Sample records for beta lactoglobulin unknown

  1. Association behavior of native beta-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheul, M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Roefs, S.P.F.M.


    The association behavior of beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration of the solution. By indirect Fourier transformation of the spectra, pair-distance distribution functions for the variou...


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    Full Text Available Beta-lactoglobulin (b-Lg and kappa-casein (k-Cn are two of the most important proteins in the mammals’ milk synthesized by the epithelial cells of the mammary glands. They play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation process (production of cheese and butter. The PCR-RFLP test was performed to distinguish the different alleles in a population of Romanian Black Spotted cattle, a dairy breed. Genetic polymorphism was detected by digestion with the endonucleases Hae III (b-Lg and Hinf I (k-Cn, followed by electrophoresis in agarose high resolution gel stained with ethidium bromide. Fifty DNA samples from Romanian Black Spotted breed were analyzed for A and B variants. This simple PCR-RFLP test makes feasible the inclusion of b-Lg and k- Cn genotypes in breeding plans and cattle selection.

  3. Use of chitosan for selective removal of beta-lactoglobulin from whey. (United States)

    Casal, E; Montilla, A; Moreno, F J; Olano, A; Corzo, N


    A method is described for selective removal of undenatured beta-lactoglobulin from cheese whey based on interactions between whey proteins and chitosan. Whey was previously clarified at pH 4.5 with addition of chitosan (25 mg/100 mL), and selective removal of beta-lactoglobulin was studied in the pH interval 4.6 to 6.5. Addition of chitosan caused selective precipitation of beta-lactoglobulin that increased with pH. The content of beta-lactoglobulin in whey decreased as the amount of chitosan added was increased. At pH 6.2, addition of 1.9 to 3.0 mg/mL of chitosan led to complete removal of beta-lactoglobulin, whereas at least 80% of the rest of whey proteins remained in solution. The production of cheese whey without beta-lactoglobulin could help to expand the applications of dairy by-products in food processing, and to isolate hypoallergenic whey protein concentrates.

  4. Reduction of immunoreactivity of bovine beta-lactoglobulin upon combined physical and proteolytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomi, F.; Fiocchi, A.; Frøkiær, Hanne


    Bovine beta-lactoglobulin was hydrolyzed with trypsin or chymotrypsin before, during and after treatment at 600 MPa and pH 6.8 for 10 min at 30, 37 and 44degreesC. The extent of beta-lactoglobulin hydrolysis under pressure was noticeably higher than at atmospheric pressure, particularly when...... chymotrypsin was used. Addition of proteases at ambient pressure to previously pressure-treated beta-lactoglobulin gave only a modest increase in proteolysis with respect to the untreated protein. Products of enzyme hydrolysis under pressure were separated by reverse-phase HPLC, and were found to be different...... from those obtained at atmospheric pressure when chymotrypsin was used. The residual immunochemical reactivity of the products of combined pressure-enzyme treatment was assessed on the unresolved hydrolysates by ELISA tests using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and on individual hydrolytic...

  5. Rigidity and pH dependent Morphology of Beta-Lactoglobulin Spherulites (United States)

    Gayetsky, Lisa; Armstead, Douglas


    Beta-Lactoglobulin is a milk protein that will denature in acidic solution (less than 2.0 pH) and if heated for extended periods (greater than 18 hours) it will form radial structures called Spherulites. Spherulites, along with the amyloid fibrils that compose them, are of practical importance because they form in the human body and cause the amyloidosis diseases. Different amyloidosis are caused by different types of denatured proteins occurring in different parts of the body. Since it is believed that Spherulite formation is a generic protein characteristic, Beta-Lactoglobulin is a legitimate and easy to use protein to study these structures. In this study we are quantifying the shape of Beta-Lactoglobulin Spherulites to determine if the pH of the protein solution has an impact on the morphology due to side chain interactions or other causes. We are also testing the rigidity of these structures to determine the relevance of small shape changes.

  6. Crystallization phase diagram, the growth of large single crystals of bovine {beta}-Lactoglobulin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, D; Ohnishi, Y; Tanaka, I; Niimura, N, E-mail:


    A crystallization phase diagram defining the meta-stable region of bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin A ({beta}-Lg) was firstly determined by a dialysis method. We have succeeded in growing a large single crystal of {beta}-Lg by selecting a crystal grown in this ''meta-stable region'' method described in the present paper. The quality of protein crystals was characterized quantitatively via rapid X-ray data collections, followed by the use of Wilson plots to analyze their resulting average B-factors.

  7. Proteolysis of bovine beta-lactoglobulin during thermal treatment in subdenaturing conditions highlights some structural features of the temperature-modified protein and yields fragments with low immunoreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iametti, S.; Rasmussen, P.; Frøkiær, Hanne


    Bovine beta-lactoglobulin was hydrolyzed with trypsin or chymotrypsin in the course of heat treatment at 55, 60 and 65 C at neutral pH. At these temperatures beta-lactoglobulin undergoes significant but reversible structural changes. In the conditions used in the present study, beta-lactoglobulin......Bovine beta-lactoglobulin was hydrolyzed with trypsin or chymotrypsin in the course of heat treatment at 55, 60 and 65 C at neutral pH. At these temperatures beta-lactoglobulin undergoes significant but reversible structural changes. In the conditions used in the present study, beta......-lactoglobulin was virtually insensitive to proteolysis by either enzyme at room temperature, but underwent extensive proteolysis when either protease was present during the heat treatment. High-temperature proteolysis occurs in a progressive manner. Mass spectrometry analysis of some large-sized breakdown intermediates...... formed in the early steps of hydrolysis indicated that both enzymes effectively hydrolyzed some regions of beta-lactoglobulin that were transiently exposed during the physical treatments and that were not accessible in the native protein. The immunochemical properties of the products of beta...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TESIO C.D.


    Full Text Available Beta-lactoglobulin (b-Lg and kappa-casein (k-Cn are two of the most importantproteins in the mammals’ milk synthesized by the epithelial cells of the mammaryglands. They play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation process(production of cheese and butter. The PCR-RFLP test was performed to distinguishthe different alleles in a population of Romanian Black Spotted cattle, a dairy breed.Genetic polymorphism was detected by digestion with the endonucleases Hae III (b-Lg and Hinf I (k-Cn, followed by electrophoresis in agarose high resolution gelstained with ethidium bromide. Fifty DNA samples from Romanian Black Spottedbreed were analyzed for A and B variants. This simple PCR-RFLP test makesfeasible the inclusion of b-Lg and k-Cn genotypes in breeding plans and cattleselection.

  9. A new multistep Ca2+-induced cold gelation process for beta-lactoglobulin. (United States)

    Veerman, Cecile; Baptist, Harry; Sagis, Leonard M C; van der Linden, Erik


    The objective of this study was to obtain beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) gels at very low protein concentrations using a new multistep Ca(2+)-induced cold gelation process. In the conventional cold gelation process, salt free beta-lg solutions were heated at neutral pH, cooled, and cross-linked by adding salts. In our new process, first, long linear beta-lg fibrils were formed at pH 2. Solutions of these fibrils were cooled, and subsequently, the pH was adjusted to 7 or 8. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the long linear fibrils formed at pH 2 were stable when the pH was adjusted to 7 or 8. In the final step, the fibrils were cross-linked using CaCl(2). Using rheological measurements, the critical percolation concentration was determined. In the new multistep cold gelation process, the critical percolation concentration was an order of magnitude lower than in the conventional cold gelation method.

  10. Molecular mass distribution and epitopes of the beta lactoglobulin submitted to hydrolysis pre-transglutaminase treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas-Boas, M.B.; Zollner, R.L.; Netto, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Benede, S.; Molina, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)


    Full text: The {beta}-Lactoglobulin ({beta}-Lg) is a whey protein with important nutritional proper ties but very resistant to pepsin digestion and consequently highly antigenic. This protein can be modified by transglutaminase (TG) although it is required a pretreatment to increase their susceptibility to the TG action. In the present study the hydrolysis pre-TG treatment was used to improve the TG accessibility on {beta}-Lg and the MM distribution and antigenic fragments were evaluated. For pre-TG treatment, the {beta}-Lg (Davisco Inc.) was hydrolyzed with bromelain (3% of {beta}-Lg w/w in distilled water; 25 U enzyme g{sup 1} of substrate, pH 7.5, 240 min) and then polymerized by TG (7% hydrolysate, 10U TG g{sup 1} protein, 50 C/180 min). The samples were evaluated by SDS-PAGE/tricine and by RP-nanoUPLC (nanoAcquity UPLC, Waters) coupled with nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a Q-Tof Ultima API mass spectrometer (MicroMass/Waters) at LNBio. The products were also submitted to pepsin digestion and the peptide identification was performed by RP-HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS/MS, Brucker) with support from CIAL. The {beta}-Lg hydrolysed by bromelain and polymerized by TG had a broad MM distribution. The intact mass analysis indicated that the non modified {beta}Lg -A showed 18.362 Da and the non modified {beta}Lg -B 18.274 Da, which is in agreement with the theoretical corresponding masses. The use of bromelain pre-TG treatment resulted in polymers with MM from 61.052 to 67.654 Da, although some non modified protein was still present. In addition, the non modified {beta}-Lg showed fragments that present high antigenicity (such as Leu{sub 95} - Leu{sub 104}, Asp{sub 95} - Phe{sub 105}, Tyr{sub 42} - Leu{sub 54}, lle{sub 29} - Val{sub 41}), previously identified as IgE-binding epitopes. After hydrolysis following by TG treatment the fragment Tyr{sub 42} - Leu{sub 54} was still present, however the other fragments that were observed in the non

  11. Thermodynamic denaturation of {beta}-lactoglobulin in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahihi, M. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, A.K., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghayeb, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this work, we determined the stability parameters of bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin, variant A, (BLG-A), in relation to their transition curves induced by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a cationic surfactant. The experiments took place over the temperature range of 298 K to 358 K. For each transition curve at any specific temperature, the conventional method of analysis, which assumes a linear concentration dependence of the pre- and post-transition base lines, gave the most realistic values for {Delta}G{sub D}(H{sub 2}O). Results show that the minimum value of {Delta}G{sub D}(H{sub 2}O) occurs at T = 328 K. Using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, the values of enthalpy, {Delta}H{sub D}, and entropy, {Delta}S{sub D}, of denaturation have been calculated considering temperature dependence of {Delta}G{sub D} at any specified concentration of CPC. The values of 12.05 kJ . mol{sup -1}, 18.54 kJ . mol{sup -1}, and 18.32 J . mol{sup -1} . K{sup -1}, were obtained for {Delta}G{sub D}(H{sub 2}O), {Delta}H{sub D}(H{sub 2}O), and {Delta}S{sub D}(H{sub 2}O), respectively. The results show that the enthalpy term dominates the entropy term.

  12. Comparison of immunomodulating properties of Beta-lactoglobulin and its hydrolysates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-cui Duan


    Full Text Available Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Beta-lactoglobulin (β- lg is a dominant allergen in cow's milk. Hydrolysis is known as an effective method to reduce the allergenicity of proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the allergenicity of β-lg and its hydrolysates using an animal model. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and subcutaneously injected with native bovine β-lg and its hydrolysates on days 0, 7 and 14. During the sensitization period, a number of systemic anaphylactic indicators were observed in mice sensitized by β-lg compared to those sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg. Mice sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg showed a significantly lower spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than that sensitized by intact β-lg. Antibody levels of β-lg-specific IgE in serum induced by native β-lg were significantly high. Plasma histamine levels were also evaluated and showed the same trend as IgE. Moreover, the hydrolysates of β-lg significantly down-regulated IL-4 and IL-5 secretions in serum. These results suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of β-lg.

  13. In vitro digestibility of beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin under simulated human gastric and duodenal conditions: A multi-laboratory evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandalari, G.; Adel-Patient, K.; Barkholt, Vibeke;


    Initially the resistance to digestion of two cow's milk allergens, beta-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), was compared using a "high-protease assay" and a "low-protease assay" in a single laboratory. The low-protease assay represents an alternative standardised protocol mimicking conditions...... found in the gastrointestinal tract. For the high-protease assay, both proteins were incubated with either pepsin or pancreatin and digestion monitored by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The low-protease assay involved...... gastroduodenal digestion in the presence or absence of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Both beta-casein and beta-Lg were susceptible to hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin in the high-protease assay. In contrast, the kinetics of beta-casein digestion in the low-protease assay were slower, beta-Lg being pepsin...

  14. Influence of the overall charge and local charge density of pectin on the complex formation between pectin and beta-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, Bram L. H. M.; Schols, Henk A.; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Norde, Willem; Voragen, Alphons G. J.


    The complex formation between beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) and pectin is studied using pectins with different physicochemical characteristics. Pectin allows for the control of both the overall charge by degree of methyl-esterification as well as local charge density by the degree of blockiness. Vary

  15. Fractionation of whey protein isolate with supercritical carbon dioxide to produce enriched alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin food ingredients (United States)

    A potentially economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of alpha-lactalbumin (a-LA) and beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) from whey protein isolate. To prepare the fractions, so...

  16. Complexation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin with 11S protein fractions of soybean (Glycine max) and sesame (Sesamum indicum). (United States)

    Anuradha, S N; Prakash, V


    Beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) comprises 50% of the whey component of bovine milk. Protein-protein interactions between bovine beta-Lg and 11S protein fractions of soybean and sesame were investigated by turbidity, solubility behaviour and by evaluation of functional properties in the mixed systems. In this work, the aggregation behaviour of soybean and the whey protein (beta-Lg) showed the formation of soluble complexes. Turbidity and solubility studies showed that the proteins interacted at temperatures between 60 and 90+/-5 degrees C. Heating a mixture of beta-Lg and 11S proteins of soybean at higher temperatures formed soluble complexes with beta-Lg. It also reduced the self aggregation behaviour, especially that of 11S protein fraction of soybean. This reduced the precipitation of soybean proteins at higher temperature. The complex formed was resolved by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Upon heating beta-Lg at neutral pH, native dimer starts to dissociate into monomers leading to the exposure of previously buried hydrophobic amino acids and the free thiol group. The soluble complex is formed by the exposed thiol groups. But interaction of beta-Lg with sesame 11S protein fractions did not form any soluble complexes. The mechanism of interaction indicates that hydrophobic interactions were preferred over disulfide linkages at the high salt concentrations of the buffer used. During thermal treatment the molecules are unfolded, leading to an exposure of the hydrophobic groups that further enhance the protein-protein interactions that are entropically driven hydrophobic interactions.

  17. Effect of prolactin, beta-lactoglobulin, and kappa-casein genotype on milk yield in East Friesian sheep. (United States)

    Staiger, E A; Thonney, M L; Buchanan, J W; Rogers, E R; Oltenacu, P A; Mateescu, R G


    The effect of prolactin (PRL), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and kappa-casein (CSN3) on milk yield was estimated in an East Friesian dairy sheep population from Old Chatham Sheepherding Company, New York. Genotypes were determined by PCR amplification followed by digestion with HaeIII and RsaI for PRL and beta-LG, respectively, and by PCR amplification for CSN3. Monthly milking records and pedigree information were used to evaluate the effect of each polymorphism on milk yield. Results indicated that PRL genotype had a significant effect on milk yield. Ewes carrying one A allele produced 110.6g more milk per day than ewes with no A alleles. There was no statistical difference between ewes with only one A allele and ewes with 2 A alleles. No association among polymorphisms at the beta-LG and CSN3 loci and milk yield was found. The results presented in this study indicate that the PRL gene is a potential marker that could be used in selection programs for improving milk yield in dairy sheep.

  18. Thermodynamics of binding interactions between bovine beta-lactoglobulin A and the antihypertensive peptide beta-Lg f142-148. (United States)

    Roufik, Samira; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Leng, Xiaojing; Turgeon, Sylvie L


    The binding capacity of bovine beta-lactoglobulin variant A (beta-Lg A) for six peptides derived from beta-Lg was evaluated using an ultrafiltration method under the following conditions: pH 6.8, 40 degrees C, and a beta-Lg A/peptide molar ratio of 1:5. Only peptides beta-Lg f102-105, f142-148, and f69-83 bound in significant amounts to beta-Lg A corresponding to 1.5, 1.1, and 0.7 mol of peptide per mole of beta-Lg A, respectively. The interaction between beta-Lg A and the antihypertensive peptide beta-Lg f142-148 was investigated further by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding isotherms at pH 6.8 and 25 degrees C confirmed that beta-Lg f142-148 bound to beta-Lg A and that the interaction followed a sequential three-site binding model with constants of association of 2 x 10(3), 1 x 10(3), and 0.4 x 10(3) M(-1) for the first, second, and third binding sites, respectively. The enthalpy of binding was exothermic for the first and second binding sites and endothermic for the third binding site. Binding of the peptide to all three sites was spontaneous as shown by the negative free energy values. These results show for the first time that beta-Lg A can bind bioactive peptides. This potential could be exploited to transport bioactive peptides and protect them in the gastrointestinal tract following their oral administration as nutraceuticals.

  19. Toward Separating Alpha-lactalbumin and Beta-lactoglobulin Proteins from Whey through Cation-exchange Adsorption (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mayyada; Chase, Howard


    This paper describes the cation-exchange adsorption of the two major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) with the purpose of establishing a process for isolating them from cow's milk whey. The single- and two-component adsorption of 1.5 mg/ml ALA and 3 mg/ml BLG to the cation-exchanger SP Sepharose FF at 20° C using 0.1 M acetate buffer of pH 3.7 was studied. Langmuir isotherm parameters were determined for the pure proteins. In two-component systems, BLG breakthrough curve exhibited an overshoot phenomenon that gave evidence for the presence of a competitive adsorption between the two proteins. Complete separation occurred and it was possible to obtain each of the two proteins in a pure form. The process was then applied to a whey concentrate mixture where incomplete separation took place. However, BLG was produced with 95% purity and a recovery of 80%, while ALA showed an 84% recovery with low purity.

  20. Effect of simulated gastro-duodenal digestion on the allergenic reactivity of beta-lactoglobulin

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    Bossios Apostolos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow's milk (CM allergy affects about 2% of infants. The allergenicity of dietary proteins, including those from CM, has been related to their digestibility although the generality of the link and its causality remains to be demonstrated. In this study we use an in vitro digestion system, to investigate the digestibility of β-lactoglobulin (blg during gastrointestinal transit and to assess the impact of this process on blg allergenic reactivity in CM allergic children. Methods Blg digesta were prepared using an in vitro digestion protocol simulating either gastric digestion alone or followed by duodenal digestion with or without phosphatidylcholine (PC. Biochemical analysis of blg digesta was performed by SDS-PAGE and their concentration was measured by a sandwich ELISA. Assessment of their allergenic reactivity was done in vitro by EAST inhibition, specific basophil activation (basotest and lymphocyte proliferation (PCNA-flow cytometry assays using sera and cells from patients allergic to blg and in vivo by skin prick testing (SPT of these patients. Results Blg was only broken down to smaller peptides after gastro-duodenal digestion although a sizeable amount of intact protein still remained. Digestion did not modify the IgE binding capacity of blg except for gastro-duodenal digestion performed in the absence of PC. These results are consistent with the quantity of intact blg remaining in the digesta. Overall both gastric and gastroduodenal digestion enhanced activation of sensitized basophils and proliferation of sensitized lymphocytes by blg. However, there was a tendency towards reduction in mean diameter of SPT following digestion, the PC alone during phase 1 digestion causing a significant increase in mean diameter. Conclusions Digestion did not reduce the allergenic reactivity of blg to a clinically insignificant extent, PC inhibiting digestion and thereby protecting blg allergenic reactivity. SPT reactivity was

  1. Identification of a novel angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide corresponding to a tryptic fragment of bovine beta-lactoglobulin. (United States)

    Mullally, M M; Meisel, H; FitzGerald, R J


    The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of a tryptic digest of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) was investigated. Intact beta-lg essentially did not inhibit ACE while the tryptic digest gave an 84.3% inhibition of ACE. Peptide material eluting between 20 and 25% acetonitrile during C18 solid-phase extraction of the beta-lg tryptic digest inhibited ACE by 93.6%. This solid-phase extraction fraction was shown by mass spectroscopy to contain beta-lg f(142-148). This peptide had an ACE IC50 value of 42.6 micromol/l. The peptide was resistant to further digestion with pepsin and was hydrolysed to a very low extent with chymotrypsin. The contribution of specific amino acid residues within the peptide to ACE inhibitory activity and the potential application of this peptide as a nutraceutical is discussed.

  2. Factors affecting the interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and fatty acids as revealed in molecular dynamics simulations (United States)

    Yi, Changhong; Wambo, Thierry O.


    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a bovine dairy protein, is a promiscuously interacting protein that can bind multiple hydrophobic ligands. Fatty acids (FAs), common hydrophobic molecules bound to BLG, are important sources of fuel for life because they yield large quantities of ATP when metabolized. The binding affinity increases with the length of the ligands, indicating the importance of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between the hydrocarbon tail and the hydrophobic calyx of BLG. An exception to this rule is caprylic acid (OCA) which is two-carbon shorter but has a stronger binding affinity than capric acid. Theoretical calculations in the current literature are not accurate enough to shed light on the underlying physics of this exception. The computed affinity values are greater for longer fatty acids without respect for the caprylic exception and those values are generally several orders of magnitude away from the experimental data. In this work, we used hybrid steered molecular dynamics to accurately compute the binding free energies between BLG and the five saturated FAs of 8 to 16 carbon atoms. The computed binding free energies agree well with experimental data not only in rank but also in absolute values. We gained insights into the exceptional behavior of caprylic acid in the computed values of entropy and electrostatic interactions. We found that the electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl group of caprylic acid and the two amino groups of K60/69 in BLG is much stronger than the vdW force between OCA’s hydrophobic tail and the BLG calyx. This pulls OCA to the top of the beta barrel where it is easier to fluctuate, giving rise to greater entropy of OCA at the binding site. PMID:26272099

  3. In vitro transport and satiety of a beta-lactoglobulin dipeptide and beta-casomorphin-7 and its metabolites. (United States)

    Osborne, Simone; Chen, Wei; Addepalli, Rama; Colgrave, Michelle; Singh, Tanoj; Tran, Cuong; Day, Li


    Understanding the digestive behaviour and biological activities of dairy proteins may help to develop model dairy products with targeted health outcomes including increased satiety and healthy weight maintenance. Caseins and whey proteins constitute over 95% of milk proteins with consumption of these proteins associated with increased satiety and a decreased prevalence of metabolic disorders. To investigate the in vitro digestive behaviour and satiety of dairy proteins at the intestinal epithelium, the in vitro transport and hydrolysis of 500-2000 μM β-casomorphin-7 (YPFPGPI or β-CM7) and a β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) dipeptide (YL) was measured using Caco-2 cell monolayers grown on transwells as a model of the intestinal epithelium. Transport of YL was concentration dependent and ranged from 0.37-5.26 × 10(-6) cm s(-1), whereas transport of β-CM7 was only detected at 2000 μM and was significantly lower at 0.13 × 10(-6) cm s(-1). Rapid hydrolysis of β-CM7 in the apical chamber by the Caco-2 cells produced three peptide metabolites: YP, GPI and FPGPI. All of these metabolites were detected in the basolateral chamber after 30 min with both the YP and GPI peptides transporting at a higher rate than intact β-CM7. In vitro satiety was indicated by the secretion of cholecystokinin [26-33] (CCK-8) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-17-36NH2) in the STC-1 enteroendocrine cell model. CCK-8 secretion was highest in response to β-CM7 followed by the β-CM7 metabolite FPGPI. CCK-8 secretion however was not significantly stimulated by the tri- or dipeptides. Secretion of GLP-1 was not significantly stimulated by β-CM7 or YL. These in vitro results suggest that dairy peptide size enhances CCK-8 secretion, whilst limiting transport across Caco-2 monolayers.

  4. Maternal milk, but not formula, regulates the immune response to beta-lactoglobulin in allergy-prone rat pups. (United States)

    Tooley, Katie L; El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Cummins, Adrian G; Grose, Randall H; Lymn, Kerry A; DeNichilo, Mark; Penttila, Irmeli A


    Controversy exists regarding the timing of the introduction of allergic foods into the diet. We investigated the immune response of rat pups exposed to beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), one of the main allergenic proteins in cow milk. Brown Norway allergy-prone rats were allocated into groups: dam-reared and unchallenged (DR), DR challenged with BLG via gavage (11 mg/d), or rats fed via gastric cannula a formula containing BLG (11 mg/d). BLG was given from d 4 of life. Rats were killed at d 10, 14, or 21. Sera were assayed for total IgE, BLG-specific IgG1, and rat mucosal mast cell protease II (RMCPII; indicator of mucosal mast cell degranulation). Ileum was assessed for cytokine mRNA. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were assessed for forkhead boxP3 (Foxp3) and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7) expression by real-time PCR and immunostained for Foxp3(+) CD4(+) regulatory cells. Formula feeding compared with dam-rearing with or without oral BLG challenge resulted in significantly greater serum IgE, BLG-specific IgG1, RMCPII, and intestinal mast cells but reduced MLN Foxp3(+) cells, Foxp3, and CCR7 expression and ileal cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and interferon-gamma (P < 0.05). Importantly, giving BLG in the presence of maternal milk resulted in an immune response profile similar to that of unchallenged DR rats but with greater Foxp3 and CCR7 mRNA expression and CD4(+) Foxp3(+) cells (P < 0.05). We conclude that introducing an allergenic food with breast milk reduces immunological indicators of an allergic response, whereas introduction during formula feeding generates an allergic response.

  5. Conformations of gas-phase ions of ubiquitin, cytochrome c, apomyoglobin, and beta-lactoglobulin produced from two different solution conformations. (United States)

    Wright, P John; Zhang, Jianmin; Douglas, D J


    At low pH in solutions of 50% methanol, proteins form expanded denatured states (the "H" state). In 90% methanol, proteins form expanded helical denatured states with artificial alpha-helices (the "H(c)" state). Gas-phase ions of ubiquitin, cytochrome c, apomyoglobin, and native and disulfide-reduced beta-lactoglobulin were formed by electrospray ionization (ESI) of the proteins from the H and H(c) states in solution. Both states in solution produce the same charge states in ESI. The conformations of the ions were studied with cross section measurements and gas-phase H/D exchange experiments. The cross sections show that the ions retain considerable folded structure. For a given protein and given charge state, ions produced from the H and H(c) states showed the same cross sections (within approximately 1%). Ions of cytochrome c, apomyoglobin, and native and reduced beta-lactoglobulin of a given charge state showed no differences in H/D exchange level when produced from the H or H(c) state. However, ubiquitin ions produced from the H(c) state consistently exchange fewer ( approximately 13%) hydrogens than ions produced from the H state, suggesting that in this case the gas-phase protein ions retain some memory of their solution conformations.

  6. Associations of a polymorphic AP-2 binding site in the 5'-flanking region of the bovine beta-lactoglobulin gene with milk proteins. (United States)

    Kuss, A W; Gogol, J; Geidermann, H


    Studies on a polymorphic position (R10) in an Activator-Protein-2 (AP-2) binding site of the bovine beta-Lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) gene promoter region and quantitative traits of individual milk proteins were based on material from 79 German Holstein Friesian (HF) and 61 Simmental (Sm) cows. At least four milk samples per cow were analyzed with alkaline Urea-PAGE in combination with densitometry for quantification of individual milk proteins. The two alleles of the R10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) carry either G or C in position -435 bp of the beta-Lg promoter region. G- and C-alleles were found in Sm with nearly equal frequencies, while in HF the C-allele frequency was higher (0.73) than that of the G-allele. In both breeds, the R10 G-homozygotes had higher (P beta-Lg secreted per day and proportion of beta-Lg in milk protein compared with the C-homozygotes. A similar association was found for alpha-lactalbumin, whereas the relative proportions and daily secreted amounts of caseins (alphaS1, beta, kappa) showed lower values in beta-Lg R10 G-homozygotes. A positive association (P beta-Lg locus to a candidate gene for this trait. The association between the SNP in the AP-2 binding site of the beta-Lg gene and its gene product can be explained as the result of differences in protein binding activity, and, therefore, allele specific differences in gene expression. Thus, our study clearly links a DNA polymorphism of molecular function very closely with in vivo expression parameters of the same locus.

  7. Effect of maternal dietary cow’s milk on the immune response to beta-lactoglobulin in the offspring: A four generation study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Barkholt, Vibeke;


    generations may be necessary to obtain immunologically naive animals. METHODS: To determine the most appropriate breeding conditions of mice to be used in immunological studies on food proteins, we examined immune responses towards beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) in mice bred on a milk-containing diet (F0......Evaluation of immune responses to food proteins in animal models requires that the animals are not already sensitized or orally tolerized against the proteins in question. Since maternal transfer of specific immune responses has been observed, breeding of animals on an antigen-free diet for several...... appropriate for immunological studies of food proteins. Although the small quantity of BLG in the milk-free diet did not induce detectable oral tolerance in the present study, it is strongly recommended that the potential effect of contaminating dietary antigen is considered in future studies on food proteins...

  8. Kinetics of Colloidal Deposition and Release of Polystyrene Latex Particles in the Presence of Adsorbed beta-Lactoglobulin Studied Using a Flow Cell (United States)

    Joscelyne; Trägårdh


    The effect of adsorbed whey protein, beta-lactoglobulin, has been investigated on the attachment of polystyrene latex particles to an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface and the subsequent release in anionic surfactant SDS solution and distilled-deionized water at pH 6.0. Experiments were carried out using a wall-jet flow cell and particle attachment was measured in situ using the technique of evanescent wave microscopy. The deposition rate of particles increased as predicted up to a shear rate of approximately 1000 s-1, for deposition at a diffusion-limited rate. There was a reduction in the rate at higher shear rates indicating a decrease in sticking efficiency. As the shear rate increased, the ITO surface became saturated more quickly due predominantly to blocking of the surface by deposited particles. The presence of adsorbed beta-lactoglobulin on the ITO surface caused a large reduction in the subsequent deposition rate of protein-coated particles. This was due to an increase in electrostatic repulsion. Differences were found in both the extent of removal and in the release (cleaning) kinetics of particles in SDS and in distilled-deionized water for the different particle-protein-ITO surface conditions investigated. Release of particles was also independent of the shear rate. Results were interpreted by considering the roles of protein replacement and elution which occurs in SDS solutions; >90% removal of protein-coated particles from a coated ITO surface was observed in SDS when both processes play a role. This compared to 55% removal in distilled-deionized water where they were considered negligible. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  9. A study of alcohol-induced gelation of beta-lactoglobulin with small-angle neutron scattering, neutron spin echo, and dynamic light scattering measurements. (United States)

    Yoshida, Koji; Yamaguchi, Toshio; Osaka, Noboru; Endo, Hitoshi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro


    Gelation of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) in various alcohol-water mixtures with 0.1 M (M = mol L(-1)) hydrochloric acid was investigated with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), neutron spin echo (NSE), and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TRDLS) measurements. The beta-Lg in alcohol-water solutions undergoes gelation at specific alcohol concentrations where the alcohol-induced alpha-helical structure of beta-Lg is stabilized. The SANS profiles showed that beta-Lg exists as a single molecule at a low alcohol concentration. With increasing alcohol concentration, the profiles indicate a power law behavior of approximately 1.7 when the samples gelate. These behaviors were observed in all alcohol-water mixtures used, but the alcohol concentrations where the SANS profiles change shift to a lower alcohol concentration region with an increase in the size of the hydrophobic group of the alcohols. Apparent diffusion constants, obtained from the intermediate scattering function (ISF) of NSE and the intensity time correlation function (ITCF) of TRDLS, mainly depend on the viscosity of alcohol-water mixtures before gelation. After gelation, on the other hand, the ISFs of gels do not change appreciably in the range of the NSE time scale, indicating the microscopically rigid structure of beta-Lg gel. The ITCF functions obtained from TRDLS follow a double exponential decay type before gelation, but a logarithmic one (exponent alpha = 0.7) after gelation. It is most likely that the alcohol-induced gelation undergoes a similar mechanism to that for the heat-induced one at pH = 7 where beta-Lg aggregates stick together to form a fractal network, although the gelation time is faster in the former than in the latter.

  10. Analysis of Beta-Lactoglobuline Gene (LGB Polymorphism in Different Breeds of Bulls by High Resolution Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová


    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was to identify  - lactoglobulin gene polymorphism in bulls. The  - lactoglobulin (LGB is expressed in milk and is important in the evaluation of milk production potential and butterfat and protein content. LGB is localized on bovine chromosome 11. The AA genotype of LGB is associated with higher milk yield, the BB genotype with higher fat and casein content and is more desirable for cheese making. The material involved 46 bulls (Slovak spotted breed – 41 bulls, Pinzgau breed – 3 bulls and Holstein breed – 2 bulls. Bovine genomic DNA was isolated from sperm using commercial kit NucleoSpin Tissue and used in order to estimate LGB genotypes by means of PCR RFLP method and high resolution melting analysis (HRMA. In the population of Slovak spotted breed we detected all genotypes AA, AB and BB with frequency 0.3415, 0.4390 and 0.2195, subsequently. In Pinzgau breed was detected homozygote genotypes AA and BB with frequency 0.3333 and 0.6667. In Holstein breed was observed only heterozygote genotype AB with frequency 1.

  11. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin in human milk from atopic and non-atopic mothers. Relationship to maternal intake of homogenized and unhomogenized milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Hansen, L G;


    ). In a cross-over design the atopic and non-atopic mothers alternated their intake of milk between homogenized and unhomogenized milk each week. On day 7, in each week, consecutive milk samples were taken before and 4, 8, 12 and 24 hr after a single ingestion of 500 ml of homogenized or unhomogenized milk....... Detectable amounts of BLG (0.9-150 micrograms/l, median value 4.2 micrograms/l) were measured in 19/20 of the mothers (95%), in 9 of 10 atopic mothers and in all 10 of 10 non-atopic mothers. No correlation was found between the type of milk preparation (homogenized or unhomogenized) and the presence of BLG......Human milk samples (n = 300) were collected during a 3-week period from 10 healthy mothers and from 10 atopic mothers, all with healthy, solely breast-fed infants. The milk samples were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the content of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG...

  12. Marked effect of beta-lactoglobulin polymorphism on the ratio of casein to total protein in milk. (United States)

    Lundén, A; Nilsson, M; Janson, L


    The relationship between genetic variants for milk protein and the composition of milk was analyzed on 4475 repeated milk samples from individual cows; 371 dairy cows of the Swedish Red and White breed and 204 cows of the Swedish Holstein breed were used. The registrations included percentages of casein, protein, fat, and lactose in combination with milk yield and SCC. The genotype of individual cows for alpha(s1)-CN, beta-CN, kappa-CN, and beta-LG was determined by alkaline and acidic PAGE. A mixed animal model was used for the analysis; beta-LG and aggregate casein genotypes were included simultaneously as separate fixed effects in the statistical model. The results suggest a positive additive effect of the beta-LG B allele on casein content and on the ratio of casein to total protein. For the latter trait, the beta-LG genotype accounted for a relatively large part of the phenotypic variance, corresponding to a reduction in residual variance of 11% when included in the model. The corresponding value for casein content was 0.5%. The lack of unfavorable associations between milk protein variants and the traits included in this study makes the beta-LG gene an obvious candidate when the breeding objective is improved conversion of milk protein into cheese.

  13. RAST studies : IgE antibodies to Dermatogoides pteronyssinus (house dust mite), Aspergillus fumigatus and beta-lactoglobulin in sudden death in infancy syndrome (SDIS). (United States)

    Turner, K J; Baldo, B A; Hilton, J M


    The incidence of 2.5 SDIS cases per 1,000 live births found in Western Australia is in agreement with figures reported for other centres. While the age range of SDIS victims extended from two weeks to 15 months, 57 per cent of deaths occurred in children of two to four months of age. Boys outnumbered girls 1.6:1. Environmental factors are implicated in that the majority of deaths occurred in a biphasic distribution - autumn and late winter months. No significant differences were observed in total IgE levels in serum from SDIS victims, post mortem children who died in trauma of known aetiology and live control children of the same age range. Serum IgE antibodies to D.pteronyssinus were found in 37% of SDIS victims compared with 7% of matched controls (post mortem plus live groups). IgE antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin, the major allergen of cow's milk, appeared with twice the frequency in SDIS vs. control group but both groups showed a similar incidence of antibodies to the allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus. The prevalence of IgE antibodies to D.pteronyssinus in SDIS victims who died in the late winter -- early spring period was double that found in the group who died in the autumn period. Sixtyfour percent of the SDIS victims had antibodies to two or more of the three allergens tested while the control sera were positive to only one allergen. These results support the hypothesis that anaphylaxis induced by immediate hypersensitivity to D.pteronyssinus in particular may be one of the causative factors in SDIS in Western Australia.

  14. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies of metastable intermediates of beta-lactoglobulin isolated after heat-induced aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrotta, R.; Arleth, L.; Pedersen, J.S.


    Small-angle x-ray scattering was used for studying intermediate species, isolated after heat-induced aggregation of the A variant of bovine P-lactoglobulin. The intermediates were separated in two fractions, the heated metastable dimer and heated metastable oligomers larger than the dimer. The pa...

  15. Guanidinium chloride and urea denaturations of beta-lactoglobulin A at pH 2.0 and 25 degrees C: the equilibrium intermediate contains non-native structures (helix, tryptophan and hydrophobic patches). (United States)

    Dar, Tanveer Ali; Singh, Laishram Rajendrakumar; Islam, Asimul; Anjum, Farah; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ahmad, Faizan


    We have carried out guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) and urea denaturations of bovine beta-lactoglobulin A (beta-lgA) at pH 2.0 and 25 degrees C, using far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism, near-UV absorption and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopies. The stable intermediate state that occurs during GdmCl denaturation has been characterized by the far- and near-UV circular dichroism, tryptophan difference absorption, tryptophan fluorescence and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulphonic acid binding measurements. Following conclusions have been reached. (a) Urea-induced denaturation is not a two-state process. (b) GdmCl-induced denaturation is composed of two distinct two-state processes. (c) alpha-Helical content, burial of tryptophan residues and burial of hydrophobic surface area are more in the GdmCl-induced stable intermediate than those originally present in the native protein.

  16. Immunostimulatory Potential of β-Lactoglobulin Preparations: Effects Caused by Endotoxin Contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bovetto, L.; Fritsche, R.


    the immunomodulatory activity. Eventually, the immunostimulatory effect was found to be caused by endotoxin contamination.Conclusion: These results identify endotoxin as the main immunostimulatory component present in some commercial beta-lactoglobulin preparations. Moreover, the present study makes it evident...

  17. Polimorfismo genético de beta-lactoglobulina y alphalactoalbúmina en el ganado criollo colombiano, mediante PCR-SSCP Genetic polymorphism of beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactoalbumin in Colombian Creole cattle by PCR-SSCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Rosero-Alpala


    Full Text Available La población de ganado criollo colombiano ha venido presentando una inquietante disminución al pasar de 23.415 ejemplares en 1999 a 20.102 en 2003. A pesar de los esfuerzos por recuperar las razas criollas el panorama para su conservación es incierto, por tanto la búsqueda de caracteres deseables puede contribuir a su valoración y conservación. Los genes relacionados con el mejoramiento de la calidad de la leche producida por estas razas se consideran de gran importancia en la industria láctea, por tal razón y con el objetivo de caracterizar los genes beta-lactoglobulina y alpha-lactoalbúmina se analizaron 30 muestras de sangre de cada una de las razas criollas (Blanco Orejinegro, Caqueteño, Casanareño, Costeño con cuernos, Chino Santandereano, Hartón del Valle, Romosinuano y Sanmartinero, dos razas sintéticas colombianas (Lucerna y Velásquez y dos razas foráneas (Holstein y Brahman. Se amplificaron fragmentos de 262pb para beta-lactoglobulina (b-LG y de 166 pb para alpha-lactoalbúmina (a-LA que se genotipificaron mediante PCR-SSCP. El promedio de la frecuencia para b-LG A y b-LG B fue de 0.46 ± 0.020 y de 0.53 ± 0.020, respectivamente, y de 0.35 ± 0.019 para a-LA A y 0.64 ± 0.019 para a-LA B. El promedio de diversidad genética (He para b-LG fue 0.498 y de 0.455 para a-LA. Los ganados criollos representan una base genética valiosa, como alternativa para mejorar genéticamente los hatos destinados a la producción de leche con mejores características en calidad para la industria láctea.The Colombian Creole Cattle has showed a preoccupant population decreasing, from 23,415 individuals in 1999 to 20,102 in 2003. Despite that many efforts to recover the creole breeds have been done, its future conservation is unclear. Searching for economic desirable genes may contribute to its preservation and utilization as a genetic resource. Genes related with the improvement of milk proteins are considered as an economic important

  18. Genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein of cattle breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković


    Full Text Available Profitable milk production respects the interests of producers, processing industries, consumer requirements and welfare of animals. Development of new methods of direct gene analysis responsible for milk proteins polymorphism provide new tools to raise the profitability of milk production and dairy products through implementation of breed genetic profile in breeding program. Because of necessity to determinate genetic profiles of cattle breeds in Croatia using new analytical methods, the ratio of dominant allelic polymorphic variants of beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and kappa-casein (κ-CN is defined. The share of beta-lactoglobulin B variant is dominant in all investigated cattle breeds (>52.9 %. Kappa- casein allelic variant A is dominant in selected cattle breeds (60.7-76.4 %, while the share of B variant is significantly more presented in autochthonous cattle breeds (48.2-84.1 %. Knowledge about genetic profile of breeds due to studied polymorphic variants of milk proteins is useful in further breeding development and economic reaffirmation of cattle breeds, especially autochthonous ones.

  19. Functional properties of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg


    Full Text Available Whey proteins are commonly used in the food industry due to their nutritive value and functional properties. The most important functional properties of whey proteins are solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, emulsification and foaming. The aim of this study was to determine functional properties of main whey protein fractions (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin which have the biggest influence on the functional properties of whey proteins. Particle size analysis and specific area of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin were performed by «Mie – theory» of «light scatering» using «Malvern Mastersizer X». The results of this analysis have shown that β-lactoglobulin had higher particle size and specific area than α-lactalbumin.By examining functional properties (solubility, dispersibility, emulsifiying properties – emulsion activity index (EAI and emulsion stability index (ESI and foaming properties of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, it has been established that β-lactoglobulin has higher solubility, dispersibility, emulsifiying properties as well as foaming properties than α-lactalbumin. Rheological properties of protein suspensions were determined by rotational viscosimeter, Brookfiel DV-III at temperature 25°C. Rheological parameters, flow behavior indeks (n and consistency coefficient (k were determined by the power-law model. The results of investigation have shown that 10% suspenzion of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin are non-Newtonian fluids and they exhibited pseudoplastic properties.

  20. Investigation of the Interaction between Mucins and β-Lactoglobulin under Tribological Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celebioglu, Hilal Yilmaz; Guðjónsdóttir, María; Chronakis, Ioannis S.


    The interaction characteristics between mucins and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) under tribological stress were investigated by comparing the lubricity of mixed solutions of mucineBLG with that of neat protein solutions at compliant hydrophobic interfaces. Surface adsorption properties of the proteins...... pressure, speed range, and slide/roll ratio, the dominant lubrication mechanism of the protein solutions was boundary lubrication. BLGeBSM mixture showed the highest level of degradation in the lubricity of BSM at pH 5, although BLGesaliva interaction is known to degrade the lubricity most rapidly at more...... acidic pH, such as at pH 3.5. More importantly, pH dependent lubricating properties of BLGeBSM mixed solutions appeared to be determined by competitive adsorption of the two proteins onto the substrates, which suggests that they do not form as strong aggregates as BLGesaliva, especially under...

  1. Complex coacervates of lactotransferrin and β-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anema, Skelte G.; de Kruif, C


    Hypothesis: Oppositely charged proteins should interact and form complex coacervates or precipitates at the correct mixing ratios and under defined pH conditions. Experiments: The cationic protein lactotransferrin (LF) was mixed with the anionic protein β-lactoglobulin (B-Lg) at a range of pH and mi

  2. The modifications of bovine β-lactoglobulin: Effects on its structural and functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanić-Vučinić Dragana


    Full Text Available Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG is the main whey protein and it is frequently used additive in wide range of food products due to its excellent techno-functional properties, high nutritional value and low cost. It is also considered as acid-resistant drug carrier for delivery of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical agents. However, BLG is the main allergen of milk. A variety of methods have been explored for modification of BLG in attempt to improve its functional properties and to decrease its allergenicity. Due to its compact globular structure BLG is relatively resistant to modifications, especially under mild conditions. BLG can be modified by physical, chemical and enzymatic treatments. Although chemical modifications offer efficient way of alteration of protein structural and functional properties, they are associated with safety concern. In the last decade there is a tendency for application of novel non-thermal physical processing methods, as well as enzymes in order to obtain BLG with desirable properties. The objective of this review is to overview chemical, physical and enzymatic processing techniques utilized to modify BLG and their effects on structure and functional properties of BLG. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172024 and FP7 RegPot project FCUB ERA GA No. 256716

  3. DSC study of denaturation of β-lactoglobulin B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王邦宁; 谈夫


    The denaturation of bovine β-lactoglobulin B (β-Lg B) has been studied in phosphate solutions with various concentrations of GuHCl with differential scanning calorimetry The experiments demonstrated that the presence of GuHCl made the β-Lg B undergo both cold denaturation and heat denaturation under the condition of a high concentration of the protein. The enthalpy changes of both kinds of denaturation exhibit opposite signs. Both the cold denaturation and the renaturation of the protein are reproducible, but its heat denaturation is irreversible. The cooperation among monomer molecules of the protein is involved in its heat denaturation The heat denaturation of the protein can be represented by the thermodynamic model Nc D→F. The activation energy of heat denaturation is 285 kJ/mol, which imples that the depression of temperature and enthalpy of heat denaturation of the P-Lg B does not result from decreasing considerably the activation energy by GuHCl As for the cold denaturation of the protein, es

  4. β-Lactoglobulin as nanotransporter for allicin: Sensory properties and applicability in food. (United States)

    Wilde, Sandra Catharina; Keppler, Julia Katharina; Palani, Kalpana; Schwarz, Karin


    The thiosulfinate allicin is a labile, bioactive compound of garlic. In order to enrich allicin in a functional food, a delivery system which stabilises the compound and masks its intense flavour is necessary. In the present study allicin was covalently bound to the whey protein β-lactoglobulin and the incorporation of this transporter in a food matrix was tested. The sensory properties of the pure functional ingredient as well as of an enriched beverage were characterised by quantitative descriptive analysis. The concentration of volatile compounds was analysed by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The garlic-related organoleptic properties of garlic powder were significantly improved by the binding of allicin in combination with spray drying. After purification of the modified β-lactoglobulin the garlic taste and smell were barely perceptible. β-Lactoglobulin modified with allicin provided a stable functional ingredient that can be used to enrich a broad range of food products.

  5. The SKA and the Unknown Unknowns

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Peter


    As new scientists and engineers join the SKA project and as the pressures come on to maintain costs within a chosen envelope it is worth restating and updating the rationale for the 'Exploration of the Unknown' (EoU). Maintaining an EoU philosophy will prove a vital ingredient for realizing the SKA's discovery potential. Since people make the discoveries enabled by technology a further axis in capability parameter space, the'human bandwidth' is emphasised. Using the morphological approach pioneered by Zwicky, a currently unexploited region of observational parameter space can be identified viz: time variable spectral patterns on all spectral and angular scales, one interesting example would be 'spectral transients'. We should be prepared to build up to 10 percent less collecting area for a given overall budget in order to enhance the ways in which SKA1 can be flexibly utilized.

  6. Structure of bovine β-lactoglobulin-lactoferrin coacervates. (United States)

    Kizilay, Ebru; Seeman, Daniel; Yan, Yunfeng; Du, Xiaosong; Dubin, Paul L; Donato-Capel, Laurence; Bovetto, Lionel; Schmitt, Christophe


    Lactoferrin (LF) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) are among the protein pairs that exhibit heteroprotein coacervation, a unique and relatively unexamined type of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). In prior work we found that LF and BLG undergo coacervation at highly constrained conditions of pH, ionic strength and protein stoichiometry. The molar stoichiometry in coacervate and supernatant is LF : BLG2 1 : 2 (where BLG2 represents the 38 kDa BLG dimer), suggesting that this is the primary unit of the coacervate. The precise balance of repulsive and attractive forces among these units, thought to stabilize the coacervate, is achieved only at limited conditions of pH and I. Our purpose here is to define the process by which such structural units form, and to elucidate the forces among them that lead to the long-range order found in equilibrium coacervates. We use confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and rheology to (1) define the uniformity of interprotein spacing within the coacervate phase, (2) verify structural unit dimensions and spacing, and (3) rationalize bulk fluid properties in terms of inter-unit forces. Electrostatic modeling is used in concert with SANS to develop a molecular model for the primary unit of the coacervate that accounts for bulk viscoelastic properties. Modeling suggests that the charge anisotropies of the two proteins stabilize the dipole-like LF(BLG2)2 primary unit, while assembly of these dipoles into higher order equilibrium structures governs the macroscopic properties of the coacervate.

  7. Identification of novel SNP in caprine β -lactoglobulin gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) gene is suggested as a functional candidate gene for milk yield and milk composition. β-LG polymorphism has been reported to be associated with milk yield in cows, sheep and Indian goats. This study was performed to identify SNPs in exon 7 of β-LG gene and their association with milk traits in Iranian local Mahabadi goats using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and PCR-sequencing. Three SSCP patterns were observed with frequencies 0.678, 0.096 and 0.226, respectively. Subsequently, after sequencing each unique pattern nine novel mutations were identified. These mutations include: T InDel at nucleotide position 93 and substitutions T/C, T/G, T/C, G/T, T/G, T/C, G/A and A/T at nucleotide positions 99, 124, 126, 134, 147, 156, 176 and 177, respectively. Of these, seven mutationswere same among the genotypic patterns while differences were related to T deletion and insertion (-/T) at nucleotide position 93 with frequencies 0.22 and 0.78 in the presence and absence of T allele, respectively; and substitution (A/T) at nucleotide position 177 with frequencies 0.16 and 0.84 for A and T alleles, respectively. Milk traits including milk production (gr), milk fat and protein (%) were also measured. These findings demonstrated that β -LG gene had a significant effect on milk protein percentage (P< 0.05), but had no significant effect on milk production and milk fat percentage.

  8. VY6, a β-lactoglobulin-derived peptide, altered metabolic lipid pathways in the zebra fish liver. (United States)

    Mohammed-Geba, K; Arrutia, F; Do-Huu, H; Borrell, Y J; Galal-Khallaf, A; Ardura, A; Riera, Francisco A; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva


    Today enormous research efforts are being focused on alleviating the massive, adverse effects of obesity. Short peptides are key targets for research as they can be generated from natural proteins, like milk. Here we conducted trypsinogen digestion of beta-lactoglobulin (β-lg), the major mammalian milk protein, to release the hexamer VY6. It was assayed in vivo for its activities on lipid metabolism using zebra fish as a vertebrate model. Zebra fish juveniles were injected with two different doses of the peptide: 100 and 800 μg per g fish and left for 5 days before sacrificing. Lipid measurements showed significant reduction in liver triglycerides and free cholesterol, as well as increased liver HDL cholesterol. Dose-dependent increases of the mRNA levels of the genes coding for the enzymes acyl coenzyme A oxidase 1 (acox1) and lipoprotein lipase (lpl) were also found. The complete results suggest significant anti-obesity activity of the β-lg-derived VY6 peptide. Its use as a nutraceutical has been discussed.

  9. A new multistep Ca2+-Induced Cold Gelation Process for ß-Lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, C.; Baptist, H.G.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.


    The objective of this study was to obtain -lactoglobulin (-lg) gels at very low protein concentrations using a new multistep Ca2+-induced cold gelation process. In the conventional cold gelation process, salt free -lg solutions were heated at neutral pH, cooled, and cross-linked by adding salts. In

  10. Glycoforms of β-Lactoglobulin with Improved Thermostability and Preserved Structural Packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, K.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, H.H.J. de


    In this article we show how various degrees of glycosylation can be used to control the thermal stability of proteins. The primary amines of β-lactoglobulin were glycosylated with glucose or fructose within a range of non-denaturing reaction parameters. The modified fractions were characterized and

  11. Rheological properties of patatin gels compared with ß-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, and glycinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.; Wierenga, P.A.; Laus, M.C.; Giuseppin, M.L.F.; Gruppen, H.


    BACKGROUND: The thermal unfolding and rheological properties of patatin gels were compared with those of commonly used proteins (ß-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, glycinin). RESULTS: A significant difference between these proteins was observed in both the denaturation temperature (59 °C for patatin; about

  12. Highly efficient modification of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene via zinc-finger nucleases in cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengli Yu; Junjie Luo; Zhiyuan Song; Fangrong Ding; Yunping Dai; Ning Li


    Dear Editor,Gene targeting is in widespread use as a gold standard for determining the function of genes in mice and human embryonic stem cells [1].However,the poor efficiency of this technology has hindered its application to domestic animals,for which embryonic stem cells are not available.Although gene-targeted large domestic animals have been produced successfully by combination of homologous recombination-based targeting strategy and cloning [2-4],the efficiency is very low and,more importantly,the disruption of the targeted gene is usually mono-allelic.It thus takes a long time to obtain a null mutant.

  13. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigli, I.; Riggio, V.; Monteleone, G.; Cacioppo, D.; Rosa, A.J.M.; Maizon, D.O.


    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than 75

  14. Relationship between Beta-Lactoglobulin and Bovine Submaxillary Mucin: Structure and Tribology Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celebioglu, Hilal Yilmaz; Guðjónsdóttir, María; Chronakis, Ioannis S.;

    ), the major whey protein, and bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM), a (model) major salivary component, when mixed (1:1) at different pHs (pH 3.0, 5.0 and 7.4) in order to broaden our understanding of food oral processing on the molecular level. High and low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Dynamic Light...

  15. Metrology with Unknown Detectors. (United States)

    Altorio, Matteo; Genoni, Marco G; Somma, Fabrizia; Barbieri, Marco


    The best possible precision is one of the key figures in metrology, but this is established by the exact response of the detection apparatus, which is often unknown. There exist techniques for detector characterization that have been introduced in the context of quantum technologies but apply as well for ordinary classical coherence; these techniques, though, rely on intense data processing. Here, we show that one can make use of the simpler approach of data fitting patterns in order to obtain an estimate of the Cramér-Rao bound allowed by an unknown detector, and we present applications in polarimetry. Further, we show how this formalism provides a useful calculation tool in an estimation problem involving a continuous-variable quantum state, i.e., a quantum harmonic oscillator.

  16. Metrology with Unknown Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Altorio, Matteo; Somma, Fabrizia; Barbieri, Marco


    The best possible precision is one of the key figures in metrology, but this is established by the exact response of the detection apparatus, which is often unknown. There exist techniques for detector characterisation, that have been introduced in the context of quantum technologies, but apply as well for ordinary classical coherence; these techniques, though, rely on intense data processing. Here we show that one can make use of the simpler approach of data fitting patterns in order to obtain an estimate of the Cram\\'er-Rao bound allowed by an unknown detector, and present applications in polarimetry. Further, we show how this formalism provide a useful calculation tool in an estimation problem involving a continuous-variable quantum state, i.e. a quantum harmonic oscillator.

  17. The Sensitising Capacity of Intact β-Lactoglobulin Is Reduced by Co-Administration with Digested β-Lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard


    Background: It is generally believed that protein hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract decreases the allergenicity of food allergens. However, it remains unknown if specific properties of digestion products determine whether a sensitisation or tolerogenic immune response will develop. We sought...

  18. Impact of α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin ratio on the heat stability of model infant milk formula protein systems. (United States)

    Crowley, Shane V; Dowling, Aisling P; Caldeo, Veronica; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A


    Model infant milk formula systems (5.5% protein) were formulated to contain α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1.3, 2.1 or 4.6 and assessed for heat stability and heat-induced changes. 'Humanising' the model formulas by increasing α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin enhanced heat stability at 140°C in the pH range 6.6-6.9. The model formulas were analysed after lab-scale high-temperature short-time heating at pH 6.8. Gel electrophoresis indicated that increased heat stability in high α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin samples was due to decreased covalent interactions between proteins. In low α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin formulas, protein-protein interactions caused marked increases in protein particle size and viscosity of the heated systems; conversely, covalent interactions between proteins were minimal in high α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin formulas. Reduced protein-protein interactions with increasing α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin has important implications for subsequent processing; for example, lower viscosity post-heating may affect bulk density in spray-dried products or physical stability in ready-to-feed products.

  19. Antigenicity and digestibility of β-lactoglobulin in commercially available yogurt


    坂井,堅太郎; 水羽,陽子; 清水池,綾子; 鉄穴森,陽子; 谷廣,佳奈子; 高松,寛子; 萩原,知保; 井原,早枝子; 中島,康絵; 高野,路子; 上田, 久美子


    Yogurt is a production from fermentation of cow’s milk, and is one of major allergenic foods containing a high allergenic protein, called b-lactoglobulin ( b-LG). Although allergenicity in yogurt is not well known, patients with food allergy against cow’s milk generally eliminate it to prevent allergenic syndromes. Because of strong relationship of allergenicity in food proteins with their antigenicity as well as resistance to gastroentero-digestive enzymes, we used the methods of...

  20. Generation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV-Inhibiting Peptides from β-Lactoglobulin Secreted by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Shigemori


    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that hydrolysates of β-lactoglobulin (BLG prepared using gastrointestinal proteases strongly inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV activity in vitro. In this study, we developed a BLG-secreting Lactococcus lactis strain as a delivery vehicle and in situ expression system. Interestingly, trypsin-digested recombinant BLG from L. lactis inhibited DPP-IV activity, suggesting that BLG-secreting L. lactis may be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.


    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  2. Recension: Mao - The Unknown Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren


    Anmeldelse - kritisk! - til Sveriges førende Kinatidsskrift af Jung Chang & Jon Halliday's sensationelle "Mao - the Unknown Story".......Anmeldelse - kritisk! - til Sveriges førende Kinatidsskrift af Jung Chang & Jon Halliday's sensationelle "Mao - the Unknown Story"....

  3. Genotyping of β-Lactoglobulin gene by PCR-RFLP in Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Neelam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of efficiency and economic returns is an important goal in dairy farming, as in any agricultural enterprise. The primary goal of dairy industry has been to identify an efficient and economical way of increasing milk production and its constituents without increasing the size of the dairy herd. Selection of animals with desirable genotypes and mating them to produce the next generation has been the basis of livestock improvement and this would continue to remain the same in the coming years. The use of polymorphic genes as detectable molecular markers is a promising alternative to the current methods of trait selection once these genes are proven to be associated with traits of interest in animals. The point mutations in exon IV of bovine β-Lactoglobulin gene determine two allelic variants A and B. These variants were distinguished by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in two indigenous Bos indicus breeds viz. Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle. DNA samples (228 in Sahiwal and 86 in Tharparkar were analyzed for allelic variants of β-Lactoglobulin gene. Polymorphism was detected by digestion of PCR amplified products with Hae III enzyme, and separation on 12% non-denaturing gels and resolved by silver staining. Results The allele B of β-Lactoglobulin occurred at a higher frequency than the allele A in both Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds. The genotypic frequencies of AA, AB, and BB in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds were 0.031, 0.276, 0.693 and 0.023, 0.733, 0.244 respectively. Frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.17 and 0.83, and 0.39 and 0.61 in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds respectively. The Chi-square test results (at one degree of freedom at one per cent level revealed that the Tharparkar population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium as there was a continuous migration of animals in the herd studied, where as, the results are not significant for the Sahiwal

  4. Crystallization phase diagram, the growth of large single crystals of bovine β-Lactoglobulin A (United States)

    Yagi, D.; Ohnishi, Y.; Tanaka, I.; Niimura, N.


    A crystallization phase diagram defining the meta-stable region of bovine β-lactoglobulin A (β-Lg) was firstly determined by a dialysis method. We have succeeded in growing a large single crystal of β-Lg by selecting a crystal grown in this "meta-stable region" method described in the present paper. The quality of protein crystals was characterized quantitatively via rapid X-ray data collections, followed by the use of Wilson plots to analyze their resulting average B-factors.

  5. Spectroscopic studies of the interactions between β-lactoglobulin and bovine submaxillary mucin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celebioglu, Hilal Yilmaz; Guðjónsdóttir, María; Meier, Sebastian;


    The structural changes occurring during the interaction between β-lactoglobulin (BLG), the major whey protein, and bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM), a major salivary protein, were studied using high and low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and Circular......, observed in BLG only, was further weakened upon interaction with BSM. High field NMR results for the BSM-BLG mixture indicated that spectral differences were mostly observed for solvent exposed groups, especially the mucin glycan chains, while hydrophobic core residues were less affected. The interaction...

  6. Tryptophan 19 residue is the origin of bovine β-lactoglobulin fluorescence. (United States)

    Albani, Jihad René; Vogelaer, Julie; Bretesche, Loïc; Kmiecik, Daniel


    β-Lactoglobulin consists of a single polypeptide of 162 amino acid residues with 2 Trp residues, Trp 19 present in a hydrophobic pocket and Trp 61 present at the surface of the protein near the pocket. This study aimed to characterize the respective contribution of the two Trp residues to the overall fluorescence of the protein. We added for that calcofluor white, an extrinsic fluorophore, which, at high concentration compared to that of the protein, quenches completely emission of hydrophobic Trp residue(s). The study was performed at different pHs by recording fluorescence steady state spectra and measuring fluorescence lifetimes of the Trp-residues using Single Time Photon Counting method. Our results indicate that addition of calcofluor white does not induce a red shift of the tryptophan(s) emission peak (332nm) but only a decrease in the fluorescence intensity. This means that Trp 61 residue does not contribute to the protein emission, tryptophan emission occurs from Trp 19 residue only. Also, excitation spectrum peak position (283nm) of β-lactoglobulin is not modified upon calcofluor white binding. These results mean that structural rearrangements within β-lactoglobulin are not occurring upon calcofluor white binding. Energy transfer between Trp 19 residue and calcofluor white occurs with 100% efficiency, i.e. the two fluorophores are very close one to each other (<5Å). This energy transfer is not Forster type. Fluorescence intensity decay of Trp 19 residue occurs with three lifetimes, equal to 0.48, 1.49 and 4.29ns at pH 2 (monomeric state). Very close values were obtained at the different studied pHs (2-12) and where β-lactoglobulin is at different quaternary structure or present in solution in a mixture of dimers and monomers. Our data are interpreted as the results of emission occurring from different substructures of the tryptophan, reached at the excited state. The populations of these substructures characterized by the pre-exponential parameters

  7. Beta Thalassemia (United States)

    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  8. Modification of β-lactoglobulin by oligofructose: Impact on protein adsorption at the air-water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trofimova, D.; Jongh,


    Maillard products of β-lactoglobulin (βLg) and fructose oligosaccharide (FOS) were obtained in different degrees of modification depending on incubation time and pH. By use of a variety of biochemical and spectroscopic tools, it was demonstrated that the modification at limited degrees does not sign

  9. Hydrography, Published in unknown, SWGRC. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic...

  10. Formal Verification under Unknown Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-hui; LI Xiao-wei


    We present a formal method of verifying designs with unknown constraints (e. g. , black boxes) using Boolean satisfiability (SAT). This method is based on a new encoding scheme of unknown constraints, and solves the corresponding conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Furthermore, this method can avoid the potential memory explosion, which the binary decision diagram (BDD) based techniques maybe suffer from, thus it has the capacity of verifying large designs. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed method.

  11. Data for β-lactoglobulin conformational analysis after (--epigallocatechin gallate and metal ions binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Zhang


    Full Text Available This data article contains complementary results related to the paper “Effect of metal ions on the binding reaction of (--epigallocatechin gallate to β-lactoglobulin” (Zhang et al., 2017 [1]. Data was obtained by circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy to investigate potential β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg conformational changes with different concentrations of EGCg and Cu2+ or Al3+ added to β-Lg. 500 µL of the 25 µM β-Lg solution containing EGCg (25 µM or metal ions (0–500 µM were measured, and the spectra were recorded. CD spectroscopy data present in this article indicated that the β-Lg-Cu, β-Lg-Al and β-Lg-EGCg interaction resulted in unfolding of the secondary structure of β-Lg.

  12. Thermal Study of a Newly Synthesized Cu(II Complex Binding to Bovine β-Lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleh Divsalar


    Full Text Available We have investigated the interactions between β-lactoglobulin, BLG, and new synthesized Cu(II complex (2,2′-dibipyridine Cu(II chloride using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC methods at different temperatures of 298 and 310 K. The heats of BLG + Cu(II interactions are reported and analyzed in terms of the extended solvation theory for calculation of binding and thermodynamic parameters of the interaction. The results suggested that binding of Cu(II complex on BLG resulted in significant changes on the tertiary structure and conformation of protein via increasing of hydrophobicity and inducing partially unfolded structure in BLG which has a good agreement with the solvation parameters recovered by the extended solvation model suggesting destabilization of the protein.

  13. Celestin Freinet, the Unknown Reformer. (United States)

    Lee, William B.


    Although unknown in the United States, Celestin Freinet founded in France an influential educational reform movement, Ecole Moderne, based on four principles: (1) democratic values, (2) empiricism, (3) interaction with nature and life, and (4) work as a basic human need. (SK)

  14. Identification of unknown nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, G. [University of Thrace, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laboratory of Nuclear Technology, Kimmerria Campus, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)


    Aim: provenance determination of unknown nuclear material: - demonstrated for spent nuclear fuel; - information sought for unknown: fuel type, reactor type where fuel was irradiated, final burnup; Using an isotopic finger-printing method: - U, Pu or Pu isotopics or fission products; - simulations of fuel evolution during irradiation, using ORIGEN; - multivariate statistical tools. Fuel considered: simulated commercial spent fuel for a range of burnups: - PWR UO{sub 2} 3.1% and 3.5% {sup 235}U, - PWR thermal MOX, - BWR UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - CANDU-N natural U, - CANDU-S UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - fast Reactor MOX; simulated commercial spent fuel for a range of burnups: - PWR UO{sub 2} 3.1% and 3.5% {sup 235}U, - PWR thermal MOX, - BWR UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - CANDU-N natural U, - CANDU-S UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - fast Reactor MOX; 'unknown' spent fuel: - PWR 1: UO{sub 2} 3.1% {sup 235}U (26 GWd/t), - PWR 2: UO{sub 2} 3.1% {sup 235}U (32 GWd/t). Procedures: U, Pu or Pu isotopic compositions or fission products: - isotopic composition of unknown spent fuel, - simulated for commercial spent fuel from a range of nuclear power reactors {yields} comparison of compositions through factor analysis {yields} unknown has the provenance of the commercial spent fuel with which it exhibits the most similar composition. In conclusion: different reactor-fuel types well resolved; fuel and reactor type accurately predicted; burnup predicted to within 5% of declared; different reactor-fuel types. (authors)





    The objective of the present study was focused on possibilities to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene polymorphisms in dairy cattle belonging to two different genetic groups from the Research and Development Station for Bovine Raising Arad in order to have breeding programs that target an increase in the frequency of the B allele in the dairy cattle population. Genotyping was performed on 20 Romanian Spotted and 18 Brown of Maramures cattle.In order to ...

  16. Massive ascites of unknown origin (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min


    Massive ascites of unknown origin is an uncommon condition, which represent a diagnostic challenge. Patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment may have a poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was referred to this hospital due to a 4-year progressive abdominal distension with massive ascites of unknown origin. By thorough investigations, she was eventually diagnosed as chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. She received pericardiectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. With a few day paracentesis, ascites did not progress any more. She was doing well at 5-month follow-up and has returned to work. Extracardiac manifestations, such as massive ascites and liver cirrhosis, were rare in patients with constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy can be a radical solution for the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis. In order to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, physicians have to bear in mind this rare manifestation of chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24600502

  17. Clustered regression with unknown clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Barman, Kishor


    We consider a collection of prediction experiments, which are clustered in the sense that groups of experiments ex- hibit similar relationship between the predictor and response variables. The experiment clusters as well as the regres- sion relationships are unknown. The regression relation- ships define the experiment clusters, and in general, the predictor and response variables may not exhibit any clus- tering. We call this prediction problem clustered regres- sion with unknown clusters (CRUC) and in this paper we focus on linear regression. We study and compare several methods for CRUC, demonstrate their applicability to the Yahoo Learning-to-rank Challenge (YLRC) dataset, and in- vestigate an associated mathematical model. CRUC is at the crossroads of many prior works and we study several prediction algorithms with diverse origins: an adaptation of the expectation-maximization algorithm, an approach in- spired by K-means clustering, the singular value threshold- ing approach to matrix rank minimization u...

  18. Intercept Capacity: Unknown Unitary Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Moran


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of intercepting communications signals between Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO communication systems. To correctly detect a transmitted message it is necessary to know the gain matrix that represents the channel between the transmitter and the receiver. However, even if the receiver has knowledge of the message symbol set, it may not be possible to estimate the channel matrix. Blind Source Separation (BSS techniques, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA can go some way to extracting independent signals from individual transmission antennae but these may have been preprocessed in a manner unknown to the receiver. In this paper we consider the situation where a communications interception system has prior knowledge of the message symbol set, the channel matrix between the transmission system and the interception system and is able to resolve the transmissionss from independent antennae. The question then becomes: what is the mutual information available to the interceptor when an unknown unitary transformation matrix is employed by the transmitter.

  19. Digestibility of β-lactoglobulin following cross-linking by Trametes versicolor laccase and apple polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available β-Lactoglobulin (BLG is an important nutrient of dairy products and an important allergen in cow’s milk allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of laccase to cross-link BLG in the presence of an apple phenolic extract (APE and to characterize the obtained products for their digestibility by pepsin and pancreatin. The composition of the apple phenolics used for cross-linking was determined by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS. The apple phenolic extract contained significant amounts of quercetin glycosides, catechins and chlorogenic acid. The laccase cross-linked BLG in the presence of apple phenolics. The polymerization rendered the protein insoluble in the reaction mixture. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis of the cross-linking reaction mixture revealed a heterogeneous mixture of high molecular masses (cross-linked BLG, with a fraction of the BLG remaining monomeric. Enzymatic processing of BLG by laccase and apple polyphenols as mediators can decrease the biphasal pepsin–pancreatin digestibility of the monomeric and cross-linked protein, thus decreasing its nutritional value. In addition, reduced BLG digestibility can decrease its allergenic potential. Apple polyphenols can find usage in the creation of new, more functional food products, designed to prevent obesity and hypersensitivity-related disorders.

  20. Functional improvements in β-lactoglobulin by conjugating with soybean soluble polysaccharide. (United States)

    Inada, Naoki; Hayashi, Mai; Yoshida, Tadashi; Hattori, Makoto


    Soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS) was hydrolyzed by autoclaving for 6 and 12 h to obtain SSPS (6 h) and SSPS (12 h). Bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) was conjugated with each SSPS by the Maillard reaction to improve its function. Conjugation between BLG and each SSPS was confirmed by Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. BLG-SSPS (6 h) and BLG-SSPS (12 h), respectively, retained approximately 56 and 43% of the retinol-binding activity of BLG. Structural analyses by intrinsic fluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies indicated that the native structure of BLG had almost been maintained in each conjugate and that the surface structure was covered by conjugated SSPS. The emulsifying properties of BLG were improved in each conjugate at pH 3, 5, and 7 in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl. The antibody responses to BLG-SSPS (6 h) and BLG-SSPS (12 h) were considerably reduced in BALB/c mice. We conclude that conjugation with SSPS was very effective for improving the function of BLG and this study would contribute to greater utilization of SSPS.

  1. Ionic liquid-induced formation of the α-helical structure of β-lactoglobulin. (United States)

    Takekiyo, Takahiro; Koyama, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro


    Structural modification of bovine milk β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) in aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([bmim][NO3]) and ethylammonium nitrate ([EAN][NO3]) solutions has been investigated by Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Remarkably, high ionic liquid (IL) concentrations (>15 mol %IL) caused formation of a non-native α-helical structure of β-LG and disruption of its tertiary structure. Furthermore, while [bmim][NO3] promoted protein aggregation, [EAN][NO3] inhibited it probably owing to differences in the unique solution structure (nanoheterogeneity) of the ILs by the different cationic species. The IL-induced α-helical formation of β-LG shows a behavior similar to the alcohol denaturation, but a disordered structure-rich state was observed in the β-α transition process by adding IL, in contrast to the case of an aqueous alcohol solution of protein. We propose that the molten salt-like property of aqueous IL solutions strongly support α-helical formation of proteins.

  2. Improvement of bovine ß-lactoglobulin production and secretion by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nouaille


    Full Text Available The stabilizing effects of staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc and of a synthetic propeptide (LEISSTCDA, hereafter called LEISS on the production of a model food allergen, bovine ß-lactoglobulin (BLG, in Lactococcus lactis were investigated. The fusion of Nuc to BLG (Nuc-BLG results in higher production and secretion of the hybrid protein. When LEISS was fused to BLG, the production of the resulting protein LEISS-BLG was only slightly improved compared to the one obtained with Nuc-BLG. However, the secretion of LEISS-BLG was dramatically enhanced (~10- and 4-fold higher than BLG and Nuc-BLG, respectively. Finally, the fusion of LEISS to Nuc-BLG resulting in the protein LEISS-Nuc-BLG led to the highest production of the hybrid protein, estimated at ~8 µg/ml (~2-fold higher than Nuc-BLG. In conclusion, the fusions described here led to the improvement of the production and secretion of BLG. These tools will be used to modulate the immune response against BLG via delivery of recombinant lactococci at the mucosal level, in a mouse model of cow's milk allergy.

  3. Curcumin Protects β-Lactoglobulin Fibril Formation and Fibril-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Mazaheri

    Full Text Available In this study the β-lactoglobulin fibrillation, in the presence or absence of lead ions, aflatoxin M1 and curcumin, was evaluated using ThT fluorescence, Circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. To investigate the toxicity of the different form of β-Lg fibrils, in the presence or absence of above toxins and curcumin, we monitored changes in the level of reactive oxygen species and morphology of the differentiated neuron-like PC12 cells. The cell viability, cell body area, average neurite length, neurite width, number of primary neurites, percent of bipolar cells and node/primary neurite ratios were used to assess the growth and complexity of PC12 cells exposed to different form of β-Lg fibrils. Incubation of β-Lg with curcumin resulted in a significant decrease in ROS levels even in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1. The β-Lg fibrils formed in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1 attenuated the growth and complexity of PC12 cells compared with other form of β-Lg fibrils. However, the adverse effects of these toxins and protein fibrils were negated in the presence of curcumin. Furthermore, the antioxidant and inhibitory effects of curcumin protected PC12 cells against fibril neurotoxicity and enhanced their survival. Thus, curcumin may provide a protective effect toward β-Lg, and perhaps other protein, fibrils mediated neurotoxicity.

  4. Colloidal Stability & Conformational Changes in β-Lactoglobulin: Unfolding to Self-Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Blake


    Full Text Available A detailed understanding of the mechanism of unfolding, aggregation, and associated rheological changes is developed in this study for β-Lactoglobulin at different pH values through concomitant measurements utilizing dynamic light scattering (DLS, optical microrheology, Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The diffusion interaction parameter kD emerges as an accurate predictor of colloidal stability for this protein consistent with observed aggregation trends and rheology. Drastic aggregation and gelation were observed at pH 5.5. Under this condition, the protein’s secondary and tertiary structures changed simultaneously. At higher pH (7.0 and 8.5, oligomerizaton with no gel formation occurred. For these solutions, tertiary structure and secondary structure transitions were sequential. The low frequency Raman data, which is a good indicator of hydrogen bonding and structuring in water, has been shown to exhibit a strong correlation with the rheological evolution with temperature. This study has, for the first time, demonstrated that this low frequency Raman data, in conjunction with the DSC endotherm, can be been utilized to deconvolve protein unfolding and aggregation/gelation. These findings can have important implications for the development of protein-based biotherapeutics, where the formulation viscosity, aggregation, and stability strongly affects efficacy or in foods where protein structuring is critical for functional and sensory performance.

  5. Selenium modification of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and its biological activity. (United States)

    Zheng, GuoQiang; Liu, HaoYu; Zhu, ZhenYuan; Zheng, Jie; Liu, AnJun


    β-Lg is a major whey protein in cow's milk. This study was aimed to find a new kind of organic selenium compound synthesized with β-Lg and selenium dioxide as raw materials under the conditions of vacuum and low temperature. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy revealed that seleno-β-lactoglobulin (Se-β-Lg) displayed a strong band at 878cm(-1), belonging to SeO. Circular dichroism spectra results indicated that the conformation of Se-β-Lg was transformed and α-helical, and unordered structures were increased by 9% and 11.2%, respectively, while β-sheet and β-turn were reduced by 14.2% and 6%, respectively. Electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry results showed that there were two protein bands (1-Seβ-Lg and 2-Seβ-Lg) in Se-β-Lg, only one β-Lg connected with selenate in 1-Seβ-Lg, but two β-Lgs, connected to each other, and with selenate, in 2-Seβ-Lg. Morphological observation and hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that Se-β-lg could induce K562 cell apoptosis. These results indicated that Se-β-Lg could be synthesized by selenium conjugating β-Lg and it had antitumor activity.

  6. Hydrolyzed whey protein prevents the development of food allergy to β-lactoglobulin in sensitized mice. (United States)

    Gomes-Santos, Ana Cristina; Fonseca, Roberta Cristelli; Lemos, Luisa; Reis, Daniela Silva; Moreira, Thaís Garcias; Souza, Adna Luciana; Silva, Mauro Ramalho; Silvestre, Marialice Pinto Coelho; Cara, Denise Carmona; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano


    Food allergy is an adverse immune response to dietary proteins. Hydrolysates are frequently used for children with milk allergy. However, hydrolysates effects afterwards are poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological consequences of hydrolyzed whey protein in allergic mice. For that, we developed a novel model of food allergy in BALB/c mice sensitized with alum-adsorbed β-lactoglobulin. These mice were orally challenged with either whey protein or whey hydrolysate. Whey-challenged mice had elevated levels of specific IgE and lost weight. They also presented gut inflammation, enhanced levels of SIgA and IL-5 as well as decreased production of IL-4 and IL-10 in the intestinal mucosa. Conversely, mice challenged with hydrolyzate maintained normal levels of IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 and showed no sign of gut inflammation probably due to increased IL-12 production in the gut. Thus, consumption of hydrolysate prevented the development of clinical signs of food allergy in mice.

  7. β-lactoglobulin as a vector for β-carotene food fortification. (United States)

    Mensi, Azza; Borel, Patrick; Goncalves, Aurélie; Nowicki, Marion; Gleize, Béatrice; Roi, Stéphanie; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas; Reboul, Emmanuelle


    Food fortification is a strategy to overcome vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of the bovine milk protein β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg), a potential retinoid carrier, in vitamin A absorption. In vivo experiments were conducted by force-feeding mice with retinol or β-carotene associated with either β-Lg or oil-in-water emulsion, with subsequent determination of both vitamin A intestinal mucosa and plasma contents. Caco-2 cells were then used to investigate the mechanisms of vitamin A uptake when delivered by either β-Lg or mixed micelles. We showed that β-Lg was as efficient as emulsion to promote β-carotene, but not retinol, absorption in mice. Similar results were obtained in vitro. Interestingly, an inhibitor of the Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I significantly decreased the uptake of micellar β-carotene but not that of β-carotene bound to β-Lg. Overall, we showed that β-Lg would be a good vector for β-carotene food fortification.

  8. Identification of SNPs in the promoter of β-lactoglobulin gene in three Sicilian goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassare Portolano


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to sequence the full-length promoter region of the caprine β-lactoglobulin (β-lg gene in three Sicilian goat breeds (Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria, in order to identify polymorphisms, to search for transcription factors (TFs sites, and to check if polymorphisms found lay within TFs binding sites. The promoter region of β-lg gene in Sicilian goat breeds showed high level of polymorphism due to the presence of 31 SNPs. Binding sites for several TFs were found within the goat β-lg promoter and within regions conserved between ovine and caprine species. Two SNPs were detected within TFs binding sites, such as MPBF and NF-I. Further studies are in progress to confirm polymorphic sites, to evaluate the possible effect of these mutations on binding affinity of TFs, their relationship with β-lg gene expression, and the functional role of SNPs within the TFs sites of the promoter region on milk traits.

  9. Development of β-lactoglobulin-specific chimeric human IgEκ monoclonal antibodies for in vitro safety assessment of whey hydrolysates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Knipping

    Full Text Available Cow's milk-derived whey hydrolysates are nutritional substitutes for allergic infants. Safety or residual allergenicity assessment of these whey hydrolysates is crucial. Currently, rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells expressing the human IgE receptor α-chain (huFcεRIα-RBL-2H3, sensitized with serum IgE from cow's milk allergic children, are being employed to assess in vitro residual allergenicity of these whey hydrolysates. However, limited availability and inter-lot variation of these allergic sera impede standardization of whey hydrolysate safety testing in degranulation assays.An oligoclonal pool of chimeric human (chuIgE antibodies against bovine β-lactoglobulin (a major allergen in whey was generated to increase sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of existing degranulation assays.Mice were immunized with bovine β-lactoglobulin, and subsequently the variable domains of dissimilar anti-β-lactoglobulin mouse IgG antibodies were cloned and sequenced. Six chimeric antibodies were generated comprising mouse variable domains and human constant IgE/κ domains.After sensitization with this pool of anti-β-lactoglobulin chuIgEs, huFcεRIα-expressing RBL-2H3 cells demonstrated degranulation upon cross-linking with whey, native 18 kDa β-lactoglobulin, and 5-10 kDa whey hydrolysates, whereas a 3 kDa whey hydrolysate and cow's milk powder (mainly casein showed no degranulation. In parallel, allergic serum IgEs were less sensitive. In addition, our pool anti-β-lactoglobulin chuIgEs recognized multiple allergenic immunodominant regions on β-lactoglobulin, which were also recognized by serum IgEs from cow's milk allergic children.Usage of our 'unlimited' source and well-defined pool of β-lactoglobulin-specific recombinant chuIgEs to sensitize huFcεRIα on RBL-2H3 cells showed to be a relevant and sensitive alternative for serum IgEs from cow's milk allergic patients to assess safety of whey-based non-allergic hydrolyzed formula.

  10. Determining the gelation temperature of β-lactoglobulin using in situ microscopic imaging. (United States)

    Woo, Hee-Dong; Moon, Tae-Wha; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Ko, Sanghoon


    Evolution of microstructure during heat-induced gelation of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) was investigated in situ using confocal laser scanning microscopy at various gel-preparation conditions: pH=2, 5, and 7; protein content=5, 10, and 15%; and salt (NaCl) content=0, 0.1, and 0.3 M. The number and area of evolving β-LG clusters were observed as a function of time and temperature and the data were fitted to a log-normal model and sigmoid model, respectively. The gelation temperature (Tgel) of the β-LG system was determined from both the number (Tgel/N) and total area (Tgel/A) of β-LG clusters versus temperature data. The range of Tgel/N and Tgel/A values for all the cases was 68 to 87°C. The effect of pH was the most dominant on Tgel/N and Tgel/A, whereas the effects of β-LG and salt contents were also statistically significant. Therefore, the combined effect of protein concentration, pH, and salt content is critical to determine the overall gel microstructure and Tgel. The Tgel/N and Tgel/A generally agreed well with Tgel determined by dynamic rheometry (Tgel/R). The correlations between Tgel/N and Tgel/A versus Tgel/R were 0.85 and 0.72, respectively. In addition, Tgel/N and Tgel/A values compared well with Tgel/R values reported in the literature. Based on these results, Tgel/N determined via in situ microscopy appears to be a fairly good representative of the traditionally measured gelation temperature, Tgel/R.

  11. Computer Aided Grading of Quantitative Unknowns (United States)

    Jones, D. E.; Lytle, F. E.


    The problem of fair grading of unknowns is discussed. An approach is presented to answer some of the important questions concerning faulty procedures, level of accuracy and precision, recognition of bad unknowns,'' and dry labing. (DF)

  12. HPLC Analysis of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin in Bovine Milk with C4 and C18 Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Xiao-yu; Wang Jing; Tang Yan-jun; Li Dan-dan; Zhang Nan-nan; Jiang Jin-dou; Liu Ning


    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with C4 column and C18 column for analyzing β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in bovine milk was developed and the performance and characteristic of two columns were compared. Shiseido Proteonavi C4 column (250 mm×4.6 mm×5μm) and Shiseido CAPCELL PAK SG 300 C18 column (250 mm× 4.6 mm×5 μm) were used in the experiment. Phase A was composed of 0.1% (V/V) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in ultrapure water and Phase B (organic phase) was composed of 0.1% TFA in acetonitrile. Gradient elution was taken. Flow rate was 1 mL min-1. The detection wavelength was 215 nm. The injection volume was 20 μL and the column temperature was 30℃. The results showed that linear relationship was good and recovery of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin was 86.12%-104.38%, C18 column had stronger ability to resist acid and more stable, and the method with C4 column had excellent sensitivities and good separation.

  13. Development and Validation of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay Test Kit for Dual Detection of Casein and β-Lactoglobulin Residues. (United States)

    Masiri, Jongkit; Barrios-Lopez, Brianda; Benoit, Lora; Tamayo, Joshua; Day, Jeffrey; Nadala, Cesar; Sung, Shao-Lei; Samadpour, Mansour


    Allergies to cow's milk are very common and can present as life-threatening anaphylaxis. Consequently, food labeling legislation mandates that foods containing milk residues, including casein and/or β-lactoglobulin, provide an indication of such on the product label. Because contamination with either component independent of the other can occur during food manufacturing, effective allergen management measures for containment of milk residues necessitates the use of dual screening methods. To assist the food industry in improving food safety practices, we have developed a rapid lateral flow immunoassay test kit that reliably reports both residues down to 0.01 μg per swab and 0.1 ppm of protein for foods. The assay utilizes both sandwich and competitive format test lines and is specific for bovine milk residues. Selectivity testing using a panel of matrices with potentially interfering substances, including commonly used sanitizing agents, indicated reduction in the limit of detection by one-to fourfold. With food, residues were easily detected in all cow's milk-based foods tested, but goat and sheep milk residues were not detected. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with common commodities, with the exception of kidney beans when present at high concentrations (> 1%). The development of a highly sensitive and rapid test method capable of detecting trace amounts of casein and/or β-lactoglobulin should aid food manufacturers and regulatory agencies in monitoring for milk allergens in environmental and food samples.

  14. Sub-structures formed in the excited state are responsible for tryptophan residues fluorescence in β-lactoglobulin. (United States)

    Albani, Jihad-Rene


    Origin of tryptophan residues fluorescence in β-lactoglobulin is analyzed. Fluorescence lifetimes and spectra of β-lactoglobulin solution are measured at pH going from 2 to 12 and in 6 M guanidine. Tryptophan residues emit with three lifetimes at all conditions. Two lifetimes (0.4-0.5 ns and 2-4 ns) are in the same range of those measured for tryptophan free in solution. Lifetimes in the denatured states are lower than those measured in the native state. Pre-exponential values are modified with the protein structure. Data are identical to those already obtained for other proteins. Fluorescence lifetimes characterize internal states of the tryptophan residues (Tryptophan sub-structures) independently of the tryptophan environments, the third lifetime results from the interaction that is occurring between the Trp residues and its environment. Pre-exponential values characterize substructures populations. In conclusion, tryptophan mission occurs from substates generated in the excited state. This is in good agreement with the theory we described in recent works.

  15. Characterization and crystallization of a recombinant IgE Fab fragment in complex with the bovine β-lactoglobulin allergen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, Merja, E-mail:; Jänis, Janne [Department of Chemistry, University of Joensuu, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Jylhä, Sirpa [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Kallio, Johanna M.; Hakulinen, Nina [Department of Chemistry, University of Joensuu, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Takkinen, Kristiina [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Rouvinen, Juha [Department of Chemistry, University of Joensuu, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)


    The high-resolution mass-spectrometric characterization, crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a recombinant IgE Fab fragment in complex with bovine β-lactoglobulin are reported. A D1 Fab fragment containing the allergen-binding variable domains of the IgE antibody was characterized by ESI FT–ICR mass spectrometry and crystallized with bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. X-ray data suitable for structure determination were collected to 2.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.0, b = 100.6, c = 168.1 Å. The three-dimensional structure of the D1 Fab fragment–BLG complex will provide the first insight into IgE antibody–allergen interactions at the molecular level.

  16. The known and the unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    symposium of regenerative Medicine gives a glimpse of the stem cell research being pursued in a variety of fields including cancer biology, neurology ,dentistry etc. The abstract on enteric neural stem cells throws light on the stem cell research in the pursuit of therapies for Hirschprung’s disease or the congenital megacolon. The abstracts on Microgravity cell culture, stem cells in spinal cord injury, imaging techniques and lot more is surely a must-read for the researchers, scholars and those interested in this ever exciting field of Stem cell Research.Stem Cell field continues to grow leaving further branches of research into minute aspects ranging from research of the complex interplay of transcription factors, epigenetics, reprogramming and so on. As the field continues to grow it is the duty of such journals to make the scientific community aware of the various ongoing researches in order to contemplate the known and to explore the unknown. With that thought in mind we present to you this interesting Vol 6 Issue III of JSRM.Happy reading!

  17. Complexation of bovine β-lactoglobulin with malvidin-3-O-glucoside and its effect on the stability of grape skin anthocyanin extracts. (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Xu, Mingzhu; Zeng, Maomao; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie


    The binding interaction between bovine β-lactoglobulin and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (MG), the major anthocyanin in grape skin anthocyanin extracts (GSAE), was studied at pH 6.3 using fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The binding constant (KS), binding force and effect of the interaction on the β-lactoglobulin conformation and GSAE stability were investigated. The results indicated that β-lactoglobulin complexed with MG mainly via hydrophobic interaction with KS of 0.67×10(3)M(-)(1) at 297K. The secondary structure of β-lactoglobulin was changed by MG binding, with a decrease in α-helix, turn and random coil and an increase in β-sheet. Bovine whey protein effectively prevented the color fading and degradation of anthocyanin in the GSAE solution during the thermal treatment (80°C/2h), H2O2 oxidation (0.005% H2O2/1h) and photo illumination (5000lx/5d). The whey protein-anthocyanin complexation appeared to have a positive effect on the thermal, oxidation and photo stability of GSAE.

  18. Protein-peptide interaction: study of heat-induced aggregation and gelation of β-lactoglobulin in the presence of two peptides from its own hydrolysate. (United States)

    Kosters, Hans A; Wierenga, Peter A; de Vries, Renko; Gruppen, Harry


    Two peptides, [f135-158] and [f135-162]-SH, were used to study the binding of the peptides to native β-lactolobulin, as well as the subsequent effects on aggregation and gelation of β-lactoglobulin. The binding of the peptide [f135-158] to β-lactoglobulin at room temperature was confirmed by SELDI-TOF-MS. It was further illustrated by increased turbidity of mixed solutions of peptide and protein (at pH 7), indicating association of proteins and peptides in larger complexes. At pH below the isoelectric point of the protein, the presence of peptides did not lead to an increased turbidity, showing the absence of complexation. The protein-peptide complexes formed at pH 7 were found to dissociate directly upon heating. After prolonged heating, extensive aggregation was observed, whereas no aggregation was seen for the pure protein or pure peptide solutions. The presence of the free sulfhydryl group in [f135-162]-SH resulted in a 10 times increase in the amount of aggregation of β-lactoglobulin upon heating, illustrating the additional effect of the free sulfhydryl group. Subsequent studies on the gel strength of heat-induced gels also showed a clear difference between these two peptides. The replacement of additional β-lactoglobulin by [f135-158] resulted in a decrease in gel strength, whereas replacement by peptide [f135-162]-SH increased gel strength.

  19. Protein-polysaccharide interactions: The determination of the osmotic second virial coefficients in aqueous solutions of ß-lactoglobulin and dextran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaink, H.M.; Smit, J.A.M.


    Solutions containing dextran and solutions containing mixtures of dextran +ß-lactoglobulin are studied by membrane osmometry. The low concentration range of these solutions is considered. From the measured osmotic pressures the virial coefficients are obtained. These are analyzed using the osmotic v

  20. Deactivation of ferrylmyoglobin by vanillin as affected by vanillin binding to β-lactoglobulin. (United States)

    Libardi, Silvia Helena; Borges, Júlio C; Skibsted, Leif H; Cardoso, Daniel R


    Vanillin was found to be efficient as a deactivator of ferrylmyoglobin with a second-order rate constant of k(2) = 57 ± 1 L mol(-1) s(-1) for reduction to metmyoglobin with ΔH(‡) = 58.3 ± 0.3 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(‡) = -14 ± 1 J mol(-1) K(-1) in aqueous pH 7.4 solution at 25 °C. Binding to β-lactoglobulin (βLG) was found to affect the reactivity of vanillin at 25 °C only slightly to k(2) = 48 ± 2 L mol(-1) s(-1) (ΔH(‡) = 68.4 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(‡) = 17 ± 1 J mol(-1) K(-1)) for deactivation of ferrylmyoglobin. Binding of vanillin to βLG was found to have a binding stoichiometry vanillin/βLG > 10 with K(A) = 6 × 10(2) L mol(-1) and an apparent total ΔH° of approximately -38 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS° = -55.4 ± 4 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 25 °C and ΔC(p, obs) = -1.02 kJ mol(-1) K(-1) indicative of increasing ordering in the complex, as determined by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. From tryptophan fluorescence quenching for βLG by vanillin, approximately one vanillin was found to bind to each βLG far stronger with K(A) = 5 × 10(4) L mol(-1) and a ΔH° = -10.2 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS° = 55 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 25 °C. The kinetic entropy/enthalpy compensation effect seen for vanillin reactivity by binding to βLG is concluded to relate to the weakly bound vanillin oriented through hydrogen bonds on the βLG surface with the phenolic group pointing toward the solvent, in effect making both ΔH(‡) and ΔS(‡) more positive. The more strongly bound vanillin capable of tryptophan quenching in the βLG calyx seems less or nonreactive.

  1. Efficient production and secretion of bovine β-lactoglobulin by Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal Jean-Michel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are attractive tools to deliver therapeutic molecules at the mucosal level. The model LAB Lactococcus lactis has been intensively used to produce and deliver such heterologous proteins. However, compared to recombinant lactococci, lactobacilli offer some advantages such as better survival in the digestive tract and immunomodulatory properties. Here, we compared different strategies to optimize the production of bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG, a major cow's milk allergen, in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BL23. Results Using a nisin-inducible plasmid system, we first showed that L. casei BL23 strain could efficiently secrete a reporter protein, the staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc, with the lactococcal signal peptide SPUsp45 fused to its N-terminus. The fusion of SPUsp45 failed to drive BLG secretion but led to a 10-fold increase of intracellular BLG production. Secretion was significantly improved when the synthetic propeptide LEISSTCDA (hereafter called LEISS was added to the N-terminus of the mature moiety of BLG. Secretion rate of LEISS-BLG was 6-fold higher than that of BLG alone while intracellular production reached then about 1 mg/L of culture. The highest yield of secretion was obtained by using Nuc as carrier protein. Insertion of Nuc between LEISS and BLG resulted in a 20-fold increase in BLG secretion, up to 27 μg/L of culture. Furthermore, the lactococcal nisRK regulatory genes were integrated into the BL23 chromosome. The nisRK insertion allowed a decrease of BLG synthesis in uninduced cultures while BLG production increased by 50% after nisin induction. Moreover, modification of the induction protocol led to increase the proportion of soluble BLG to around 74% of the total BLG production. Conclusion BLG production and secretion in L. casei were significantly improved by fusions to a propeptide enhancer and a carrier protein. The resulting recombinant strains will be further tested

  2. Topologically heterogeneous beta cell adaptation in response to high-fat diet in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, J.H.; Tons, H.A.; de Graaf, N.; Loomans, C.J.; Engelse, M.A.; Vrolijk, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Rabelink, T.J.; Carlotti, F.; de Koning, E.J.


    AIMS: Beta cells adapt to an increased insulin demand by enhancing insulin secretion via increased beta cell function and/or increased beta cell number. While morphological and functional heterogeneity between individual islets exists, it is unknown whether regional differences in beta cell adaptati

  3. Effect of polymorphic variants of GH, Pit-1, and beta-LG genes on milk production of Holstein cows. (United States)

    Heidari, M; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Zerehdaran, S


    Effect of polymorphic variants of growth hormone (GH), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and Pit-1 genes on milk yield was analyzed in a Holstein herd. Genotypes of the cows for these genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Allele frequencies were 0.884 and 0.116 for L and V variants of GH, 0.170 and 0.830 for A and B variants of Pit-1, and 0.529 and 0.471 for A and B variants of beta-LG, respectively. GLM procedure of SAS software was used to test the effects of these genes on milk yield. Results indicated significant effects of these genes on milk yield (P LG gene, milk yield of animals with AA genotype was more than BB genotype (P LG (AA) were superior compared to heterozygote genotypes, whereas, the heterozygote genotype of Pit-1 gene (AB) was desirable.

  4. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents



    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed...

  5. Magnetic-responsive hybrids of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with β-lactoglobulin amyloid fibrils and nanoclusters. (United States)

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Vallooran, Jijo J; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele


    We report on the synthesis and magnetic-responsive behavior of hybrids formed by dispersing negatively charged iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles in positively charged β-lactoglobulin protein solutions at acidic pH, followed by heating at high temperatures. Depending on the pH used, different hybrid aggregates can be obtained, such as nanoparticle-modified amyloid fibrils (pH 3) and spherical nanoclusters (pH 4.5). We investigate the effect of magnetic fields of varying strengths (0-5 T) on the alignment of these Fe3O4-modified amyloid fibrils and spherical nanoclusters using a combination of scattering, birefringence and microscopic techniques and we find a strong alignment of the hybrids upon increasing the intensity of the magnetic field, which we quantify via 2D and 3D order parameters. We also demonstrate the possibility of controlling magnetically the sol-gel behavior of these hybrids: addition of salt (NaCl, 150 mM) to a solution containing nanoparticles modified with β-lactoglobulin amyloid fibrils (2 wt % fibrils modified with 0.6 wt % Fe3O4 nanoparticles) induces first the formation of a reversible gel, which can then be converted back to solution upon application of a moderate magnetic field of 1.1 T. These hybrids offer a new appealing functional colloidal system in which the aggregation, orientational order and rheological behavior can be efficiently controlled in a purely noninvasive way by external magnetic fields of weak intensity.

  6. State Boundaries, Published in unknown, Douglas County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other...

  7. Watershed Boundaries, Published in unknown, SWGRC. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  8. Geographic Place Names, Published in unknown, SWGRC. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geographic Place Names dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent...

  9. Airports and Airfields, Published in unknown, SWGRC. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent...

  10. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  11. Intelligent Mobile Robot Control in Unknown Environments (United States)

    Mester, Gyula

    This paper gives the fuzzy reactive control of a wheeled mobile robot motion in an unknown environment with obstacles. The model of the vehicle has two driving wheels and the angular velocities of the two wheels are independently controlled. When the vehicle is moving towards the target and the sensors detect an obstacle, an avoiding strategy is necessary. We proposed a fuzzy reactive navigation strategy of collision-free motion in an unknown environment with obstacles. First, the vehicle kinematics constraints and kinematics model are analyzed. Then the fuzzy reactive control of a wheeled mobile robot motion in an unknown environment with obstacles is proposed. Output of the fuzzy controller is the angular speed difference between the left and right wheels (wheel angular speed correction) of the vehicle. The simulation results show the effectiveness and the validity of the obstacle avoidance behavior in an unknown environment of the proposed fuzzy control strategy.

  12. Existence conditions for unknown input functional observers (United States)

    Fernando, T.; MacDougall, S.; Sreeram, V.; Trinh, H.


    This article presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence and design of an unknown input Functional observer. The existence of the observer can be verified by computing a nullspace of a known matrix and testing some matrix rank conditions. The existence of the observer does not require the satisfaction of the observer matching condition (i.e. Equation (16) in Hou and Muller 1992, 'Design of Observers for Linear Systems with Unknown Inputs', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 37, 871-875), is not limited to estimating scalar functionals and allows for arbitrary pole placement. The proposed observer always exists when a state observer exists for the unknown input system, and furthermore, the proposed observer can exist even in some instances when an unknown input state observer does not exist.

  13. Bayesian modeling of unknown diseases for biosurveillance. (United States)

    Shen, Yanna; Cooper, Gregory F


    This paper investigates Bayesian modeling of unknown causes of events in the context of disease-outbreak detection. We introduce a Bayesian approach that models and detects both (1) known diseases (e.g., influenza and anthrax) by using informative prior probabilities and (2) unknown diseases (e.g., a new, highly contagious respiratory virus that has never been seen before) by using relatively non-informative prior probabilities. We report the results of simulation experiments which support that this modeling method can improve the detection of new disease outbreaks in a population. A key contribution of this paper is that it introduces a Bayesian approach for jointly modeling both known and unknown causes of events. Such modeling has broad applicability in medical informatics, where the space of known causes of outcomes of interest is seldom complete.

  14. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States. (United States)

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni


    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.

  15. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim eSalih


    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  16. Multidimensional procurement auctions with unknown weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Thomas

    This paper studies the consequences of holding a procurement auction when the principal chooses not to show its preferences. My paper extends the procurement auction model of Che (1993) to a situation where both the principal and the agents have private information. Thus, unknown parameters of both...

  17. Method for genetic identification of unknown organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Hindson, Benjamin J.; Carter, Chance J.; Beer, Neil Reginald


    A method of rapid, genome and proteome based identification of unknown pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms in a complex sample. The entire sample is analyzed by creating millions of emulsion encapsulated microdroplets, each containing a single pathogenic or non-pathogenic organism sized particle and appropriate reagents for amplification. Following amplification, the amplified product is analyzed.

  18. "Autothixotropy" of Water - an Unknown Physical Phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Vybiral, B; Vybiral, Bohumil; Voracek, Pavel


    A complex of until now unknown phenomena ongoing in water was discovered in laboratory experiments, where it made impossible gravimetric measurements with the necessarily extreme precision. This behaviour of water, which we call autothixotropy, was the issue of the presented experimental research. We are also proposing a possible explanation.

  19. Alterations in nanoparticle protein corona by biological surfactants: impact of bile salts on β-lactoglobulin-coated gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Winuprasith, Thunnalin; Chantarak, Sirinya; Suphantharika, Manop; He, Lili; McClements, David Julian


    The impact of biological surfactants (bile salts) on the protein (β-lactoglobulin) corona surrounding gold nanoparticles (200 nm) was studied using a variety of analytical techniques at pH 7: dynamic light scattering (DLS); particle electrophoresis (ζ-potential); UV-visible (UV) spectroscopy; transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The bile salts adsorbed to the protein-coated nanoparticle surfaces and altered their interfacial composition, charge, and structure. SERS spectra of protein-coated nanoparticles after bile salt addition contained bands from both protein and bile salts, indicating that the protein was not fully displaced by the bile salts. UV, DLS and TEM techniques also indicated that the protein coating was not fully displaced from the nanoparticle surfaces. The impact of bile salts could be described by an orogenic mechanism: mixed interfaces were formed that consisted of islands of aggregated proteins surrounded by a sea of bile salts. This knowledge is useful for understanding the interactions of bile salts with protein-coated colloidal particles, which may be important for controlling the fate of colloidal delivery systems in the human gastrointestinal tract, or the gastrointestinal fate of ingested inorganic nanoparticles.

  20. Structural and thermo-rheological analysis of solutions and gels of a β-lactoglobulin fraction isolated from bovine whey. (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Fuciños, Pablo; Bargiela, Verónica; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Tovar, Clara Asunción; Luisa Rúa, M


    A β-Lactoglobulin fraction (r-βLg) was isolated from milk whey hydrolysates produced with cardosins from Cynara cardunculus. The impact of the technological process on the r-βLg structure and how in turn this determined its heat-induced gelation was investigated. Results were analysed taking pure β-Lg (p-βLg) as control sample. The process induced changes in the r-βLg native conformation causing exposure of hydrophobic groups, lower thermal stability and also, shorter thermal treatments needed to give rise to non-native and aggregated species. At pH 3.2, r-βLg and p-βLg solutions exhibited two gelation steps, with the advantage that r-βLg protein may form stable gels at lower temperature than p-βLg. At pH 7.2, a specific thermo-viscoelastic stability to 73 °C was found, which corresponded to the gel point in both protein solutions. The difference was that while for p-βLg solution in sol state δ45° (fluid-like).

  1. Modulating β-lactoglobulin nanofibril self-assembly at pH 2 using glycerol and sorbitol. (United States)

    Dave, Anant C; Loveday, Simon M; Anema, Skelte G; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Singh, Harjinder


    β-Lactoglobulin (β-lg) forms fibrils when heated at 80 °C, pH 2, and low ionic strength (sorbitol (0-50% w/v) on β-lg self-assembly at pH 2. Glycerol and sorbitol stabilize native protein structure and modulate protein functionality by preferential exclusion. In our study, both polyols decreased the rate of β-lg self-assembly but had no effect on the morphology of fibrils. The mechanism of these effects was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE. Sorbitol inhibited self-assembly by stabilizing β-lg against unfolding and hydrolysis, resulting in fewer fibrillogenic species, whereas glycerol inhibited nucleation without inhibiting hydrolysis. Both polyols increased the viscosity of the solutions, but viscosity appeared to have little effect on fibril assembly, and we believe that self-assembly was not diffusion-limited under these conditions. This is in agreement with previous reports for other proteins assembling under different conditions. The phenomenon of peptide self-assembly can be decoupled from protein hydrolysis using glycerol.

  2. Targeting Human α-Lactalbumin Gene Insertion into the Goat β-Lactoglobulin Locus by TALEN-Mediated Homologous Recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhu

    Full Text Available Special value of goat milk in human nutrition and well being is associated with medical problems of food allergies which are caused by milk proteins such as β-lactoglobulin (BLG. Here, we employed transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN-assisted homologous recombination in goat fibroblasts to introduce human α-lactalbumin (hLA genes into goat BLG locus. TALEN-mediated targeting enabled isolation of colonies with mono- and bi-allelic transgene integration in up to 10.1% and 1.1%, respectively, after selection. Specifically, BLG mRNA levels were gradually decreasing in both mo- and bi-allelic goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs while hLA demonstrated expression in GMECs in vitro. Gene-targeted fibroblast cells were efficiently used in somatic cell nuclear transfer, resulting in production of hLA knock-in goats directing down-regulated BLG expression and abundant hLA secretion in animal milk. Our findings provide valuable background for animal milk optimization and expedited development for agriculture and biomedicine.

  3. Effect of casein genes - beta-LGB, DGAT1, GH, and LHR - on milk production and milk composition traits in crossbred Holsteins. (United States)

    Molee, A; Poompramun, C; Mernkrathoke, P


    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a single gene and composite genotype of the casein gene family, including the beta-lactoglobulin gene (beta-LGB), acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), growth hormone gene (GH), and luteinizing hormone receptor gene (LHR) on milk yield, milk composition, the percentage of fat, protein, solids-not-fat, and total solid in crossbred Holsteins. A total of 231 crossbred Holstein cows were examined for the study. The genotype of the beta-casein gene was analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while the alpha-S1, alpha-S2, kappa-casein, DGAT1, beta-LGB, and GH genes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The association between genes and milk yield and milk composition was analyzed. Three pairs of genes, for which significant associations were detected, were beta + kappa-casein, DGAT1 + beta-casein, and GH + beta-LGB. In the single-gene model, most loci are significantly associated with traits. A significant association between the composite genotype and the traits was detected in all composite genotypes. GH + beta-LGB appears to be the most suitable variants for improving milk production and percentage of milk protein. Overall, the effects of the composite genotype and single gene were different. A physical or functional relationship between genes is necessary for investigating gene markers.

  4. The C-terminal region of laminin beta chains modulates the integrin binding affinities of laminins. (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Ido, Hiroyuki; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Sato-Nishiuchi, Ryoko; Futaki, Sugiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi


    Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins in basement membranes that are capable of binding to integrins. Laminins consist of three chains (alpha, beta, and gamma), in which three laminin globular modules in the alpha chain and the Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of the gamma chain have been shown to be prerequisites for binding to integrins. However, it remains unknown whether any part of the beta chain is involved in laminin-integrin interactions. We compared the binding affinities of pairs of laminin isoforms containing the beta1 or beta2 chain toward a panel of laminin-binding integrins, and we found that beta2 chain-containing laminins (beta2-laminins) bound more avidly to alpha3beta1 and alpha7X2beta1 integrins than beta1 chain-containing laminins (beta1-laminins), whereas alpha6beta1, alpha6beta4, and alpha7X1beta1 integrins did not show any preference toward beta2-laminins. Because alpha3beta1 contains the "X2-type" variable region in the alpha3 subunit and alpha6beta1 and alpha6beta4 contain the "X1-type" region in the alpha6 subunit, we hypothesized that only integrins containing the X2-type region were capable of discriminating between beta1-laminins and beta2-laminins. In support of this possibility, a putative X2-type variant of alpha6beta1 was produced and found to bind preferentially to beta2-laminins. Production of a series of swap mutants between the beta1 and beta2 chains revealed that the C-terminal 20 amino acids in the coiled-coil domain were responsible for the enhanced integrin binding by beta2-laminins. Taken together, the results provide evidence that the C-terminal region of beta chains is involved in laminin recognition by integrins and modulates the binding affinities of laminins toward X2-type integrins.

  5. Noma: an "infectious" disease of unknown aetiology. (United States)

    Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Pittet, Brigitte; Montandon, Denys; Bolivar, Ignacio; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Jaquinet, Alexandre; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier


    Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to severe tissue destruction in the face and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is seen almost exclusively in young children living in remote areas of less developed countries, particularly in Africa. The exact prevalence of the disease is unknown, but a conservative estimate is that 770000 people are currently affected by noma sequelae. The cause remains unknown, but a combination of several elements of a plausible aetiology has been identified: malnutrition, a compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene and a lesion of the gingival mucosal barrier, and an unidentified bacterial factor acting as a trigger for the disease. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatment of the acute phase and sequelae requiring reconstructive surgery. Noma may be preventable if recognised at an early stage. Further research is needed to identify more exactly the causative agents.

  6. Unified sensor management in unknown dynamic clutter (United States)

    Mahler, Ronald; El-Fallah, Adel


    In recent years the first author has developed a unified, computationally tractable approach to multisensor-multitarget sensor management. This approach consists of closed-loop recursion of a PHD or CPHD filter with maximization of a "natural" sensor management objective function called PENT (posterior expected number of targets). In this paper we extend this approach so that it can be used in unknown, dynamic clutter backgrounds.

  7. Taganrog's Clandestine Guerrilla Groups: Unknown Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy S. Chumachenko


    Full Text Available This is the first publication of archival documents captured during the battle containing previously unknown information about the activities of one anti-fascist Taganrog’s guerrilla group, which operated during the occupation of the town by German troops in 1941–1943. It is a part of the investigative materials of the punitive operation against the guerrillas carried out by the Russian police, where traitors served, under the guidance of the German counterintelligence.

  8. High-dimensional regression with unknown variance

    CERN Document Server

    Giraud, Christophe; Verzelen, Nicolas


    We review recent results for high-dimensional sparse linear regression in the practical case of unknown variance. Different sparsity settings are covered, including coordinate-sparsity, group-sparsity and variation-sparsity. The emphasize is put on non-asymptotic analyses and feasible procedures. In addition, a small numerical study compares the practical performance of three schemes for tuning the Lasso esti- mator and some references are collected for some more general models, including multivariate regression and nonparametric regression.

  9. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J


    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  10. Multidimensional procurement auctions with unknown weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Thomas

    This paper studies the consequences of holding a procurement auction when the principal chooses not to show its preferences. My paper extends the procurement auction model of Che (1993) to a situation where both the principal and the agents have private information. Thus, unknown parameters of bo...... gives rise to an analysis of a principal that can not fully commit to the outcome induced by the scoring rule. Therefore, my result apply to contract theory and it’s problems with imperfect commitment....

  11. Fever of unknown origin in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkulov Vesna


    Full Text Available Introduction. Causes of fever of unknown origin are different. It is considered that it can be caused with over 200 different clinical entities. Aetiological causes differ according to different categories of age. Febricity in the elderly is at most the result of autoimmune processes, malignancies, bacterial infections and vasculitis. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the most common characteristics of fever, the most common laboratory, bacterial and viral tests and to analyze applied therapy in patients with unknown febrile state, and to affirm final diagnosis in elderly patients, as well as younger than 65 years old, and to define outcome of disease in both groups of patients. Methods. Research comprised 100 patients who had been treated at the Infectious Disease Clinic of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina in Novi Sad, during a three-year period, and in whom fever of unknown origin had been diagnosed. Patients were divided into two homogenous groups of 50 people. The first one (S consisted of patients older than 65 years, and the second, control group (K was constituted of patients younger than the age of 65. All of them were chosen by random sample method. Results. Average results of standard laboratory parameters of infection were obtained, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, fibrinogen, CRP, and especially leukocyte, and those were significantly higher in the group of elderly patients. The cause had not been found in 10% of elderly patient group, and in the younger group, not even in the third of patients. Among known causative agents dominant were infections, usually of respiratory and urinary tract, in both tested groups. Even 28% of the elderly had sepsis, and 10% endocarditis. Malignant diseases were more frequent in group of the elderly patients, and immune i.e. systematic disorders were evenly noticed in both groups of patients. Conclusion. Despite advanced studies in medicine, and existence of modern

  12. Estimating Unknown Sparsity in Compressed Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Miles E


    Within the framework of compressed sensing, many theoretical guarantees for signal reconstruction require that the number of linear measurements $n$ exceed the sparsity ||x||_0 of the unknown signal x\\in\\R^p. However, if the sparsity ||x||_0 is unknown, the choice of $n$ remains problematic. This paper considers the problem of estimating the unknown degree of sparsity of $x$ with only a small number of linear measurements. Although we show that estimation of ||x||_0 is generally intractable in this framework, we consider an alternative measure of sparsity s(x):=\\frac{\\|x\\|_1^2}{\\|x\\|_2^2}, which is a sharp lower bound on ||x||_0, and is more amenable to estimation. When $x$ is a non-negative vector, we propose a computationally efficient estimator \\hat{s}(x), and use non-asymptotic methods to bound the relative error of \\hat{s}(x) in terms of a finite number of measurements. Remarkably, the quality of estimation is \\emph{dimension-free}, which ensures that \\hat{s}(x) is well-suited to the high-dimensional reg...

  13. Pregnancy of unknown location (PUL: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setu Rathod


    Full Text Available While most pregnancies are obviously within the uterus, Pregnancy of Unknown Location (PUL is used to describe cases where, there is a positive pregnancy test but no sign of a pregnancy inside or outside the uterus, on transvaginal ultrasound or even at laparoscopy. We report a case of multigravida with history of disturbed tubal ectopic pregnancy in previous pregnancy presented with lower abdominal pain and spotting per vaginum following 6 weeks amenorrhoea. The patient was clinically stable with no evidence of intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy in transvaginal sonography with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG above descriminatory levels. Provisional diagnosis of Pregnancy of Unknown Location (PUL was made and serial beta-hCG levels shows increasing levels. Endometrial curettage done with histopathology report showed product of conception following which there was a fall in serum beta-hCG. She was finally diagnosed as a case of silent miscarriage. Expectant management has been shown to be safe and effective in reducing the need for surgical intervention but does require close surveillance of patients who present with PUL. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 808-811

  14. Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis of β-Lactoglobulin and α-Lactalbumin in Different Types of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotkāja Oksana


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect major whey proteins α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. RPHPLC methods were developed using the column YMC Pack-C4, which enabled the separation of whey proteins within 30 min. Mobile phase was acetonitrile/water/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA with gradient elution, flow rate was 1.0 mL·min−1, and the detection wavelength was 210 nm. Column temperature was 40°C and injection volume was 20 μL.

  15. Investigation of the molecular interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and low methoxyl pectin by multi-detection high performance size exclusion chromatography (United States)

    Combining milk proteins and polysaccharides may result in new food ingredients with enhanced properties, compared to the single protein or polysaccharide, that are especially useful for improving the nutritional value, textural properties and stability of foods. However, formulations of these ingre...

  16. Studies of molecular interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and sugar beet pectin at neutral pH by high performance size exclusion chromatography (United States)

    Foods that are rich in protein and other micronutrients such as bioactives and vitamins but low in sugar and fat may help mitigate the global obesity epidemic. Specialty ingredients can be fabricated to possess specific functions such as encapsulating bioactives through controlled assembly of protei...

  17. Spectroscopic and dynamic properties of arachidonoyl serotonin- β-lactoglobulin complex: A molecular modeling and chemometric study. (United States)

    Gholami, Samira; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Akvan, Nadia


    UV-Vis absorption data of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and arachidonoyl serotonin (AA-5HT) in BLG complex were examined and analyzed using chemometrics method. Analysis of the spectral data matrices by using the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm resulted to the pure concentration calculation and spectral profiles resolution of the chemical constituents and the values of (6.433±0.019)×10(4)M(-1), (4.532±0.007)×10(4)M(-1), (3.364±0.010)×10(4)M(-1) and (2.977±0.013)×10(4)M(-1) as estimated equilibrium constants at 288, 293, 298 and 303K, respectively. The number of chemical constituents involved in the interaction which was extracted by PCA method were free and bound BLG. The spontaneity of the binding process and critical role of hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions in stabilizing protein-ligand complex have been designated by negative values of Gibbs free energy, entropy and enthalpy changes. Molecular docking study showed that AA-5HT binds to Val(41), Leu(39), Leu(54), Ile(71), Phe(82), Asn(90), Val(92), Phe(105), Met(107), Glu(108) with the free binding energy of -37.478kJ/mol. Computational studies predicted that in spite of serotonin (5HT) which anchors to the outer surface of BLG by hydrogen bonds, AA-5HT is situated in the calyx pose and stayed there during the entire time of simulation. This binding is accompanying with no apparent influence on secondary structure and partially destabilization of tertiary structure of BLG which pointed the suitability of this protein as drug carrier for AA-5HT.

  18. Thermal stability of the complex formed between carotenoids from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and bovine β-lactoglobulin (United States)

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Ursache, Florentina-Mihaela; Turturică, Mihaela; Râpeanu, Gabriela; Stănciuc, Nicoleta


    Sea buckthorn has gained importance as a versatile nutraceutical, due to its high nutritive value in terms of carotenoids content. β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) is a natural carrier for various bioactive compounds. In this study, the effect of thermal treatment in the temperature range of 25 to 100 °C for 15 min on the complex formed by β-LG and carotenoids from sea buckthorn was reported, based on fluorescence spectroscopy, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation results. Also, the berries extracts were analyzed for their carotenoids content. The chromatographic profile of the sea buckthorn extracts revealed the presence of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, as major compounds. The Stern-Volmer constants and binding parameters between β-LG and β-carotene were estimated based on quenching experiments. When thermally treating the β-LG-carotenoids mixtures, an increase in intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence intensity up to 90 °C was observed, together with blue-shifts in maximum emission in the lower temperature range and red-shifts at higher temperature. Based on fluorescence spectroscopy results, the unfolding of the protein molecules at high temperature was suggested. Detailed information obtained at atomic level revealed that events taking place in the complex heated at high temperature caused important changes in the β-carotene binding site, therefore leading to a more thermodynamically stable assembly. This study can be used to understand the changes occurring at molecular level that could help food operators to design new ingredients and functional foods, and to optimize the processing methods in order to obtain healthier food products.

  19. β-lactoglobulin's conformational requirements for ligand binding at the calyx and the dimer interphase: a flexible docking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Domínguez-Ramírez

    Full Text Available β-lactoglobulin (BLG is an abundant milk protein relevant for industry and biotechnology, due significantly to its ability to bind a wide range of polar and apolar ligands. While hydrophobic ligand sites are known, sites for hydrophilic ligands such as the prevalent milk sugar, lactose, remain undetermined. Through the use of molecular docking we first, analyzed the known fatty acid binding sites in order to dissect their atomistic determinants and second, predicted the interaction sites for lactose with monomeric and dimeric BLG. We validated our approach against BLG structures co-crystallized with ligands and report a computational setup with a reduced number of flexible residues that is able to reproduce experimental results with high precision. Blind dockings with and without flexible side chains on BLG showed that: i 13 experimentally-determined ligands fit the calyx requiring minimal movement of up to 7 residues out of the 23 that constitute this binding site. ii Lactose does not bind the calyx despite conformational flexibility, but binds the dimer interface and an alternate Site C. iii Results point to a probable lactolation site in the BLG dimer interface, at K141, consistent with previous biochemical findings. In contrast, no accessible lysines are found near Site C. iv lactose forms hydrogen bonds with residues from both monomers stabilizing the dimer through a claw-like structure. Overall, these results improve our understanding of BLG's binding sites, importantly narrowing down the calyx residues that control ligand binding. Moreover, our results emphasize the importance of the dimer interface as an insufficiently explored, biologically relevant binding site of particular importance for hydrophilic ligands. Furthermore our analyses suggest that BLG is a robust scaffold for multiple ligand-binding, suitable for protein design, and advance our molecular understanding of its ligand sites to a point that allows manipulation to control


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotache Lacramioara


    Full Text Available The paper is an effort to unknown areas identity affirmation, through collaborative development of advertising mix, with an emphasis on virtual platforms as admissible solution for increasing visibility. Based upon comparative effective analysis of categories of communication particularities, it is suggested a positioning strategic solution, via virtual advertising platform as unique, integrated, complex and very attractive tourism product promotion, fitted for the internal and international tourism circuit. The active promotion of the specified territorial identity will launch a brand with an impact among tourists by using marketing techniques and innovating technical means and prioritizing tourism as a principal vector of local and regional development.

  1. Universal communication over unknown vector channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lomnitz, Yuval


    Consider communication over a channel whose probabilistic model is completely unknown vector-wise and is not assumed to be stationary. Communication over such channels is challenging because knowing the past does not indicate anything about the future. The existence of reliable feedback and common randomness is assumed. In a previous paper it was shown that the Shannon capacity cannot be attained, in general, if the channel is not known. An alternative notion of "capacity" was defined, which is the maximum rate of reliable communication by any block-coding system used over consecutive blocks. This rate was shown to be achievable for the modulo-additive channel with an individual, unknown noise sequence, and not achievable for some channels with memory. In this paper this "capacity" is shown to be achievable for general channel models possibly including memory, as long as this memory fades with time. In other words, there exists a system with feedback and common randomness that without knowledge of the channel...

  2. The Combined Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure and Calcium Salts on the Stability, Solubility and Gel Formation of β-Lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saalfeld


    Full Text Available Stability, aggregation and gelation of β-Lactoglobulin are affected by high pressure and salts of the Hofmeister series. Little is known about their combined effects on structure formation processes of β-Lactoglobulin, mainly because many salts of the series are not suitable for use in food. Here, we investigate the effect of calcium salts on the strength of pressure-induced gels, inspired by the fact that high pressure and salts change the water structure in a similar way. We find that the larger the applied pressures, the higher the strength of the gels. In addition to pressure, there is a significant influence by the type of anions and the amount of added calcium salts. Gel strength increases in the order CaCl2 < Ca (NO32 < CaI2. This trend correlates with the position of the salts in the Hofmeister series. The results are explained by analogy with the thermal aggregate formation by taking reaction rates for unfolding and aggregation, as well as specific/non-specific salts effect into consideration.

  3. Cross Reactivity between Dromedary Whey Proteins and IgG Anti Bovine α-Lactalbumin and Anti Bovine β-Lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Youcef


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Our aim was to enhance the data on antigenic properties of dromedary whey proteins. Approach: The identification of the whey proteins was carried by SDS-page and Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The cross-reactivity of dromedary whey proteins with IgG anti bovine β-lactoglobulin and anti bovine α-lactalbumin, obtained by immunisation of Balb/c mice, was carried out by ELISA. Results: The SDS-page showed the presence of band corresponding to α-lactalbumin and albumin serum; this was confirmed by the chromatogram obtained by RP-HPLC, where we detected a pick corresponding to α-lactalbumin. There was a cross reaction of dromedary whey proteins with IgG anti bovin α-~­lactalbumin but it was very weak with IgG anti boin β-lactoglobulin. Conclusion: We detected a cross reactivity between dromedary whey proteins and IgG anti bovin α-lactalbumin.

  4. β-Lactoglobulin detected in human milk forms noncovalent complexes with maltooligosaccharides as revealed by chip-nanoelectrospray high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Capitan, Florina; Robu, Adrian C; Schiopu, Catalin; Ilie, Constantin; Chait, Brian T; Przybylski, Michael; Zamfir, Alina D


    Cow's milk protein allergy in exclusively breastfed infants, the main cause of food intolerance during the first 6 months of life, is triggered by the mother's diet. β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) present in cow's milk is one of the most potent allergens for newborns. Since no prophylactic treatment is available, finding ligands capable of binding BLG and reducing its allergenicity is currently the focus of research. In this work, an innovative methodology encompassing microfluidics based on fully automated chip-nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI), coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF MS) instrument was developed. This platform was employed for the assessment of the noncovalent interactions between maltohexaose (Glc6) and β-lactoglobulin extracted from human milk upon deliberate intake of cow's milk. The experiments were carried out in (+) ESI mode, using ammonium acetate (pH 6.0) as the buffer and also in pure water. In both cases, the MS analysis revealed the formation of BLG-Glc6 complex, which was characterized by top-down fragmentation in tandem MS (MS/MS) using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Our findings have a significant biomedical impact, indicating that Glc6 binds BLG under conditions mimicking the in vivo environment and therefore might represent a ligand, able to reduce its allergenicity.

  5. A novel ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for the rapid determination of β-lactoglobulin as heat load indicator in commercial milk samples. (United States)

    Boitz, Lisa I; Fiechter, Gregor; Seifried, Reinhold K; Mayer, Helmut K


    The level of undenatured acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin can be used as an indicator to assess the heat load applied to liquid milk, thus further allowing the discrimination between milk originating from different thermal production processes. In this work, a new UHPLC method for the rapid determination of bovine β-lactoglobulin in 1.8min only (total runtime 3min) is presented using simple UV detection at 205nm. Separation selectivity for possibly co-eluting other major whey proteins (bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin G) was verified, and the method validated for the analysis of liquid milk samples regarding linearity (20-560μg/mL, R(2)>0.99), instrumentation precision (RSDsESL) milk, quite diverse levels were determined ranging from ∼100 up to 4000mg/L, thus clearly illustrating variable applied heat loads and impacts on the "nativeness" of milk essentially due to the fact that the production technologies used for ESL milk may differ significantly, and are currently not regulated in the EU.

  6. The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto


    The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.

  7. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Favier


    Full Text Available Carcinomatous meningitis (CM occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

  8. Unknown components of the plastidial permeome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Renate Pick


    Full Text Available Beyond their role in photosynthesis plastids provide a plethora of additional metabolic functions to plant cells. For example, they harbor complete biosynthetic pathways for the de novo synthesis of carotenoids, fatty acids, and amino acids. Furthermore plastids contribute important reactions to multi-compartmentalized pathways, such as photorespiration or plant hormone syntheses, and they depend on the import essential molecules that they cannot synthesize themselves, such as ascorbic acid. This causes a high traffic of metabolites across the plastid envelope. Although it was recently shown that nonpolar substrates could be exchanged between the plastid and the ER without involving transporters, various essential transport processes are mediated by highly selective but still unknown metabolite transporters. This review focuses on selected components of the plastidial permeome that are predicted to exist but that have not yet been identified as molecular entities, such as the transporter for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP or ascorbic acid.

  9. Progress of radiation oncology: known and unknown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jing; Yu Jinming


    Objective To elaborate known and unknown aspects of radiation oncology.Data sources Data cited in this review were obtained mainly from PubMed and Medline in English from 1999 to 2013,with keywords "individualized medicine","personalized medicine","radiation dose","radiation target","molecular targeted therapy","molecular imaging" and "~nctional imaging".Study selection Articles regarding radiation target delineation,radiation doses,new technology and equipment,combination of radiotherapy and molecular targeted therapy as well as other aspects were identified,retrieved and reviewed.Results A larger radiation field and a higher radiation dose are not always better.New equipment and technology are also not always better than conventional equipment and technologies.Effectiveness of radiotherapy combined with molecular targeted therapy needs more data to verify.Conclusion Personalized radiotherapy is the direction for the future.

  10. Intelligent Virtual Agents Architecture in Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfan Feng


    Full Text Available As the contemporary performing behavior in the reciprocity of virtual agents is glazed excessively and can't satisfy complex unknown environment, the research of Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA with active learning and local apperception must be accelerated. In this paper, we design and implement a new IVA system architecture, for which active learning and local apperceive interaction were approached. Active learning using knowledge acquisition and knowledge evolution improved the self-regulation of behavior mechanism significantly, while local apperceive interaction could sense disturbances of the simulated environment and interactively communicate with other simulated agents within perception dimension effectively. Ultimately, the experimental result provides effectiveness and practicability of the performance in our prototype IVA system.

  11. Adresse inconnue / Address unknown / Suchwiin Bulmyeong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Gruzinski


    Full Text Available Tous les films asiatiques parlent de métissage, même ceux qui se présentent comme de vastes fresques historiques perdues dans le temps. Les emprunts aux traditions hollywoodiennes et européennes n'ont cessé d'enrichir une cinématographie aussi ancienne que celle du monde occidental. Dans Adresse inconnue (Address unknown le cinéaste coréen Kim Ki-duk explore l'expérience du métissage et le corps du métis à la frontière entre Corée du Nord et Corée du sud. Fils d'un GI américain et noir et d...

  12. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.


    Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

  13. Management of unknown origin cerebral metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Gramada


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study attempts todetermine the steps for obtaining theetiological diagnosis of brain metastaseswith unknown origin.Material and methods: A total of 190patients with brain metastases diagnosed inthe Department of Neurosurgery inEmergency Hospital ”N. Oblu” Iasibetween 2007-2010 were included in thisstudy. The clinical characteristics andpathological features were analyzed.Results: There were 102 males and 88females with a M:F ratio of 1.15:1. Themedian age of patients was 47.07 years(range 31-77 years. Females patients wereolder (mean age 57.21 years than malespatients (49.15 years. 154 patients (81.05%had single brain metastasis, and 36 patients(18.95% had more than two. The lesionswere supratentorial in 142 patients(74.73%, infratentorial in 18 (9.47%, andboth infratentorial and supratentorial in 30patients (15.78%. Surgical treatmentinvolved complete resection in 47.9% ofcases, subtotal resection in 26.8%, andbiopsy alone in the remainder (25.3%.Brain metastases originating in lung cancerrepresented the most common type(47.39%, followed by those from breastcancer (19.79%, then those from skin(melanoma (8.33%, genitourinarycarcinoma (6.30%, and gastrointestinalcarcinoma (2.62%. In 16.31% of cases, theprimary tumor remained unknown, despiteextensive investigation.Conclusion: The primary cancer leadingto brain metastases can be detected eitherby obtaining a sample of tumoral tissuethrough a neurosurgical operation on theintracerebral tumor (total ablation orstereotactic biopsy with histopathologicalexamination, or by additional tests of thewhole body. Taken into consideration theresults of our own study, the managementof the patients with brain metastases shouldinclude a thoracic CT scan oranteroposterior and lateral chest X-ray,clinical breast examination andmammography, abdominal ultrasoundexploration, and skin, kidney and prostateexamination. With the most sophisticatedmethods of diagnosis in approximately 16%of cases the

  14. Beta-carotene (United States)

    ... patches on the tongue and mouth called oral leukoplakia. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 12 months seems to decrease symptoms of oral leukoplakia. Osteoarthritis. Beta-carotene taken by mouth may prevent ...

  15. Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 protects beta cells against IL-1beta-mediated toxicity through inhibition of multiple nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated proapoptotic pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Allan Ertman; Heding, P E; Frobøse, H;


    The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta induces apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells via pathways dependent on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C. We recently showed suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 to be a natural negative feedback...... regulator of IL-1beta- and IFN-gamma-mediated signalling in rat islets and beta cell lines, preventing their deleterious effects. However, the mechanisms underlying SOCS-3 inhibition of IL-1beta signalling and prevention against apoptosis remain unknown....

  16. Unfolding, aggregation, and seeded amyloid formation of lysine-58-cleaved beta(2)-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N.H.H.; Jørgensen, T.J.D.; Rozlosnik, N.;


    beta(2)-Microglobulin (beta(2)m) is the amyloidogenic protein in dialysis-related amyloidosis, but the mechanisms underlying beta(2)m fibrillogenesis in vivo are largely unknown. We study a structural variant of beta(2)M that has been linked to cancer and inflammation and may be present in the ci......beta(2)-Microglobulin (beta(2)m) is the amyloidogenic protein in dialysis-related amyloidosis, but the mechanisms underlying beta(2)m fibrillogenesis in vivo are largely unknown. We study a structural variant of beta(2)M that has been linked to cancer and inflammation and may be present...... in the circulation of dialysis patients. This beta(2)M variant, Delta K58-beta(2)m, is a disulfide-linked two-chain molecule consisting of amino acid residues 1-57 and 59-99 of intact beta(2)m, and we here demonstrate and characterize its decreased conformational stability as compared to wild-type (wt) beta(2)M......, and at 37 degrees C the half-time for unfolding is more than 170-fold faster than at 15 degrees C. Conformational changes are also reflected by a very prominent Congo red binding of Delta K58-beta(2)m at 37 degrees C, by the evolution of thioflavin T fluorescence, and by changes in intrinsic fluorescence...

  17. Neutrinoless double beta decay from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Amy; Chang, Chia Cheng; Clark, M A; Joo, Balint; Kurth, Thorsten; Rinaldi, Enrico; Tiburzi, Brian; Vranas, Pavlos; Walker-Loud, Andre


    While the discovery of non-zero neutrino masses is one of the most important accomplishments by physicists in the past century, it is still unknown how and in what form these masses arise. Lepton number-violating neutrinoless double beta decay is a natural consequence of Majorana neutrinos and many BSM theories, and many experimental efforts are involved in the search for these processes. Understanding how neutrinoless double beta decay would manifest in nuclear environments is key for understanding any observed signals. In these proceedings we present an overview of a set of one- and two-body matrix elements relevant for experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, describe the role of lattice QCD calculations, and present preliminary lattice QCD results.

  18. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states (United States)

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Rüdiger


    A concern has been expressed that ``the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state ρ(N) of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for ρ(N). By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  19. Multigrain indexing of unknown multiphase materials (United States)

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis


    A multigrain indexing algorithm for use with samples comprising an arbitrary number of known or unknown phases is presented. No a priori crystallographic knowledge is required. The algorithm applies to data acquired with a monochromatic beam and a conventional two-dimensional detector for diffraction. Initially, candidate grains are found by searching for crystallographic planes, using a Dirac comb convoluted with a box function as a filter. Next, candidate grains are validated and the unit cell is optimized. The algorithm is validated by simulations. Simulations of 500 cementite grains and ∼100 reflections per grain resulted in 99.2% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.5% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. Simulations with 200 grains associated with four mineral phases and 50–700 reflections per grain resulted in 99.9% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.9% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. The main limitation is in terms of overlap of diffraction spots and computing time. Potential areas of use include three-dimensional grain mapping, structural solution and refinement studies of complex samples, and studies of dilute phases. PMID:27047308

  20. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward......-looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  1. Mitochondrial dynamics and morphology in beta-cells. (United States)

    Stiles, Linsey; Shirihai, Orian S


    Mitochondrial dynamics contribute to the regulation of mitochondrial shape as well as various mitochondrial functions and quality control. This is of particular interest in the beta-cell because of the key role mitochondria play in the regulation of beta-cell insulin secretion function. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the development of Type 2 Diabetes. Genetic tools that shift the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission result in alterations to beta-cell function and viability. Additionally, conditions that induce beta-cell dysfunction, such as exposure to a high nutrient environment, disrupt mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. While it has been shown that mitochondria display a fragmented morphology in islets of diabetic patients and animal models, the mechanism behind this is currently unknown. Here, we review the current literature on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics in the beta-cell as well as some of the unanswered question in this field.

  2. Direct water-phase synthesis of lead sulfide quantum dots encapsulated by β-lactoglobulin for in vivo second near infrared window imaging with reduced toxicity. (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Kong, Yifei; Wang, Wei; Fang, Hongwei; Wo, Yan; Zhou, Dejian; Wu, Ziying; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Shiyi


    Compared to conventional fluorescence imaging in the visible (400-700 nm) and NIR-I regions (700-900 nm), optical fluorescence imaging in the second near infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1400 nm) offers reduced photon scattering, deeper tissue penetration and lower auto-fluorescence. Despite excellent imaging capabilities, current NIR-II probes have not yet reached their full potential due to weak quantum yield, low water solubility and suboptimal biocompatibility. To address these problems, we report herein a new NIR-II fluorescent PbS quantum dots (QDs) that are fabricated in water using β-lactoglobulin (LG) as a biological template. The LG-PbS QDs exhibit satisfactory dispersibility, relatively high quantum yield and favorable biocompatibility, and therefore are suitable for high-resolution in vivo imaging applications.

  3. Beta 2-Microglobulin clearance as measured by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Longley, M.A.; Cannon, D.C.


    We describe a radioimmunoassay for beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2 mu) in serum and urine. We incubated aliquots of diluted samples at room temperature for 1 h with /sup 125/I-labeled beta 2 mu and a rabbit antiserum monospecific for human beta 2 mu, and separated the phases by the double-antibody technique. The logit-log transformed dose-response curve was linear in the range 2 to 64 ng, equivalent to 0.5 to 16 mg/L of serum and 0.5 to 320 mg/L of urine. Assay sensitivity was 2.4 ng of beta 2 mu. Validation studies included tests of precision, accuracy, antibody specificity, and parallelism of the dose-response curves for standard and unknown. In a study of 25 normal individuals, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 mg/L and 40 to 360 micrograms/24 h; the clearance of beta 2 mu was 8 to 130 microL/min. In 21 renal allograft recipients tested one to five weeks after transplantation, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 3.9 to 15.6 mg/L and 7.2 to 611 mg/24 h; beta 2 mu clearance was 0.60 to 33.3 mL/min. Values for both serum and urine correlated well with severity of allograft rejection.

  4. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse


    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten...

  5. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  6. Short communication: Variation of total immunoglobulin G and β-lactoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and milk from Canadian Holsteins classified as high, average, or low immune responders. (United States)

    Fleming, K; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Hodgins, D C; Miglior, F; Corredig, M; Mallard, B A


    The objective of this study was to evaluate IgG and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) concentrations in colostrum and milk of Canadian Holsteins (n=108) classified as high (H), average (A), or low (L) for antibody-mediated (AMIR) or cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) based on estimated breeding values. It was hypothesized that H-AMIR and H-CMIR cows produce colostrum (first milking) and milk (d 5 postcalving) with higher concentrations of IgG and β-LG. Data for IgG and β-LG in colostrum and milk were analyzed independently using mixed linear models. Least squares means were compared using Tukey's test. Cows classified as H-AMIR had higher IgG and β-LG concentrations in colostrum compared with A- and L-AMIR cows; 84% of H-AMIR, 69% of A-AMIR, and 68% of L-AMIR cows had over 5,000 mg/dL IgG in colostrum. No differences in IgG and β-LG concentrations in colostrum were noted among cows ranked on CMIR or in milk of cows ranked on AMIR. β-Lactoglobulin and IgG concentrations were positively correlated in colostrum. Breeding cows for H-AMIR status may reduce failure of passive transfer of IgG in their calves; β-LG may play a role in bovine immune defenses. Colostrum from H-AMIR cows may serve as a more economical feedstock source for manufacturing natural health products.

  7. 16 CFR 303.14 - Products containing unknown fibers. (United States)


    ..., of unknown or undetermined fiber content, as for example: Made of miscellaneous scraps of undetermined fiber content 100% unknown fibers—rags All undetermined fibers—textile by-products 100% miscellaneous odd lots of undetermined fiber content Secondhand materials—fiber content unknown Made of...

  8. Imperfect World of $\\beta\\beta$-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B


    The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

  9. Beta-adrenergic receptors are differentially expressed in distinct interneuron subtypes in the rat hippocampus. (United States)

    Cox, David J; Racca, Claudia; LeBeau, Fiona E N


    Noradrenaline (NA) acting via beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) plays an important role in the modulation of memory in the hippocampus. betaARs have been shown to be expressed in principal cells, but their distribution across different interneuron classes is unknown. We have used specific interneuron markers including calcium binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin) and neuropeptides (somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, and cholecystokinin) together with either beta1AR or beta2AR to determine the distribution of these receptors in all major subfields of the hippocampus. We found that beta1AR-expressing interneurons were more prevalent in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus than in the dentate gyrus, where they were relatively sparse. beta2AR-expressing interneurons were more uniformly distributed between all three regions of the hippocampus. A high proportion of neuropeptide Y-containing interneurons in the dentate gyrus co-expressed beta2AR. beta1AR labeling was common in interneurons expressing somatostatin and parvalbumin in the CA3 and CA1 regions, particularly in the stratum oriens of these regions. beta2AR labeling was more likely to be found than beta1AR labeling in cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons. In contrast, calretinin-containing interneurons were virtually devoid of beta1AR or beta2AR labeling. These regional and interneuron type-specific differences suggest functionally distinct roles for NA in modulating hippocampal activity via activation of betaARs.

  10. Neural mechanisms of transient neocortical beta rhythms: Converging evidence from humans, computational modeling, monkeys, and mice (United States)

    Sherman, Maxwell A.; Lee, Shane; Law, Robert; Haegens, Saskia; Thorn, Catherine A.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Moore, Christopher I.; Jones, Stephanie R.


    Human neocortical 15–29-Hz beta oscillations are strong predictors of perceptual and motor performance. However, the mechanistic origin of beta in vivo is unknown, hindering understanding of its functional role. Combining human magnetoencephalography (MEG), computational modeling, and laminar recordings in animals, we present a new theory that accounts for the origin of spontaneous neocortical beta. In our MEG data, spontaneous beta activity from somatosensory and frontal cortex emerged as noncontinuous beta events typically lasting <150 ms with a stereotypical waveform. Computational modeling uniquely designed to infer the electrical currents underlying these signals showed that beta events could emerge from the integration of nearly synchronous bursts of excitatory synaptic drive targeting proximal and distal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, where the defining feature of a beta event was a strong distal drive that lasted one beta period (∼50 ms). This beta mechanism rigorously accounted for the beta event profiles; several other mechanisms did not. The spatial location of synaptic drive in the model to supragranular and infragranular layers was critical to the emergence of beta events and led to the prediction that beta events should be associated with a specific laminar current profile. Laminar recordings in somatosensory neocortex from anesthetized mice and awake monkeys supported these predictions, suggesting this beta mechanism is conserved across species and recording modalities. These findings make several predictions about optimal states for perceptual and motor performance and guide causal interventions to modulate beta for optimal function. PMID:27469163

  11. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G


    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposite...

  12. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Stuart A


    Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We aimed to determine the mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and indentify how 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity.

  13. Control design for the SISO system with the unknown order and the unknown relative degree. (United States)

    Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai


    For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller.

  14. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki


    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  15. Double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S


    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions beta thalassemia beta thalassemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  17. Repetitive in vivo treatment with human recombinant interleukin-1 beta modifies beta-cell function in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, L D; Reimers, J; Nerup, J


    It is unknown whether interleukin-1 exerts a bimodal effect on Beta-cell function in vivo, and whether interleukin-1 has a diabetogenic action in normal animals. We therefore studied: (a) acute effects 2 h after an intraperitoneal bolus injection of 4 micrograms of recombinant human interleukin-1...

  18. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng


    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  19. How to Deal with Unknown Words in EFL Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Vocabulary knowledge plays an important role in EFL reading,and learners need to employ different strategies to deal with unknown words. Research has shown that when facing the challenge of unknown words learners rely on dictionary too much while lexical inferencing should be recommended most to them. Therefore,this paper focuses on how to encourage learners to use various strategies to deal with unknown words in EFL reading.

  20. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber


    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  1. Alpha and Beta Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Dunietz, Isard


    Because the Bd -> J/psi Ks asymmetry determines only sin(2 beta), a discrete ambiguity in the true value of beta remains. This note reviews how the ambiguity can be removed. Extractions of the CKM angle alpha are discussed next. Some of the methods require very large data samples and will not be feasible in the near future. In the near future, semi-inclusive CP-violating searches could be undertaken, which are reviewed last.

  2. Guessing the Meaning of Unknown Words While Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhao-rong; LU Lei


    The following paper discusses how to guess the meaning of unknown words during your reading. This skill can be developed by practising reading without a dictionary. The context and word analysis will help the reader guess the meaning of unknown words. In this way, you can become a better reader.

  3. Parameter identification of stochastic diffusion systems with unknown boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, Shin Ichi; Bagchi, Arunabha


    This paper treats the filtering and parameter identification for the stochastic diffusion systems with unknown boundary conditions. The physical situation of the unknown boundary conditions can be found in many industrial problems,i.g., the salt concentration model of the river Rhine is a typical ex

  4. Students' Conscious Unknowns about Artefacts and Natural Objects (United States)

    Vaz-Rebelo, Piedade; Fernandes, Paula; Morgado, Julia; Monteiro, António; Otero, José


    This study attempts to characterise what 7th- and 12th-grade students believe they do not know about artefacts and natural objects, as well as the dependence of what is unknown on a knowledge of these objects. The students were asked to make explicit through questioning what they did not know about a sample of objects. The unknowns generated were…

  5. [The effect of CSN1 S2, CSN3 and beta-lg genes on milk performance in Xinong Saanen dairy goat]. (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Lan, Xian-Yong; Li, Rui-Biao; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Sun, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Run-Feng; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Zhu, Bi-Cai


    PCR-RFLP technique was applied to analyze correlation between the polymorphisms of CSN1 S2 (alpha(s2) casein), CSN3 (kappa casein) and beta-lg (beta-lactoglobulin) genes and milk performance in 69 individuals of Xinong Saanen dairy goat. The results showed that there was significant correlation between different genotypes of CSN1 S2 locus and milk yield:average milk yield of individuals with genotype FF was less than that of genotype NN (P gene digested with endonuclease Hind III cleavage showed that no significant difference of milk yield between genotype DE and genotype EE was detected in first, second, third and fourth lactation milk yield and average milk yield (P > 0.05). The results of CSN3 gene with endonuclease Taq I cleavage showed that no significant difference of milk yield among individuals with genotype TT, TC and CC was detected (P > 0.05). No polymorphism was detected in PCR products of CSN3 gene digested with endonuclease Hae III. The analysis of beta-lg gene's 5' flanking region (710 bp) by PCR-RFLP in Xinong Saanen dairy goat showed that milk yield of individuals with genotype AA was higher than that with genotype AB in second, third lactation milk yield and average milk yield (P beta-lg gene's 5' flanking region is probably related to high milk yield.

  6. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  7. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes. (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E


    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  8. Sparse recovery with unknown variance: a LASSO-type approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chretien, Stephane


    We address the issue of estimating the regression vector $\\beta$ and the variance $\\sg^{2}$ in the generic s-sparse linear model $y = X\\beta+z$, with $\\beta\\in\\R^{p}$, $y\\in\\R^{n}$, $z\\sim\\mathcal N(0,\\sg^2 I)$ and $p> n$. We propose a new LASSO-type method that jointly estimates $\\beta$, $\\sg^{2}$ and the relaxation parameter $\\lb$ by imposing an explicit trade-off constraint between the $\\log$-likelihood and $\\ell_1$-penalization terms. We prove that exact recovery of the support and sign pattern of $\\beta$ holds with probability at least $1-O(p^{-\\alpha})$. Our assumptions, parametrized by $\\alpha$, are similar to the ones proposed in \\cite{CandesPlan:AnnStat09} for $\\sg^{2}$ known. The proof relies on a tail decoupling argument with explicit constants and a recent version of the Non-Commutative Bernstein inequality \\cite{Tropp:ArXiv10}. Our result is then derived from the optimality conditions for the estimators of $\\beta$ and $\\lb$. Finally, a thorough analysis of the standard LASSO estimator as a functi...

  9. Effects of beta-blockade on atrial and atrioventricular nodal refractoriness, and atrial fibrillatory rate during atrial fibrillation in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, MP; van de Ven, LLM; Witting, W; Crijns, JGM; Haaksma, J; Bel, KJ; de Langen, CDJ; Lie, KI


    Despite their widespread use in atrial fibrillation, the effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockers on atrial and atrioventricular (AV) nodal refractoriness, and atrial fibrillatory rate during atrial fibrillation have been incompletely characterised. In particular, it is unknown whether additional sodiu

  10. Polymorphism in the exon 4 of β-lactoglobulin variant B precursor gene and its association with milk traits and protein structure in Chinese Holstein. (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Lian; Liu, Huiling; Cai, Yafei; Wang, Genlin


    β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) is the major whey protein in the milk. In order to investigate the polymorphism of β-LG variant B precursor (β-LG B*: GenBank accession no. DQ489319) gene and its effects on the milk traits, the single-strand conformation polymorphism method (PCR-SSCP) were adopted to analyze polymorphism between 5229th and 5476th bp in the β-LG B* gene in Chinese Holstein. Four genotypes were found (AA, AB, AC and ABC) and 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected (g.5239C>A, g.5240A>C, g.5305C>T and mix type g.5305C/T) in the exon 4 of β-LG B* gene. It was also found that the protein contents of AB, AC and ABC dairy cows were higher than AA (P A, g.5240A>C and g.5305C>T) might affect the milk trait and all of them were high polymorphism (0.5 Glu, Thr>Pro and Ala>Val) respectively, and the spatial secondary and tertiary structure forecasting result also showed that single amino acid change influence protein spatial structure change in Chinese Holstein. Taken together, it is suggested that these SNPs change β-LG B* gene structure and expression. The polymorphism possibly holds the secret of milk protein and fat contents in the milk of Chinese Holstein.

  11. Prediction of milk, fat and protein yields in first lactation from serum ß-lactoglobulin concentrations during gestation in Italian Brown heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Superchi


    Full Text Available The Authors report the results of a study carried out on 23 pregnant Italian Brown heifers, with the aim to determine the relationships between blood serum ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG concentrations during first gestation and subsequent milk production and quality in first lactation, in order to obtain an improved selection method for replacement heifers. At weeks 20, 26 and 32 of gestation, ß-LG concentrations (±SE were 706±78, 753±66 and 772±63 ng/ml, respectively (P>0.05. High and significant (P≤0.05 correlation coefficients were observed only between ß-LG content at week 32 and total milk and protein yields in first lactation. Prediction equations of milk, fat and protein production in first lactation from log10 ß-LG content at week 32 of gestation, from parent average genetic indexes and from both were calculated by means of multiple regression analysis. When the contribution of both ß-LG content and predicted genetic indexes were considered, the regression equations gave generally a better estimate of the production parameters in first lactation (higher R2, lower SE of estimate than the above mentioned parameters alone. These results suggest that it is valuable to pre-estimate milk, fat and protein production in Italian Brown first lactating cows by means of the analysis of serum ß-LG content during gestation.

  12. Improving the encapsulation efficiency and sustained release behaviour of chitosan/β-lactoglobulin double-coated microparticles by palmitic acid grafting. (United States)

    Yang, Han-Joo; Lee, Pei Sia; Choe, Jaehyeog; Suh, Seokjin; Ko, Sanghoon


    Chitosan (CS) was grafted with 0.1 and 0.5% (w/v) palmitic acid (PA) to improve its encapsulation efficiency (EE) and sustained release characteristics when forming CS microparticles. Thereafter, PA-grafted CS (PA-CS) microparticles were coated with denatured β-lactoglobulin (βlg), which forms an outer protective layer. The possibility of hydrophobic interaction with the hydrophobic substances in the CS microparticles increased as the proportion of the grafted PA increased. EE was measured as 64.79, 83.72, and 85.00% for the non-grafted, 0.1, and 0.5% PA-CS microparticles, respectively. In simulated small intestinal conditions, 4.66 and 17.55% of the core material release in the PA-CS microparticles were sustained after 180min by 0.1, and 0.5% PA grafting, respectively. PA grafting enables the sustained release in simulated gastrointestinal fluids by enhancing the hydrophobic interaction between CS and the hydrophobic core material.

  13. Binding affinity between dietary polyphenols and β-lactoglobulin negatively correlates with the protein susceptibility to digestion and total antioxidant activity of complexes formed. (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Marija; Radosavljevic, Jelena; Ognjenovic, Jana; Vesic, Jelena; Prodic, Ivana; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja


    Non-covalent interactions between β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and polyphenol extracts of teas, coffee and cocoa were studied by fluorescence and CD spectroscopy at pH values of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The biological implications of non-covalent binding of polyphenols to BLG were investigated by in vitro pepsin and pancreatin digestibility assay and ABTS radical scavenging activity of complexes formed. The polyphenol-BLG systems were stable at pH values of the GIT. The most profound effect of pH on binding affinity was observed for polyphenol extracts rich in phenolic acids. Stronger non-covalent interactions delayed pepsin and pancreatin digestion of BLG and induced β-sheet to α-helix transition at neutral pH. All polyphenols tested protected protein secondary structure at an extremely acidic pH of 1.2. A positive correlation was found between the strength of protein-polyphenol interactions and (a) half time of protein decay in gastric conditions (R(2)=0.85), (b) masking of total antioxidant capacity of protein-polyphenol complexes (R(2)=0.95).

  14. pH effects on the molecular structure of β-lactoglobulin modified air-water interfaces and its impact on foam rheology. (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kathrin; Lexis, Meike; Gochev, Georgi; Konnerth, Christoph; Miller, Reinhard; Willenbacher, Norbert; Peukert, Wolfgang; Braunschweig, Björn


    Macroscopic properties of aqueous β-lactoglobulin (BLG) foams and the molecular properties of BLG modified air-water interfaces as their major structural element were investigated with a unique combination of foam rheology measurements and interfacial sensitive methods such as sum-frequency generation and interfacial dilatational rheology. The molecular structure and protein-protein interactions at the air-water interface can be changed substantially with the solution pH and result in major changes in interfacial dilational and foam rheology. At a pH near the interfacial isoelectric point BLG molecules carry zero net charge and disordered multilayers with the highest interfacial dilatational elasticity are formed at the air-water interface. Increasing or decreasing the pH with respect to the isoelectric point leads to the formation of a BLG monolayer with repulsive electrostatic interactions among the adsorbed molecules which decrease the interfacial dilational elasticity. The latter molecular information does explain the behavior of BLG foams in our rheological studies, where in fact the highest apparent yield stresses and storage moduli are established with foams from electrolyte solutions with a pH close to the isoelectric point of BLG. At this pH the gas bubbles of the foam are stabilized by BLG multilayers with attractive intermolecular interactions at the ubiquitous air-water interfaces, while BLG layers with repulsive interactions decrease the apparent yield stress and storage moduli as stabilization of gas bubbles with a monolayer of BLG is less effective.

  15. Reduced β-lactoglobulin IgE binding upon in vitro digestion as a result of the interaction of the protein with casein glycomacropeptide. (United States)

    Martinez, María J; Martos, Gustavo; Molina, Elena; Pilosof, Ana M R


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the presence of casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) on the in vitro digestibility and potential allergenicity of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg)-CMP mixtures. The digestion products were analyzed by RP-HPLC and RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The potential allergenicity of the digestion products was studied by human IgE binding by inhibition ELISA with serum samples from children with clinical allergic symptoms to β-lg. No differences were observed by HPLC in the mixtures hydrolysates due to CMP-β-lg interactions. RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed different peptides occurring in the mixtures hydrolysates. Additionally, it was observed a significant reduction of β-lg IgE binding in the presence of CMP. The disappearance of epitopes in the digested mixtures could explain the lower IgE binding observed in these systems compared to β-lg. It can be concluded that the presence of CMP in products containing β-lg may modify the digestion products that may reduce the potential allergenicity of β-lg.

  16. Influence of pH on viscoelastic properties of heat-induced gels obtained with a β-Lactoglobulin fraction isolated from bovine milk whey hydrolysates. (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Fuciños, Pablo; Bargiela, Verónica; Picó, Guillermo; Valetti, Nadia Woitovich; Tovar, Clara Asunción; Rúa, M Luisa


    A β-Lactoglobulin fraction (r-βLg) was isolated from whey hydrolysates produced with cardosins from Cynara cardunculus. The impact of the hydrolysis process on the r-βLg structure and the rheological properties of heat-induced gels obtained thereafter were studied at different pH values. Differences were observed between r-βLg and commercial β-Lg used as control. Higher values for the fluorescence emission intensity and red shifts of the emission wavelength of r-βLg suggested changes in its tertiary structure and more solvent-exposed tryptophan residues. Circular dichroism spectra also supported these evidences indicating that hydrolysis yielded an intermediate (non-native) β-Lg state. The thermal history of r-βLg through the new adopted conformation improved the microstructure of the gels at acidic pH. So, a new microstructure with better rheological characteristics (higher conformational flexibility and lower rigidity) and greater water holding ability was founded for r-βLg gel. These results were reflected in the microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Gene targeting by TALEN-induced homologous recombination in goats directs production of β-lactoglobulin-free, high-human lactoferrin milk. (United States)

    Cui, Chenchen; Song, Yujie; Liu, Jun; Ge, Hengtao; Li, Qian; Huang, Hui; Hu, Linyong; Zhu, Hongmei; Jin, Yaping; Zhang, Yong


    β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) is a major goat's milk allergen that is absent in human milk. Engineered endonucleases, including transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and zinc-finger nucleases, enable targeted genetic modification in livestock. In this study, TALEN-mediated gene knockout followed by gene knock-in were used to generate BLG knockout goats as mammary gland bioreactors for large-scale production of human lactoferrin (hLF). We introduced precise genetic modifications in the goat genome at frequencies of approximately 13.6% and 6.09% for the first and second sequential targeting, respectively, by using targeting vectors that underwent TALEN-induced homologous recombination (HR). Analysis of milk from the cloned goats revealed large-scale hLF expression or/and decreased BLG levels in milk from heterozygous goats as well as the absence of BLG in milk from homozygous goats. Furthermore, the TALEN-mediated targeting events in somatic cells can be transmitted through the germline after SCNT. Our result suggests that gene targeting via TALEN-induced HR may expedite the production of genetically engineered livestock for agriculture and biomedicine.

  18. The differences in binding 12-carbon aliphatic ligands by bovine β-lactoglobulin isoform A and B studied by isothermal titration calorimetry and X-ray crystallography. (United States)

    Loch, Joanna I; Bonarek, Piotr; Polit, Agnieszka; Swiątek, Śylwia; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta; Lewiński, Krzysztof


    Isoforms A (LGB-A) and B (LGB-B) of bovine lactoglobulin, the milk protein, differ in positions 64 (D↔G) and 118 (V↔A). Interactions of LGB-A and LGB-B with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) and lauric acid (LA), 12-carbon ligands possessing differently charged polar groups, were investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry and X-ray crystallography, to study the proton linkage phenomenon and to distinguish between effects related to different isoforms and different ligand properties. The determined values of ΔS and ΔH revealed that for all ligands, binding is entropically driven. The contribution from enthalpy change is lower and shows strong dependence on type of buffer that indicates proton release from the protein varying with protein isoform and ligand type and involvement of LA and Asp64 (in isoform A) in this process. The ligand affinities for both isoforms were arranged in the same order, DTAC enthalpy, resulting in almost identical ΔG for complexes of both isoforms. The determined crystal structures showed that substitution in positions 64 and 118 did not influence the overall structure of LGB complexes. The chemical character of the ligand polar group did not affect the position of its aliphatic chain in protein β-barrel, indicating a major role of hydrophobic interactions in ligand binding that prevailed even with the repulsion between positively charged DTAC and lysine residues located at binding site entrance.

  19. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  20. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel


    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  1. Indian Reservations, Published in unknown, S&ME Inc.. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Indian Reservations dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Mercator projection; The extent of...

  2. Cities, Towns and Villages, Published in unknown, SWGRC. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  3. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity (United States)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  4. Cities, Towns and Villages, Published in unknown, Monroe County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in NAD_1983_HARN_WISCRS_Monroe_County_Feet coordinate system; in a...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Pasco County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Pasco County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Manatee County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Manatee County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Weld County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Webster County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Sanpete County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Sanpete County, UT. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  10. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  11. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in unknown, Taylor County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  12. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Published in unknown, DCP Midstream. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  13. Assisted Living Facilities, Published in unknown, Trempealeau County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  14. Assisted Living Facilities, Published in unknown, Douglas County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  15. Legislative Districts, Published in unknown, Lafayette County Land Records. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Legislative Districts dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Lambert Conformal-conic projection;...

  16. Mobile Home Parks, Published in unknown, Washington County GIS. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mobile Home Parks dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Lambert Conformal-conic projection;...

  17. Doctor Offices, Clinic Location, Published in unknown, Trempealeau County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Doctor Offices dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Clinic Location'. Data by this publisher...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Hernando County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Hernando County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  19. Cargo Loading Facilities, Published in unknown, Arizona Department of Transportation. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cargo Loading Facilities dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Transverse Mercator projection;...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Wayne County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Wayne County, OH. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Darke County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Darke County, OH. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Garfield County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Garfield County, UT. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Madison County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building...

  4. Neighborhoods, Neighborhoods, Published in unknown, Norton County Appraisal Office. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Neighborhoods dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. It is described as 'Neighborhoods'. Data by this publisher are...

  5. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity


    Liu, Zhongda; NAKAYA, Naoshi; KOUI, Yuuji


    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and k...

  6. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;


    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  7. A beta2-microglobulin cleavage variant fibrillates at near-physiological pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corlin, Dorthe B; Johnsen, Christina K; Nissen, Mogens H


    Beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) deposits as amyloid in dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA), predominantly in joints. The molecular mechanisms underlying the amyloidogenicity of beta2m are still largely unknown. In vitro, acidic conditions, pH ... several days. Here, we show that amyloid fibrils are generated in less than an hour when a cleavage variant of beta2m--found in the circulation of many dialysis patients--is exposed to pH levels (pH 6.6) occurring in joints during inflammation. Aggregation and fibrillation, including seeding effects...... with intact, native beta2m were studied by Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy, turbidimetry, capillary electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. We conclude that a biologically relevant variant of beta2m is amyloidogenic at slightly acidic pH. Also, only a very small amount of preformed fibrils...

  8. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.


    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  9. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents) (United States)

    ... had their spleens removed. Slower growth rates. The anemia resulting from beta thalassemia can cause children to grow more slowly and also can lead ... boost production of new red blood cells. Some children with moderate anemia may require an occasional blood transfusion , particularly after ...

  10. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian


    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  11. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross-section...

  12. Protein domain of unknown function 3233 is a translocation domain of autotransporter secretory mechanism in gamma proteobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Prakash

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae, the enteropathogenic gram negative bacteria is one of the main causative agents of waterborne diseases like cholera. About 1/3(rd of the organism's genome is uncharacterised with many protein coding genes lacking structure and functional information. These proteins form significant fraction of the genome and are crucial in understanding the organism's complete functional makeup. In this study we report the general structure and function of a family of hypothetical proteins, Domain of Unknown Function 3233 (DUF3233, which are conserved across gram negative gammaproteobacteria (especially in Vibrio sp. and similar bacteria. Profile and HMM based sequence search methods were used to screen homologues of DUF3233. The I-TASSER fold recognition method was used to build a three dimensional structural model of the domain. The structure resembles the transmembrane beta-barrel with an axial N-terminal helix and twelve antiparallel beta-strands. Using a combination of amphipathy and discrimination analysis we analysed the potential transmembrane beta-barrel forming properties of DUF3233. Sequence, structure and phylogenetic analysis of DUF3233 indicates that this gram negative bacterial hypothetical protein resembles the beta-barrel translocation unit of autotransporter Va secretory mechanism with a gene organisation that differs from the conventional Va system.

  13. Metastases of unknown origin: Principles of diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana


    Full Text Available DEFINITION Cancer of unknown primary (CUP origin refers to patients who present with histologically confirmed metastatic cancer in whom a detailed medical history, complete physical examination, including pelvic and rectal examination, full blood count and biochemistry, urinalysis and stool occult blood testing, histopathological review of biopsy speimens with the use of immunohistochemistry, chest radiography, computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis, and in certain cases mammography, fail to identify the primary site. EPIDEMIOLOGY of CUP The cancer of unknown primary accounts for 3%-5% of all human cancers. DIAGNOSIS of CUP The standard diagnostic procedure for the majority of patients includes histopathologic review of biopsy specimens with the use of immunohistochemistry, full blood count, routine biochemistry, fecal occult blood testing, urine testing, chest radiography, and computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis. The four common histologic diagnoses are: adenocarcinoma (70%, poorly differentiated carcinoma (20%, squamous carcinoma (10%, and poorly differentiated neoplasms (5%. PROGNOSIS of CUP The prognosis for most patients with unknown primary tumors is poor, with survival often less than 6 months from diagnosis. THERAPY of CUP Based on clinical and pathologic features, approximately 40% of patients can be categorized within subsets for which specific treatment has been defined. Empiric therapy is an option for the remaining 60% of patients. CONCLUSION Metastatic tumors of unknown origin have a unique clinical presentation due to a specific biology. Insight into the molecular biology of unknown primary tumors will be essential for the development of more effective treatments.

  14. Erythropoietin Levels in Elderly Patients with Anemia of Unknown Etiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Gowanlock

    Full Text Available In many elderly patients with anemia, a specific cause cannot be identified. This study investigates whether erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in these cases of "anemia of unknown etiology" and whether this trend persists after accounting for confounders.This study includes all anemic patients over 60 years old who had erythropoietin measured between 2005 and 2013 at a single center. Three independent reviewers used defined criteria to assign each patient's anemia to one of ten etiologies: chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, chronic disease, confirmed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, suspected MDS, vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, anemia of unknown etiology, other etiology, or multifactorial etiology. Iron deficiency anemia served as the comparison group in all analyses. We used linear regression to model the relationship between erythropoietin and the presence of each etiology, sequentially adding terms to the model to account for the hemoglobin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and Charlson Comorbidity Index.A total of 570 patients met the inclusion criteria. Linear regression analysis showed that erythropoietin levels in chronic kidney disease, anemia of chronic disease and anemia of unknown etiology were lower by 48%, 46% and 27%, respectively, compared to iron deficiency anemia even after adjusting for hemoglobin, eGFR and comorbidities.We have shown that erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in anemia of unknown etiology, even after adjusting for confounders. This suggests that decreased erythropoietin production may play a key role in the pathogenesis of anemia of unknown etiology.

  15. Male Pelvic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Chiec


    Full Text Available Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies.

  16. k-Casein, b-lactoglobulin and growth hormone allele frequencies and genetic distances in Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Augusta Kemenes


    Full Text Available The genotypes for k-casein (k-CN, b-lactoglobulin (b-LG and growth hormone (GH were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion in seven breeds of cattle (Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. k-Casein had two alleles with the A allele occurring at a higher frequency in Bos indicus breeds (0.93, 0.92 and 0.91% for Gyr, Guzerá and Nelore, respectively. The b-lactoglobulin locus had two alleles in all of the breeds. European breeds had a higher frequency of the b-LG A allele than Zebu breeds. The GH locus had two alleles (L and V in Bos taurus and was monomorphic (L allele only in all of the Bos indicus breeds evaluated. The highest frequency for the V allele was observed in Charolais cattle. The markers used revealed a considerable similarity among breeds, with two main groups being discernible. One group consisted of Zebu and Santa Gertrudis breeds and the other consisted of European and Canchim breeds.Os genótipos de k-caseína (k-CN, b-lactoglobulina (b-LG e hormônio de crescimento foram determinados por reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR e digestão com enzima de restrição em sete raças de bovinos (Nelore, Gir, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolesa, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. A k-caseína apresentou dois alelos e as freqüências mais elevadas para o alelo A foram observadas em Bos indicus (0,93, 0,92 e 0,91% para as raças Gir, Guzerá e Nelore, respectivamente. A b-lactoglobulina apresentou dois alelos em todas as raças estudadas, sendo a freqüência do alelo A mais elevada nas raças européias. O loco de hormônio de crescimento apresentou dois alelos em Bos taurus e foi monomórfico (alelo L em todas as raças zebuínas. A maior freqüência para o alelo V foi observado na raça Charolesa. Os marcadores investigados revelaram alta similaridade entre as raças, com a formação de dois grupos principais: um composto de raças zebuínas e a raça Santa Gertrudis e outro

  17. TGF-beta and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den


    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage is a major problem in osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have great potential in cartilage repair. In this review, we will focus on the potential therapeutic intervention in OA with TGF-beta, application of the growth facto

  18. Protective effect of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 on ovalbumin-induced airway asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced intestinal food allergy mouse models (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Yun; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Dai, Wen-Kui; Huang, Jian-Qiong; Li, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Juan; Qiu, Chuang-Zhao; Wei, Chun; Zhou, Qian; Sun, Xin; Feng, Xin; Li, Dong-Fang; Wang, He-Ping; Zheng, Yue-Jie


    AIM To determine whether oral administration of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 (B. infantis CGMCC313-2) inhibits allergen-induced airway inflammation and food allergies in a mouse model. METHODS Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced food allergy mouse models were used in this study. Following oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization, histopathologic changes in the lung and intestine were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. In the allergic asthma mouse model, we evaluated the proportion of lung-infiltrating inflammatory cells. OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also assessed. In the food allergy mouse model, the levels of total IgE and cytokines in serum were measured. RESULTS Oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization suppressed allergic inflammation in lung and intestinal tissues, while the proportion of infiltrating inflammatory cells was significantly decreased in the BALF of allergic asthma mice. Moreover, B. infantis CGMCC313-2 decreased the serum levels of total IgE in food allergy mice, and reductions in IgE and IgG1 were also observed in OVA-induced allergic asthma mice. The expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in both serum and BALF was suppressed following the administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2, while an effect on serum IL-10 levels was not observed. CONCLUSION B. infantis CGMCC313-2 inhibits the secretion of allergen-induced IgE, IL-4 and IL-13, and attenuates allergic inflammation.

  19. In vitro selection of DNA aptamers targeting β-lactoglobulin and their integration in graphene-based biosensor for the detection of milk allergen. (United States)

    Eissa, Shimaa; Zourob, Mohammed


    Food allergy has increased rapidly in recent years affecting millions of people worldwide. With the increased consumption of packed food nowadays, a sensitive, accurate and rapid screening method for potential food allergens has become an urgent need in order to protect the sensitive consumers from life-threatening reactions. The current detection methods for food allergens are mostly based on immunoassays which are costly and times-consuming. In this work, we developed an aptamer/graphene-based electrochemical biosensor for on-step, sensitive and low cost detection of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) milk protein, one of the most common food allergens specially in infants. The selection of DNA aptamers against the two β-LG variants A and B was successfully realised using systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method. Among the selected aptamers, BLG14 aptamer sequence has shown high affinity and specificity to both β-LG A and B with dissociation constants (Kds) of 82 and 80nM, respectively as calculated using fluorescence binding assays. The aptamer was then integrated in a voltammetric biosensor utilizing graphene-modified screen printed carbon electrodes. The binding is monitored by following the change in the square wave voltammetry (SWV) reduction peak signal of ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple due to the removal of the negatively charged aptamers from the surface upon protein binding. This one-step "signal on" biosensor takes 20min for the sensitive and selective detection of β-LG without using any labelling or sophisticated designs. The method was also tested in spiked food sample extract achieving good recovery percentage. The integration of the novel aptamer in the graphene biosensor allows a promising way for cost-effective, rapid and sensitive on-site detection of milk allergen in food stuff.

  20. Tensiometry and dilational rheology of mixed β-lactoglobulin/ionic surfactant adsorption layers at water/air and water/hexane interfaces. (United States)

    Dan, Abhijit; Gochev, Georgi; Miller, Reinhard


    Oscillating drop tensiometry was applied to study adsorbed interfacial layers at water/air and water/hexane interfaces formed from mixed solutions of β-lactoglobulin (BLG, 1 μM in 10 mM buffer, pH 7 - negative net charge) and the anionic surfactant SDS or the cationic DoTAB. The interfacial pressure Π and the dilational viscoelasticity modulus |E| of the mixed layers were measured for mixtures of varying surfactant concentrations. The double capillary technique was employed which enables exchange of the protein solution in the drop bulk by surfactant solution (sequential adsorption) or by pure buffer (washing out). The first protocol allows probing the influence of the surfactant on a pre-adsorbed protein layer thus studying the protein/surfactant interactions at the interface. The second protocol gives access to the residual values of Π and |E| measured after the washing out procedure thus bringing information about the process of protein desorption. The DoTAB/BLG complexes exhibit higher surface activity and higher resistance to desorption in comparison with those for the SDS/BLG complexes due to hydrophobization via electrostatic binding of surfactant molecules. The neutral DoTAB/BLG complexes achieve maximum elastic response of the mixed layer. Mixed BLG/surfactant layers at the water/oil interface are found to reach higher surface pressure and lower maximum dilational elasticity than those at the water/air surface. The sequential adsorption mode experiments and the desorption study reveal that binding of DoTAB to pre-adsorbed BLG globules is somehow restricted at the water/air surface in comparison with the case of complex formation in the solution bulk and subsequently adsorbed at the water/air surface. Maximum elasticity is achieved with washed out layers obtained after simultaneous adsorption, i.e. isolation of the most surface active DoTAB/BLG complex. These specific effects are much less pronounced at the W/H interface.

  1. Recent advances in neutrinoless double beta decay search

    CERN Document Server

    Miramonti, L; Miramonti, Lino; Reseghetti, Franco


    Even after the discovery of neutrino flavour oscillations, based on data from atmospheric, solar, reactor, and accelerator experiments, many characteristics of the neutrino remain unknown. Only the neutrino square-mass differences and the mixing angle values have been estimated, while the value of each mass eigenstate still hasn't. Its nature (massive Majorana or Dirac particle) is still escaping. Neutrinoless double beta decay ($0\

  2. Self-assembly of the beta2-microglobulin NHVTLSQ peptide using a coarse-grained protein model reveals a beta-barrel species. (United States)

    Song, Wei; Wei, Guanghong; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe


    Although a wide variety of proteins can assemble into amyloid fibrils, the structure of the early oligomeric species on the aggregation pathways remains unknown at an atomic level of detail. In this paper we report, using molecular dynamics simulations with the OPEP coarse-grained force field, the free energy landscape of a tetramer and a heptamer of the beta2-microglobulin NHVTLSQ peptide. On the basis of a total of more than 17 ns trajectories started from various states, we find that both species are in equilibrium between amorphous and well-ordered aggregates with cross-beta-structure, a perpendicular bilayer beta-sheet, and, for the heptamer, six- or seven-stranded closed and open beta-barrels. Moreover, analysis of the heptamer trajectories shows that the perpendicular bilayer beta-sheet is one possible precursor of the beta-barrel, but that this barrel can also be formed from a twisted monolayer beta-sheet with successive addition of chains. Comparison with previous aggregation simulations and the fact that nature constructs transmembrane beta-sheet proteins with pores open the possibility that beta-barrels with small inner diameters may represent a common intermediate during the early steps of aggregation.

  3. Unknown Quantum States and Operations, a Bayesian View

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, C; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Schack, Ruediger


    The classical de Finetti theorem provides an operational definition of the concept of an unknown probability in Bayesian probability theory, where probabilities are taken to be degrees of belief instead of objective states of nature. In this paper, we motivate and review two results that generalize de Finetti's theorem to the quantum mechanical setting: Namely a de Finetti theorem for quantum states and a de Finetti theorem for quantum operations. The quantum-state theorem, in a closely analogous fashion to the original de Finetti theorem, deals with exchangeable density-operator assignments and provides an operational definition of the concept of an "unknown quantum state" in quantum-state tomography. Similarly, the quantum-operation theorem gives an operational definition of an "unknown quantum operation" in quantum-process tomography. These results are especially important for a Bayesian interpretation of quantum mechanics, where quantum states and (at least some) quantum operations are taken to be states ...

  4. Grasping Unknown Objects in an Early Cognitive Vision System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Mila


    Grasping of unknown objects presents an important and challenging part of robot manipulation. The growing area of service robotics depends upon the ability of robots to autonomously grasp and manipulate a wide range of objects in everyday environments. Simple, non task-specific grasps of unknown...... objects can also be used in the search-and-rescue scenarios, planetary exploration, or for the handling of the nuclear material. When a robotic system is perceived as a developing cognitive agent, attaining physical control over objects is a precondition for starting a bootstrapping process in which...... presents a system for robotic grasping of unknown objects us- ing stereo vision. Grasps are defined based on contour and surface information provided by the Early Cognitive Vision System, that organizes visual informa- tion into a biologically motivated hierarchical representation. The contributions...

  5. Condition assessment of structures under unknown support excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Kun; S. S. Law; Duan Zhongdong


    A new method is proposed to assess the condition of structures under unknown support excitation by simultaneously detecting local damage and identifying the support excitation from several structural dynamic responses. The support excitation acting on a structure is modeled by orthogonal polynomial approximations, and the sensitivities of structural dynamic response with respect to its physical parameters and orthogonal coefficients are derived. The identification equation is based on Taylor's first order approximation, and is solved with the damped least-squares method in an iterative procedure. A fifteen-story shear building model and a five-story three-dimensional steel frame structure are studied to validate the proposed method. Numerical simulations with noisy measured accelerations show that the proposed method can accurately detect local damage and identify unknown support excitation from only several responses of the structure. This method provides a new approach for detecting structural damage and updating models with unknown input and incomplete measured output information.

  6. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms. (United States)

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc


    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  7. Sectioning and super-resolution using unknown random patterns (United States)

    Hoffman, Zachary R.; DiMarzio, Charles A.


    Random structured illumination patterns are used to demonstrate effective sectioning as well as super-resolution images in conjunction with an incoherent light source. By projecting patterns of varied spatial frequencies and using blind deconvolution of an unknown point spread function, super-resolution is achieved. Random patterns produce more consistent sectioning and super-resolution given an unknown optical transfer function. Further, using a randomly distributed pattern provides a low cost solution to obtaining information similar to that produced in confocal microscopy and other methods of structured illumination, without the requirement of precise projection patterns, coherent light sources, or fluorescence.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hanfu(Han-Fu Chen)


    The paper addresses optimization of a performance function which either is optimized via stabilizing and controlling the underlying unknown system or is directly optimized on the basis of its noise-corrupted observations. For the first case the unknown system is identified and then the indirect adaptive control approach is applied to optimize the performance function. For the second case the stochastic approximation method is used to optimize the objective function, and it appears that a number of problems arising from applications may be reduced to the one solvable by this approach. The paper demonstrates some basic results in the area, but with no intention to give a complete survey.

  9. Scheme for teleportation of unknown states of trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Mei-Feng; Ma Song-She


    A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped ion system.The scheme only requires a single laser beam.It allows the trap to be in any state with a few phonons,e.g.a thermal motion.Furthermore,it works in the regime,where the Rabi frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency.Thus,the teleportation speed is greatly increased,which is important for decreasing the decoherence effect.This idea can also be used to teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

  10. Mechanisms of Beta Cell Dysfunction Associated With Viral Infection. (United States)

    Petzold, Antje; Solimena, Michele; Knoch, Klaus-Peter


    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from genetic predisposition and environmental factors leading to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Recently, a rapid increase in the incidence of childhood T1D has been observed worldwide; this is too fast to be explained by genetic factors alone, pointing to the spreading of environmental factors linked to the disease. Enteroviruses (EVs) are perhaps the most investigated environmental agents in relationship to the pathogenesis of T1D. While several studies point to the likelihood of such correlation, epidemiological evidence in its support is inconclusive or in some instances even against it. Hence, it is still unknown if and how EVs are involved in the development of T1D. Here we review recent findings concerning the biology of EV in beta cells and the potential implications of this knowledge for the understanding of beta cell dysfunction and autoimmune destruction in T1D.

  11. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail:; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)


    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  12. The replication of beta cells in normal physiology, in disease and for therapy. (United States)

    Butler, Peter C; Meier, Juris J; Butler, Alexandra E; Bhushan, Anil


    Replication of beta cells is an important source of beta-cell expansion in early childhood. The recent linkage of type 2 diabetes with several transcription factors involved in cell cycle regulation implies that growth of the beta-cell mass in early childhood might be an important determinant of risk for type 2 diabetes. Under some circumstances, including obesity and pregnancy, the beta-cell mass is adaptively increased in adult humans. The mechanisms by which this adaptive growth occurs and the relative contributions of beta-cell replication or of mechanisms independent of beta-cell replication are unknown. Also, although there is interest in the potential for beta-cell regeneration as a therapeutic approach in both type 1 and 2 diabetes, little is yet known about the potential sources of new beta cells in adult humans. In common with other cell types, replicating beta cells have an increased vulnerability to apoptosis, which is likely to limit the therapeutic value of inducing beta-cell replication in the proapoptotic environment of type 1 and 2 diabetes unless applied in conjunction with a strategy to suppress increased apoptosis.

  13. Comparative effects of three beta blockers (atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol) on survival after acute myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Gottlieb, S S; McCarter, R J


    The beneficial impact of beta blockade after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is clear, but beta-adrenergic blockers differ in multiple characteristics, including lipophilicity and selectivity. The impact of these factors on the effects of beta blockade is unknown. We therefore compared the effects of different beta blockers on mortality after AMI. Charts of 201,752 patients with AMI were abstracted by the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a quality assurance program sponsored by the Health Care Financing Administration. Of the 69,338 patients prescribed beta blockers, we compared mortality of patients receiving different beta-adrenergic blockers using the Cox proportional-hazards model accounting for multiple factors that might influence survival. The mortality rates of the 2 selective agents, metoprolol and atenolol, were virtually identical (13.5% and 13.4% 2-year mortality, respectively). Compared with metoprolol, patients discharged on propranolol had a slightly increased mortality (15.9% 2-year mortality), which may be related to undetected differences at baseline. Survival with all of the drugs was superior to the 23.9% 2-year mortality seen in patients not receiving beta blockers. Beta blockade overall was associated with a 40% improvement in survival. Although the use of beta blockade after AMI has major prognostic importance, the present study suggests that the specific beta blocker chosen will have little influence on mortality.

  14. Differential regulation of chemoattractant-stimulated beta 2, beta 3, and beta 7 integrin activity. (United States)

    Sadhu, C; Masinovsky, B; Staunton, D E


    Leukocyte adhesion to endothelium and extravasation are dynamic processes that require activation of integrins. Chemoattractants such as IL-8 and FMLP are potent activators of leukocyte integrins. To compare the chemoattractant-stimulated activation of three integrins, alpha 4 beta 7, alpha L beta 2, and alpha V beta 3, in the same cellular context, we expressed an IL-8 receptor (IL-8RA) and FMLP receptor (FPR) in the lymphoid cell line JY. Chemoattractants induced a rapid increase in alpha L beta 2- and alpha V beta 3-dependent JY adhesion within 5 min, and it was sustained for 30 min. In contrast, stimulation of alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was transient, returning to basal levels by 30 min. The activation profiles of the integrins were similar regardless of whether IL-8 or FMLP was used for induction. We also demonstrate that alpha 4 beta 7-dependent adhesion was uniquely responsive to the F actin-disrupting agent cytochalasin D and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrin. While alpha V beta 3- and alpha L beta 2-mediated cell adhesion was significantly reduced by cytochalasin D, alpha 4 beta 7-mediated adhesion was enhanced. Chelerythrin inhibited both the IL-8 and PMA activation of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3. In contrast, inducible alpha 4 beta 7 activity was unaffected, and basal activity was increased. These findings demonstrate that the mechanism of alpha 4 beta 7 regulation by chemoattractants is different from that of alpha L beta 2 and alpha V beta 3 and that it appears to involve distinct cytoskeletal and PKC dependencies. In addition, PKC activity may be a positive or negative regulator of integrin-dependent adhesion.

  15. Beta-delayed Proton Decay of Proton Drip-line Nucleus ~(142)Ho

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Unknown beta-delayed proton precursor~(142)Ho was synthesized in the reaction~(106)Cd(~(40)Ca,p3n)and identified for the first time by using a proton-gamma coincidence measurements in combination with a helium-jet fast tape transport system~([1~3]).Its beta-delayed proton spectrum was observed.The hal-life of~(142)Ho was

  16. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella


    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  17. Beta-thalassemia. (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella


    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  18. Beta and muon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Pascual, P.


    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  19. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov


    We introduce a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model that incorporates realized measures of variances and covariances. Realized measures extract information about the current levels of volatilities and correlations from high-frequency data, which...... is particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known...... as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...

  20. Adaptive fuzzy prescribed performance control for MIMO nonlinear systems with unknown control direction and unknown dead-zone inputs. (United States)

    Shi, Wuxi; Luo, Rui; Li, Baoquan


    In this study, an adaptive fuzzy prescribed performance control approach is developed for a class of uncertain multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with unknown control direction and unknown dead-zone inputs. The properties of symmetric matrix are exploited to design adaptive fuzzy prescribed performance controller, and a Nussbaum-type function is incorporated in the controller to estimate the unknown control direction. This method has two prominent advantages: it does not require the priori knowledge of control direction and only three parameters need to be updated on-line for this MIMO systems. It is proved that all the signals in the resulting closed-loop system are bounded and that the tracking errors converge to a small residual set with the prescribed performance bounds. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by simulation results.

  1. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many ap...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  2. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava


    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  3. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  4. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  5. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students (United States)

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.


    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  6. Controlled remote implementation of partially unknown quantum operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN QiuBo; LIU DongDong


    A protocol for controlled remote implementation of a partially unknown operation on an arbitrary quantum state is proposed. In this protocol, a task can be performed using a GHZ state shared among three distant parties: Alice, Bob and the controller Charlie. This protocol is also generalized to the multi-party control system based on sharing an N-qubit GHZ state.

  7. Emergence of MRSA of unknown origin in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerk, W. S. N.; van de Sande-Bruinsma, N.; van der Sande, M. A. B.; Tjon-A-Tsien, A.; Groenheide, A.; Haenen, A.; Timen, A.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Wamel, W. J. B.; de Neeling, A. J.; Richardus, J. H.; Verbrugh, H. A.; Vos, M. C.


    Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 656661 Abstract The Netherlands is known for its low methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence. Yet MRSA with no link to established Dutch risk factors for acquisition, MRSA of unknown origin (MUO), has now emerged and hampers early detection and c

  8. Bayesian Compressed Sensing with Unknown Measurement Noise Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Pedersen, Niels Lovmand


    In sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) approximate Bayesian inference is applied to find sparse estimates from observations corrupted by additive noise. Current literature only vaguely considers the case where the noise level is unknown a priori. We show that for most state-of-the-art reconstruction a...

  9. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen


    Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

  10. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.; Mitchell, D.F.; Costich, V.R.; Vincent, S.; Thoeni, W.; Casparis, E.; Pfefferkorn, R.; Bartella, J.


    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating.

  11. Fault tolerant control of wind turbines using unknown input observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob


    This paper presents a scheme for accommodating faults in the rotor and generator speed sensors in a wind turbine. These measured values are important both for the wind turbine controller as well as the supervisory control of the wind turbine. The scheme is based on unknown input observers, which...

  12. Teleportation of Unknown Superpositions of Collective Atomic Coherent States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG ShiBiao


    We propose a scheme to teleport an unknown superposition of two atomic coherent states with different phases. Our scheme is based on resonant and dispersive atom-field interaction. Our scheme provides a possibility of teleporting macroscopic superposition states of many atoms first time.``

  13. Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.

  14. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G


    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  15. Learning Unknown Structure in CRFs via Adaptive Gradient Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xue


    Full Text Available We study the problem of fitting probabilistic graphical models to the given data when the structure is not known. More specifically, we focus on learning unknown structure in conditional random fields, especially learning both the structure and parameters of a conditional random field model simultaneously. To do this, we first formulate the learning problem as a convex minimization problem by adding an l_2-regularization to the node parameters and a group l_1-regularization to the edge parameters, and then a gradient-based projection method is proposed to solve it which combines an adaptive stepsize selection strategy with a nonmonotone line search. Extensive simulation experiments are presented to show the performance of our approach in solving unknown structure learning problems.

  16. Unknown Quantum States The Quantum de Finetti Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Caves, C M; Schack, R; Caves, Carlton M.; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Schack, Ruediger


    We present an elementary proof of the quantum de Finetti representation theorem, a quantum analogue of de Finetti's classical theorem on exchangeable probability assignments. This contrasts with the original proof of Hudson and Moody [Z. Wahrschein. verw. Geb. 33, 343 (1976)], which relies on advanced mathematics and does not share the same potential for generalization. The classical de Finetti theorem provides an operational definition of the concept of an unknown probability in Bayesian probability theory, where probabilities are taken to be degrees of belief instead of objective states of nature. The quantum de Finetti theorem, in a closely analogous fashion, deals with exchangeable density-operator assignments and provides an operational definition of the concept of an ``unknown quantum state'' in quantum-state tomography. This result is especially important for information-based interpretations of quantum mechanics, where quantum states, like probabilities, are taken to be states of knowledge rather than...

  17. Dynamic Modeling from Flight Data with Unknown Time Skews (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.


    A method for estimating dynamic model parameters from flight data with unknown time skews is described and demonstrated. The method combines data reconstruction, nonlinear optimization, and equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain to accurately estimate both dynamic model parameters and the relative time skews in the data. Data from a nonlinear F-16 aircraft simulation with realistic noise, instrumentation errors, and arbitrary time skews were used to demonstrate the approach. The approach was further evaluated using flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft, where the measured data were known to have relative time skews. Comparison of modeling results obtained from time-skewed and time-synchronized data showed that the method accurately estimates both dynamic model parameters and relative time skew parameters from flight data with unknown time skews.

  18. Markov sequential pattern recognition : dependency and the unknown class.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Kevin Thomas; Haschke, Greg Benjamin; Koch, Mark William


    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) minimizes the expected number of observations to a decision and can solve problems in sequential pattern recognition. Some problems have dependencies between the observations, and Markov chains can model dependencies where the state occupancy probability is geometric. For a non-geometric process we show how to use the effective amount of independent information to modify the decision process, so that we can account for the remaining dependencies. Along with dependencies between observations, a successful system needs to handle the unknown class in unconstrained environments. For example, in an acoustic pattern recognition problem any sound source not belonging to the target set is in the unknown class. We show how to incorporate goodness of fit (GOF) classifiers into the Markov SPRT, and determine the worse case nontarget model. We also develop a multiclass Markov SPRT using the GOF concept.

  19. Beta-blockers for exams identify students at high risk of psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H.; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian


    OBJECTIVES: Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students...... at risk of later psychiatric events. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical...... reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves...

  20. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms. (United States)

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard


    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps.

  1. Mixed Elastico-Plasticity Problems with Partially Unknown Boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we study mixed elastico-plasticity problems in which part of the boundary is known, while the other part of the boundary is unknown and is a free boundary. Under certain conditions, this problem can be transformed into a Riemann-Hilbert boundary value problem for analytic functions and a mixed boundary value problem for complex equations. Using the theory of generalized analytic functions, the solvability of the problem is discussed.

  2. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) due to Legionnaire's disease. (United States)

    Muñoz-Gómez, Sigridh; Cunha, Burke A


    Fevers of unknown origin (FUOs) may be due to any of over 200 different disorders. We present a most unusual case of an FUO in a returning traveler from the Dominican Republic. Work-up for Q fever, Brucellosis, Bartonella, malaria and HIV were negative, but very highly elevated ESRs and ferritin levels suggested possible Legionnaire's disease. This is the third reported case of Legionnaire's disease presenting as an FUO.

  3. Localized hepatic tuberculosis presenting as fever of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Abreu Ferrari


    Full Text Available Localized hepatic tuberculosis is a rare clinical form of tuberculosis infection; it has signs and symptoms related only to hepatic injury, with minimal or no extrahepatic involvement. It frequently presents as a non-specific syndrome, with systemic manifestations, which can sometimes result in a diagnostic dilemma. A high index of suspicion is required and a definitive diagnosis can be very difficult. We report a case of localized hepatic tuberculosis that presented as fever of unknown origin.

  4. Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.


    Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

  5. Adaptive Robust Waveform Selection for Unknown Target Detection in Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Lu Wang; Hong-Qiang Wang; Yu-Liang Qin; Yong-Qiang Cheng


    @@@A basic assumption of most recently proposed waveform design algorithms is that the target impulse response is a known deterministic function or a stochastic process with a known power spectral density (PSD). However, it is well-known that a target impulse response is neither easily nor accurately obtained; besides it changes sharply with attitude angles. Both of the aforementioned cases complicate the waveform design process. In this paper, an adaptive robust waveform selection method for unknown target detection in clutter is proposed. The target impulse response is considered to be unknown but belongs to a known uncertainty set. An adaptive waveform library is devised by using a signal-to-clutter-plus-noise ratio (SCNR)- based optimal waveform design method. By applying the minimax robust waveform selection method, the optimal robust waveform is selected to ensure the lowest performance bound of the unknown target detection in clutter. Results show that the adaptive waveform library outperforms the predefined linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveform library on the SCNR bound.

  6. Adaptive Output Regulation for Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Periodic Disturbances (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Hidenobu; Ohmori, Hiromitsu

    Many mechanical systems are subjected to periodic disturbances which may adversely influence control performance. When the plants are nonlinear systems with unknown parameters, this disturbance compensation problem has been considered as adaptive output regulation problem. This paper discusses the problem about adaptive output regulation for nonlinear systems with arbitrary relative degree, which can be transformed into the output feedback form. The nonlinear plant is affected by unknown constant parameters and periodic disturbances with unknown frequencies, magnitudes and phases. The periodic disturbances are considered as signals generated from a linear time invariant exosystem. It is not assumed that the disturbances meet the matching condition for the control input. The design method of the adaptive controller and its parameter update law is based on adaptive backstepping manner for the coordinates-changed extended system, which is generated from the nonlinear plant and the exosystem. Then, it can be achieved that the output asymptotically converges to the output reference and that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded.

  7. Relativistic pn-QRPA to the double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Claudio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental de Itapeva; Krmpotic, F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas; Carlson, Brett Vern [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Fisica


    Full text: In nature there are about 50 nuclear systems where the single beta-decay is energetically forbidden, and double- beta decay turns out to be only possible mode of disintegration. It is the nuclear pairing force which causes such an 'anomaly', by making the mass of the odd-odd isobar, (N - 1;Z + 1), to be greater than the masses of its even-even neighbors, (N;Z) and (N - 2;Z +2). The modes by which the double-beta decay can take place are connected with the neutrino and antineutrino distinction. In case the lepton number is strictly conserved the neutrino is a Dirac fermion and the two-neutrino mode is the only possible mode of disintegration. On the other hand, if this conservation is violated, the neutrino is a Majorana particle and neutrinoless double-beta decay also can occur. Both two-neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decay processes have attracted much attention, because a comparison between experiment and theory for the first, provides a measure of confidence one may have in the nuclear wave function employed for extracting the unknown parameters from neutrinoless lifetime measurements. The proton-neutron (pn) quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) has turned out be the most simple model for calculating the nuclear wave function involved in the double-beta decay transitions. In this work the transition matrix elements for 0{sup +} -> 0{sup +} double-beta decay are calculated for {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Te nuclei, using a relativistic pn-QRPA based on Hartree-Bogoliubov approximation to the single-particle motion. (author)

  8. Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation and taxonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letschert, J.P.W.


    In Chapter 1 an account is given of the historical subdivision of the genus Beta and its sections, and the relations of the sections are discussed. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic treatment of wild section Beta by various authors. The Linnaean names B. vulgaris L. and B. maritima L. are lectotypi

  9. In vitro release by Aspergillus fumigatus of galactofuranose antigens, 1,3-beta-D-glucan, and DNA, surrogate markers used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennink-Kersten, M.A.S.H.; Ruegebrink, D.; Wasei, N.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.


    Aspergillus markers are becoming increasingly important for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. The kinetics of release of these surrogate markers, however, is largely unknown. We investigated the release of beta-(1-5)-galactofuranosyl (galf) antigens (Platelia Aspergillus), 1,3-beta-D-gl

  10. TGF-beta Inhibits Ang II-Induced MAPK p44/42 Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Ang II Type 1 Receptor Downregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, Bernadet D. M.; van der Wouden, Els A.; Pelgrom, Vincent; Henning, Robert H.; Sharma, Kumar; Deelman, Leo E.


    Vascular changes in diabetes are characterized by reduced vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Previously, we demonstrated that TGF-beta 1 impairs Ang II-induced contraction through reduced calcium mobilization. However, the effect of TGF-beta 1 on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling is unknown.

  11. Antiphospholipid antibodies promote leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and thrombosis in mice by antagonizing eNOS via beta 2GPI and apoER2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramesh, Sangeetha; Morrell, Craig N.; Tarango, Cristina; Thomas, Gail D.; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Girardi, Guillermina; Herz, Joachim; Urbanus, Rolf T.; de Groot, Philip G.; Thorpe, Philip E.; Salmon, Jane E.; Shaul, Philip W.; Mineo, Chieko


    In antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) binding to beta 2 glycoprotein I (beta 2GPI) induce endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion and thrombus formation via unknown mechanisms Here we show that in mice both of these processes are caused by the inhibition of eNOS In studie

  12. Cyclic modular beta-sheets. (United States)

    Woods, R Jeremy; Brower, Justin O; Castellanos, Elena; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Khakshoor, Omid; Russu, Wade A; Nowick, James S


    The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (

  13. Turbo Detection in Rayleigh flat fading channel with unknown statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fortier


    Full Text Available The turbo detection of turbo coded symbols over correlated Rayleigh flat fading channels generatedaccording to Jakes’ model is considered in this paper. We propose a method to estimate the channelsignal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the maximum Doppler frequency. These statistics are required bythe linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE channel estimator. To improve the system convergence,we redefine the channel reliability factor by taking into account the channel estimationerror statistics. Simulation results for rate 1=3 turbo code and two different normalized fading ratesshow that the use of the new reliability factor greatly improves the performance. The improvementis more substantial when channel statistics are unknown.

  14. Adaptive generalized functional synchronization of Chaotic systems with unknown parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dong-Feng; Han Pu


    A universal adaptive generalized functional synchronization approach to any two different or identical chaotic systems with unknown parameters is proposed,based on a unified mathematical expression of a large class of chaotic system.Self-adaptive parameter law and control law are given in the form of a theorem.The synchronization between the three-dimensional R(o)ssler chaotic system and the four-dimensional Chen's hyper-chaotic system is studied as an example for illustration.The computer simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed.

  15. Fast entanglement detection for unknown states of two spatial qutrits

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, G; Vargas, A; Vianna, R O; Saavedra, C


    We investigate the practicality of the method proposed by Maciel et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 80, 032325(2009)] for detecting the entanglement of two spatial qutrits (3-dimensional quantum systems), which are encoded in the discrete transverse momentum of single photons transmitted through a multi-slit aperture. The method is based on the acquisition of partial information of the quantum state through projective measurements, and a data processing analysis done with semi-definite programs. This analysis relies on generating gradually an optimal entanglement witness operator, and numerical investigations have shown that it allows for the entanglement detection of unknown states with a cost much lower than full state tomography.

  16. Control of Unknown Chaotic Systems Based on Neural Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDong-Mei; WANGZheng-Ou


    We introduce the predictive control into the control of chaotic system and propose a neural network control algorithm based on predictive control. The proposed control system stabilizes the chaotic motion in an unknown chaotic system onto the desired target trajectory. The proposed algorithm is simple and its convergence speed is much higher than existing similar algorithms. The control system can control hyperchaos. We analyze the stability of the control system and prove the convergence property of the neural controller. The theoretic derivation and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  17. Maximum Likelihood Localization of Radiation Sources with unknown Source Intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Baidoo-Williams, Henry E


    In this paper, we consider a novel and robust maximum likelihood approach to localizing radiation sources with unknown statistics of the source signal strength. The result utilizes the smallest number of sensors required theoretically to localize the source. It is shown, that should the source lie in the open convex hull of the sensors, precisely $N+1$ are required in $\\mathbb{R}^N, ~N \\in \\{1,\\cdots,3\\}$. It is further shown that the region of interest, the open convex hull of the sensors, is entirely devoid of false stationary points. An augmented gradient ascent algorithm with random projections should an estimate escape the convex hull is presented.

  18. High dimensional matrix estimation with unknown variance of the noise

    CERN Document Server

    Klopp, Olga


    We propose a new pivotal method for estimating high-dimensional matrices. Assume that we observe a small set of entries or linear combinations of entries of an unknown matrix $A_0$ corrupted by noise. We propose a new method for estimating $A_0$ which does not rely on the knowledge or an estimation of the standard deviation of the noise $\\sigma$. Our estimator achieves, up to a logarithmic factor, optimal rates of convergence under the Frobenius risk and, thus, has the same prediction performance as previously proposed estimators which rely on the knowledge of $\\sigma$. Our method is based on the solution of a convex optimization problem which makes it computationally attractive.

  19. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger


    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...

  20. Measurements of sin 2 $\\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, A


    A review of the most recent measurements of the CP violating parameter sin 2 beta from LEP and CDF is reported. These yield an average value of sin 2 beta =0.91+or-0.35, giving a confidence level that CP violation in the B system has been observed of almost 99%. (10 refs).

  1. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M


    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the p

  2. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco


    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalou...

  3. Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta Mediates Acute Illness-Induced Alterations in Central Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boelen; J. Kwakkel; O. Chassande; E. Fliers


    Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during lipopolysacchar

  4. CP-Violation in Neutrino Oscillations from EC/{beta}{sup +} decaying ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Catalina [Centre for Theoretical Particle Physics, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)


    We discuss the separation of unknown neutrino properties by means of the energy dependence of the oscillation probability and we consider an hybrid setup which combines the electron capture and the {beta}{sup +} decay from the same radioactive proton-rich ion with the same boost. We conclude that the combination of the two decay channels, with different neutrino energies, achieves remarkable results.

  5. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  6. Value of panendoscopy in metastases of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Vladimir


    Full Text Available Introduction Neck metastases of unknown origin are metastatic solid tumors with primary undetactable by physical examination, chest x-ray, rutine blood and urine studies and histologic evaluation. Material and methods This study included 77 patients of both sexes, average age 57 years, undergoing a diagnostic procedure at ENT clinic, Clinical Center Novi Sad, in the period from 1992 to 2001. Results The primary tumor was detected in 51% of all cases by panendoscopy and bilateral tonsillectomy. In 14 of 26 patients (54%, in whom the site of the primary tumor was not detected, after telecobalt therapy and radical neck dissection, no relapses occurred. Pathohistological examination revealed planocellular carcinoma in 50 (65% cases, transitional cell carcinoma in 9 (11.7% cases and lymphoma in 7 (9.1% cases. Conclusion Cervical metastases with unknown primary tumor are the first sign of head and neck malignant disease. Panendoscopy with bilateral tonsillectomy and multiple mucosal biopsies are necessary procedures in detecting the primary tumor site. .

  7. Data series subtraction with unknown and unmodeled background noise

    CERN Document Server

    Vitale, Stefano; Dolesi, Rita; Ferroni, Valerio; Hueller, Mauro; Vetrugno, Daniele; Weber, William Joseph; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Hewitson, Martin; Korsakova, Natalia; Ferraioli, Luigi; Gibert, Ferran; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Nofrarias, Miquel; Inchauspe, Henri; Plagnol, Eric; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul W; Armano, Michele; Thorpe, James Ira; Wass, Peter


    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), ESA's precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory, will measure the degree to which two test-masses can be put into free-fall, aiming to demonstrate a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below 30 fm/s$^2$/Hz$^{1/2}$ around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the measured relative acceleration data series must be fit to other various measured time series data. This fitting is required in different experiments, from system identification of the test mass and satellite dynamics to the subtraction of noise contributions from measured known disturbances. In all cases, the background noise, described by the PSD of the fit residuals, is expected to be coloured, requiring that we perform such fits in the frequency domain. This PSD is unknown {\\it a priori}, and a high accuracy estimate of this residual acceleration noise is an essential output of our analysis. In this paper we present a fitting method based on Bayesian parameter estimation with an unknown frequ...

  8. Shading-based Surface Detail Recovery under General Unknown Illumination. (United States)

    Xu, Di; Duan, Qi; Zheng, Jianmin; Zhang, Juyong; Cai, Jianfei; Cham, Tat-Jen


    Reconstructing the shape of a 3D object from multi-view images under unknown, general illumination is a fundamental problem in computer vision and high quality reconstruction is usually challenging especially when fine detail is needed and the albedo of the object is non-uniform. This paper introduces vertex overall illumination vectors to model the illumination effect and presents a total variation (TV) based approach for recovering surface details using shading and multi-view stereo (MVS). Behind the approach are the two important observations: (1) the illumination over the surface of an object often appears to be piece wise smooth and (2) the recovery of surface orientation is not sufficient for reconstructing the surface, which was often overlooked previously. Thus we propose to use TV to regularize the overall illumination vectors and use visual hull to constrain partial vertices. The reconstruction is formulated as a constrained TV-minimization problem that simultaneously treats the shape and illumination vectors as unknowns. An augmented Lagrangian method is proposed to quickly solve the TV-minimization problem. As a result, our approach is robust, stable and is able to efficiently recover high quality of surface details even when starting with a coarse model obtained using MVS. These advantages are demonstrated by extensive experiments on the state-of-the-art MVS database, which includes challenging objects with varying albedo.

  9. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation]. (United States)

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B


    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  10. Spectroscopic Signature of a Ubiquitous Metal Binding Site in the Metallo-beta-lactamase Superfamily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Campos-Bermudez; J Gonzalez; D Tierney; A Vila


    The metallo-{beta}-lactamase (M{beta}L) superfamily is a functionally diverse group of metalloproteins sharing a distinctive {alpha}{beta}/{alpha}{beta} fold and a characteristic metal binding motif. A large number of open reading frames identified in genomic sequencing efforts have been annotated as members of this superfamily through sequence comparisons. However, structural and functional studies performed on purified proteins are normally needed to unequivocally include a newly discovered protein in the M{beta}L superfamily. Here we report the spectroscopic characterization of recombinant YcbL, a gene product annotated as a member of the M{beta}L superfamily whose function in vivo remains unknown. By taking advantage of the structural features characterizing the M{beta}L superfamily metal binding motif, we performed spectroscopic studies on Zn(II)- and Co(II)-substituted YcbL to structurally interrogate the metal binding site. The dinuclear center in Co(II)-YcbL was shown to display characteristic electronic absorption features in the visible region, which were also observed in an engineered M{beta}L aimed at mimicking this metal site. Thus, the spectroscopic features reported herein can be employed as a signature to readily identify and characterize the presence of these ubiquitous metal binding sites.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Identifying functions for all gene products in all sequenced organisms is a central challenge of the post-genomic era. However, at least 30-50% of the proteins encoded by any given genome are of unknown function, or wrongly or vaguely annotated. Many of these 'unknown' proteins are common to prokaryotes and plants. We accordingly set out to predict and experimentally test the functions of such proteins. Our approach to functional prediction is integrative, coupling the extensive post-genomic resources available for plants with comparative genomics based on hundreds of microbial genomes, and functional genomic datasets from model microorganisms. The early phase is computer-assisted; later phases incorporate intellectual input from expert plant and microbial biochemists. The approach thus bridges the gap between automated homology-based annotations and the classical gene discovery efforts of experimentalists, and is much more powerful than purely computational approaches to identifying gene-function associations. Among Arabidopsis genes, we focused on those (2,325 in total) that (i) are unique or belong to families with no more than three members, (ii) are conserved between plants and prokaryotes, and (iii) have unknown or poorly known functions. Computer-assisted selection of promising targets for deeper analysis was based on homology .. independent characteristics associated in the SEED database with the prokaryotic members of each family, specifically gene clustering and phyletic spread, as well as availability of functional genomics data, and publications that could link candidate families to general metabolic areas, or to specific functions. In-depth comparative genomic analysis was then performed for about 500 top candidate families, which connected ~55 of them to general areas of metabolism and led to specific functional predictions for a subset of ~25 more. Twenty predicted functions were experimentally tested in at least one prokaryotic organism

  12. [Neuroleptic malignant syndrome : Rare cause of fever of unknown origin]. (United States)

    Chackupurakal, R; Wild, U; Kamm, M; Wappler, F; Reske, D; Sakka, S G


    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a possible cause of fever of unknown origin (FUO) and is a potentially fatal adverse effect of various drugs, especially of neuroleptics. First generation antipsychotics, such as received by the patient described in this article, are more likely to cause NMS than second generation antipsychotics. The key symptoms are the development of severe muscle rigidity and elevated temperature associated with the use of neuroleptic medication. Malignant catatonia (MC) is an important differential diagnosis of NMS. While neuroleptics can trigger NMS and must be immediately discontinued if NMS occurs, neuroleptic therapy represents the first line treatment for MC. This article describes the case of a patient with schizoaffective disorder where initially the diagnosis of NMS was not clear. Eventually, fever and a markedly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) led to the correct diagnosis and the appropriate therapy with dantrolene, bromocriptine and amantadine. Furthermore, a thorough review of the currently available literature on NMS is provided.

  13. The Difficulty of Sexing Skeletons from Unknown Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sierp


    Full Text Available Determination of sex from skeletal remains is performed using a number of methods developed by biological anthropology. They must be evaluated for consistency and for their performance in a forensic setting. Twenty skeletons of varied provenance had their sex determined by 15 existing methods of forensic anthropology (7 metric and 8 morphological. The methods were evaluated for their consistency in determination of sex. No single individual was identified as belonging to one sex exclusively. Ambiguous results were obtained by metric methods for fourteen individuals (70% and by morphological methods for only five individuals (25% (Chi-squared = 4.3, df = 1, P<0.05. Methods which use the size of bones as an indicator of sex perform poorly on skeletal remains of individuals of unknown provenance. Methods which combine morphologic and metric techniques, that is, geometric morphometric analysis, may result in greater levels of consistency.

  14. Cancer of unknown primary origin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa De Carlo


    Full Text Available Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP accounts for 2-10% of all malignancies. The apparent absence of the primary tumour, the development of early, uncommon systemic metastases and the resistance to therapy and poor prognosis are hallmarks of this heterogeneous clinical entity and are a challenge for physicians. The diagnostic workup of patients with CUP includes a large amount of histopathological examination, as well as the use of imaging techniques that often fail to identify the primary tumour. Therefore, the optimal workup and treatment for these patients remains to be determined. Molecular diagnostic tools, such as DNA microarray analysis, could help in the search for "lost" CUP origin and guide the further treatment approach. We report the case of a 66-year-old man, with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis of carcinoma and neurological syndrome with diplopia and balance disorders, in which many exams have been performed without finding the primary tumour.

  15. Distributed Synchronization Control of Multiagent Systems With Unknown Nonlinearities. (United States)

    Su, Shize; Lin, Zongli; Garcia, Alfredo


    This paper revisits the distributed adaptive control problem for synchronization of multiagent systems where the dynamics of the agents are nonlinear, nonidentical, unknown, and subject to external disturbances. Two communication topologies, represented, respectively, by a fixed strongly-connected directed graph and by a switching connected undirected graph, are considered. Under both of these communication topologies, we use distributed neural networks to approximate the uncertain dynamics. Decentralized adaptive control protocols are then constructed to solve the cooperative tracker problem, the problem of synchronization of all follower agents to a leader agent. In particular, we show that, under the proposed decentralized control protocols, the synchronization errors are ultimately bounded, and their ultimate bounds can be reduced arbitrarily by choosing the control parameter appropriately. Simulation study verifies the effectiveness of our proposed protocols.

  16. A Brief Introduction on Mystery, the Unknown, Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan


    Full Text Available In this age of globalization, this age of so many ways to know—and so many ways to know things so quickly—it is both satisfying and deeply unnerving to come upon things and events that are really hard to understand, things and events so shocking or strange or mysterious, that they seem Unknown. Perhaps even unknowable. The first note of NANO Issue 2 focuses on an unsolved murder and reveals a mystery that is confounding, creepy, and yet oddly compelling. In “Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age,” Jeremy Biles and Brian Collins explore the edges of where cyber-crime threatens to turn real—and vice versa. In the second note, Jennifer Ballengee compares Oedipus at Colonus with Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.

  17. Metastatic cancer of unknown primary in 21 dogs. (United States)

    Rossi, F; Aresu, L; Vignoli, M; Buracco, P; Bettini, G; Ferro, S; Gattino, F; Ghiani, F; Costantino, R; Ressel, L; Bellei, E; Marconato, L


    The aim of this retrospective study was to describe clinical features, treatment and outcome of 21 dogs with metastatic cancer of unknown primary (MCUP), a biopsy-proven malignancy being diagnosed at a metastatic stage, in which the anatomical origin of the primary tumour cannot be detected. All dogs underwent total-body computed tomography. Signalment, type and duration of clinical signs, metastasis site, pathology results, treatment and outcome were recorded. Carcinoma was the most common diagnosis (57.1%), followed by sarcoma, melanoma and mast cell tumour. The median number of disease sites per dog was 2, with bones, lymph nodes, lungs and spleen being the most frequent metastatic locations. The median survival for all dogs was 30 days. Overall, a primary site was not identified in 20 (95.2%) dogs. MCUP encompasses a variety of different pathologic entities and harbours a poor prognosis.

  18. Alternate Location Method of a Robot Team in Unknown Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-zhong; LIU Jing-jing


    The alternate location method of a robot team is proposed. Three of the robots are kept still as beacon robots, not always the same ones, while the others are regarded as mobile robots. The mobile robots alternatively measure the distance between one of them and three beacon robots with ultrasonic measurement module. The distance data are combined with its dead-reckoning information using iterated extended Kalman filter(IEKF) to realize the optimal estimate of its position. According to the condition the future beacon robots positions should be desired ones, the target function and the nonlinear constrain equations are set up which are used by nonlinear optimization algorithm to estimate the position of the future beacon robots. By alternately changing the robots roles as active beacon, the alternate location in unknown environment can be realized. Process and result of the simulation test are given and the position estimation error is within±10mm, which proves the validity of this method.

  19. Analysing Trust Transitivity and The Effects of Unknown Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touhid Bhuiyan


    Full Text Available Trust can be used to improve online automated recommendation within a given domain. Trust transitivity is used to make it successful. But trust transitivity has different interpretations. Trust and trust transitivity; both are the human mental phenomenon and for this reason, there is no such thing as objective transitivity. Trust transitivity and trust fusion both are important elements in computational trust. This paper analyses the parameter dependence problem in trust transitivity and proposes some definitions considering the effects of base rate. In addition, it also proposes belief functions based on subjective logic to analyse trust transitivity of three specified cases with sensitive and insensitive based rate. Then it presents a quantitative analysis of the effects of unknown dependence problem in an interconnected network environment; such Internet.

  20. Kikuchi's Disease: A Rare Cause of Fever of Unknown Origin. (United States)

    Jalal-ud-din, Mir; Noor, Muhammad Munir; Ali, Shadab; Ali, Rashid


    Kikuchi Fujimoto Disease (KFD) or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis can present with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy. It is often mistaken for more serious conditions like malignant lymphoma or tuberculosis. First case was described by Kikuchi in Japan, very few cases have been reported in Pakistan. A middle aged female presented with fever and body aches for one month. She was investigated extensively for pyrexia of unknown origin, all of which came out to be normal except a raised ESR. Anti-tuberculous drugs were started on clinical suspicion, with no improvement after a month. Later, a detailed physical examination revealed cervical lymphadenopathy. One of the lymph nodes was excised and biopsied. The histopathology suggested Kikuchi's disease. Oral Prednisolone was started showing improvement. Her fever subsided and lymph nodes disappeared at the follow-up visit. No relapse was encountered in the subsequent visits.

  1. An updating method for structural dynamics models with unknown excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louf, F; Charbonnel, P E; Ladeveze, P [LMT-Cachan (ENS Cachan/CNRS/Paris 6 University) 61, avenue du Prsident Wilson, F-94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Gratien, C [Astrium (EADS space transportation) - Service TE 343 66, Route de Verneuil, 78133 Les Mureaux Cedex (France)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    This paper presents an extension of the Constitutive Relation Error (CRE) updating method to complex industrial structures, such as space launchers, for which tests carried out in the functional context can provide significant amounts of information. Indeed, since several sources of excitation are involved simultaneously, a flight test can be viewed as a multiple test. However, there is a serious difficulty in that these sources of excitation are partially unknown. The CRE updating method enables one to obtain an estimate of these excitations. We present a first application of the method using a very simple finite element model of the Ariane V launcher along with measurements performed at the end of an atmospheric flight.

  2. Mobile robot navigation in unknown static environments using ANFIS controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Pandey


    Full Text Available Navigation and obstacle avoidance are the most important task for any mobile robots. This article presents the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS controller for mobile robot navigation and obstacle avoidance in the unknown static environments. The different sensors such as ultrasonic range finder sensor and sharp infrared range sensor are used to detect the forward obstacles in the environments. The inputs of the ANFIS controller are obstacle distances obtained from the sensors, and the controller output is a robot steering angle. The primary objective of the present work is to use ANFIS controller to guide the mobile robot in the given environments. Computer simulations are conducted through MATLAB software and implemented in real time by using C/C++ language running Arduino microcontroller based mobile robot. Moreover, the successful experimental results on the actual mobile robot demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed controller.

  3. Impact of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhausen, J.; Stoeblen, F.; Mueller, R.D. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Dominguez-Fernandez, E. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of General Surgery; Henseke, P. [Nycomed-Amersham Arzneimittel GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)


    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Sixty-three consecutive intensive care patients with suspicion of an abscess and negative or inconclusive previous radiological examinations were included. CT was performed using the helical technique. A total of 45 abdominal and 38 chest examinations were evaluated. Results: 5/38 examinations of the chest revealed the source of sepsis (pleural empyema 2, lung abscess 1, mediastinitis 1, retrosternal abscess 1). 7/45 abdominal CT examinations showed the source of sepsis (intraabdominal abscess 2, hepatic abscess 3, intestinal perforation 1, gangrenous colitis 1). Conclusion: CT is useful for the evaluation of patients with fever or sepsis without a known source. Due to the detection of a spetic focus by CT, 19% of the patients in our study could be immediately referred to causal therapy as percutaneous drainage or surgery. (orig.)

  4. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments. (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc


    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  5. Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Undersea Vehicle in Unknown Unstructured Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan


    Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.

  6. The RHMC algorithm for theories with unknown spectral bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kogut, J B


    The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm extends the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm for lattice QCD simulations to situations involving fractional powers of the determinant of the quadratic Dirac operator. This avoids the updating increment ($dt$) dependence of observables which plagues the Hybrid Molecular-dynamics (HMD) method. The RHMC algorithm uses rational approximations to fractional powers of the quadratic Dirac operator. Such approximations are only available when positive upper and lower bounds to the operator's spectrum are known. We apply the RHMC algorithm to simulations of 2 theories for which a positive lower spectral bound is unknown: lattice QCD with staggered quarks at finite isospin chemical potential and lattice QCD with massless staggered quarks and chiral 4-fermion interactions ($\\chi$QCD). A choice of lower bound is made in each case, and the properties of the RHMC simulations these define are studied. Justification of our choices of lower bounds is made by comparing measurements ...

  7. 'Through privation to knowledge': unknown documents from Freud's university years. (United States)

    Laible, E


    The paper is centred on three hitherto unknown grants, two of them donated by different Jewish Foundations to the medical student Freud shortly before the end of his studies. It furthermore turned out that Freud's salary as a demonstrator in Brücke's Laboratory had been a grant too, donated by the University of Vienna. Aspects of the contemporary background by means of the private foundations and their donors as well as of the aspiring tendencies at the University of Vienna are described. Documentary evidence demonstrates that Brücke promoted Sigmund Freud continuously, more than hitherto known in the biography. The significance of Brücke and Charcot as identification-figures, on the one hand, and for Freud's development as a scientist, on the other, is elaborated. Contemporary quotations shed light on Freud's poverty in his youth as well as the arising anti-Semitism at the University of Vienna.

  8. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Hernández


    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  9. Fever of unknown origin - Hidden in the head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kishore Pandita


    Full Text Available The original algorithmic approach, as outlined by de Kleijn and colleagues and practiced commonly, envisages performing computed tomography (CT of chest, abdomen, and pelvis in patients with classical fever of unknown origin (FUO, in whom no potentially diagnostic clue exists. It further envisages performing positron emission tomography (PET scan, if CT scan is unrevealing. Imaging of head and neck especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has not been included in this algorithm, that leaves these important regions unexplored in most settings where PET scan is unavailable. MRI is a safe modality for evaluating central nervous system lesions and its role in FUO has not been adequately evaluated. We present three patients of FUO in whom the diagnosis of tuberculoma of brain as a cause of prolonged pyrexia got delayed because the MRI of head was not done initially, to comply with the approach of minimum diagnostic evaluation.

  10. Villitis of unknown aetiology: correlation of recurrence with clinical outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeley, L


    Villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Consequently, an ability to predict recurrence could be clinically relevant. We examined placentas where villitis was diagnosed in a previous pregnancy to establish the risk of recurrence and outcome. A total of 304 cases of VUA were diagnosed in our laboratory over a 4-year period. Subsequently, 19 of this cohort had a second placenta examined histologically. Recurrence and clinical outcome were recorded. Villitis recurred in 7 of 19 cases (37%). There was a high level of adverse pregnancy outcome in this cohort overall, characterised by small for gestational age infants and stillbirth, particularly in cases with high-grade villitis. We identified recurrent villitis more frequently than previously reported. Our findings confirm an association between high-grade villitis and poor outcome. Adequately powered prospective studies are required to determine if enhanced surveillance of subsequent pregnancies is indicated following a diagnosis of villitis.

  11. Pole assignment for stochastic systems with unknown coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翰馥[1; 曹希仁[2


    This paper solves the exact pole assignment problem for the single-input stochastic systems with unknown coefficients under the controllability assumption which is necessary and sufficient for the arbitrary pole assignment for systems with known coefficients. The system noise is required to be mutually independent with zero mean and bounded second moment. Two approaches to solving the problem are proposed: One is the iterative learning approach which can be applied when the state at a fixed time can be repeatedly observed with different feedback gains; the other is the adaptive control approach which works when the trajectories satisfy a nondegeneracy condition. Both methods are essentially based on stochastic approximation, and the feedback gains are recursively given without invoking the certainty-equivalency-principle.

  12. Phase shift estimation in interferograms with unknown phase step (United States)

    Dalmau, Oscar; Rivera, Mariano; Gonzalez, Adonai


    We first present two closed formulas for computing the phase shift in interferograms with unknown phase step. These formulas obtain theoretically the exact phase step in fringe pattern without noise and only require the information in two pixels of the image. The previous formulas allows us to define a functional that yields an estimate of the phase step in interferograms corrupted by noise. In the experiment we use the standard Least Square formulation which also yields a closed formula, although the general formulation admits a robust potential. We provide two possible implementations of our approach, one in which the sites can be randomly selected and the other in which we can scan the whole image. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm presents the best results compared with state of the art algorithms.

  13. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc


    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  14. Detection of Unknown Primary Tumors Using Whole Body FDG PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJun; LINXiangtong; GUANYihui; ZUOChuantao; HUAFengchun; SHENGXiaofang; WANGYang


    Objective: To assess the usefulness of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in locating occult primary lesions. Methods: 50 patients with varying hetero-geneous metastases of unknown primary origin were referred for FDG PET. The locations of the known metastatic tumor manifestations were distributed as follows: cervical lymph nodes metastases (n=18),skeletal metastases (n=15), cerebral metastases (n=12), others (n=5). All patients underwent whole body 18F-FDG PET imaging. The images were interpreted by visual inspection and semi-quantitative analysis(standardized uptake value, SUV). The patients had undergone conventional imaging within 2 weeks of FDG PET. Surgical, clinical and histopathologic findings were used to assess the performance of FDG PET.Results: FDG PET was able to detect the location of the primary tumor in 32/50 patients (64%). The primary tumors were proved by histopathologic results, and located in the lungs (n=17), the nasopharynx(n=9), the breast (n=2), the ovary (n=l), the colon(n=l), the prostate(n=l),the thyroid (n=l). FDG PET were proved false positive in 2 patients (4%), and the suspicious primary tumors were in uterus and colon respectively. During the clinical follow-up of 2 to 26 months, the primary tumor was found in only 2 patients ( prostate cancer, gastric cancer). Conclusion: PET imaging allows identification of the primary site and metastatic lesions(including bone and soft tissue metastases) at a single examination.Whole body lSF-FDG PET allows effective localization of the unknown primary site of origin and can contribute substantially to patient care.

  15. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans. (United States)

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B


    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  16. MONDian dynamical modeling of NGC 288 with $\\beta \

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, X; Scarpa, R


    NGC 288 is a diffuse Galactic globular cluster, it is remarkable in that its low density results in internal accelerations being below the critical MOND $a_{0}$ acceleration throughout. This makes it an ideal testing ground for MONDian gravity, as the details of the largely unknown transition function between the Newtonian and modified regimes become unimportant. Further, exact analytical solutions exist for isothermal spherical equilibrium structures in MOND, allowing for arbitrary values of the anisotropy parameter, $\\beta$. In this paper we use observations of the velocity dispersion profile of NGC 288, which is in fact isothermal, as dynamical constraints on MONDian models for this cluster, where the remaining free parameters are adjusted to fit the observed surface brightness profile. We find the optimal fit requires $\\beta =0$, an isotropic solution with a total mass of $3.5 \\pm 1.1 \\times 10^{4} M_{\\odot}$.

  17. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique


    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  18. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)


    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  19. Monte Carlo calculations of monoenergetic electron depth dose distributions in LiF chips: Skin dose correction factors for beta rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Y.S. [Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheva (Israel); Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby (Canada); Yuen, P.; Wong, P. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)


    Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out for monoenergetic electrons from 0.1 to 4 MeV irradiating LiF chips in both perpendicular and isotropic geometry. This enabled the calculation of skin dose correction factors (beta factors) for typical beta energy spectra as measured with a beta-ray spectrometer at CANDU nuclear generating stations. The correction factors were estimated by averaging the depth dose distributions for the monoenergetic electrons over the experimentally measured beta-ray spectra. The calculations illustrate the large uncertainty in beta factors arising from the unknown angular distribution of the beta-ray radiation field and uncertainties in the shape of the beta-ray spectra below 500 keV. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Derivation of $m_A \\simeq M_Z$ and $\\tan \\beta > \\sqrt 3$ in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, E


    In the minimal supersymmetric standard model, the Higgs sector has two unknown parameters, usually taken to be $\\tan \\beta \\equiv v_2/v_1$ and $m_A$, the mass of its one physical pseudoscalar particle. By minimizing the minimum of the Higgs potential along a certain direction in parameter space, it is shown that $m_A = M_Z$ + radiative correction, and if one further plausible assumption is made, $\\tan \\beta > \\sqrt 3$.

  1. Evolution of outer membrane beta-barrels from an ancestral beta beta hairpin. (United States)

    Remmert, M; Biegert, A; Linke, D; Lupas, A N; Söding, J


    Outer membrane beta-barrels (OMBBs) are the major class of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and plastids. Their transmembrane domains consist of 8-24 beta-strands forming a closed, barrel-shaped beta-sheet around a central pore. Despite their obvious structural regularity, evidence for an origin by duplication or for a common ancestry has not been found. We use three complementary approaches to show that all OMBBs from Gram-negative bacteria evolved from a single, ancestral beta beta hairpin. First, we link almost all families of known single-chain bacterial OMBBs with each other through transitive profile searches. Second, we identify a clear repeat signature in the sequences of many OMBBs in which the repeating sequence unit coincides with the structural beta beta hairpin repeat. Third, we show that the observed sequence similarity between OMBB hairpins cannot be explained by structural or membrane constraints on their sequences. The third approach addresses a longstanding problem in protein evolution: how to distinguish between a very remotely homologous relationship and the opposing scenario of "sequence convergence." The origin of a diverse group of proteins from a single hairpin module supports the hypothesis that, around the time of transition from the RNA to the protein world, proteins arose by amplification and recombination of short peptide modules that had previously evolved as cofactors of RNAs.

  2. ADAM12 and alpha9beta1 integrin are instrumental in human myogenic cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafuste, Peggy; Sonnet, Corinne; Chazaud, Bénédicte;


    Knowledge on molecular systems involved in myogenic precursor cell (mpc) fusion into myotubes is fragmentary. Previous studies have implicated the a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family in most mammalian cell fusion processes. ADAM12 is likely involved in fusion of murine mpc and human...... rhabdomyosarcoma cells, but it requires yet unknown molecular partners to launch myogenic cell fusion. ADAM12 was shown able to mediate cell-to-cell attachment through binding alpha9beta1 integrin. We report that normal human mpc express both ADAM12 and alpha9beta1 integrin during their differentiation. Expression...... of alpha9 parallels that of ADAM12 and culminates at time of fusion. alpha9 and ADAM12 coimmunoprecipitate and participate to mpc adhesion. Inhibition of ADAM12/alpha9beta1 integrin interplay, by either ADAM12 antisense oligonucleotides or blocking antibody to alpha9beta1, inhibited overall mpc fusion...

  3. Interleukin-1beta induced changes in the protein expression of rat islets: a computerized database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H U; Fey, S J; Larsen, Peter Mose


    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is caused by an autoimmune destruction of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. The cytokine interleukin 1 inhibits insulin release and is selectively cytotoxic to beta-cells in isolated pancreatic rat islets. The antigen(s) triggering the immune response...... as well as the intracellular mechanisms of action of interleukin 1-mediated beta-cell cytotoxicity are unknown. However, previous studies have found an association of beta-cell destruction with alterations in protein synthesis. Thus, two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis of pancreatic islet proteins......% acrylamide 2-D gels of neonatal rat islets (10% and 15% DB), labeled under standardized culture conditions. 1235 and 557 spots were present in 5 of 5 gels in the 15% isoelectric focusing (IEF) and nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis (NEPHGE) DB, respectively, whereas 995 and 378 spots were present...

  4. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay. (United States)

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth


    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  5. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Pica, Claudio


    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous dimension of the fermion masses at the infrared fixed point, and the resulting values compare well with the lattice determinations.

  6. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang


    Full Text Available Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 1016 electrons/m2 with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the

  7. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction. (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Zhang, Hongping; Xu, Peiliang; Geng, Jianghui; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jingnan


    Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC) semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 10(16) electrons/m²) with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the new proposed

  8. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc


    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. Developing Probabilistic Safety Performance Margins for Unknown and Underappreciated Risks (United States)

    Benjamin, Allan; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris


    Probabilistic safety requirements currently formulated or proposed for space systems, nuclear reactor systems, nuclear weapon systems, and other types of systems that have a low-probability potential for high-consequence accidents depend on showing that the probability of such accidents is below a specified safety threshold or goal. Verification of compliance depends heavily upon synthetic modeling techniques such as PRA. To determine whether or not a system meets its probabilistic requirements, it is necessary to consider whether there are significant risks that are not fully considered in the PRA either because they are not known at the time or because their importance is not fully understood. The ultimate objective is to establish a reasonable margin to account for the difference between known risks and actual risks in attempting to validate compliance with a probabilistic safety threshold or goal. In this paper, we examine data accumulated over the past 60 years from the space program, from nuclear reactor experience, from aircraft systems, and from human reliability experience to formulate guidelines for estimating probabilistic margins to account for risks that are initially unknown or underappreciated. The formulation includes a review of the safety literature to identify the principal causes of such risks.

  10. Physics at 13 TeV: CMS - scanning the unknown

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    CMS is getting ready to use its accurate detector to scan the many ripples of the unknown physics that may lie beyond the Standard Model. Foremost in everyone’s mind is the search for signs of the production of dark matter at a man-made machine.   Interestingly, the observation of dark matter or new weakly interacting particles implies detecting that some energy has escaped, i.e. it’s missing from the upcoming proton collisions at the LHC. This is why measuring and understanding “missing energy” will be a very important step in that direction. “A large amount of missing energy is the signature for many processes of physics beyond the Standard Model. However, it’s not the only interesting signature that we will be able to exploit when the new collision energy is available,” explains Luca Malgeri, CMS Physics Coordinator. Among the interesting things not associated with missing energy are high-mass resonanc...

  11. George Augustus Linhart - as a "widely unknown" thermodynamicist

    CERN Document Server

    Starikov, E B


    The name of George Augustus Linhart is in fact "widely unknown". In effect, he was a Viennese-born USA-American physicist-chemist, partially associated with the Gilbert Newton Lewis' school of thermodynamics at the University of California in Berkeley. As a lone small boy, he had arrived (from Austria via Hamburg) at New York in 1896, but was officially USA-naturalized only in 1912. He was able to pick up English in the streets of New York and Philadelphia, when occasionally working as a waiter and/or as a tailor - just to somehow survive. But, nonetheless, he could successfully graduate a high school in about one year - and then went to the universities for his further education. After obtaining his BS from the University of Pennsylvania, he could manage getting both MA and then PhD from the Yale University, Kent Chemical Laboratory. George Augustus Linhart was afterwards definitely able to successfully work out the true foundations of thermodynamics and could thus outdistance many famous thermodynamicists o...

  12. Familial clustering of Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata: an unknown genetic syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daboul Isam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD is defined as the occurrence of multiple tumorous intraabdominal lesions, which are myomatous nodules. LPD is a rare disease with only about 100 cases reported. The usual course of LPD is benign with the majority of the patients being premenopausal females. Only two cases involving men have been reported, no syndrome or familial occurrence of LPD has been described. Case presentation We describe a Caucasian-American family in which six members (three men are diagnosed with Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD and three deceased family members most likely had LPD (based on the autopsy reports. Furthermore we describe the association of LPD with Raynaud's syndrome and Prurigo nodularis. Conclusion Familial clustering of Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD has not been reported so far. The etiology of LPD is unknown and no mode of inheritance is known. We discuss possible modes of inheritance in the presented case, taking into account the possibility of a genetic syndrome. Given the similarity to other genetic syndromes with leiomyomatosis and skin alterations, we describe possible similar genetic pathomechanisms.

  13. Environmental distribution and persistence of Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX). (United States)

    Gast, Rebecca J; Moran, Dawn M; Audemard, Corinne; Lyons, M Maille; DeFavari, Jackie; Reece, Kimberly S; Leavitt, Dale; Smolowitz, Roxanna


    Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) is the cause of mass mortality events of hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria from Virginia, USA, to New Brunswick, Canada. Aquaculture areas in Massachusetts, USA, have been particularly hard hit. The parasite has been shown to be a directly infective organism, but it is unclear whether it could exist or persist outside of its clam host. We used molecular methods to examine water, sediment, seaweeds, seagrass and various invertebrates for the presence of QPX. Sites in Virginia and Massachusetts were selected based upon the incidence of QPX-induced clam die-offs, and they were monitored seasonally. QPX was detectable in almost all of our different sample types from Massachusetts, indicating that the parasite was widely distributed in the environment. Significantly more samples from Massachusetts were positive than from Virginia, and there was a seasonal pattern to the types of samples positive from Massachusetts. The data suggest that, although it may be difficult to completely eradicate QPX from the environment, it may be possible to keep the incidence of disease under control through good plot husbandry and the removal of infected and dying clams.

  14. Recursive confidence band construction for an unknown distribution function. (United States)

    Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J


    Given a sample X1,...,Xn of independent observations from an unknown continuous distribution function F, the problem of constructing a confidence band for F is considered, which is a fundamental problem in statistical inference. This confidence band provides simultaneous inferences on all quantiles and also on all of the cumulative probabilities of the distribution, and so they are among the most important inference procedures that address the issue of multiplicity. A fully nonparametric approach is taken where no assumptions are made about the distribution function F. Historical approaches to this problem, such as Kolmogorov's famous () procedure, represent some of the earliest inference methodologies that address the issue of multiplicity. This is because a confidence band at a given confidence level 1-α allows inferences on all of the quantiles of the distribution, and also on all of the cumulative probabilities, at that specified confidence level. In this paper it is shown how recursive methodologies can be employed to construct both one-sided and two-sided confidence bands of various types. The first approach operates by putting bounds on the cumulative probabilities at the data points, and a recursive integration approach is described. The second approach operates by providing bounds on certain specified quantiles of the distribution, and its implementation using recursive summations of multinomial probabilities is described. These recursive methodologies are illustrated with examples, and R code is available for their implementation.

  15. Crowdsourcing the unknown: the satellite search for Genghis Khan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Y M Lin

    Full Text Available Massively parallel collaboration and emergent knowledge generation is described through a large scale survey for archaeological anomalies within ultra-high resolution earth-sensing satellite imagery. Over 10K online volunteers contributed 30K hours (3.4 years, examined 6,000 km², and generated 2.3 million feature categorizations. Motivated by the search for Genghis Khan's tomb, participants were tasked with finding an archaeological enigma that lacks any historical description of its potential visual appearance. Without a pre-existing reference for validation we turn towards consensus, defined by kernel density estimation, to pool human perception for "out of the ordinary" features across a vast landscape. This consensus served as the training mechanism within a self-evolving feedback loop between a participant and the crowd, essential driving a collective reasoning engine for anomaly detection. The resulting map led a National Geographic expedition to confirm 55 archaeological sites across a vast landscape. A increased ground-truthed accuracy was observed in those participants exposed to the peer feedback loop over those whom worked in isolation, suggesting collective reasoning can emerge within networked groups to outperform the aggregate independent ability of individuals to define the unknown.

  16. Information Dissemination in Unknown Radio networks with Large Labels

    CERN Document Server

    Vaya, Shailesh


    We consider the problems of deterministic broadcasting and gossiping in completely unknown ad-hoc radio networks. We assume that nothing is known to the nodes about the topology or even the size of the network, $n$, except that $n > 1$. Protocols for vanilla model, when $n$ is known, may be run for increasingly larger estimates $2^i$ on the size of the network, but one cannot determine when such a protocol should terminate. Thus, to carry this design paradigm, successful completion or in-completion of the process should be detected, and this knowledge circulated in the network. We consider the problem of deterministic Acknowledged Broadcasting and Gossiping when nodes can take polynomially large labels. For the above setting, we present the following results for strongly connected networks: (a) A deterministic protocol for acknowledged broadcasting which takes $NRG(n,n^c)$ rounds, where $NRG(n,n^c)$ is the round complexity of deterministic gossiping for vanilla model. (b) A deterministic protocol for acknowle...

  17. Exploration for Agents with Different Personalities in Unknown Environments (United States)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    We present in this paper a personality-based architecture (PA) that combines elements from the subsumption architecture and reinforcement learning to find alternate solutions for problems facing artificial agents exploring unknown environments. The underlying PA algorithm is decomposed into layers according to the different (non-contiguous) stages that our agent passes in, which in turn are influenced by the sources of rewards present in the environment. The cumulative rewards collected by an agent, in addition to its internal composition serve as factors in shaping its personality. In missions where multiple agents are deployed, our solution-goal is to allow each of the agents develop its own distinct personality in order for the collective to reach a balanced society, which then can accumulate the largest possible amount of rewards for the agent and society as well. The architecture is tested in a simulated matrix world which embodies different types of positive rewards and negative rewards. Varying experiments are performed to compare the performance of our algorithm with other algorithms under the same environment conditions. The use of our architecture accelerates the overall adaptation of the agents to their environment and goals by allowing the emergence of an optimal society of agents with different personalities. We believe that our approach achieves much efficient results when compared to other more restrictive policy designs.

  18. Previously unknown class of metalorganic compounds revealed in meteorites (United States)

    Ruf, Alexander; Kanawati, Basem; Hertkorn, Norbert; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Moritz, Franco; Harir, Mourad; Lucio, Marianna; Michalke, Bernhard; Wimpenny, Joshua; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bronsky, Basil; Saraykin, Vladimir; Gabelica, Zelimir; Gougeon, Régis D.; Quirico, Eric; Ralew, Stefan; Jakubowski, Tomasz; Haack, Henning; Gonsior, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter; Hinman, Nancy W.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe


    The rich diversity and complexity of organic matter found in meteorites is rapidly expanding our knowledge and understanding of extreme environments from which the early solar system emerged and evolved. Here, we report the discovery of a hitherto unknown chemical class, dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates [(OH)2MgO2CR]−, in meteoritic soluble organic matter. High collision energies, which are required for fragmentation, suggest substantial thermal stability of these Mg-metalorganics (CHOMg compounds). This was corroborated by their higher abundance in thermally processed meteorites. CHOMg compounds were found to be present in a set of 61 meteorites of diverse petrological classes. The appearance of this CHOMg chemical class extends the previously investigated, diverse set of CHNOS molecules. A connection between the evolution of organic compounds and minerals is made, as Mg released from minerals gets trapped into organic compounds. These CHOMg metalorganic compounds and their relation to thermal processing in meteorites might shed new light on our understanding of carbon speciation at a molecular level in meteorite parent bodies. PMID:28242686

  19. Impedance spectroscopy for the detection and identification of unknown toxins (United States)

    Riggs, B. C.; Plopper, G. E.; Paluh, J. L.; Phamduy, T. B.; Corr, D. T.; Chrisey, D. B.


    Advancements in biological and chemical warfare has allowed for the creation of novel toxins necessitating a universal, real-time sensor. We have used a function-based biosensor employing impedance spectroscopy using a low current density AC signal over a range of frequencies (62.5 Hz-64 kHz) to measure the electrical impedance of a confluent epithelial cell monolayer at 120 sec intervals. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were grown to confluence on thin film interdigitated gold electrodes. A stable impedance measurement of 2200 Ω was found after 24 hrs of growth. After exposure to cytotoxins anthrax lethal toxin and etoposide, the impedance decreased in a linear fashion resulting in a 50% drop in impedance over 50hrs showing significant difference from the control sample (~20% decrease). Immunofluorescent imaging showed that apoptosis was induced through the addition of toxins. Similarities of the impedance signal shows that the mechanism of cellular death was the same between ALT and etoposide. A revised equivalent circuit model was employed in order to quantify morphological changes in the cell monolayer such as tight junction integrity and cell surface area coverage. This model showed a faster response to cytotoxin (2 hrs) compared to raw measurements (20 hrs). We demonstrate that herein that impedance spectroscopy of epithelial monolayers serves as a real-time non-destructive sensor for unknown pathogens.

  20. Neutrino masses and mixings: Status of known and unknown $3\

    CERN Document Server

    Capozzi, F; Marrone, A; Montanino, D; Palazzo, A


    Within the standard 3nu mass-mixing framework, we present an up-to-date global analysis of neutrino oscillation data (as of January 2016), including the latest available results from experiments with atmospheric neutrinos (Super-Kamiokande and IceCube DeepCore), at accelerators (first T2K anti-nu and NOvA nu runs in both appearance and disappearance mode), and at short-baseline reactors (Daya Bay and RENO far/near spectral ratios), as well as a reanalysis of older KamLAND data in the light of the "bump" feature recently observed in reactor spectra. We discuss improved constraints on the five known oscillation parameters (delta m^2, |Delta m^2|, sin^2theta_12, sin^2theta_13, sin^2theta_23), and the status of the three remaining unknown parameters: the mass hierarchy, the theta_23 octant, and the possible CP-violating phase delta. With respect to previous global fits, we find that the reanalysis of KamLAND data induces a slight decrease of both delta m^2 and sin^2theta_12, while the latest accelerator and atmos...

  1. Fever in Children and Fever of Unknown Origin. (United States)

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Agarwal, Dipti


    Fever is the most common symptom in children and can be classified as fever with or without focus. Fever without focus can be less than 7 d and is subclassified as fever without localizing signs and fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO is defined as a temperature greater than 38.3 °C, for more than 3 wk or failure to reach a diagnosis after 1 wk of inpatient investigations. The most common causes of FUO in children are infections, connective tissue disorders and neoplasms. Infectious diseases most commonly implicated in children with FUO are salmonellosis, tuberculosis, malaria and rickettsial diseases. Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the connective tissue disease frequently associated with FUO. Malignancy is the third largest group responsible for FUO in children. Diagnostic approach of FUO includes detailed history and examination supported with investigations. Age, history of contact, exposure to wild animals and medications should be noted. Examination should include, apart from general appearance, presence of sweating, rashes, tonsillitis, sinusitis and lymph node enlargement. Other signs such as abdominal tenderness and hepatosplenomegly should be looked for. The muscles and bones should be carefully examined for connective tissue disorders. Complete blood count, blood smear examination and level of acute phase reactants should be part of initial investigations. Radiological imaging is useful aid in diagnosing FUO. Trials of antimicrobial agents should not be given as they can obscure the diagnosis of the disease in FUO.

  2. Detection and Prevention of New and Unknown Malware using Honeypots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Kumar


    Full Text Available Security has become ubiquitous in every domain today as newly emerging malware pose an ever-increasing perilous threat to systems. Consequently, honeypots are fast emerging as an indispensible forensic tool for the analysis of malicious network traffic. Honeypots can be considered to be traps for hackers and intruders and are generally deployed complimentary to Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS in a network. They help system administrators perform a rigorous analysis of external and internal attacks on their networks. They are also used by security firms and research labs to capture the latest variants of malware. However, honeypots would serve a slightly different purpose in our proposed system. We intend to use honeypots for generating and broadcasting instant cures for new and unknown malware in a network. The cures which will be in the form of on-the-fly anti-malware signatures would spread in a fashion that is similar to the way malware spreads across networks. The most striking advantage of implementing this technology is that an effective initial control can be exercised on malware. Proposed system would be capable of providing cures for new fatal viruses which have not yet been discovered by prime security firms of the world.

  3. Detection and Prevention of New and Unknown Malware using Honeypots

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shishir


    Security has become ubiquitous in every domain today as newly emerging malware pose an ever-increasing perilous threat to systems. Consequently, honeypots are fast emerging as an indispensible forensic tool for the analysis of malicious network traffic. Honeypots can be considered to be traps for hackers and intruders and are generally deployed complimentary to Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) in a network. They help system administrators perform a rigorous analysis of external and internal attacks on their networks. They are also used by security firms and research labs to capture the latest variants of malware. However, honeypots would serve a slightly different purpose in our proposed system. We intend to use honeypots for generating and broadcasting instant cures for new and unknown malware in a network. The cures which will be in the form of on-the-fly anti-malware signatures would spread in a fashion that is similar to the way malware spreads across networks. The ...

  4. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Rose


    Full Text Available Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres.

  5. Significance of serum tumor markers monitoring in carcinomas of unknown primary site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejčić Ivica


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Unknown primary tumors represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are indicative of ominous prognosis. Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP is defined as the lack of any detectable primary site after full evaluation, and accounts for approximately 3-5% of all newly diagnosed patients with malignancies. The aim of this report was to present the prognostic and predictive value of 8 serum tumor markers in this group of patients. Methods. The study involved 63 patients. On histological examination, all the patients were presented with metastatic tumors whose primary site (origin could not be detected with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. Following the routine light microscopy, all histological findings were classified into one of the following three groups: plano-cellular carcinoma - 8 patients; adenocarcinoma - 33 patients; unclassifiable (undifferentiated carcinoma - 22 patients. In all the cases we evaluated 8 serum tumor markers: alpha-fetoproteins (AFP, chronic gonadotrophin beta submit, human (beta-HCG, neuron specific enolase (NSE, marker of malignant ovarian tumors (CA 125, prostate-specific antigene (PSA, marker of malignant brest tumor (CA 15-3, marker of malignant pancreas tumor and gastrointestinal tumor (Ca 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA at the time of diagnosis. The patients on chemotherapy had the markers determined after the third and sixth chemocycle, i.e. at the time of illness progression observation, if present. The patients responding to chemotherapy with complete response (CR, partial response (PR or stable disease (SD had the markers determined after three-month periods until the time of relapse or progression. Chemotherapy was applied in 32 patients (20 females and 12 males, aged 29-70 years, who met the inclusion criteria. The following chemotherapy regimen was used: doxorubicin 50mg/m2 (day 1, cisplatin 60mg/m2 (day 1, and etoposide 120 mg/m2 (days 1-3. The period between two chemotherapy

  6. Neuronal injury induces the release of pro-interleukin-1beta from activated microglia in vitro. (United States)

    Wang, Penglian; Rothwell, Nancy J; Pinteaux, Emmanuel; Brough, David


    Microglia activated after brain injury, are a major source of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1), which is known to further exacerbate damage. However, the mechanisms that control IL-1 release in acute neuronal injury are unknown and the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that neuronal injury induces IL-1beta release from microglial cells. Here we report that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated rat microglia co-cultured with healthy rat neurons express pro-IL-1beta, which in the absence of cell death accumulates in the cells. Treatment of co-cultures with the excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) induced neuronal cell death leading to the appearance of pro-IL-1beta in the culture supernatant. This effect was reversed by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, and was neuron-dependent, since NMDA had no effect on cell death or pro-IL-1beta release in mixed glial cell cultures. In addition, we show that pro-IL-1beta release from LPS-treated mixed glia or LPS-treated microglia is significantly reduced in the presence of conditioned medium from healthy co-cultures or neuronal cultures respectively. These results demonstrate that injured neurons promote the release of pro-IL-1beta from microglia, possibly by regulating microglial cell viability, and suggest an important alternative mechanism of IL-1beta release that occurs in response to neuronal injury.

  7. The GERDA experiment on 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Kai [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration


    The Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) collaboration searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge. The existence of this decay would give rise to the assumption that the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own antiparticle. A measured half-life could be used to determine the effective neutrino mass and hence resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy problem. Germanium diodes, isotopically enriched in {sup 76}Ge, are used as both source and detector. Due to the low rate of this decay (T{sub 1/2}>10{sup 25} y), the experimental background must be reduced to a level of 10{sup -2}counts/(kg y keV) or better in the region around Q{sub {beta}{beta}}. To minimize background from cosmogenically produced secondary particles, a low Z shielding is employed. Thus, the naked diodes are operated in a liquid argon cryostat, which is surrounded by a water tank acting as both passive shield and active muon Cherenkov veto. Gerda started the commissioning runs in 2010 and in November 2011, the first phase of data taking with enriched detectors has begun. In this talk, the first year of the experiment is summarized.

  8. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwei Guo


    Full Text Available Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at selected time points. At the end of study, immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to detect the expressions of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta in hippocampal CA3 region. We found that chronic restraint stress significantly decreased behavioral activities, whereas EA stimulation at points Baihui (GV 20 and Yintang (GV 29 showed protective effect during the test period. In addition, the IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta increased in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress, while EA downregulated the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating IL-1beta and IL-6 expression levels in hippocampal CA3 region.

  9. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA) Pretreatment. (United States)

    Guo, Tianwei; Guo, Zhuo; Yang, Xinjing; Sun, Lan; Wang, Sihan; Yingge, A; He, Xiaotian; Ya, Tu


    Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA) was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at selected time points. At the end of study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect the expressions of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta in hippocampal CA3 region. We found that chronic restraint stress significantly decreased behavioral activities, whereas EA stimulation at points Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 29) showed protective effect during the test period. In addition, the IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta increased in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress, while EA downregulated the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating IL-1beta and IL-6 expression levels in hippocampal CA3 region.

  10. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.


    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  11. Hyperprolactinemia after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An unknown phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omrani Gholamhossein R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ovarian drilling on the serum levels of gonadotropins and androgens have been studied previously. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ovarian drilling on the serum prolactin levels and its relation to ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods This is a prospective controlled study. Thirty-six women with PCOS underwent ovarian electrocauterization in university hospitals. Control group consisted of 35 ovulatory women with unexplained infertility. Hormonal assessment performed in early follicular phase of spontaneous or induced cycle before operation in the two groups and repeated one week after operation. Hormonal assay was also performed in the early follicular phase of the first post-operative menstruation, folliculometry and progesterone assay were also performed in the same cycle. Data were analyzed by "repeated measurement design, discriminant analysis, correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact test". Results Six to ten weeks after operation the serum mean +/- SD prolactin levels increased from 284.41 +/- 114.32 mIU/ml to 354.06 +/- 204.42 mIU/ml (P = 0.011. The same values for the control group were 277.73 +/- 114.65 to 277.4 +/- 111.4 (P = 0.981 respectively. Approximately 45% of subjects in PCOS group remained anovulatory in spite of decreased level of LH and testosterone. Prolactin level remained elevated in 73.2% of women who did not ovulate 6–10 weeks after the procedure. Conclusion Hyperprolactinemia after ovarian cauterization may be considered as a possible cause of anovulation in women with polycystic ovaries and improved gonadotropin and androgen levels. The cause of hyperprolactinemia is unknown. Hormonal assay particularly PRL in anovulatory patients after ovarian cauterization is recommended.

  12. Treatment of Regional Metastatic Melanoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke J. A. H. van Beek


    Full Text Available (1 Background: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the recurrence and survival rates of metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin (MUP, in order to further refine current recommendations for the surgical treatment; (2 Methods: Medical data of all MUP patients registered between 2000 and 2011, were analyzed. Seventy-eight patients were categorized in either lymph node (axilla, groin, head-and neck or subcutaneous MUP. Axillary node MUPs were generally treated with dissections of levels I-III, inguinal node MUPs with combined superficial and deep groin dissections, and head-and-neck node MUPs with neck dissections to various extents, based on lymph drainage patterns. Subcutaneous lesions were excised with 1–2 cm margins. The primary outcome was treatment outcomes in terms of (locoregional recurrence and survival rates; (3 Results: Lymph node MUP recurred regionally in 11% of patients, with an overall recurrence rate of 45%. In contrast, subcutaneous MUP recurred locally in 65% of patients with an overall recurrence rate of 78%. This latter group had a significantly shorter disease-free interval than patients with lymph node MUP (p = 0.000. In the entire study population, 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 56% and 47% respectively, with no differences observed between the various subgroups; (4 Conclusion: The relatively low regional recurrence rate after regional lymph node dissection (11% supports its current status as standard surgical treatment for lymph node MUP. Subcutaneous MUP, on the contrary, appears to recur both locally (65% and overall (78% at a significantly higher rate, suggesting a different biological behavior. However, wide local excision remains the best available option for this specific group.

  13. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alladi Mohan


    Full Text Available Background: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, a benign self-limited lymphadenopathy is an uncommon cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO. Methods: We retrospectively studied the case-records of 13 patients presenting with PUO who were diagnosed to have Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease on peripheral lymph node excision biopsy and report the salient clinical manifestations and histopathological findings in them. All of them received symptomatic treatment. Results: Their median age was 28 [interquartile range (IQR 18.5-38.0] years. Women (11/13, 84.6% were more frequently affected. All of them were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seronegative. Prior to presenting to us, two were being treated for lymph node tuberculosis with DOTS. Cervical lymph nodes were predominantly involved, the distribution being: right cervical (n=10, 76.9%; left cervical (n=4; and bilateral cervical (n=2. Axillary and generalized lymphadenopathy were rare being seen in 2 and 1 patient respectively. The median (IQR erythrocyte sedimentation rate (n=11 was 53 (35-89 mm at the end of first hour. Salient histopathological features were paracortical patchy zones of eosinophilic fibrinoid necrosis with karyorrhectic debris, large numbers of histiocytes, including histiocytes with peripherally placed “crescentic” nuclei. Spontaneous regression of fever and lymphadenopathy was observed over a median (IQR period of 8 (6.75-10.25 months in all of them. Conclusions: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a rare but important cause of PUO presenting with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Women are most often affected and cervical lymph nodes are the most frequently involved site. Clinical suspicion and thoughtful collaboration between clinicians and pathologists are essential for accurate diagnosis, and to minimize unnecessary investigations and inappropriate aggressive treatment.

  14. Popular Music in Jia Zhangke’s Unknown Pleasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang


    Full Text Available With his documentary-style films reflecting upon China’s unprecedented transformation from a state-controlled to a market-driven economy, Jia Zhangke has risen from within the movement of independent Chinese cinema that began to flourish in the late 1990s to become one of the most recognized filmmakers of contemporary China. Born in 1970 and raised in the underdeveloped Shanxi Province, Jia studied film theory at Beijing Film Academy and was first noticed for his controversial “Hometown Trilogy”—'Pickpocket '('Xiao Wu', 1997, 'Platform '('Zhantai', 1999, and 'Unknown Pleasures '('Ren xiao yao', 2002. These three films, shot with handheld video camera on the streets of his hometown province, focus on the reckless changes that China’s aggressive economic growth and globalization have brought to socially marginalized groups. Like other independently made films—films that are produced with capital from outside the state-sponsored avenues and without the approval of film censorship, and that are not allowed to be shown in China’s public theaters—Jia’s first three films reach domestic audiences only through unofficial DVD copies and small-scaled screenings at universities, film bars, and art salons. His limited domestic influence sharply contrasts with the critical acclaim that he receives from international film festival audiences, who are searching for alternative film culture from China after the Fifth Generation directors. By the late 1990s, Jia had become a spokesperson for an ever-increasing group of aspiring Chinese independent filmmakers, particularly through writings and interviews that theorize independent Chinese cinema’s practice.

  15. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas


    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  16. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots. (United States)

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha


    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  17. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis. (United States)

    Del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R; Bernardi, F; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F


    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in a beta(+), homozygote and in a beta (+), beta(0) 39 (nonsense mutation at codon 39) double heterozygote is approximately 20% and 10% respectively of total non-alpha globin synthesis. Despite some overlapping of the results, similar beta globin synthesis levels have been obtained in 43 beta(+)-thalassaemia patients. This suggests that in the Po river delta region the most common thalassaemic genes are beta(0) 39 and beta(+) IVS I. Images PMID:2580095

  18. Hepatic Hypertransaminasaemia of unknown Etiology Aclinico-pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed El-Meghawry El Sayed*, Hany Abu Zeid*, Salah Mohamed


    Full Text Available Hepatic aminotransferases are sensitive indicators of liver cell injury. In some patients with persistent elevation of such enzymes; routine clinical, laboratory and serological data cannot establish the underlying causes. This study was designed to evaluate such patients both clinically and pathologically as a trial to reach the underlying etiology. Thirty patients with hepatic hypertransaminasaemia of unknown cause (18 females & 12 males, aged 18-50 years (mean age 37.7 4.6 years, together with ten controls (5 males & 5 females [matched in age and body mass index with patients]; were included in this study. Both patients and controls were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, estimation of blood glucose and lipid profile, liver function tests, serum iron & ferrtin estimation, hepatitis viral markers (HBs Ag HCV-Ab, anti Epstien Barr (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV antibodies, abdominal ultrasonography (U/Sand needle liver biopsy (done only for 15 patients who approved undergoing it. The study revealed that 18 patients had non alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD (bright liver on U/S, eleven patients out of them underwent liver biopsy that showed simple hepatic steatosis in four of them and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH in the other seven patients. Most of the eighteen patients with NAFLD were obese, diabetic and hypertensive. Four patients had positive serology for autoimmune hepatitis and two patients had positive serology for cytomegalovirus infection. All patients had normally ranged serum iron & ferritin. The remaining six patients had normal hepatic U/S and negative serology for different hepatic viruses; four of them underwent liver biopsy that revealed simple hepatic steatosis in two of them and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH in the other two patients. Conclusion & recommendation: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD was found to be the commonest cause of unexplained hepatic hypertransamina-saemia. However

  19. Beta-2-Microglobulin in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Goines


    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m, a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16 but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 months. We found no statistically significant differences in plasma ß 2m levels between groups. Therefore, plasma levels of ß2m measured in early childhood in autism may not reflect changes in MHC class I in autism.

  20. Cerebral oxygenation decreases during exercise in humans with beta-adrenergic blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T.; Rasmussen, P.; Secher, Niels H.


    AIM: Beta-blockers reduce exercise capacity by attenuated increase in cardiac output, but it remains unknown whether performance also relates to attenuated cerebral oxygenation. METHODS: Acting as their own controls, eight healthy subjects performed a continuous incremental cycle test to exhaustion...... with or without administration of the non-selective beta-blocker propranolol. Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity were measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound and those in cerebral oxygenation were evaluated using near-infrared spectroscopy and the calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension...

  1. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen


    Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented...... that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  2. PGE2 receptor EP2 mediates the antagonistic effect of COX-2 on TGF-beta signaling during mammary tumorigenesis. (United States)

    Tian, Maozhen; Schiemann, William P


    The molecular mechanisms that enable cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to inhibit transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling during mammary tumorigenesis remain unknown. We show here that TGF-beta selectively stimulated the expression of the PGE2 receptor EP2, which increased normal and malignant mammary epithelial cell (MEC) invasion, anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to TGF-beta-induced cytostasis. Mechanistically, elevated EP2 expression in normal MECs inhibited the coupling of TGF-beta to Smad2/3 activation and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI1) expression, while EP2 deficiency in these same MECs augmented Smad2/3 activation and PAI expression stimulated by TGF-beta. Along these lines, engineering malignant MECs to lack EP2 expression prevented their growth in soft agar, restored their cytostatic response to TGF-beta, decreased their invasiveness in response to TGF-beta, and potentiated their activation of Smad2/3 and expression of PAI stimulated by TGF-beta. More important, we show that COX-2 or EP2 deficiency both significantly decreased the growth, angiogenesis, and pulmonary metastasis of mammary tumors produced in mice. Collectively, this investigation establishes EP2 as a potent mediator of the anti-TGF-beta activities elicited by COX-2/PGE2 in normal and malignant MECs. Our findings also suggest that pharmacological targeting of EP2 receptors may provide new inroads to antagonize the oncogenic activities of TGF-beta during mammary tumorigenesis.-Tian, M., Schiemann, W. P. PGE2 receptor EP2 mediates the antagonistic effect of COX-2 on TGF-beta signaling during mammary tumorigenesis.

  3. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea. (United States)

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih


    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  4. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, K


    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is of outmost importance for neutrino physics. It is considered to be the gold plated channel to probe the fundamental character of neutrinos and to determine the neutrino mass. From the experimental point about nine different isotopes are explored for the search. After a general introduction follows a short discussion on nuclear matrix element calculations and supportive measurements. The current experimental status of double beta searches is presented followed by a short discussion of the ideas and proposals for large scale experiments.

  5. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F.


    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots. (United States)

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; Figus, A; Loi, A; Pirastu, M; Cao, A


    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation of a large scale prevention programme based on fetal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia by DNA analysis in the Turkish population. PMID:3236356

  7. A combined beta-beam and electron capture neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Orme, C; Palomares-Ruiz, S; Pascoli, S


    The next generation of long baseline neutrino experiments will aim at determining the value of the unknown mixing angle, theta_{13}, the type of neutrino mass hierarchy and the presence of CP-violation in the lepton sector. Beta-beams and electron capture experiments have been studied as viable candidates for long baseline experiments. They use a very clean electron neutrino beam from the beta-decays or electron capture decays of boosted ions. In the present article we consider an hybrid setup which combines a beta-beam with an electron capture beam by using boosted Ytterbium ions. We study the sensitivity to the CP-violating phase delta and the theta_{13} angle, the CP-discovery potential and the reach to determine the type of neutrino mass hierarchy for this type of long baseline experiment. The analysis is performed for different neutrino beam energies and baselines. Finally, we also discuss how the results would change if a better knowledge of some of the assumed parameters was achieved by the time this e...

  8. Neutrino parameters with magical beta-beam at INO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Choubey, Sandhya; Raychaudhuri, Amitava [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India)], E-mail:


    We have studied the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The idea of beta-beam is based on the production of a pure, intense, collimated beam of electron neutrinos or their antiparticles via the beta decay of accelerated radioactive ions circulating in a storage ring. Interestingly, the CERN-INO distance of 7152 km happens to be tantalizingly close to the so-called 'magic' baseline where the sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering (sign of {delta}m{sup 2}{sub 31} {identical_to} m{sup 2}{sub 3} - m{sup 2}{sub 1}) and more importantly, {theta}{sub 13}, goes up significantly, while the sensitivity to the unknown CP phase is absent. This permits such an experiment involving the golden P{sub e{mu}} channel to make precise measurements of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and neutrino mass hierarchy avoiding the issues of intrinsic degeneracies and correlations which plague other baselines.

  9. File list: ALL.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 All antigens Yeast strain Unknown SRX695965,SRX695...SRX381297,SRX423150,SRX386372,SRX381305,SRX381298,SRX390619,SRX390617 ...

  10. File list: InP.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX38...1248,SRX390617,SRX390619 ...

  11. File list: InP.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX39...0617,SRX381248,SRX390619 ...

  12. File list: ALL.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 All antigens Yeast strain Unknown SRX695965,SRX695...SRX386340,SRX423150,SRX390617,SRX381288,SRX381305,SRX381248,SRX381298,SRX390619,SRX381289 ...

  13. File list: Oth.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 TFs and others Yeast strain Unknown SRX695965,SRX6...98,SRX381289 ...

  14. File list: Oth.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 TFs and others Yeast strain Unknown SRX695967,SRX6...98,SRX381289,SRX381235 ...

  15. File list: InP.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX38...1248,SRX390619,SRX390617 ...

  16. File list: Oth.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 TFs and others Yeast strain Unknown SRX105548,SRX6...00,SRX381289,SRX381298 ...

  17. File list: InP.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX39...0619,SRX390617 ...

  18. Detection of Rare Beta Globin Gene Mutations in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent molecular studies on Iranian β-thalassemia genes revealed the presence of eight common mutations associated with thalassemia. Although these mutations are frequent, there are other rare and unknown mutations that can create large problems in designing preventive programs. We detected and explained the common mutations in north-western Iran previously and detection of the rare and unknown mutations could be useful in diagnosis and design of future preventive programs. Methods: In this study, 5ml peripheral blood from 20 Azari- β-thalassemia patients whose mutation was not revealed in the previous study was collected and DNA extraction was done by isopropanol and proteinase k method. Initially, samples were examined for the rare mutations: Codon6, Codon16, Codon41/42, Codon36/37, -88 and Codon22 by ARMS – PCR techniques and then the unknown cases were directly sequenced. Results: According to our results, Codon15(TGG-TGA, Codon16(-C, Codon36/37(-T, IVSII-848(C-A, IVSII-745(C-G, -28(A-C( and Codon25/26(+T were recognized and added to the spectrom of beta globin gene mutations in Azerbaijan and Iran. Also, we detected four SNP sites: 5’UTR+20(C-T, Codon2 (CAC-CAT , IVSII-16(C-G and IVSII-666(T-C in β-thalassemia genes. Conclusion: Our results could be useful for developing molecular screening plans and help prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassemia in Azerbaijan , Iran and other neighboring countries.

  19. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis


    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  20. Estimating $\\beta$-mixing coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Daniel J; Schervish, Mark


    The literature on statistical learning for time series assumes the asymptotic independence or ``mixing' of the data-generating process. These mixing assumptions are never tested, nor are there methods for estimating mixing rates from data. We give an estimator for the $\\beta$-mixing rate based on a single stationary sample path and show it is $L_1$-risk consistent.

  1. Beta-carotene as antioxidant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Plas, R.M. van der; Berg, H. van den; Haenen, G.R.M.M.


    Objective: Beta-carotene has been shown to exhibit a good radical-trapping antioxidant activity in vitro. We were interested to see if dietary β-carotene in combination with various intake levels for vitamin A would also inhibit lipid peroxidation. Design: Sixty male Wistar rats received vitamin A (

  2. Magnetron-sputter epitaxy of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(220)/Si(111) and {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(431)/Si(001) thin films at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hongfei; Tan Chengcheh; Chi Dongzhi [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)


    {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} thin films have been grown on Si(111) and Si(001) substrates by magnetron-sputter epitaxy at 700 Degree-Sign C. On Si(111), the growth is consistent with the commonly observed orientation of [001]{beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(220)//[1-10]Si(111) having three variants, in-plane rotated 120 Degree-Sign with respect to one another. However, on Si(001), under the same growth conditions, the growth is dominated by [-111]{beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(431)//[110]Si(001) with four variants, which is hitherto unknown for growing {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}. Photoelectron spectra reveal negligible differences in the valance-band and Fe2p core-level between {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} grown on Si(111) and Si(001) but an apparent increased Si-oxidization on the surface of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}/Si(001). This phenomenon is discussed and attributed to the Si-surface termination effect, which also suggests that the Si/Fe ratio on the surface of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(431)/Si(001) is larger than that on the surface of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(220)/Si(111).

  3. Neutron Beta Decay Studies with Nab

    CERN Document Server

    Baeßler, S; Alonzi, L P; Balascuta, S; Barrón-Palos, L; Bowman, J D; Bychkov, M A; Byrne, J; Calarco, J R; Chupp, T; Vianciolo, T V; Crawford, C; Frlež, E; Gericke, M T; Glück, F; Greene, G L; Grzywacz, R K; Gudkov, V; Harrison, D; Hersman, F W; Ito, T; Makela, M; Martin, J; McGaughey, P L; McGovern, S; Page, S; Penttilä, S I; Počanić, D; Rykaczewski, K P; Salas-Bacci, A; Tompkins, Z; Wagner, D; Wilburn, W S; Young, A R


    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  4. The beta-decay of Al-22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achouri, NL; Santos, FDO; Lewitowicz, M; Blank, B; Aysto, J; Canchel, G; Czajkowski, S; Dendooven, P; Emsallem, A; Giovinazzo, J; Guillet, N; Jokinen, A; Larid, AM; Longour, C; Perajarvi, K; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M


    In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of Al-22 produced by the fragmentation of a Ar-36 primary beam. A beta-decay half-life of T-1/2 = 91.1 +/- 0.5ms was measured. The beta-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as beta-alpha and beta-delayed gamma-de

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury, Microglia, and Beta Amyloid


    Mannix, Rebekah C.; Whalen, Michael J


    Recently, there has been growing interest in the association between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). TBI and AD share many pathologic features including chronic inflammation and the accumulation of beta amyloid (A\\(\\beta\\)). Data from both AD and TBI studies suggest that microglia play a central role in A\\(\\beta\\) accumulation after TBI. This paper focuses on the current research on the role of microglia response to A\\(\\beta\\) after TBI.

  6. Relation between proteins tertiary structure, tryptophan fluorescence lifetimes and tryptophan S(o)→(1)L(b) and S(o)→(1)L(a) transitions. Studies on α1-acid glycoprotein and β-lactoglobulin. (United States)

    Albani, Jihad René


    We measured fluorescence lifetimes and fluorescence spectra (excitation and emission) of tryptophan residues of α(1)-acid glycoprotein (three Trp residues) and β-lactoglobulin (two Trp residues) in absence and presence of 450 μM progesterone. Progesterone binds only to α(1)-acid glycoprotein. In absence of progesterone, each of the two proteins displays three fluorescence lifetimes. Addition of progesterone induces a partial inhibition of the S(o) → (1)L(a) transition without affecting fluorescence lifetimes. The same experiments performed in presence of denatured proteins in 6 M guanidine show that addition of progesterone inhibits partially the S(o) → (1)L(a) transition and its peak is 15 nm shifted to the red compared to that obtained for native proteins. However, the S(o) → (1)L(b) transition position peak is not affected by protein denaturation. Thus, the tertiary structure of the protein plays an important role by modulating the tryptophan electronic transitions. Fluorescence emission decay recorded in absence and presence of progesterone yields three fluorescence lifetimes whether proteins are denatured or not. Thus, protein tertiary structure is not responsible for the presence of three fluorescence lifetimes. These characterize tryptophan substructures reached at the excited states and which population (pre-exponential values) depend on the tryptophan residues interaction with their microenvironment(s) and thus on the global conformation of the protein.

  7. β-Lactotensin derived from bovine β-lactoglobulin exhibits anxiolytic-like activity as an agonist for neurotensin NTS(2) receptor via activation of dopamine D(1) receptor in mice. (United States)

    Hou, I-Ching; Suzuki, Chihiro; Kanegawa, Norimasa; Oda, Ayako; Yamada, Ayako; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Yamada, Daisuke; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji; Ohinata, Kousaku


    β-Lactotensin (His-Ile-Arg-Leu) is a bioactive peptide derived from bovine milk β-lactoglobulin, acting as a natural agonist for neurotensin receptors. We found that β-lactotensin exhibited anxiolytic-like activity in an elevated plus-maze test after its intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice. β-Lactotensin was also orally active. The anxiolytic-like activity of β-lactotensin after i.p. administration was blocked by levocabastine, an antagonist for the neurotensin NTS(2) receptor. β-Lactotensin had anxiolytic-like activity in wild-type but not Ntsr2-knockout mice. β-Lactotensin increased intracellular Ca(2+) flux in glial cells derived from wild-type mice but not Ntsr2 knockout mice. These results suggest that β-lactotensin acts as an NTS(2) receptor agonist having anxiolytic-like activity. The anxiolytic-like activity of β-lactotensin was also blocked by SCH23390 and SKF83566, antagonists for dopamine D(1) receptor, but not by raclopride, an antagonist for D(2) receptor. Taken together, β-lactotensin may exhibit anxiolytic-like activity via NTS(2) receptor followed by D(1) receptor.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  9. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.


    Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be

  10. Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian


    up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....

  11. Increased mandibular condylar growth in mice with estrogen receptor beta deficiency


    Yosuke, Kamiya; JING, Chen; Manshan, Xu; Achint, Utreja; Thomas, Choi; Hicham, Drissi; Sunil, Wadhwa


    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders predominantly afflict women of childbearing age, suggesting a role for female hormones in the disease process. In long bones, estrogen acting via estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) inhibits axial skeletal growth in female mice. However, the role of ERβ in the mandibular condyle is largely unknown. We hypothesize that female ERβ deficient mice will have increased mandibular condylar growth compared with wild type (WT) female mice. This study examined female 7-...

  12. Chromobacterium spp. harbour Ambler class A beta-lactamases showing high identity with KPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Jayol, Aurelie


    Objectives: The origin of KPC is unknown. The aim of this study was to detect progenitors of KPC in silico and to functionally verify their beta-lactam hydrolysis activity. Methods: The sequence of KPC-2 was used to mine the NCBI protein sequence database. The best non-KPC hits were analysed...... by amino acid (aa) alignment and phylogenetic tree construction. Genes encoding KPC-2 homologues were expressed in Escherichia coli. The carbapenemase activities of the recombinant strains were characterized by the CarbaNP test and UV spectrophotometry and MICs of selected beta-lactams were determined....... Results: Genes encoding the closest KPC-2 homologues were identified on the chromosome of Chromobacterium piscinae strain ND17 (CRP-1, 76% aa identity), Chromobacterium sp. C-61 (CRS-1, 70% aa identity) and Chromobacterium haemolyticum DSM19808 (CRH-1, 69% aa identity). All three Chromobacterium beta...

  13. Beta-Amyloid Deposition and Alzheimer's Type Changes Induced by Borrelia Spirochetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miklossy,J.; Kis, A.; Radenovic, A.; Miller, L.; Forro, L.; Martins, R.; Reiss, K.; Darbinian, N.; Darekar, P.; et al.


    The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) consist of {beta}-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in affected brain areas. The processes, which drive this host reaction are unknown. To determine whether an analogous host reaction to that occurring in AD could be induced by infectious agents, we exposed mammalian glial and neuronal cells in vitro to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes and to the inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Morphological changes analogous to the amyloid deposits of AD brain were observed following 2-8 weeks of exposure to the spirochetes. Increased levels of {beta}-amyloid presursor protein (A{beta}PP) and hyperphosphorylated tau were also detected by Western blots of extracts of cultured cells that had been treated with spirochetes or LPS. These observations indicate that, by exposure to bacteria or to their toxic products, host responses similar in nature to those observed in AD may be induced.

  14. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis.


    del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R.; De Bernardi, F.; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G.; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F


    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in...

  15. Hypersynchrony despite pathologically reduced beta oscillations in patients with Parkinson's disease: a pharmaco-magnetoencephalography study. (United States)

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Kurz, Max J; Becker, Katherine M; Santamaria, Pamela M; Gendelman, Howard E; Wilson, Tony W


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive debilitating neurodegenerative disorder clinically manifest by motor, posture and gait abnormalities. Human neurophysiological studies recording local field potentials within the subthalamic nucleus and scalp-based electroencephalography have shown pathological beta synchrony throughout the basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical motor network in PD. Notably, suppression of this pathological beta synchrony by dopamine replacement therapy or deep-brain stimulation has been associated with improved motor function. However, due to the invasive nature of these studies, it remains unknown whether this "pathological beta" is actually stronger than that observed in healthy demographically matched controls. We used magnetoencephalography to investigate neuronal synchrony and oscillatory amplitude in the beta range and lower frequencies during the resting state in patients with PD and a matched group of patients without neurological disease. Patients with PD were studied both in the practically defined drug "OFF" state, and after administration of dopamine replacements. We found that beta oscillatory amplitude was reduced bilaterally in the primary motor regions of unmedicated patients with PD compared with controls. Administration of dopaminergic medications significantly increased beta oscillatory activity, thus having a normalizing effect. Interestingly, we also found significantly stronger beta synchrony (i.e., hypersynchrony) between the primary motor regions in unmedicated patients with PD compared with controls, and that medication reduced this coupling which is in agreement with the intraoperative studies. These results are consistent with the known functionality of the basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical motor circuit and the likely consequences of beta hypersynchrony in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with PD.

  16. Specific Triazine Herbicides Induce Amyloid-beta(42) Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portelius, Erik; Durieu, Emilie; Bodin, Marion; Cam, Morgane; Pannee, Josef; Leuxe, Charlotte; Mabondzo, Aloise; Oumata, Nassima; Galons, Herve; Lee, Jung Yeol; Chang, Young-Tae; Stuber, Kathrin; Koch, Philipp; Fontaine, Gaelle; Potier, Marie-Claude; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Garbis, Spiros D.; Covaci, Adrian; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter; Karg, Frank; Flajolet, Marc; Omori, Chiori; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Meijer, Laurent


    Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (A beta PP) ecretases leads to extracellular release of amyloid-beta (A beta) peptides. Increased production of A beta(42) over A beta(40) and aggregation into oligomers and plaques constitute an Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmark. Identifyin

  17. In vitro release by Aspergillus fumigatus of galactofuranose antigens, 1,3-beta-D-glucan, and DNA, surrogate markers used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.


    Mennink-Kersten, M.A.S.H.; Ruegebrink, D.; Wasei, N.; Melchers, W. J. G.; Verweij, P. E.


    Aspergillus markers are becoming increasingly important for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. The kinetics of release of these surrogate markers, however, is largely unknown. We investigated the release of beta-(1-5)-galactofuranosyl (galf) antigens (Platelia Aspergillus), 1,3-beta-D-glucan (BG) (Fungitell), and DNA (PCR) in an in vitro model of Aspergillus fumigatus. The results showed that release is correlated to the growth phase of the fungus, which depends on available nutri...

  18. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn


    biodiversity and well-being; and the links of biodiversity to the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty alleviation. References [1] Schuiteman A et al 2011 Nocturne for an unknown pollinator: first description of a night-flowering orchid (Bulbophyllum nocturnum) Bot. J. Linean Soc. 167 344-50 [2] Kinver M and Gill V 2011 Botanists discover 'remarkable' night-flowering orchid BBC News Science and Environment ( [3] Rudd M A 2011 Scientists' opinions on the global status and management of biological diversity Conserv. Biol. 25 1165-75 [4] Bottrill M C et al 2008 Is conservation triage just smart decision making? Trends Ecol. Evol. 23 649-54 [5] Parr M J et al 2009 Why we should aim for zero extinction Trends Ecol. Evol. 24 181 Bottrill M C et al 2009 Finite conservation funds mean triage is unavoidable Trends Ecol. Evol. 24 183-4 [6] Pushpangadan P and Behl H M 2005 Environment & Biodiversity: Agenda for Future (Lucknow: International Society of Environmental Botanists) ( [7] Alves R and Rosa I 2007 Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet? J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 3 14 [8] Center for Biodiversity and Conservation 1997 Biodiversity and Human Health: A Guide for Policymakers (New York: American Museum of Natural History) [9] Chivian E 1997 Global environmental degradation and biodiversity loss: implications for human health Biodiversity and Human Health ed F Grifo and J Rosenthal (Washington, DC: Island) pp 7-38 [10] UNEP-WCMC 2011 Health and Well Being of Communities Directly Dependent on Ecosystem Goods and Services: An Indicator for the Convention on Biological Diversity (Cambridge: UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre) [11] Nettleton C, Stephens C and Bristow F 2007 Utz Wachil: a study of indigenous perceptions of health and environment in five countries Ecohealth 4 461-772 [12] Jones G P et al 2004 Coral decline

  19. Future double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquemal, F. [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, Modane (France); Centre d' Etudes Nucleaire, Bordeaux-Gradignan (France)


    The search of neutrinoless double beta decay is very challenging because of the expected half-life of the process and the backgrounds from the natural radioactivity. Many projects exist to try to reach a sensitivity of ∼50 meV on the effective neutrino mass corresponding to a mass of isotopes of ∼100 kg. In this article some of the futur projects are presented.

  20. Myokardinfarkt und Beta-Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger H-G


    Full Text Available Im Rahmen eines akuten koronaren Syndroms (akuter Herzinfarkt, Angina pectoris kommt es, aufgrund eines Ungleichgewichtes zwischen Angebot und Bedarf, zu einem akuten Mangel an Sauerstoff im Herzmuskel. Ursache ist eine reduzierte Sauerstoffzufuhr durch verengte bzw. verschlossene Gefäße. Bis zur Behebung der Ursache vergehen oft mehrere Stunden. In dieser Phase muß - durch Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs im Herzmuskel - eine Verlangsamung der Nekroseentwicklung erreicht werden. Das Ausmaß der Nekrose wird reduziert, somit die für die Langzeitprognose wichtige Linksventrikelfunktion verbessert. Eine Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs erreicht man durch kontrollierte Frequenzsenkung mittels intravenöser Beta-Blockade. In optimaler Weise wird diese Methode durch die Anwendung eines kardioselektiven Beta-Blockers mit kurzer Halbwertszeit durchgeführt. Beta-Blocker haben nicht nur auf die Nekroseentwicklung, sondern auch auf die Inzidenz von Rhythmusstörungen - besonders in der Akutphase - Auswirkungen. Vor allem die mit dieser therapeutischen Maßnahme verbundene Reduktion von Kammerflimmern ist von großer Bedeutung.

  1. Adaptive Projective Synchronization between Two Different Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems with Fully Unknown Parameters


    Liping Chen; Shanbi Wei; Yi Chai; Ranchao Wu


    Projective synchronization between two different fractional-order chaotic systems with fully unknown parameters for drive and response systems is investigated. On the basis of the stability theory of fractional-order differential equations, a suitable and effective adaptive control law and a parameter update rule for unknown parameters are designed, such that projective synchronization between the fractional-order chaotic Chen system and the fractional-order chaotic Lü system with unknown par...

  2. $\\beta$-particle energy-summing correction for $\\beta$-delayed proton emission measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Meisel, Z; Crawford, H L; Cyburt, R H; Grinyer, G F; Langer, C; Montes, F; Schatz, H; Smith, K


    A common approach to studying $\\beta$-delayed proton emission is to measure the energy of the emitted proton and corresponding nuclear recoil in a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) after implanting the $\\beta$-delayed proton emitting ($\\beta$p) nucleus. However, in order to extract the proton-decay energy, the measured energy must be corrected for the additional energy implanted in the DSSD by the $\\beta$-particle emitted from the $\\beta$p nucleus, an effect referred to here as $\\beta$-summing. We present an approach to determine an accurate correction for $\\beta$-summing. Our method relies on the determination of the mean implantation depth of the $\\beta$p nucleus within the DSSD by analyzing the shape of the total (proton + recoil + $\\beta$) decay energy distribution shape. We validate this approach with other mean implantation depth measurement techniques that take advantage of energy deposition within DSSDs upstream and downstream of the implantation DSSD.

  3. IM-1662 Attenuates Radiation-Induced Fibroblast Differentiation through Restoration of TGF-beta type III Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sa Rah; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Hyoung; Lim, Min Jin; Lee, Sae Loom; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institue of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Although pulmonary fibrosis occurs 5-20% of lung cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy, clinically standard treatment for fibrotic disease has not been developed yet. Among fibrosis mediating factors such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), interleukin-13 (IL-13), IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), TGF-beta is considered as a critical mediator in normal wound healing as well as pathological fibrogenic processes. The TGF-beta transmits signals either directly or indirectly through types I, II and III (TbetaRI, II, and III) receptor complexes and activates downstream Smad signaling. The type III TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRIII or betaglycan) is a transmembrane proteoglycan without a functional kinase domain, and is regarded as a co-receptor to increase the affinity of ligand binding to TbetaRII. In addition, TbetaRIII act as a regulator in cell migration, invasion and cell growth in cancer models. However, in contrast to a great number of studies about TGF-beta ligand and TbetaRII signaling, the relationship between TGF-beta and TbetaRIII (or betaglycan) remains largely unknown. In this study, we searched for a new compound which inhibited TGF-beta responses using cell-based chemical screening and investigated the effects of the novel compound on radiation induced myofibroblast differentiation. We suggest that a novel small molecule, pyrazolopyrimidine compound IM-1662, can act as an anti-fibrotic agent through inhibiting expression of TGF-beta receptor type I and type II whereas, preserving the levels of TbetaRIII which seems to act as a negative regulator in TGF-beta signaling

  4. Detection of unknown primary head and neck tumors by positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braams, JW; Pruim, J; Kole, AC; Nikkels, PGJ; Vaalburg, W; Vermey, A; Roodenburg, JLN


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of using positron emission tomography (PET) with F-18-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) to detect unknown primary tumors of cervical metastases. Thirteen patients with various histologic types of cervical metastases of unknown primary o

  5. A note on superposition of two unknown states using Deutsch CTC model

    CERN Document Server

    Sami, Sasha


    In a recent work, authors prove a yet another no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. In this short note, we show that in the presence of closed time like curves, one can indeed create superposition of unknown quantum states and evade the no-go result.

  6. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J


    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  7. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi


    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  8. Synthesis of (PAA-b-F127-b-PAA)-β-lactoglobulin Conjugate with Improved Emulsifying Properties%( PAA-b-F127-b-PAA)-Blg复合物的合成及乳化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令敏; 梁蓉; 石珂; 黄庆荣; 石彤非


    采用原子转移自由基聚合(ATRP)方法合成了PtBA-b-F127-b-PtBA(PtBA为聚丙烯酸叔丁酯),经三氟乙酸水解得到PAA-b-F127-b-PAA(PAA为聚丙烯酸).进一步通过碳二亚胺的水溶性衍生物1-(3-二甲氨基丙基)-3-乙基碳二亚胺盐酸盐(EDC·HCl)在水溶液中成功地耦合β-乳球蛋白(Blg)和PAA-b-F127-b-PAA.蛋白的三级构象没有受到反应条件的影响.与纯Blg相比,(PAA-b-F127-b-PAA)-Blg复合物的乳化性能大大提高.%Poly (acrylic acid) -b-F127-b-poly( acrylic acid) (PAA-b-F127-b-PAA) was synthesized through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in combination with the subsequent hydrolysis of iert-butyl groups using excess trifluoroacetic acid(TFA). The (PAA-b-F127-b-PAA)-j8-lactoglobulin conjugate was successfully syn thesized using water soluble l-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyllaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride( EDC ? HC1) , a carbodiimide derivative, as the conjugation agent. Fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the ternary struc ture of protein was maintained even conjugation to PAA-b-F127-b-PAA. The conjugate exhibited significantly better emulsifying properties than that of pure β-lactoglubulin.

  9. Calculating the vertex unknowns of nine point scheme on quadrilateral meshes for diffusion equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN GuangWei; SHENG ZhiQiang


    In the construction of nine point scheme, both vertex unknowns and cell-centered unknowns are introduced, and the vertex unknowns are usually eliminated by using the interpolation of neighboring cell-centered unknowns, which often leads to lose accuracy. Instead of using interpolation,here we propose a different method of calculating the vertex unknowns of nine point scheme, which are solved independently on a new generated mesh. This new mesh is a Voronoi mesh based on the vertexes of primary mesh and some additional points on the interface. The advantage of this method is that it is particularly suitable for solving diffusion problems with discontinuous coefficients on highly distorted meshes, and it leads to a symmetric positive definite matrix. We prove that the method has first-order convergence on distorted meshes. Numerical experiments show that the method obtains nearly second-order accuracy on distorted meshes.

  10. Calculating the vertex unknowns of nine point scheme on quadrilateral meshes for diffusion equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the construction of nine point scheme,both vertex unknowns and cell-centered unknowns are introduced,and the vertex unknowns are usually eliminated by using the interpolation of neighboring cell-centered unknowns,which often leads to lose accuracy.Instead of using interpolation,here we propose a different method of calculating the vertex unknowns of nine point scheme,which are solved independently on a new generated mesh.This new mesh is a Vorono¨i mesh based on the vertexes of primary mesh and some additional points on the interface.The advantage of this method is that it is particularly suitable for solving diffusion problems with discontinuous coeffcients on highly distorted meshes,and it leads to a symmetric positive definite matrix.We prove that the method has first-order convergence on distorted meshes.Numerical experiments show that the method obtains nearly second-order accuracy on distorted meshes.

  11. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger


    ]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs...

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human beta-like globin gene cluster. (United States)

    Fritsch, E F; Lawn, R M; Maniatis, T


    The genes encoding human embryonic (epsilon), fetal (G gamma, A gamma) and adult (delta, beta) beta-like globin polypeptides were isolated as a set of overlapping cloned DNA fragments from bacteriophage lambda libraries of high molecular weight (15-20 kb) chromosomal DNA. The 65 kb of DNA represented in these overlapping clones contains the genes for all five beta-like polypeptides, including the embryonic epsilon-globin gene, for which the chromosomal location was previously unknown. All five genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand and are arranged in the order 5'-epsilon-(13.3 kb)-G gamma-(3.5 kb)-A gamma-(13.9 kb)-delta-(5.4 kb)-beta-3'. Thus the genes are positioned on the chromosome in the order of their expression during development. In addition to the five known beta-like globin genes, we have detected two other beta-like globin sequences which do not correspond to known polypeptides. One of these sequences has been mapped to the A gamma-delta intergenic region while the other is located 6-9 kb 5' to the epsilon gene. Cross hybridization experiments between the intergenic sequences of the gene cluster have revealed a nonglobin repeat sequence (*) which is interspersed with the globin genes in the following manner: 5'-**epsilon-*G gamma-A gamma*-**delta-beta*-3'. Fine structure mapping of the region located 5' to the delta-globin gene revealed two repeats with a maximum size of 400 bp, which are separated by approximately 700 bp of DNA not repeated within the cluster. Preliminary experiments indicate that this repeat family is also repeated many times in the human genome.

  13. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose. (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen


    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  14. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico


    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal


    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  16. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi


    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  17. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H W; Visser, J; Hefting, N R; Oosting, R; Meijer, D K; Lerk, C F


    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was analyzed by HPLC using postcolumn complexation with phenolphthalein and negative colorimetric detection, with a detection limit of 20 micrograms/ml. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin were studied after intravenous adm

  18. The impact of beta-elemene on beta-tubulin of human hepatoma hepg2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiu Mao; Liying Ban; Jielin Zhang; Li Hou; Xiaonan Cui


    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of beta-elemene injection on the growth and beta-tubulin of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods:cellproliferation was assessed by MTT assay. cellcycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The mRNA expression of beta-tubulin was measured by RT-PCR. West-ern blot analysis was used to determine protein expression of beta-tubulin and the polymerization of beta-tubulin. Results:Beta-elemene injection inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner;FCM analysis indicated beta-elemene injection induced cellcycle arrested at S phase. RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that beta-elemene injection down-regulated beta-tubulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels, presenting a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, beta-elemene injection reduced the polymerization of microtubules in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:Beta-elemene injection can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells, the mechanism might be partly related to the down-regulation of beta-tubulin and inhibition of microtubular polymerization.

  19. Expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-Catenin and PPAR-Gamma in Medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Yu Li; Can Mi


    Objective: To investigate the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma, and their relationship in medulloblastoma, and to explore their value in clinic application.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in 48 cases of medulloblastoma and 10 normal cerebellar tissues.Results: The rate of abnormal expressions of beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in MB was higher than that in normal. Conversely, GSK-3beta in MB was lower than that in the normal (P<0.05). Furthermore, in medulloblastoma, beta-catenin and GSK-3beta showed a negative correlation, PPAR-gamma and beta-catenin had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin plays a crucial role in the development of medulloblastoma. Meanwhile, PPAR-gamma and GSK-3beta which are tightly related with beta-catenin are both involved in the genesis and development of medulloblastoma.

  20. Radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(+)-pinene and synthesis of optically active {beta}(+)/{beta}(-)pinene polymers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lilla, Edo; Ursini, Ornella [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300, Monterotondo Stazione 00016, Rome (Italy)


    Poly-{beta}(+)-pinene (pB(+)p) was synthesized with {gamma} irradiation of the monomer {beta}(+)-pinene in bulk under vacuum at 1181 kGy. Also scalemic mixtures of {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene were irradiated at 1181 kGy to obtain synthetic copolymers of pB(+)/B(-)p. For comparison also {beta}(-)-pinene was converted into poly-{beta}(-)-pinene (pB(-)p) under the identical conditions adopted for its enantiomer. Furthermore pB(+)p and pB(-)p were also synthesized by thermal processing under the action of a chemical free radical initiator. The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) of all pBp resins synthesized were accurately studied in the spectral range comprised between 375 and 625 nm and a curious asymmetry in the ORD of pB(+)p versus the ORD of pB(-)p is reported. Furthermore, it is shown that (+)-p-menth-1-ene and (-)-p-menth-1-ene are useful as a model compounds for the pBp resins and for the explanation of the amplification of the optical activity of the {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene after their ring-opening polymerization to pB(+)p and pB(-)p. The pBp resins were studied also by FT-IR spectroscopy and by thermal analysis (TGA and DTG).

  1. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC


    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  2. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander


    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  3. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.


    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  4. Incremental Unknowns Method for Solving Three-Dimensional Convection-Diffusion Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lunji Song; Yujiang Wu


    We use the incremental unknowns method in conjunction with the iterative methods to approximate the solution of the nonsymmetric and positive-definite linear systems generated from a multilevel discretization of three-dimensional convection-diffusion equations. The condition numbers of incremental unknowns matrices associated with the convection-diffusion equations and the number of iterations needed to attain an acceptable accuracy are estimated. Numerical results are presented with two-level approximations,which demonstrate that the incremental unknowns method when combined with some iterative methods is very efficient.

  5. Managing the Unknown A New Approach to Managing High Uncertainty and Risk in Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Loch, Christoph H; Pich, Michael T


    Managing the Unknown offers a new way of looking at the problem of managing projects in novel and unknown environments. From Europe's leading business school, this book shows how to manage two fundamental approaches that, in combination, offer the possibility of coping with unforeseen influences that inevitably arise in novel projects:* Trial-and-Error Learning allows for redefining the plan and the project as the project unfolds* Selectionism pursues multiple, independent trials in order to pick the best one at the endManaging the Unknown offers expert guidelines to the specific project minds

  6. Unknown parameter's variance-covariance propagation and calculation in generalized nonlinear least squares problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Hua-xue; GUO Jin-yun


    The unknown parameter's variance-covariance propagation and calculation in the generalized nonlinear least squares remain to be studied now,which didn't appear in the internal and external referencing documents. The unknown parameter's variance-covariance propagation formula, considering the two-power terms, was concluded used to evaluate the accuracy of unknown parameter estimators in the generalized nonlinear least squares problem. It is a new variance-covariance formula and opens up a new way to evaluate the accuracy when processing data which have the multi-source,multi-dimensional, multi-type, multi-time-state, different accuracy and nonlinearity.

  7. Adaptive neural control of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown virtual control coefficients. (United States)

    Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Hong, Fan; Lee, Tong Heng


    In this paper, adaptive neural control is presented for a class of strict-feedback nonlinear systems with unknown time delays. The proposed design method does not require a priori knowledge of the signs of the unknown virtual control coefficients. The unknown time delays are compensated for using appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals in the design. It is proved that the proposed backstepping design method is able to guarantee semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop. In addition, the output of the system is proven to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  8. Row Reduced Echelon Form for Solving Fully Fuzzy System with Unknown Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Malkawi


    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method for finding a feasible fuzzy solution in positive Fully Fuzzy Linear System (FFLS, where the coefficients are unknown. The fully fuzzy system is transferred to linear system in order to obtain the solution using row reduced echelon form, thereafter; the crisp solution is restricted in obtaining the positive fuzzy solution. The fuzzy solution of FFLS is included crisp intervals, to assign alternative values of unknown entries of fuzzy numbers. To illustrate the proposed method, numerical examples are solved, where the entries of coefficients are unknown in right or left hand side, to demonstrate the contributions in this study.

  9. Dystrophin Dp71f associates with the beta1-integrin adhesion complex to modulate PC12 cell adhesion. (United States)

    Cerna, Joel; Cerecedo, Doris; Ortega, Arturo; García-Sierra, Francisco; Centeno, Federico; Garrido, Efrain; Mornet, Dominique; Cisneros, Bulmaro


    Dystrophin Dp71 is the main product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene in the brain; however, its function is unknown. To study the role of Dp71 in neuronal cells, we previously generated by antisense treatment PC12 neuronal cell clones with decreased Dp71 expression (antisense-Dp71 cells). PC12 cells express two different splicing isoforms of Dp71, a cytoplasmic variant called Dp71f and a nuclear isoform called Dp71d. We previously reported that antisense-Dp71 cells display deficient adhesion to substrate and reduced immunostaining of beta1-integrin in the cell area contacting the substrate. In this study, we isolated additional antisense-Dp71 clones to analyze in detail the potential involvement of Dp71f isoform with the beta1-integrin adhesion system of PC12 cells. Immunofluorescence analyses as well as immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the PC12 cell beta1-integrin adhesion complex is composed of beta1-integrin, talin, paxillin, alpha-actinin, FAK and actin. In addition, our results showed that Dp71f associates with most of the beta1-integrin complex components (beta1-integrin, FAK, alpha-actinin, talin and actin). In the antisense-Dp71 cells, the deficiency of Dp71 provokes a significant reduction of the beta1-integrin adhesion complex and, consequently, the deficient adhesion of these cells to laminin. In vitro binding experiments confirmed the interaction of Dp71f with FAK and beta1-integrin. Our data indicate that Dp71f is a structural component of the beta1-integrin adhesion complex of PC12 cells that modulates PC12 cell adhesion by conferring proper complex assembly and/or maintenance.

  10. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Wito; Day, Peter; Agrawal, Rani


    Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are highly homologous, yet they play clearly distinct roles in cardiac physiology and pathology. Myocyte contraction, for instance, is readily stimulated by beta1AR but not beta2AR signaling, and chronic stimulation of the two receptors has opposing...

  11. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne


    Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... in the tumor microenvironment may modulate tumor behavior....

  12. Nebivolol : third-generation beta-blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Rudolf A.; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.


    Nebivolol is a third generation beta-blocker. It is highly selective for the beta 1-adrenoceptor, and has additional nitric oxide-mediated vasodilating and antioxidant properties, along with a favourable metabolic profile. Nebivolol is well tolerated by patients with hypertension and heart failure.

  13. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I;


    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  14. Venus: Geology of Beta Regio rift system (United States)

    Nikishin, A. M.; Borozdin, V. K.; Bobina, N. N.


    Beta Regio is characterized by the existence of rift structures. We compiled new geologic maps of Beta Regio according to Magellan data. There are many large uplifted tesserae on beta upland. These tesserae are partly buried by younger volcanic cover. We can conclude, using these observations, that Beta upland formed mainly due to lithospheric tectonic uplifting and was only partly constructed by volcanism. Theia Mons is the center of the Beta rift system. Many rift belts are distributed radially to Theia Mons. Typical widths of rifts are 40-160 km. Rift valleys are structurally represented by crustal grabens or half-grabens. There are symmetrical and asymmetrical rifts. Many rifts have shoulder uplifts up to 0.5-1 km high and 40-60 km wide. Preliminary analysis for rift valley structural cross sections lead to the conclusion that rifts originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extension. Many rifts traverse Beta upland and spread to the surrounding lowlands. We can assume because of these data that Beta rift system has an active-passive origin. It formed due to regional tectonic lithospheric extension. Rifting was accelerated by upper-mantle hot spot origination under the center of passive extension (under the Beta Regio).

  15. Beta-agonists and animal welfare (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  16. Shielding for beta-gamma radiation. (United States)

    Fletcher, J J


    The build-up factor, B, for lead was expressed as a polynominal cubic function of the relaxation length, mu x, and incorporated in a "general beta-gamma shielding equation." A computer program was written to determine shielding thickness for polyenergetic beta-gamma sources without resorting to the conventional "add-one-HVL" method.

  17. 不同糖与乳清蛋白的美拉德反应对β-乳球蛋白致敏性的影响%Effect of Maillard Reaction between Whey Protein and Different Sugars on the Allergenicity of β-Lactoglobulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹寒馨; 汪何雅; 钱和


    In our current study, SDS-PAGE and indirect ELISA were both used to investigate the effect of Maillard reaction between whey protein and different sugars on the allergenicity of β-lactoglobulin. It was indicated that better results were achieved when pentose instead of hexose, a monosaccharide instead of a polysaccharide or a thermo-instable polysaccharide instead of a thermostable one was used to react with whey protein. Xyololigosaccharide had less effect on the flavor of Maillard reaction products, resulted in a lower browning rate, and was more effective in reducing the allergenicity of β -lactoglobulin.%通过十二烷基磺酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳与间接竞争酶联免疫吸附法研究不同种类糖与乳清蛋白发生美拉德反应后对β-乳球蛋白致敏性的影响。结果显示:五碳糖效果好于六碳糖,单糖效果好于多糖,加热后热降解的多糖效果好于热稳定的多糖;综合褐变率与抑制率,低聚木糖对风味的影响较小,褐变率显示低聚木糖对感官影响较小,且降低致敏性效果较好。

  18. Adrenergic receptors and gastric secretion in dogs. Is a "tonic balance" relationship between vagal and beta 2-adrenergic activity a possibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, F; Hovendal, C; Bech, K


    The relative influence of adrenergic receptors on gastric acid secretion in the dog stomach with different vagal activity or "tone" is almost unknown. beta-adrenoceptors seem to be most important for the direct effect of adrenergic stimulation on acid secretion. In this study the effects of vagot...

  19. Aspergillus niger protein estA defines a new class of fungal esterases within the alfa/beta hydrolase fold superfamily of proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourne, Y.; Hasper, A.A.; Chahinian, H.; Juin, M.; Graaff, de L.H.


    From the fungus Aspergillus niger, we identified a new gene encoding protein EstA, a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily but of unknown substrate specificity. EstA was overexpressed and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement using a lipaseacetylcholinesterase chime

  20. Isolation, Identification, and Origin of Three Previously Unknown Congeners in Illicit Cocaine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Jacob; Hummelen, Jan C.


    Three previously unknown, overlooked, or perhaps wrongly identified impurities in illicit cocaine seized in the Netherlands Antilles are traced by various combinations of chromatographic and extraction methods. Once isolated using high-performance liquid chromatography, the compounds are identified

  1. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Published in unknown, BRANCH COUNTY. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcel Boundaries, Published in unknown, Trempealeau County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. It is described as 'Parcel Boundaries'....

  3. Employment Densities, (Note: Describe as available), Published in unknown, Indiana Business Research Center (IBRC), Indiana University. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Employment Densities dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as '(Note: Describe as available)'. Data by...

  4. Population, Nighttime, (Note: Describe as available), Published in unknown, Indiana Business Research Center (IBRC), Indiana University. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Population, Nighttime dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as '(Note: Describe as available)'. Data by...

  5. Immigration Information, (Note: Describe as available), Published in unknown, Indiana Business Research Center (IBRC), Indiana University. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Immigration Information dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as '(Note: Describe as available)'. Data by...

  6. Water Pipelines, Major, Water Lines, Published in unknown, North Georgia College and State University. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Pipelines, Major dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. It is described as 'Water Lines'. Data by this...

  7. Full-order observer design for linear systems with unknown inputs (United States)

    Lungu, Mihai; Lungu, Romulus


    In this article, a full-order observer without unknown inputs reconstruction is suggested in order to achieve finite-time reconstruction of the state vector for a class of linear systems with unknown inputs. The observer is a simple one, its derivation being direct and easy. It will be shown that the problem of full-order observers for linear systems with unknown inputs can be reduced in this case to a standard one (the unknown input vector will not interfere in the observer equations). The effectiveness of the suggested design algorithm is illustrated by a numerical example (aircraft longitudinal motion), and, for the same aircraft dynamics, we make a comparison between our new observer and other already existing observers from the existence conditions and dynamic characteristics' point of view; the superiority of the new designed observer is demonstrated.

  8. Voyager, a journey into the unknown - an interview with Ed Stone (Caltech), Voyager project scientist

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video productions; Piotr Traczyk


    Voyager, a journey into the unknown - an interview with Ed Stone (Caltech), Voyager project scientist, interviewed on the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Cosmic Rays conference, Spaceparts, at CERN in November 2012.

  9. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Published in unknown, DeKalb County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, in house progress uncertain, Published in unknown, Seneca County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'in house progress uncertain'. The extent of these data is generally Seneca County, OH....

  11. Hurricane and Tsunami Inundation Areas, Evacuation Zones, Published in unknown, Manatee County Information Services Dept.. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hurricane and Tsunami Inundation Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'Evacuation Zones'. Data...

  12. Docks and Piers, Fishing Piers in, Published in unknown, Manatee County Information Services Dept.. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Docks and Piers dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Fishing Piers in'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a...

  13. Election Districts and Precincts, Supervisory Districts for County, Published in unknown, Not Applicable scale, Trempealeau County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described...

  14. Physician Variability in Treating Pain and Irritability of Unknown Origin in Children with Severe Neurological Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold B Siden


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain and irritability of unknown origin (PIUO is a challenging problem for nonverbal children with severe neurological impairments. PIUO is not associated with an identifiable source of nociceptive-inflammatory or neuropathic pain.

  15. Fuzzy force control of constrained robot manipulators based on impedance model in an unknown environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongyi; WANG Lei; WANG Fei


    To precisely implement the force control of robot manipulators in an unknown environment,a control strategy based on fuzzy prediction of the reference trajectory in the impedance model is developed.The force tracking experiments are executed in an open-architecture control system with different tracking velocities,different desired forces,different contact stiffnesses and different surface figurations.The corresponding force control results are compared and analyzed.The influences of unknown parameters of the environment on the contact force are analyzed based on experimental data,and the tunings of predictive scale factors are illustrated.The experimental results show that the desired trajectory in the impedance model is predicted exactly and rapidly in the cases that the contact surface is unknown,the contact stiffness changes,and the fuzzy force control algorithm has high adaptability to the unknown environment.

  16. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Published in unknown, Park County GIS Department. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are...

  17. Bus Routes, Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  18. PLSS Townships and Sections, Section coverage, Published in unknown, CLAY COUNTY. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Section coverage'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate...

  19. Land Use and Land Cover, Published in unknown, Indianapolis Power & light Co.. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Orthographic projection; The...

  20. Pharmacy Locations, Done for senior Services, Published in unknown, Trempealeau County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Pharmacy Locations dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Done for senior Services'. Data by this...

  1. Indian Reservations, Published in unknown, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Indian Reservations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. Data by...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, parcel numbers, parcel dimensions, parcel annotation, Published in unknown, Grinnell College. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Parcels, parcel numbers, parcel dimensions, parcel annotation'. Data by this publisher are...

  3. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, electric transmission line, Published in unknown, Kleinschmidt. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'electric transmission line'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  4. Geodetic Networks, geodetic control points within the National Spatial Reference System, Published in unknown, NGS. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geodetic Networks dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. It is described as 'geodetic control points within the...

  5. Output feedback adaptive fuzzy control of uncertain MIMO nonlinear systems with unknown input nonlinearities. (United States)

    Shahnazi, Reza


    An adaptive fuzzy output feedback controller is proposed for a class of uncertain MIMO nonlinear systems with unknown input nonlinearities. The input nonlinearities can be backlash-like hysteresis or dead-zone. Besides, the gains of unknown input nonlinearities are unknown nonlinear functions. Based on universal approximation theorem, the unknown nonlinear functions are approximated by fuzzy systems. The proposed method does not need the availability of the states and an observer based on strictly positive real (SPR) theory is designed to estimate the states. An adaptive robust structure is used to cope with fuzzy approximation error and external disturbances. The semi-global asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed via Lyapunov approach. The applicability of the proposed method is also shown via simulations.

  6. Realtime motion planning for a mobile robot in an unknown environment using a neurofuzzy based approach (United States)

    Zheng, Taixiong


    A neuro-fuzzy network based approach for robot motion in an unknown environment was proposed. In order to control the robot motion in an unknown environment, the behavior of the robot was classified into moving to the goal and avoiding obstacles. Then, according to the dynamics of the robot and the behavior character of the robot in an unknown environment, fuzzy control rules were introduced to control the robot motion. At last, a 6-layer neuro-fuzzy network was designed to merge from what the robot sensed to robot motion control. After being trained, the network may be used for robot motion control. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective for robot motion control in unknown environment.

  7. Agriculture, Produce and Vegetables, Published in unknown, Wood County Planning & Zoning. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Produce and Vegetables dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Wisconsin Coordinate Reference System coordinate system;...

  8. Coastal Barrier Resource Areas, CBRA, Published in unknown, Manatee County Information Services Dept.. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Coastal Barrier Resource Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'CBRA'. Data by this publisher are...

  9. Election Districts and Precincts, Voting Precinct Shapefile, Published in unknown, Cleveland County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'Voting Precinct Shapefile'. Data...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Tax Parcels, Published in unknown, Wilson County GIS/Mapping. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. It is described as 'Tax Parcels'. This...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Ross County Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD). (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Ross County, OH. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. 100-Year Floodplains, Digitized FEMA flood maps, Published in unknown, Eureka County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 100-Year Floodplains dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. It is described as 'Digitized FEMA flood maps'. Data by...

  13. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Topographic survey of Eureka Township, Published in unknown, Eureka County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. It is described as 'Topographic survey of...

  14. Elevation Certificates for Flood Prone Structures, Published in unknown, Sauk County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Elevation Certificates for Flood Prone Structures dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Sauk County Coordinate System coordinate...

  15. Trails, Snowmobile, Available from Parks Dept., Published in unknown, Sauk County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Snowmobile dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. It is described as 'Available from Parks Dept.'. Data by...

  16. Sewerage Collection Lines, Sewer Lines, Published in unknown, North Georgia College and State University. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Collection Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. It is described as 'Sewer Lines'. Data by this...

  17. County and Parish Boundaries, Published in unknown, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Farmer. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This County and Parish Boundaries dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Not Sure coordinate...

  18. Robust Control for the Segway with Unknown Control Coefficient and Model Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Woo Kim


    Full Text Available The Segway, which is a popular vehicle nowadays, is an uncertain nonlinear system and has an unknown time-varying control coefficient. Thus, we should consider the unknown time-varying control coefficient and model uncertainties to design the controller. Motivated by this observation, we propose a robust control for the Segway with unknown control coefficient and model uncertainties. To deal with the time-varying unknown control coefficient, we employ the Nussbaum gain technique. We introduce an auxiliary variable to solve the underactuated problem. Due to the prescribed performance control technique, the proposed controller does not require the adaptive technique, neural network, and fuzzy logic to compensate the uncertainties. Therefore, it can be simple. From the Lyapunov stability theory, we prove that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded. Finally, we provide the simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, rural addressing does collect address points, Published in unknown, Gibson County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'rural addressing does collect address points'. The extent of these data is generally Gila...

  20. Road Bridges and Culverts, 2006 2' contours; autocad dwg, Published in unknown, Washoe County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset as of unknown. It is described as '2006 2' contours; autocad dwg'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane...