments were performed at the Prompt Gamma-ray Activation beam line where the irradiation position is at the end of a curved neutron guide, which delivers cold neutrons from the spallation source SINQ (PSI, Switzerland). This beam position gave the opportunity to perform radiography and tomography at low neutron energies. An effective monochromatization of the primary neutron beam was obtained by using a neutron velocity selector. The intensity of the modified beam was still reasonable for radiography images at different neutron energies and the experiments were performed in relatively short measuring times. A variety of samples were studied to illustrate possible applications of energy-selective radiography and tomography. This new neutron imaging technique provided encouraging results and projects of developing permanent facilities for such investigations at PSI and FRM II are under study

  11. Segmental lumbar spine instability at flexion-extension radiography can be predicted by conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, M.T.; Manninen, H.I.; Lindgren, K.-A.J.; Sihvonen, T.A.; Airaksinen, O.; Soimakallio, S

    2002-07-01

    AIM: To identify plain radiographic findings that predict segmental lumbar spine instability as shown by functional flexion-extension radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plain radiographs and flexion-extension radiographs of 215 patients with clinically suspected lumbar spine instability were analysed. Instability was classified into anterior or posterior sliding instability. The registered plain radiographic findings were traction spur, spondylarthrosis, arthrosis of facet joints, disc degeneration, retrolisthesis, degenerative spondylolisthesis, spondylolytic spondylolisthesis and vacuum phenomena. Factors reaching statistical significance in univariate analyses (P < 0.05) were included in stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Degenerative spondylolisthesis (P = 0.004 at L3-4 level and P = 0.017 at L4-5 level in univariate analysis and odds ratio 16.92 at L4-5 level in multiple logistic regression analyses) and spondylolytic spondylolisthesis (P = 0.003 at L5-S1 level in univariate analyses) were the strongest independent determinants of anterior sliding instability. Retrolisthesis (odds ratio 10.97), traction spur (odds ratio 4.45) and spondylarthrosis (odds ratio 3.20) at L3-4 level were statistically significant determinants of posterior sliding instability in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Sliding instability is strongly associated with various plain radiographic findings. In mechanical back pain, functional flexion-extension radiographs should be limited to situations when symptoms are not explained by findings of plain radiographs and/or when they are likely to alter therapy. Pitkaenen, M.T. et al. (2002)

  12. Segmental lumbar spine instability at flexion-extension radiography can be predicted by conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To identify plain radiographic findings that predict segmental lumbar spine instability as shown by functional flexion-extension radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plain radiographs and flexion-extension radiographs of 215 patients with clinically suspected lumbar spine instability were analysed. Instability was classified into anterior or posterior sliding instability. The registered plain radiographic findings were traction spur, spondylarthrosis, arthrosis of facet joints, disc degeneration, retrolisthesis, degenerative spondylolisthesis, spondylolytic spondylolisthesis and vacuum phenomena. Factors reaching statistical significance in univariate analyses (P < 0.05) were included in stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Degenerative spondylolisthesis (P = 0.004 at L3-4 level and P = 0.017 at L4-5 level in univariate analysis and odds ratio 16.92 at L4-5 level in multiple logistic regression analyses) and spondylolytic spondylolisthesis (P = 0.003 at L5-S1 level in univariate analyses) were the strongest independent determinants of anterior sliding instability. Retrolisthesis (odds ratio 10.97), traction spur (odds ratio 4.45) and spondylarthrosis (odds ratio 3.20) at L3-4 level were statistically significant determinants of posterior sliding instability in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Sliding instability is strongly associated with various plain radiographic findings. In mechanical back pain, functional flexion-extension radiographs should be limited to situations when symptoms are not explained by findings of plain radiographs and/or when they are likely to alter therapy. Pitkaenen, M.T. et al. (2002)

  13. Dose reduction in thorax radiography in simulated neonates with additional filtration and digital luminescence radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the minimum acceptable radiation dose for an adequate image quality in thorax a.p. radiographs of neonates using mobile X-ray equipment. Material and Methods: The influence of additional filtration (1.0 mm Al+0.1 mm Cu) on image quality and radiation dose was determined for the speed class 400 screen-film system (SFS) and digital luminescence radiography (DLR) by making radiographs of a test phantom. Conventional and digital thorax a.p. radiographs of a rabbit were produced using various tube current-time products. The quality of the rabbit radiographs was judged by eight radiologists applying image quality criteria according to the German guidelines and the recommendations of the European Community. Results: The added filter resulted in a dose reduction of 39% at 66 kV. DLR gave a further dose reduction of 25% in comparison to the speed class 400 SFS while maintaining adequate image quality, i.e. the radiographs were clinically acceptable with regard to quality criteria. Conclusion: The radiation dose resulting from thorax a.p. radiographs of neonates can be reduced by approximately 50% with the use of additional filtration and DLR. (orig.)

  14. Uterine and ovarian disorders in old cats: A study by ultrasonography and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this study was to examine disorders of ovaries and uteri in old domestic cats, using ultrasonography and radiography. Six intact female domestic cats, 6-9 years old that had never received any hormonal contraception were used in the study. Serum samples were taken on days 2, 4 and 6 of oestrus and analysed for oestradiol-17 beta and progesterone concentrations. On day 4 of oestrus, ovarian and uterine appearance and diameters was determined, using ultrasonography. Hysterography was performed using an infusion of a contrast medium into the cranial vagina. The measurement of uterine diameter was done using the ultrasound and the hysterogram. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and cystic ovaries were common abnormal features. Ultrasound showed an ovarian diameter of 1.24+-0.48 cm and a follicle diameter of 0.3-0.4 cm at mid-oestrus. Cysts in the ovaries were observed with a diameter of 0.98-2.04 (3/6). Multiple cystic structures of 0.1-0.2 cm were found in the hyperplastic endometrium (5/6). Hysterography provided an overview of the uterine appearance, hyperplasia and the cystic changes in the endometrium. The diameter of the uterine horns, measured using the ultrasound and hysterogram, was 0.66+-0.22 and 0.68+-0.18 cm, respectively (p LT 0.05). The increase and the decline of oestradiol-17 beta, and the basal level of progesterone concentration, during oestrus, indicated that the cystic ovaries did not produce these hormones. The study demonstrated the abnormal changes in the ovaries and uteri of old cats, which is likely to be the cause infertility which is particularly important in endangered wild felids. It is valuable that ultrasound and hysterogram can now be used for diagnosing the pathology of ovaries and uterine disease in cats

  15. Correlation of processing and sintering variables with the strength and radiography of silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, W.A. (NASA-Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (USA)); Baaklini, G.Y. (Cleveland State Univ., OH (USA))

    1988-01-01

    A sintered Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} composition (6Y) was developed that reached four-point flexural average strength/standard deviation values of 857/36, 544/33, and 462/59 MPa at room temperature, 1,200{degree}, and 1,370{degree}C, respectively. These strengths represented improvements of 56, 38, and 21% over baseline properties at the three test temperatures. At room temperature the standard deviation was reduced by over a factor of three. These accomplishments were realized by the iterative utilization of conventional x-ray radiography to characterize structural (density) uniformity as affected by systematic changes in powder processing and sintering parameters. Accompanying the improvement in mechanical properties was a change in the type of flaw-causing failure from a pore to a large, columnar {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grain, typically 40 to 80 {mu}m long, 10 to 30 {mu}m wide, and with an aspect ratio of 5:1.

  16. Correlation of processing and sintering variables with the strength and radiography of silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, W.A.; Baaklini, G.Y.

    1986-08-01

    A sintered Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/-SiO/sub 2/-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ composition, NASA 6Y, was developed that reached four-point flexural average strength/standard deviation values of 857/36, 544/33, and 462/59 MPa at room temperature, 1200 and 1370 C, respectively. These strengths represented improvements of 56, 38, and 21 percent over baseline properties at the three test temperatures. At room temperature the standard deviation was reduced by over a factor of three. These accomplishments were realized by the iterative utilization of conventional X-radiography to characterize structural (density) uniformity as affected by systematic changes in powder processing and sintering parameters. Accompanying the improvement in mechanical properties was a change in the type of flaw causing failure from a pore to a large columnar beta-Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ grain typically 40-80 micron long, 10-30 micron wide, and with an aspect ratio of 5:1. 11 references.

  17. Correlation of processing and sintering variables with the strength and radiography of silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, W.A.; Baaklini, G.Y.

    1986-01-01

    A sintered Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/-SiO2-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ composition, NASA 6Y, was developed that reached four-point flexural average strength/standard deviation values of 857/36, 544/33, and 462/59 MPa at room temperature, 1200 and 1370 C respectively. These strengths represented improvements of 56, 38, and 21 percent over baseline properties at the three test temperatures. At room temperature the standard deviation was reduced by over a factor of three. These accomplishments were realized by the iterative utilization of conventional x-radiography to characterize structural (density) uniformity as affected by systematic changes in powder processing and sintering parameters. Accompanying the improvement in mechanical properties was a change in the type of flaw causing failure from a pore to a large columnar beta- Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ grain typically 40 to 80 microns long, 10 to 30 microns wide, and with an aspect ratio of 5:1.

  18. Double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great sensitivity of double beta decay to neutrino mass and right handed currents has motivated many new and exciting attempts to observe this elusive nuclear phenomenon directly. Experiments in operation and other coming on line in the next one or two years are expected to result in order-of-magnitude improvements in detectable half lives for both the two-neutrino and no-neutrino modes. A brief history of double beta decay experiments is presented together with a discussion of current experimental efforts, including a gas filled time projection chamber being used to study selenium-82. (author)

  19. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author)

  20. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions of...... differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears that the...

  1. Evaluation of neutrino masses from $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values

    CERN Document Server

    Khrushchov, V V

    2008-01-01

    A neutrino mass matrix is considered under conditions of the CP invariance and the negligible reactor mixing $\\theta_{13}$ angle. Absolute mass values for three neutrinos are evaluated in normal and inverted hierarchy spectra on the ground of data for oscillation mixing neutrino parameters and effective neutrino mass entering into a probability of neutrinoless two beta decay $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values.

  2. AEC set-up optimisation with computed radiography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchi, S; Belli, G; Busoni, S; Gori, C; Menchi, I; Salucci, P; Taddeucci, A; Zatelli, G

    2005-01-01

    Phototimer set-up is a critical procedure for dose and image quality optimisation in computed radiography (CR) systems. While a conventional radiography automatic exposure control device (AEC) can be calibrated in order to gain a constant optical density on the film independent of beam quality and patient size, CR detectors present a high dynamic range which allows a much larger dose interval, but with different image quality levels. CR leads to a less frequent exam repetition, but may produce quite noisy images if the exposure level on the plate is not correct. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a CR plate (Agfa MD40) in order to optimally calibrate an AEC device. The plate response has been characterised in terms of digital signal, exposure on the plate and signal-to-noise ratio for different beam qualities, in a patient of standard size. PMID:16461503

  3. Evaluation of different imaging chains in clinical chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.; Terho, E.O.; Wiljasalo, M.; Wiljasalo, S.; Soimakallio, S. (Kuopio Central Hospital (Finland))

    1984-11-01

    Six imaging techniques in clinical chest radiography have been evaluated: four film-screen combinations in the conventional grid technique and two combinations in the air gap technique. Five parameters characterising the quality of a chest radiograph were evaluated by three radiologists and one chest physician by using a nominal grading scale from -2 to +2 compared with the standard technique. The quality parameters judged were: the visibility of peripheral lung vessels, lung parenchyme, the pulmonary hilum, and lung structure behind the heart shadow, as well as the visibility of miscellaneous findings of clinical interest. The air gap technique was shown to be superior to the ordinary grid technique. The diagnostic quality of chest radiography does not necessarily deteriorate with the screen speed. However, statistically significant differences were noticed, even between techniques which had equal speed and physical resolution.

  4. Comparison of digital imaging systems for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of three digital imaging systems for neutron radiography purposes have been compared. Two of them make use of films, CR-39 and Kodak AA, and the third makes use of a LiF scintillator, for image registration. The irradiations were performed in the neutron radiography facility installed at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN/CNEN-SP. According to the obtained results, the system based on CR-39 is the slowest to obtain an image, and the best in terms of resolution but the worse in terms of contrast. The system based on Kodak AA is faster than the prior, exhibits good resolution and contrast. The system based on the scintillator is the fastest to obtain an image, and best in terms of contrast but the worse in terms of resolution. (author)

  5. Digital radiography of the chest in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hopes placed in digital radiography have been fulfilled only partly in pediatric radiology. Specifically, the option of gaining reduced radiation exposure in combination with a similar or even improved image quality was hard to realize. The only portable digital system available for a long time were storage phosphors which were disadvantaged by an extremely limited dose-quantum-efficiency (DQE) in comparison to digital flat panel detectors. New developments and the introduction of the dual-reading system led to image qualities comparable to film-screen-systems with high resolution and achievable without dose increase, sometimes even with dose reduction. A study using an animal model suggests that these systems can even be used in preterm infants with very low birth weights. A new portable flat panel detector by Canon may improve digital chest radiography in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  6. Television imaging system for fast neutron radiography using baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A television imaging system for fast neutron radiography (FNR-TV) developed using the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI was applied to the baby-cyclotron based fast neutron source to get images of thick objects quickly. In the system the same technique as a current television imaging system of thermal neutron radiography was applied, while the luminescent converter was used to detect fast neutrons. Using the CR39 track etch method it took about 7 h to get an image, while the FNR-TV only 20 s enough for taking the same object. However the FNR-TV imaging result of the simulation model of a large explosive device for the space launch vehicle of H-2 type was not so good as the image taken with the CR39 track etch method. The reason was that the luminescence intensity of the FNR-TV converter was a quarter of that in the YAYOI. (author)

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis in chest radiography: Beyond nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginneken, Bram van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: bram@isi.uu.nl; Hogeweg, Laurens; Prokop, Mathias [University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    Chest radiographs are the most common exam in radiology. They are essential for the management of various diseases associated with high mortality and morbidity and display a wide range of findings, many of them subtle. In this survey we identify a number of areas beyond pulmonary nodules that could benefit from computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) in chest radiography. These include interstitial infiltrates, catheter tip detection, size measurements, detection of pneumothorax and detection and quantification of emphysema. Recent work in these areas is surveyed, but we conclude that the amount of research devoted to these topics is modest. Reasons for the slow pace of CAD development in chest radiography beyond nodules are discussed.

  8. The MU-RAY detector for muon radiography of volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasio, A. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Ambrosino, F. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Basta, D. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Bonechi, L. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); INFN-Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bross, A. [Fermilab (United States); Callier, S. [LAL, Orsay (France); Caputo, A. [INGV Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); Ciaranfi, R. [INFN-Firenze (Italy); Cimmino, L. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); INFN-Firenze (Italy); D' Auria, L. [INGV Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); La Taille, C. de [LAL, Orsay (France); Energico, S. [CNR- SPIN, Napoli (Italy); INFN-Napoli (Italy); Garufi, F. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Giudicepietro, F. [INGV Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); Lauria, A. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Macedonio, G.; Martini, M. [INGV Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); Masone, V. [Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); and others

    2013-12-21

    The MU-RAY detector has been designed to perform muon radiography of volcanoes. The possible use on the field introduces several constraints. First the electric power consumption must be reduced to the minimum, so that the detector can be solar-powered. Moreover it must be robust and transportable, for what concerns the front-end electronics and data acquisition. A 1 m{sup 2} prototype has been constructed and is taking data at Mt. Vesuvius. The detector consists of modules of 32 scintillator bars with wave length shifting fibers and silicon photomultiplier read-out. A dedicated front-end electronics has been developed, based on the SPIROC ASIC. An introduction to muon radiography principles, the MU-RAY detector description and results obtained in laboratory will be presented.

  9. A time-motion study of digital radiography at implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing budgetary restraints on the health system, it is apparent that the main contribution that radiology departments can make to significant cost reduction in hospitals is to decrease the length of time between requesting an X-ray examination and receiving the report (and images). Digital radiography (DR) was introduced into the Radiology Department at the Royal Adelaide Hospital as a pilot project to research the cost-benefits and efficiency of the system, and to determine future directions for planning a digital department. The business plan developed prior to implementation of this pilot project predicted a saving of one bed-day per inpatient when a fully digital department with a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is installed. This initial study comparing DR and conventional radiography (convR) provides baseline data and shows encouraging results for more rapid transmission of reports to clinicians. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Optimisation of resolution in accelerator-based fast neutron radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmanian, H; Watterson, J I W

    2002-01-01

    In fast neutron radiography, imaging geometry, neutron scattering, the fast neutron scintillator and the position-sensitive detector all influence feature contrast, resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio in the image. The effect of imaging geometry can be explored by using a ray-tracing method. This requires following the path of neutrons through the imaging field, which includes the sample of interest. A relationship between imaging geometry and feature detectability can be developed. Monte Carlo methods can be used to explore the effect of neutron scattering on the results obtained with the ray-tracing technique. Fast neutrons are detected indirectly via neutron-nucleon scattering reactions. Using hydrogen-rich scintillators and relying on the recoil protons to ionise the scintillator material is the most sensitive technique available. The efficiency, geometry and composition of these scintillators influence the detectability of features in fast neutron radiography. These scintillator properties have a di...

  11. Simulation study of Fast Neutron Radiography using GEANT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast neutron radiography (FNR) is an important non-destructive technique for the imaging of thick bulk material. We are designing a FNR system using a laboratory based 14 MeV D-T neutron generator. Simulation studies have been carried using Monte Carlo based GEANT4 code to understand the response of the FNR system for various objects. Different samples ranging from low Z, metallic and high Z materials were simulated for their radiographic images. The quality of constructed neutron radiography images in terms of relative contrast ratio and the contrast to noise ratio were investigated for their dependence on various parameters such as thickness, voids inside high/low Z material and also for low Z material hidden behind high Z material. We report here the potential and limitations of FNR for imaging different materials and a few configurations and also the possible areas where FNR can be implemented

  12. Simulation study of Fast Neutron Radiography using GEANT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, S.; Thomas, R. G.; Sarkar, P. S.; Datar, V. M.; Sinha, A.

    2015-02-01

    Fast neutron radiography (FNR) is an important non-destructive technique for the imaging of thick bulk material. We are designing a FNR system using a laboratory based 14 MeV D-T neutron generator [1]. Simulation studies have been carried using Monte Carlo based GEANT4 code to understand the response of the FNR system for various objects. Different samples ranging from low Z, metallic and high Z materials were simulated for their radiographic images. The quality of constructed neutron radiography images in terms of relative contrast ratio and the contrast to noise ratio were investigated for their dependence on various parameters such as thickness, voids inside high/low Z material and also for low Z material hidden behind high Z material. We report here the potential and limitations of FNR for imaging different materials and a few configurations and also the possible areas where FNR can be implemented.

  13. Application of imaging plate neutron detector to neutron radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Fujine, S; Kamata, M; Etoh, M

    1999-01-01

    As an imaging plate neutron detector (IP-ND) has been available for thermal neutron radiography (TNR) which has high resolution, high sensitivity and wide range, some basic characteristics of the IP-ND system were measured at the E-2 facility of the KUR. After basic performances of the IP were studied, images with high quality were obtained at a neutron fluence of 2 to 7x10 sup 8 n cm sup - sup 2. It was found that the IP-ND system with Gd sub 2 O sub 3 as a neutron converter material has a higher sensitivity to gamma-ray than that of a conventional film method. As a successful example, clear radiographs of the flat view for the fuel side plates with boron burnable poison were obtained. An application of the IP-ND system to neutron radiography (NR) is presented in this paper.

  14. Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated on the basis of survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and a phantom. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated from data obtained during a 2-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year and were tabulated by organs, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic-bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis

  15. Routine check and annual maintenance for industrial radiography gamma projector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this paper is to share some experience pertaining to gamma projector maintenance programme. In Malaysia there are more than 100 gamma projectors, which need to be maintenance annually. Most of these projectors are Tech-Ops 660 series portable gamma radiography systems, which are used primarily for industrial radiography. The portability feature of the system provides both a safe means of transporting the radioactive source and operating flexibility, particularly useful in areas where access is limited. Generally, the national authorised service centre carries out the annual inspection of this system. In Malaysia, Malaysian Nuclear Agency has been recognised as the National Gamma Projector Maintenance Centre by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). In this paper, a brief review of the design and operation is included in the discussion of the maintenance procedure, limitations and improvements of the gamma projector maintenance programme. (author)

  16. Advancement of neutron radiography technique in JRR-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JRR-3M thermal neutron radiography facility (JRR-3M TNRF) was completed in the JRR-3M of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in 1991 and has been utilized as research tools for various kinds of research fields such as thermal hydraulic researches, agricultural researches, medical researches, archaeological researches and so on. High performance of the JRR-3M TNRF such as high neutron flux, high collimator ratio and wide radiographing field has enabled advanced researches and stimulated developments of advanced neutron radiography (NR) systems for higher spatial resolution and for higher temporal resolution. Static NR systems using neutron imaging plates or cooled CCD camera with high spatial resolution, a real-time NR system using a silicon intensifier target tube camera and a high-frame-rate NR system using a combination of an image intensifier and a high speed digital video camera with high temporal resolution have been developed to fill the requirements from researchers. (author)

  17. Dose in conventional radiography; Dosis en radiografia convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acuna D, E.; Padilla R, Z. P.; Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    It has been pointed out that medical exposures are the most significant sources of exposure to ionizing radiation for the general population. Inside the medical exposures the most important is the X-ray use for diagnosis, which is by far the largest contribution to the average dose received by the population. From all studies performed in radiology the chest radiography is the most abundant. In an X-ray machine, voltage and current are combined to obtain a good image and a reduce dose, however due to the workload in a radiology service individual dose is not monitored. In order to evaluate the dose due to chest radiography in this work a plate phantom was built according to the ISO recommendations using methylmethacrylate walls and water. The phantom was used in the Imaging department of the Zacatecas General Hospital as a radiology patient asking for a chest study; using thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD 100 the kerma at the surface entrance was determined. (Author)

  18. The MU-RAY detector for muon radiography of volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MU-RAY detector has been designed to perform muon radiography of volcanoes. The possible use on the field introduces several constraints. First the electric power consumption must be reduced to the minimum, so that the detector can be solar-powered. Moreover it must be robust and transportable, for what concerns the front-end electronics and data acquisition. A 1 m2 prototype has been constructed and is taking data at Mt. Vesuvius. The detector consists of modules of 32 scintillator bars with wave length shifting fibers and silicon photomultiplier read-out. A dedicated front-end electronics has been developed, based on the SPIROC ASIC. An introduction to muon radiography principles, the MU-RAY detector description and results obtained in laboratory will be presented

  19. Development of Compton radiography of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60 to 200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of ∼10 μm and ∼10 ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of ∼0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D nonuniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  20. Flash radiography with 24 GeV/c protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of density measurements and position resolution in flash (40 ns) radiography of thick objects with 24 Gev/c protons is investigated. A global model fit to step wedge data is shown to give a good description spanning the periodic table. The parameters obtained from the step wedge data are used to predict transmission through the French Test Object (FTO), a test object of nested spheres, to a precision better than 1%. Multiple trials have been used to show that the systematic errors are less than 2%. Absolute agreement between the average radiographic measurements of the density and the known density is 1%. Spatial resolution has been measured to be 200 μm at the center of the FTO. These data verify expectations of the benefits provided by high energy hadron radiography for thick objects.

  1. Developing the profession of radiography: Making use of oral history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Sola [School of Radiography, Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Studies, University of Wales, Bangor, Archimedes Centre, Technology Park, Wrexham LL13 7YP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rdsa01@bangor.ac.uk; Iphofen, Ron [Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Studies, University of Wales, Bangor, Archimedes Centre, Technology Park, Wrexham LL13 7YP (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is based on ongoing research into the profession of radiography using the oral history method. Knowledge of radiographic practice as a profession has in the past been based on what is written or learnt from other professions both within and beyond the field of health care. The profession has experienced substantial technological and sociological changes both in training and in practice over the past few decades and these look set to continue into the immediate future. Evidence-based practice is invoked as a quality measure on all health professions, and part of the body of knowledge which forms the evidence base of practice development involves an understanding of how the profession has responded to change and what this might mean for the further changes it is likely to meet. This paper explores the potential role of oral history research as a tool for the development of knowledge about the practice of radiography.

  2. Developing the profession of radiography: Making use of oral history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on ongoing research into the profession of radiography using the oral history method. Knowledge of radiographic practice as a profession has in the past been based on what is written or learnt from other professions both within and beyond the field of health care. The profession has experienced substantial technological and sociological changes both in training and in practice over the past few decades and these look set to continue into the immediate future. Evidence-based practice is invoked as a quality measure on all health professions, and part of the body of knowledge which forms the evidence base of practice development involves an understanding of how the profession has responded to change and what this might mean for the further changes it is likely to meet. This paper explores the potential role of oral history research as a tool for the development of knowledge about the practice of radiography

  3. Proton radiography of cylindrical laser-driven implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, L; Jafer, R [Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Vauzour, B; Nicolai, Ph; Santos, J J; Dorchies, F; Fourment, C; Hulin, S; Regan, C [CELIA, Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, F33405 (France); Perez, F; Baton, S [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS-UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Lancaster, K; Galimberti, M; Heathcote, R; Tolley, M; Spindloe, Ch [RAL, STFC (United Kingdom); Nazarov, W [St. Andrews University (United Kingdom); Koester, P; Labate, L; Gizzi, L A [INO-CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    We report on the results of a recent experiment at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory investigating fast electron propagation in cylindrically compressed targets; a subject of interest for fast ignition. This experiment was performed within the framework of the road map of HiPER (the European High Power laser Energy Research facility Project). Protons accelerated by a ps-laser pulse are used to radiograph a 220 {mu}m diameter, imploded with {approx}200 J of laser light (1 ns {lambda} = 0.53 {mu}m) in four symmetrically incident beams. Results are also compared with those from hard x-ray radiography. Detailed comparison with 2D radiation hydrodyamics simulations is performed with the aid of a Monte Carlo code adapted to describe plasma effects. Finally, a simple analytical model is developed to estimate the performance of proton radiography for given implosion conditions. (brief communication)

  4. Faults on gamma projector Model 660 series for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this paper is to present MINTs experience pertaining to gamma projector maintenance activity. In Malaysia there are more than 100 gamma projectors that need to be maintained annually. Most of these projectors are of Tech-Ops Model 660 series portable gamma radiography systems, primarily for industrial radiography. The portability feature of the system provides both a safe means of transporting the radioactive source and operating flexibility, particularly useful in areas where access is limited. In Malaysia, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has been approved as the National Gamma Projector Maintenance Centre by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). This approval entitles MINT to undertake projector maintenance activity for all projectors throughout the country. Within 10 years of operation, MINT has dealt with thousands of projectors. (Author)

  5. Macroscopic cross section measurements in materials by neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macroscopic cross-section of materials play an important role in the study of material properties. Number of materials are used for shielding against penetrating radiation like X-rays, gamma rays and neutrons and exhibit different attenuation cross-sections. Neutron radiography technique is a multi discipline non-destructive technique with a large number of applications. The technique was applied to study and analyze the behavior of different shielding materials against thermal neutrons. Samples as step wedges of graphite, copper, brass and acrylic etc. were fabricated. The test samples were exposed to a beam of thermal neutrons at neutron radiography facility and the transmittance of neutrons through different materials was measured. Gamma-ray contribution and scattered radiation were subtracted from the observed neutron intensities to calculate the neutron macroscopic cross-section. Calculated values of the macroscopic cross-section were compared with the values given in the literature. (author)

  6. Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

  7. Ultrasonography and radiography of the canine postpartum uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vulvovaginal discharge following parturition in a bitch is often a cause of concern to owners and clinicians, especially if whelping was complicated in any way. Ultrasonography could potentially distinguish between normal and abnormal postpartum uterine states because the uterine wall and luminal contents can be imaged in detail. Five normal bitches were examined to determine the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the postpartum uterus and the sensitivity of ultrasonography in detecting the involuting uterus, comparing this sensitivity with that of radiography. Ultrasonography was done at 1, 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 days postpartum, radiography at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 18 days postpartum. By 12 days postpartum, the uterus could not be seen on radiographs, while at 24 days postpartum the uterus was still sonographically identifiable. The ultrasonographic characteristics of the involuting uterus are described

  8. Diagnostic ability of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho Bong Hae; Hwang, Dae Seok [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiographs for detection of mandibular fractures. The sample was comprised of 65 patients (55 fractured, 10 non-fractured) with 92 fracture sites confirmed by multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Panoramic radiographs were evaluated for mandibular fractures by six examiners; two oral and maxillofacial radiologists (observer A and B), two oral and maxillofacial surgeons (observer C and D), and two general dentists (observer E and F). Sensitivity of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures was 95.7% in observer A and B, 93.5% in observer C and D and 80.4% in observer E and F. The lowest sensitivity was shown in symphyseal/parasymphyseal areas, followed by subcondylar/condylar regions. Panoramic radiography is adequate for detection of mandibular fractures. However, additional multidetector CT is recommended to ascertain some indecisive fractures of symphysis and condyle, and in complicated fractures.

  9. Diagnostic ability of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiographs for detection of mandibular fractures. The sample was comprised of 65 patients (55 fractured, 10 non-fractured) with 92 fracture sites confirmed by multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Panoramic radiographs were evaluated for mandibular fractures by six examiners; two oral and maxillofacial radiologists (observer A and B), two oral and maxillofacial surgeons (observer C and D), and two general dentists (observer E and F). Sensitivity of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures was 95.7% in observer A and B, 93.5% in observer C and D and 80.4% in observer E and F. The lowest sensitivity was shown in symphyseal/parasymphyseal areas, followed by subcondylar/condylar regions. Panoramic radiography is adequate for detection of mandibular fractures. However, additional multidetector CT is recommended to ascertain some indecisive fractures of symphysis and condyle, and in complicated fractures.

  10. Radiography inspection of weld for nuclear fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey of radiography inspection, advantages, disadvantages and applications of main kinds of radiography inspection methods are presented. Emphasis is put upon the structure and functions of X-ray flaw detecting device for nuclear fuel rod welds, the actuating program of the device, as well as the structure of some key mechanism and the functions of them. The analysis is made upon the actuating principles. Finally, the test of long-term operation proves the device to be stable in operation, reliable in action, to possess high level of automation and high sensitivity and it can simultaneously perform on-line X-ray inspection of 25 nuclear fuel rods with a diameter less than 10 mm, and meet the requirements of large-scale production of nuclear fuel rods (5 figs.)

  11. X-ray radiography and tomography applied to material testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray radiography and tomography are compared to detect a defect in an object. These image acquisition processes are first modelled by a convolution system. For a fixed contrast defect and a given X ray dose, the process providing the best signal-to-noise ratio is given by calculation. Then a system for pattern recognition is given: for identifying a defect, the related signs from binary images are sorted according to their size. The improvement in the detection performance of the device, for an adapted filtration of the images obtained, is assessed. The whole of the preceding results is validated on images synthesized on a computer, selecting between tomography and radiography, the technique making it possible to ensure the detectability of a defect with a minimal dose of X photons

  12. Neutron Radiography of Fluid Flow for Geothermal Energy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, P.; Polsky, Y.; Anovitz, L.; Carmichael, J.; Bilheux, H.; Jacobsen, D.; Hussey, D.

    Enhanced geothermal systems seek to expand the potential for geothermal energy by engineering heat exchange systems within the earth. A neutron radiography imaging method has been developed for the study of fluid flow through rock under environmental conditions found in enhanced geothermal energy systems. For this method, a pressure vessel suitable for neutron radiography was designed and fabricated, modifications to imaging instrument setups were tested, multiple contrast agents were tested, and algorithms developed for tracking of flow. The method has shown success for tracking of single phase flow through a manufactured crack in a 3.81 cm (1.5 inch) diameter core within a pressure vessel capable of confinement up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) using a particle tracking approach with bubbles of fluorocarbon-based fluid as the "particles" and imaging with 10 ms exposures.

  13. Radiography of the equine thorax and its differential diagnosis relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the cause of dyspnoe or loss of performance in the horse. Tracheobronchoscopy, cytology of tracheobronchial aspirates, interpleural pressure measurement, and arterial blood gas analysis improved diagnosis of equine respiratory disorders. Yet some intrathoraeie diseases, especially chronic pneumonia, are differential diagnosis problems. Radiography of the thorax improves the diagnosis of pneumonia and some other intrathoraeie diseases. The technique of the radiography of the thorax is described and radiographic findings in 166 horses suffering from respiratory diseases are evaluated. Theses horses showed pathologic radiographic findings caused by COPD (n =61), pneumonia (67), pleuritis (12), exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (8), aspiration pneumonia (7), hydrothorax (6), pneumothorax (2), lung abseess (1); mediastinal tumor (1), and diaphragmatie hernia (1)

  14. Physical image quality of computed radiography in mammography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: Mammography is a screening procedure that mostly used for early detection of breast cancer. In digital imaging system, Computed Radiography is a cost-effective technology that applied indirect conversion detector. The paper presents physical image quality parameter measurements namely modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of Computed Radiography in mammography system. MTF was calculated from two different orientations of slanted images of an edge test device and NNPS was estimated using flat-field image. Both images were acquired using a standard mammography beam quality. DQE was determined by applying the MTF and NNPS values into our developed software program. Both orientations have similar DQE characteristics. (author)

  15. Application of imaging plate neutron detector to neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an imaging plate neutron detector (IP-ND) has been available for thermal neutron radiography (TNR) which has high resolution, high sensitivity and wide range, some basic characteristics of the IP-ND system were measured at the E-2 facility of the KUR. After basic performances of the IP were studied, images with high quality were obtained at a neutron fluence of 2 to 7x108 n cm-2. It was found that the IP-ND system with Gd2O3 as a neutron converter material has a higher sensitivity to γ-ray than that of a conventional film method. As a successful example, clear radiographs of the flat view for the fuel side plates with boron burnable poison were obtained. An application of the IP-ND system to neutron radiography (NR) is presented in this paper

  16. Low-beta structures

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vretenar(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland)

    2012-01-01

    'Low-beta' radio-frequency accelerating structures are used in the sections of a linear accelerator where the velocity of the particle beam increases with energy. The requirement for space periodicity to match the increasing particle velocity led to the development of a large variety of structures, both normal and superconducting, which are described in this lecture.

  17. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  18. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross-section...

  19. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay $(A,Z) \\to (A,Z+2) + 2 e^-$. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  20. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements

  1. Cosmic-ray muon radiography for reactor core observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cosmic-ray muon radiography was evaluated by the HTTR. • Cosmic-ray muon radiography could be performed from the outside of the RPV. • Cosmic-ray muon radiography could be performed from the outside of the CV. • The major structures of the HTTR could be detected by Cosmic-ray muon radiography. • The detectable minimum volume is estimated at approximately 1 (m3) in the HTTR. - Abstract: One of the critical problems that have arisen from the accident at TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant is the removal of fuel debris. For solving this problem, an examination of the internal reactors has been planned to identify the fuel debris. However, the high radiation dose around the reactors has necessitated the development of a remote sensing method that would enable observation of the internal reactors from the outside. In our study, we focused on a nondestructive inspection method by which cosmic-ray muons could be used to observe the internal reactor from outside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and containment vessel (CV). We conducted an observation test on the high-temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate the applicability of the method to the internal visualization of a reactor. We also analytically evaluated the resolution of existing muon telescopes to assess their suitability for the HTTR observation, and were able to detect the major structures of the HTTR based on the distribution of the surface densities calculated from the coincidences measured by the telescopes. Our findings suggested that existing muon telescopes could be used for muon observation of the internal reactor from outside the RPV and CV

  2. Dedicated phantom materials for spectral radiography and CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.

    2012-03-01

    As x-ray imaging technology moves from conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) to spectral radiography and CT, dedicated phantom materials are needed for spectral imaging. The spectral phantom materials should accurately represent the energy-dependent mass-attenuation coefficients of different types of tissues. Although tissue-equivalent phantom materials were previously developed for CT and radiation therapy applications, these materials are suboptimal for spectral radiography and CT; they are not compatible with contrast agents, do not represent many of the tissue types and do not provide accurate values of attenuation characteristics of tissue. This work provides theoretical framework and a practical method for developing tissue-equivalent spectral phantom materials with a required set of parameters. The samples of the tissue-equivalent spectral phantom materials were developed, tested and characterized. The spectral phantom materials were mixed with iodine, gold and calcium contrast agents and evaluated. The materials were characterized by CT imaging and x-ray transmission experiments. The fabricated materials had nearly identical densities, mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities as compared to corresponding tissue materials presented in the ICRU-44 report. The experimental results have shown good volume uniformity and inter-sample uniformity (repeatability of sample fabrication) of the fabricated materials. The spectral phantom materials were fabricated under laboratory conditions from readily available and inexpensive components. It was concluded that the presented theoretical framework and fabrication method of dedicated spectral phantom materials could be useful for researchers and developers working in the new area of spectral radiography and CT. Independently, the results could also be useful for other applications, such as radiation therapy.

  3. Parameters in panoramic radiography for differentiation of radiolucent lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Raitz; José Narciso Rosa Assunção Júnior; Luciana Correa; Marlene Fenyo-Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to establish parameters in panoramic radiography for interpretation of unilocular radiolucent lesions, and to compare the accuracy of diagnoses given by examiners before and after using these parameters. Material and Methods: In Part I, 12 specialists analyzed 24 images and the diagnostic criteria used by each examiner to make correct diagnoses were used to build a list of basic radiographic parameters for each pathology (ameloblastoma, keratocystic odon...

  4. Neutron radiography at the Institut de Maintenance Aeronautique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the French Institut de Maintenance Aeronautique (IMA) decided to open a new field of research specially devoted to the inspection methods that should be used by the aircraft overhauling industry. Taking into account its proved ability for an early corrosion detection, neutron radiography (NR) was selected as an inspection method to be appraised. This paper presents the approach that IMA intends to follow for achieving this objective and involving selection of equipment, design of the facility and research program.(author)

  5. Clinical applications of extra-oral periapical radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha S Reddy; Atul Kaushik; Sri Rekha Reddy; Kunal Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Radiographic examination forms an integral part of clinical dentistry, with some form of radiographs necessary on the majority of patients. Intra-oral periapical (IOPA) radiographs form the backbone of imaging for diagnosis and follow-up of various dento-facial pathologies. However, certain patient populations are unable to tolerate intra-oral films/sensors due to various reasons. A not-so recent development called extra-oral periapical (EOPA) radiography may be a useful adjuvant to such a si...

  6. Computer-aided recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography.

    OpenAIRE

    Miniati, Massimo; Coppini, Giuseppe; Monti, Simonetta; Bottai, Matteo; Paterni, Marco; Ferdeghini, Ezio Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) is the benchmark for diagnosis emphysema, but is costly and imparts a substantial radiation burden to the patient. Objective To develop a computer-aided procedure that allows recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography by using simple descriptors of the lung shape. The procedure was tested against CT. Methods Patients (N=225), who had undergone postero-anterior and lateral digital chest radiographs and CT for diagnostic purposes, were studied and ...

  7. Radiologic accidents in industrial gamma radiography - Brazilian cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography happened in Brazil during the period of 1985 to 1988. Five operators and nineteen public people were involved. These accidents caused some injuries in parts of the body, mainly hands and fingers. The main causes were faults in source monitoring, inadequate routine procedures and unknowing of radiation warning symbol by public people. The present paper shows the Brazilian cases of radiological accidents and makes some analysis of them. (author)

  8. Application of X-ray radiography to archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray imaging techniques including radiography and scanning tomography are now often applied to archaeological and historical objects. In this report results of three imaging techniques are showed: radiography, X-ray scanning tomography and emissiography. X-ray radiography was applied to examine the technique used for a bronze object. The object was one of the national treasure from Horyuji-temple, Dragon-head Pitcher. The examination proved that the pitcher body was separated into three pieces and that the bronze was fairly homogeneous from 3 to 4 mm. The Pitcher was supposed to be made in Japan at the middle of the seventh century. A small gilt bronze statuette was investigated by an industrial X-ray scanner. The statuette about 30 cm high is supposed to be made in the seventh or eighth century. The head of the statuette was scanned by X-rays of 350kV. The computed tomograms revealed an inlaid metal and scraped hollow. It is supposed that the statuette was cast twice. The first casting might have failed causing the hollow and the missing part of the head. The hollow was scraped before the following casting so that the newly cast part would be tightly joined to the body. A piece of metal was inlaid to the missing part. A silver inlaid sword was excavated at a historic site called Etafunayama Kofun in Kumamoto in 1873. Seventy-five letters were discovered on the back of the sword, and they were regarded as important reference in studying Japanese history around the fifth century. However, the letters became illegible because of severe surface corrosion. So emissiography or electron radiography was used. All letters and even the details could be read. (author)

  9. Neutron Radiography Analysis of a Transient Liquid Phase Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Ballhausen, H.; Abele, H.; Eccleston, R. S.; Gaehler, R.; Smith, A. J.; A. Steuwer; Van Overberghe, A.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron radiography in many cases is the only non-destructive technique available for the analysis of a wide range of samples from metallurgy, materials engineering and materials testing. In this paper the potential of the technique is illustrated for a transient liquid phase (TLP) joint. TLP bonding produces interface free and stress free joints. The quality and properties of the joint depend on the diffusion of an interlayer into the base material. A TLP joint is visualised and the diffusio...

  10. Neutron radiography of heated high-performance mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Weber B; Wyrzykowski M.; Griffa M.; Carl S.; Lehmann E.; Lura P.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron radiography was applied to investigate the water distribution in mortar samples heated from one side to 600 °C. In mortar, aggregates and anhydrous cement are almost transparent to neutrons, while hydration products and water-filled capillary pores bear the largest attenuation. The evolution of the moisture profile shows a sharp dehydration front and accumulation of water due to condensation of water vapor behind this front.

  11. Wind Turbine Blade Nondestructive Testing with a Transportable Radiography System

    OpenAIRE

    Bandekas, D. V.; Potolias, C.; J. G. Fantidis

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbines are becoming widely used as they are an environmentally friendly way for energy production without emissions; however, they are exposed to a corrosive environment. In addition, as wind turbines typically are the tallest structures in the surrounding area of a wind farm, it is expected that they will attract direct lightning strikes several times during their operating life. The purpose of this paper is to show that the radiography with a transportable unit is a solution to find ...

  12. Development of imaging techniques for fast neutron radiography in Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Fujine, S; Yoshii, K; Kamata, M; Tamaki, M; Ohkubo, K; Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, H

    1999-01-01

    Neutron radiography with fast neutron beams (FNR) has been studied at the fast neutron source reactor 'YAYOI' of the University of Tokyo since 1986. Imaging techniques for FNR have been developed for CR-39 track-etch detector, electronic imaging system (television method), direct film method, imaging plate and also fast and thermal neutron concurrent imaging method. The review of FNR imaging techniques and some applications are reported in this paper.

  13. Neutron radiography of heated high-performance mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber B.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutron radiography was applied to investigate the water distribution in mortar samples heated from one side to 600 °C. In mortar, aggregates and anhydrous cement are almost transparent to neutrons, while hydration products and water-filled capillary pores bear the largest attenuation. The evolution of the moisture profile shows a sharp dehydration front and accumulation of water due to condensation of water vapor behind this front.

  14. Preliminary study on indirect neutron radiography method at CARR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) is an excellent platform for indirect neutron radiography (INR). The experimental conditions of the INR at CARR were calculated and analyzed by the Monte Carlo method, based on which the first and the second exposure time was calculated. The INR experiment was carried out with the sample of dummy fuel rods at one of the CARR's thermal neutron beam channel, and the methods of processing and analyzing the neutron images were also studied. (authors)

  15. Panoramic dental radiography using a charge-coupled device receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Farman, Allan G.; Farman, Taeko T.

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic radiography using a slit beam and film/screen receptor is standard for the emergency room evaluation of mandibular fractures and also in dentistry. This study compared the spatial resolution, area distortion factors, and the dosage considerations for a panoramic system where standard film/screen and a charge-coupled device were alternatively employed as the image receptor. Resolution and image contours were determined using a lead resolution grid positioned at selected beam projecti...

  16. Quantitative microfocal radiography accurately detects joint changes in rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Buckland-Wright, J C; Carmichael, I.; Walker, S R

    1986-01-01

    Microfocal radiography, producing x5 magnified images of the wrist and hands with a high spacial resolution (25 microns) in the film, permitted direct measurement of erosion area and joint space width in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The magnitude of errors relating to direct measurement, repositioning the wrist and hand on successive x ray visits, repeated identification of erosions and their area calculation were assessed. The coefficients of variation for length and area measurements...

  17. Pediatric digital radiography education for radiologic technologists: current state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital radiography (DR) is one of several new products that have changed our work processes from hard copy to digital formats. The transition from analog screen-film radiography to DR requires thorough user education because of differences in image production, processing, storage and evaluation between the forms of radiography. Without adequate education, radiologic technologists could unknowingly expose children to higher radiation doses than necessary for adequate radiograph quality. To evaluate knowledge about image quality and dose management in pediatric DR among radiologic technologists in the U.S. This communication describes a survey of 493 radiologic technologists who are members of the American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT) and who evaluated the current state of radiological technologist education in image quality and dose management in pediatric DR. The survey included 23 survey questions regarding image acquisition issues, quality assurance, radiation exposure and education in DR of infants and children. Radiologic technologists express many needs in areas of training and education in pediatric DR. Suggested improvements include better tools for immediate feedback about image quality and exposure, more information about appropriate technique settings for pediatric patients, more user-friendly vendor manuals and educational materials, more reliable measures of radiation exposure to patients, and more regular and frequent follow-up by equipment vendors. There is a clear and widespread need for comprehensive and practical education in digital image technology for radiologic technologists, especially those engaged in pediatric radiography. The creation of better educational materials and training programs, and the continuation of educational opportunities will require a broad commitment from equipment manufacturers and vendors, educational institutions, pediatric radiology specialty organizations, and individual imaging specialists. (orig.)

  18. Narcotic smuggling and radiography of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gastrointestinal tract is being used to an increasing extent as a route for smuggling narcotics. Small, swallowed packages overwrapped with condoms or other materials are usually not detected by the customs authorities. Conventional abdominal radiography may indicate foreign bodies surrounded by a characteristic thin layer of gas and located in the gastrointestinal tract. Some short case histories, and the radiologic findings in four heroin 'body packers' are presented. (orig.)

  19. Dosimetry in dental radiology. Dentascan spiral CT versus panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study compares the doses absorbed by the dentomaxillary area in spiral CT and panoramic examinations. The dose measurements demonstrate that patients receive smaller doses with panoramic radiography than with spiral CT with Dentascan. After following for some variations from instrumental differences, they are in substantial agreement with literature data. Further investigations are needed considering the radiobiological risk related to the growing spread of Dentascan examinations

  20. Impeller Metrology for Pipeline Compressors Using Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new, quantitative method is described to measure features in pipeline impellers using computed radiography (CR). This capability, with an accuracy approaching 5 mils, is required to optimize the impeller design for high efficiency. The large area coverage, simplicity, and high spatial resolution of CR are ideal for this application. A novel phantom and image processing algorithm chain was used to demonstrate measurement repeatability of 99.9% (1 mil) using CR

  1. Turnover Rate Simulation Using GEM Detector on Neutron Radiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN; Chao; LI; Xiao-mei; HU; Shou-yang; ZHOU; Jing; JIAN; Si-yu; BAI; Xin-zhan; YE; Li; ZHOU; Shu-hua

    2012-01-01

    <正>With the advantages of high counting rate, high resolution ratio and high compatibility, GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detector has becoming the hot topic in the field of gas detector. Using GEM on neutron radiography, we need a suitable neutron converter. By the action on the converter and ingoing neutron, the outgoing particles could be an alpha or proton, which are charged particles. The charged

  2. A note on digital dental radiography in forensic odontology

    OpenAIRE

    Sher-Lin Chiam

    2014-01-01

    Digital dental radiography, intraoral and extraoral, is becoming more popular in dental practice. It offers convenience, such as lower exposure to radiation, ease of storing of images, and elimination of chemical processing. However, it also has disadvantages and drawbacks. One of these is the potential for confusion of the orientation of the image. This paper outlines one example of this, namely, the lateral inversion of the image. This source of confusion is partly inherent in the older mod...

  3. Flash-x-radiography for fuel motion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is primarily intended to be a status report on recent activities in the Flash X-ray Radiography/Cinematography area. Studies in the area of source definition as well as associated experimental limitations are discussed. The implications of machine current upon precision uncertainty in measurements of changes in areal density are presented. The radiographic techniques presently being evaluated are discussed. Performance estimates representative of this type of diagnostic tool are presented. Comparison with other results is made

  4. Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral dental radiography in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Han, Won-Jeong; Choi, Jin-Woo; Jung, Yun-Hoa; Yoon, Suk-Ja; Lee, Jae-Seo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to survey the radiographic exposure parameters, to measure the patient doses for intraoral dental radiography nationwide, and thus to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental X-ray examination in Korea. Materials and Methods One hundred two intraoral dental radiographic machines from all regions of South Korea were selected for this study. Radiographic exposure parameters, size of hospital, type of image receptor system, in...

  5. Review and Prospect of Cobalt-60 Digital Radiography Inspection Technology

    OpenAIRE

    AN Ji-gang

    2015-01-01

    This article is a review and prospect of the research, development and industrialization of Cobalt-60 digital radiography inspection technology based on the national requirements in the recent 20 years, which is leaded by Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of TsinghuaUniversity. The research purpose, innovative approach and main academic achievements of this technology were described systematically. The industrial equipment varieties, performance, running condition and appl...

  6. Application of digital image processing to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography is widely used for quality control of fabrication of large reactor components. Image processing methods are applied to industrial radiographs in order to help to take a decision as well as to reduce costs and delays for examination. Films, performed in representative operating conditions, are used to test results obtained with algorithms for the restauration of images and for the detection, characterisation of indications in order to determine the possibility of an automatic radiographs processing

  7. Industrial radiography Charter of right practices to prevent professional risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practice of industrial radiography is often executed in difficult working conditions and then, if sufficient precautions are not taken generates important radiological exposures. This document has for aim to fix rules of right practices, without substituting to regulations rules, and has to allow: to reduce the workers exposures, to improve working conditions and then the quality of this one, to help the whole of enterprises concerned to respect the regulation. (N.C.)

  8. Dosimetric evaluation in panoramic and tele-radiography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work had as an objective to evaluate the skin surface entrance dose in panoramic and tele radiography procedures in three clinics in Recife - Pernambuco - Brazil, and to contribute with data for the determination of reference levels for super cited extra oral procedures, for this purpose, operational conditions in 3 clinics were evaluated in Recife, aiming to evaluate the existence and integrity of the radioprotection equipment, manner and conditions of image processing; and radiographic equipment parameters such as the dimension of the irradiation filed, the total filtration, the exposure time and the potential applied to the X ray tube. For an estimation of the skin entrance dose of the patient, the phantom Randon Alderson and thermoluminescence dosemeters were used. From these values and the conversion factors determined by the Monte Carlo technique, with the phantom MAX it was possible to estimate the dose absorbed in the organ due to the tele radiography procedures. Regarding panoramic radiography the study showed that the more elevated doses occurred in the parotid gland region which is near rotational venters. In the case of tele radiography the highest dose value occurred in the regions corresponding to the temporal lobe of the brain, followed by linfonodes, ears and parotid glands. The doses absorbed in the eyes and the thyroid gland were, 0.037 mGy and 0.002 mGy in Clinic A and 0.062 mGy and 0.003 mGy in Clinic C, respectively. Regarding equipment test, inadequacy was found in the beam collimation in Clinic A and in the reproducibility of the X ray exposure in Clinic C. The total filtration in both clinics was inadequate.(author)

  9. Absorbed radiation by various tissues during simulated endodontic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of absorbed radiation by various organs was determined by placing lithium fluoride thermoluminescent chip dosimeters at selected anatomical sites in and on a human-like X-ray phantom and exposing them to radiation at 70- and 90-kV X-ray peaks during simulated endodontic radiography. The mean exposure dose was determined for each anatomical site. The results show that endodontic X-ray doses received by patients are low when compared with other radiographic procedures

  10. EVALUATION OF TOTAL AND PARTIAL EDENTULOUS JAWS USING PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Peker, İlkay; Toraman Alkurt, Meryem; Yıldırım Biçer, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Panoramic radiography is a diagnostic modality for providing a view of the entire maxillofacial region and used as an initial screening tool to examine partially and completely edentulous jaws in pretreatment assessment. Material-method: This study included digital panoramic images of 321 partially and totally edentulous patients. The images were evaluated for positive radiographic findings including presence of retained radiolucencies, radiopacities, proximity of the mental fragments

  11. X-ray radiography equipment for patients in standing position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray radiography equipment suited for patients in standing position is described. The patient's body centre of mass is indicated by its vertical projection line appearing on the X-ray image. To that end, an X-ray absorbing wire is positioned through the centre of mass by means of an electrical signal acting on a servomotor and derived from the pressure on three non-colinear points in the foot plate through an analogue computer

  12. Limiting the use of routine radiography for acute ankle injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Cockshott, W P; Jenkin, J. K.; Pui, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the diagnosis of ankle injuries routine radiography is often productive. An international survey of the average number of radiographs made of injured ankles suggested that two projections are adequate to detect fractures. This was confirmed in a prospective study of 242 patients coming to a hospital emergency department with recent ankle injuries. All the fractures could be identified on an anteroposterior or a lateral projection, although some were more obvious on an oblique view. As well...

  13. Chest Radiography Findings in Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Milković, Đurđica; Richter, Darko; Zoričić-Letoja, Ivka; Raos, Miljenko; Koncul, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Plain chest radiography plays a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary tuberculosis in childhood. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of characteristic chest radiographic findings at diagnosis in children with pulmonary tuberculosis. The age of the patients and the type and localization of radiographic changes at admission were retrospectively analyzed. We reviewed chest radiographs in 204 children admitted from January 1, 1991 until June 30, 1994 for newl...

  14. Absorbed radiation by various tissues during simulated endodontic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabinejad, M.; Danforth, R.; Andrews, K.; Chan, C.

    1989-06-01

    The amount of absorbed radiation by various organs was determined by placing lithium fluoride thermoluminescent chip dosimeters at selected anatomical sites in and on a human-like X-ray phantom and exposing them to radiation at 70- and 90-kV X-ray peaks during simulated endodontic radiography. The mean exposure dose was determined for each anatomical site. The results show that endodontic X-ray doses received by patients are low when compared with other radiographic procedures.

  15. Pediatric digital radiography education for radiologic technologists: current state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Gregory; Culbertson, John; Carbonneau, Kira [American Society of Radiologic Technologists, Albuquerque, NM (United States); John, Susan D. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Children' s Memorial Hermann Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Goske, Marilyn J.; Smith, Susan N. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Charkot, Ellen [The Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging and Vascular Access, Toronto (Canada); Herrmann, Tracy [University of Cincinnati, Raymond Walters College, Department of Allied Health, Blue Ash, OH (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Digital radiography (DR) is one of several new products that have changed our work processes from hard copy to digital formats. The transition from analog screen-film radiography to DR requires thorough user education because of differences in image production, processing, storage and evaluation between the forms of radiography. Without adequate education, radiologic technologists could unknowingly expose children to higher radiation doses than necessary for adequate radiograph quality. To evaluate knowledge about image quality and dose management in pediatric DR among radiologic technologists in the U.S. This communication describes a survey of 493 radiologic technologists who are members of the American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT) and who evaluated the current state of radiological technologist education in image quality and dose management in pediatric DR. The survey included 23 survey questions regarding image acquisition issues, quality assurance, radiation exposure and education in DR of infants and children. Radiologic technologists express many needs in areas of training and education in pediatric DR. Suggested improvements include better tools for immediate feedback about image quality and exposure, more information about appropriate technique settings for pediatric patients, more user-friendly vendor manuals and educational materials, more reliable measures of radiation exposure to patients, and more regular and frequent follow-up by equipment vendors. There is a clear and widespread need for comprehensive and practical education in digital image technology for radiologic technologists, especially those engaged in pediatric radiography. The creation of better educational materials and training programs, and the continuation of educational opportunities will require a broad commitment from equipment manufacturers and vendors, educational institutions, pediatric radiology specialty organizations, and individual imaging specialists. (orig.)

  16. Syndesmotic Malreduction after Ankle ORIF; Is Radiography Sufficient?

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Manafi Rasi; Gholamhossein Kazemian; Mohamad M Omidian; Ali Nemati

    2013-01-01

      Background: Ankle fractures, especially those resulting from external rotation mechanisms are associated with injury to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. Some authors have recommended performing CT scanning after open ankle surgery to evaluate the reduction of syndesmosis. In this current study, we aimed to investigate the sensitivity of plain radiography in diagnosing syndesmosis malreduction after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in patients with ankle fractures.   Methods: ...

  17. Analysis of the potential of crack detection by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle is explained of nondestructive crack detection using neutrons. A survey is presented of sources, principles of moderation and collimation; the interaction is explained of neutrons with matter and methods of detection. The method of neutron radiography is used for inspecting fuel in nuclear power plants, for the detection of corrosion and water in aviation, crack detection of special alloys, in the chemical industry, engineering, testing of printed circuits in electronics, dosemeter calibration, etc. (M.D.). 2 figs, 1 tab

  18. Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral dental radiography in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to survey the radiographic exposure parameters, to measure the patient doses for intraoral dental radiography nationwide, and thus to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental X-ray examination in Korea. One hundred two intraoral dental radiographic machines from all regions of South Korea were selected for this study. Radiographic exposure parameters, size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration of machine, and type of dental X-ray machine were documented. Patient entrance doses (PED) and dose-area products (DAP) were measured three times at the end of the exit cone of the X-ray unit with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography, and corrections were made for room temperature and pressure. Measured PED and DAP were averaged and compared according to the size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration, and type of dental X-ray machine. The mean exposure parameters were 62.6 kVp, 7.9 mA, and 0.5 second for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography. The mean patient dose was 2.11 mGy (PED) and 59.4 mGycm2 (DAP) and the third quartile one 3.07 mGy (PED) and 87.4 mGycm2 (DAP). Doses at university dental hospitals were lower than those at dental clinics (p2 (DAP) as the DRLs in adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography in Korea.

  19. Development of imaging techniques for fast neutron radiography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography with fast neutron beams (FNR) has been studied at the fast neutron source reactor 'YAYOI' of the University of Tokyo since 1986. Imaging techniques for FNR have been developed for CR-39 track-etch detector, electronic imaging system (television method), direct film method, imaging plate and also fast and thermal neutron concurrent imaging method. The review of FNR imaging techniques and some applications are reported in this paper

  20. Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography in a Pulsed Neutron Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Dangendorf, V.; Laczko, G; Kersten, C.; Jagutzki, O.; Spillmann, U

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of performing fast neutron resonance radiography at the PTB accelerator facility is studied. A neutron beam of a broad spectral distribution is produced by a pulsed 13 MeV deuterium beam hitting a thick Be target. The potential of 3 different neutron imaging detectors with time-of flight capability are investigated. The applied methods comprise wire chambers with hydrogenous converter layers and a fast plastic scintillator with different optical readout schemes. We present the...