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Sample records for beta lactoglobulin unknown

  1. Association behavior of native beta-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheul, M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Roefs, S.P.F.M.; Kruif, K.G. de

    1999-01-01

    samples were obtained. These functions provided information on the maximum size, the weight-averaged molecular mass, and the z-averaged radius of gyration oo the the beta-lactoglobulin particles. Al room temperature and pH values below 4 and above IZ the protein consists predominantly of monomers and...

  2. Association behavior of native beta-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheul, M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Roefs, S.P.F.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The association behavior of beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration of the solution. By indirect Fourier transformation of the spectra, pair-distance distribution functions for the various...

  3. Differences in the processes of beta-lactoglobulin cold and heat denaturations.

    OpenAIRE

    Griko YuV; Kutyshenko, V. P.

    1994-01-01

    The changes in beta-lactoglobulin upon cold and heat denaturation were studied by scanning calorimetry, CD, and NMR spectroscopy. It is shown that, in the presence of urea, these processes of beta-lactoglobulin denaturation below and above 308 K are accompanied by different structural and thermodynamic changes. Analysis of the NOE spectra of beta-lactoglobulin shows that changes in the spin diffusion of beta-lactoglobulin after disruption of the unique tertiary structure upon cold denaturatio...

  4. Solvent effects in TLS determination of beta-lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental presence of small quantities of different allergens such as beta-lactoglobulin in food products is a problem for unaware allergic consumers. Therefore, sensitive methods are needed for detection of trace quantities of allergens. By implementing TLS detection into a FIA system, the sensitivity of beta-lactoglobulin detection was improved. The use of different solvents in the FIA system, however, causes perturbations in the TLS signals. The aim of this research was to reduce the influence of spurious signals and to improve the detection limits of the analytical assay. The optimal performance of the FIA-TLS system for beta-lactoglobulin determination was achieved by using PBS buffer solutions (pH 7.5), which resulted in lowest limits of detection of 2 pM BLG and the total assay time of 10 min.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN AND KAPPACASEIN GENOTYPES IN CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. VĂTĂŞESCU-BALCAN; GEORGESCU S. E.; MARIA ADINA MANEA; ANCA DINISCHIOTU; C.D. TESIO; MARIETA COSTACHE

    2013-01-01

    Beta-lactoglobulin (b-Lg) and kappa-casein (k-Cn) are two of the most important proteins in the mammals’ milk synthesized by the epithelial cells of the mammary glands. They play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation process (production of cheese and butter). The PCR-RFLP test was performed to distinguish the different alleles in a population of Romanian Black Spotted cattle, a dairy breed. Genetic polymorphism was detected by digestion with the endonucleases Hae III (b-Lg) and H...

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN AND KAPPACASEIN GENOTYPES IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. VĂTĂŞESCU-BALCAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Beta-lactoglobulin (b-Lg and kappa-casein (k-Cn are two of the most important proteins in the mammals’ milk synthesized by the epithelial cells of the mammary glands. They play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation process (production of cheese and butter. The PCR-RFLP test was performed to distinguish the different alleles in a population of Romanian Black Spotted cattle, a dairy breed. Genetic polymorphism was detected by digestion with the endonucleases Hae III (b-Lg and Hinf I (k-Cn, followed by electrophoresis in agarose high resolution gel stained with ethidium bromide. Fifty DNA samples from Romanian Black Spotted breed were analyzed for A and B variants. This simple PCR-RFLP test makes feasible the inclusion of b-Lg and k- Cn genotypes in breeding plans and cattle selection.

  7. Safety evaluation of chemically modified beta-lactoglobulin administered intravaginally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuetao; Qiu, Lixia; Wang, Yonghong; Wang, Yue; Meng, Yuanguang; Zhu, Yun; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is no specific antiviral therapy for treatment of HPV infection. Jiang and colleagues previously reported that anhydride-modified proteins have inhibitory activities against multiple viruses including HPV. Here, we evaluated the safety of 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified bovine beta-lactoglobulin, designated JB01, vaginally applied in women infected by high-risk HPV. After the vaginal application of JB01 in 38 women for 3 months, no serious adverse events were reported, and normalization of the vaginal micro-environment has been observed. It can be concluded that JB01-BD is safe for vaginal use in HPV-infected women, suggesting its potential application for the treatment of HPV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1098-1101, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26629967

  8. Reduction of immunoreactivity of bovine beta-lactoglobulin upon combined physical and proteolytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomi, F.; Fiocchi, A.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Gaiaschi, A.; Iametti, S.; Poiesi, C.; Rasmussen, P.; Restani, P.; Rovere, P.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine beta-lactoglobulin was hydrolyzed with trypsin or chymotrypsin before, during and after treatment at 600 MPa and pH 6.8 for 10 min at 30, 37 and 44degreesC. The extent of beta-lactoglobulin hydrolysis under pressure was noticeably higher than at atmospheric pressure, particularly when...... from those obtained at atmospheric pressure when chymotrypsin was used. The residual immunochemical reactivity of the products of combined pressure-enzyme treatment was assessed on the unresolved hydrolysates by ELISA tests using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and on individual hydrolytic...... fractions by Western Blotting using sera of paediatric patients allergic to whey proteins in cow milk. The immunoreactivity of the whole hydrolysates was related to their content of residual intact beta-lactoglobulin, and no immunochemical reactivity was found for all the products of chymotrypsin hydrolysis...

  9. Fouling of Heat Transfer Surfaces Related to beta-Lactoglobulin Denaturation During Heat Processing of Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, M; Tissier, J P

    1985-06-01

    Denaturation of beta-lactoglobulin during heating of milk in a plate heat exchanger has been investigated as an important factor in fouling the heat transfer surface. Using, on one hand, data on chemical composition of deposits obtained from biochemical analysis technics and, on the other hand, kinetic data of beta-Iactoglobulin denaturation, the distribution profile of deposits along the surface and the experimental fouling curves can be adequately predicted. PMID:20568150

  10. Hydration water in dynamics of a hydrated beta-lactoglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Bellissent-Funel, M.-C.; Longeville, S.

    2007-02-01

    Incoherent spin-echo signals of a hydrated β-lactoglobulin protein were investigated, at 275 and 293 K. The intermediate scattering functions I(Q,t) were divided in two contributions from surface water and protein, respectively. On one hand, the dynamics of the surface water follows a KWW stretched exponential function (the exponent is ~0.5), on the other hand, that of the protein follows a single exponential. The present results are consistent with our previous results of hydrated C-phycocyanin combining elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering and by molecular dynamics simulation.

  11. Isolation and purification of beta-lactoglobulin from cow milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjit Aich; Subhasis Batabyal; Siddhartha Narayan Joardar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to standardize a convenient method for isolation and purification of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) from cow milk keeping its antigenicity intact, so that the purified β-lg can be used for detection of cow milk protein intolerance (CMPI). Materials and Methods: Raw milk was collected from Gir breed of cattle reared in Haringhata Farm, West Bengal. Milk was then converted to skimmed milk by removing fat globules and casein protein was removed by acidification to p...

  12. Allelic Frequency of Kappa-Casein and Beta-Lactoglobulin in Indian Crossbred (Bos taurus X Bos indicus) Dairy Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajesh K.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Singh, Krishna M.; Kalpesh J. Soni

    2007-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism test was performed on DNA samples extracted from blood samples of 256 Holstein Friesian crossbred and 112 from Jersey crossbred bulls/bull calves to detect allelic frequency of the bovine kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin gene responsible for milk production traits. A 350 bp fragment of kappa-casein and a 247 bp fragment of beta-lactoglobulin were amplified and digested with Hinf I and Hae III restriction enzymes, respec...

  13. Time-dependent polymerization of beta-lactoglobulin through disulphide bonds at the oil-water interface in emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, E; Matsumura, Y

    1991-02-01

    Time-dependent intermolecular sulphydryl-disulphide interchange involving beta-lactoglobulin adsorbed at the oil-water interface in n-tetradecane-in-water emulsions (10 wt% oil, 0.5 wt% protein, pH 7.0) has been investigated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). While only monomers are detected in the adsorbed protein immediately after emulsion formation with pure beta-lactoglobulin, on storing the emulsion the amount of polymerized beta-lactoglobulin and the sizes of the oligomers are found to increase with time. There is no polymerization of adsorbed protein in emulsions made with pure alpha-lactalbumin after 72 h, or in emulsions made with beta-lactoglobulin in the presence of a reagent (N-ethylmaleimide) for modifying sulphydryl groups. Analysis by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of adsorbed protein from aged emulsions made with a mixture of alpha-lactalbumin + beta-lactoglobulin shows some linking by disulphide bonds between alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin at the interface. Taken together with earlier time-dependent surface viscosity measurements, the results indicate the important role of free sulphydryl groups in the development of the high surface viscoelasticity of adsorbed globular proteins at the oil-water interface. PMID:2059580

  14. Isolation and purification of beta-lactoglobulin from cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Aich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to standardize a convenient method for isolation and purification of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg from cow milk keeping its antigenicity intact, so that the purified β-lg can be used for detection of cow milk protein intolerance (CMPI. Materials and Methods: Raw milk was collected from Gir breed of cattle reared in Haringhata Farm, West Bengal. Milk was then converted to skimmed milk by removing fat globules and casein protein was removed by acidification to pH 4.6 by adding 3 M HCl. β-lg was isolated by gel filtration chromatography using Sephacryl S-200 from the supernatant whey protein fraction. Further, β-lg was purified by anion-exchange chromatography in diethylaminoethyl-sepharose. Molecular weight of the purified cattle β-lg was determined by 15 percent one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was analyzed by gel documentation system using standard molecular weight marker. Results: The molecular weight of the purified cattle β-lg was detected as 17.44 kDa. The isolated β-lg was almost in pure form as the molecular weight of purified β-lg monomer is 18kDa. Conclusion: The study revealed a simple and suitable method for isolation of β-lg from whey protein in pure form which may be used for detection of CMPI.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide contamination of beta-lactoglobulin affects the immune response against intraperitoneally and orally administrated antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Kjær, T.M.R.; Barkholt, Vibeke; Frøkiær, Hanne

    intraperitoneal immunization without adjuvant was measured, and oral tolerance induction against beta-LG after administration of either an aqueous solution or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion of beta-LG was evaluated. RESULTS: LPS contamination of beta-LG provoked a beta-LG-specific IgG2a response, as well as an......-LG was contaminated with LPS. CONCLUSIONS: LPS contamination of an aqueous protein solution does not affect oral tolerance induction, whereas LPS present in emulsion prevents oral tolerance induction towards the food protein.......'s milk. It is not well established, however, how this presence of LPS affects oral tolerance induction. METHODS: We studied the effect of LPS contamination in a commercial preparation of the cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) on antigen-specific immune responses. IgG1/IgG2a production upon...

  16. Lipopolysaccharide contamination of beta-lactoglobulin affects the immune response against intraperitoneally and orally administered antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Kjær, T.M.R.; Barkholt, Vibeke; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    intraperitoneal immunization without adjuvant was measured, and oral tolerance induction against beta-LG after administration of either an aqueous solution or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion of beta-LG was evaluated. Results: LPS contamination of beta-LG provoked a beta-LG-specific IgG2a lresponse, as well as an......-LG was contaminated with LPS. Conclusions: LPS contamination of an aqueous protein solution does not affect oral tolerance induction, whereas LPS present in emulsion prevents oral tolerance induction towards the food protein.......'s milk. It is not well established, however, how this presence of LPS affects oral tolerance induction. Methods: We studied the effect of LPS contamination in a commercial preparation of the cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) on antigen-specific immune responses. IgG1/IgG2a production upon...

  17. Comparison of immunomodulating properties of Beta-lactoglobulin and its hydrolysates.

    OpenAIRE

    Cui-cui Duan; Ai-li Li; Li-jie Yang; Rui Zhao; Wen-guang Fan; Gui-cheng Huo

    2014-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Beta-lactoglobulin (β- lg) is a dominant allergen in cow's milk. Hydrolysis is known as an effective method to reduce the allergenicity of proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the allergenicity of β-lg and its hydrolysates using an animal model. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and subcutaneously injected with native bovine β-lg and its hydrolysates on days 0, 7 and 14. During...

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN AND KAPPA-CASEIN GENOTYPES IN CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    C.D. TESIO; DINISCHIOTU ANCA; MANEA MARIA ADINA; GEORGESCU S. E.; R.A. VĂTĂŞESCU-BALCAN; COSTACHE MARIETA

    2007-01-01

    Beta-lactoglobulin (b-Lg) and kappa-casein (k-Cn) are two of the most importantproteins in the mammals’ milk synthesized by the epithelial cells of the mammaryglands. They play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation process(production of cheese and butter). The PCR-RFLP test was performed to distinguishthe different alleles in a population of Romanian Black Spotted cattle, a dairy breed.Genetic polymorphism was detected by digestion with the endonucleases Hae III (b-Lg) and Hinf I...

  19. Effects of lactation stage, parity, beta-lactoglobulin genotype and milk SCC on whey protein composition in Sarda dairy ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Nudda, Anna; Feligini, Maria; Battacone, Gianni; Macciotta, Nicolò Pietro Paolo; pulina, GIUSEPPE

    2003-01-01

    In 90 Sarda dairy ewes the effects of lactation stage, parity, beta-lactoglobulin genotypes, and somatic cell count (SCC) on the milk content of total protein (TP), casein (CN), whey protein (WP) and its fractions alpha-lactalbumin (ALA), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), serum albumin (SA), immunoglobulin (IG) and lactoferrin (LF) were analysed using a linear mixed model. Mean values of variables (g/l) were: TP (54.0), CN (43.0), WP (11.0), BLG (4.78), ALA (1.37), SA (0.61), IG (3.83) and ...

  20. Effect of kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin loci on milk production traits and reproductive performance of Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiaras, AM; Bargouli, GG; Banos, G.; Boscos, CM

    2005-01-01

    The effects of kappa-casein (kappa-CN) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) loci on milk production traits (milk, fat, protein, and lactose yield, fat, protein, and lactose content) and reproductive performance (gestation length, calving interval, age at first and second calving, number of services per conception) was estimated for 278 Holstein cows in the first 2 lactations. Genotypes of kappa-CN and beta-LG were determined by alkaline and acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Milk producti...

  1. Proteolysis of bovine beta-lactoglobulin during thermal treatment in subdenaturing conditions highlights some structural features of the temperature-modified protein and yields fragments with low immunoreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iametti, S.; Rasmussen, P.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Ferranti, P.; Addeo, F.; Bonomi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine beta-lactoglobulin was hydrolyzed with trypsin or chymotrypsin in the course of heat treatment at 55, 60 and 65 C at neutral pH. At these temperatures beta-lactoglobulin undergoes significant but reversible structural changes. In the conditions used in the present study, beta-lactoglobulin......Bovine beta-lactoglobulin was hydrolyzed with trypsin or chymotrypsin in the course of heat treatment at 55, 60 and 65 C at neutral pH. At these temperatures beta-lactoglobulin undergoes significant but reversible structural changes. In the conditions used in the present study, beta......-lactoglobulin was virtually insensitive to proteolysis by either enzyme at room temperature, but underwent extensive proteolysis when either protease was present during the heat treatment. High-temperature proteolysis occurs in a progressive manner. Mass spectrometry analysis of some large-sized breakdown...... intermediates formed in the early steps of hydrolysis indicated that both enzymes effectively hydrolyzed some regions of beta-lactoglobulin that were transiently exposed during the physical treatments and that were not accessible in the native protein. The immunochemical properties of the products of beta...

  2. Adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to silica surfaces after sequential and competitive adsorption of bovine serum albumin and beta-lactoglobulin.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Makhlafi, H; Nasir, A; McGuire, J.; Daeschel, M

    1995-01-01

    Adsorbed bovine serum albumin was resistant to exchange with beta-lactoglobulin, and when albumin was adsorbed from a mixture, its surface concentration increased with time. The passivating character of adsorbed albumin and its resistance to desorption were consistent with the level of Listeria monocytogenes adhesion evoked by albumin-containing protein films.

  3. Selective separation of beta-lactoglobulin from sweet whey using CGAs generated from the cationic surfactant CTAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuda, Elisabeth; Bhatia, Divesh; Pyle, D L; Jauregi, Paula

    2005-06-01

    The selective separation of whey proteins was studied using colloidal gas aphrons generated from the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). From the titration curves obtained by zeta potential measurements of individual whey proteins, it was expected to selectively adsorb the major whey proteins, i.e., bovine serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin to the aphrons and elute the remaining proteins (lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase) in the liquid phase. A number of process parameters including pH, ionic strength, and mass ratio of surfactant to protein (M(CTAB)/M(TP)) were varied in order to evaluate their effect on protein separation. Under optimum conditions (2 mmol/l CTAB, M(CTAB)/M(TP) = 0.26-0.35, pH 8, and ionic strength = 0.018 mol/l), 80-90% beta-lactoglobulin was removed from the liquid phase as a precipitate, while about 75% lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase, 80% bovine serum albumin, 95% immunoglobulin, and 65% alpha-lactalbumin were recovered in the liquid fraction. Mechanistic studies using zeta potential measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy proved that electrostatic interactions modulate only partially the selectivity of protein separation, as proteins with similar surface charges do not separate to the same extent between the two phases. The selectivity of recovery of beta-lactoglobulin probably occurs in two steps: the first being the selective interaction of the protein with opposite-charged surfactant molecules by means of electrostatic interactions, which leads to denaturation of the protein and subsequent formation and precipitation of the CTAB-beta-lactoglobulin complex. This is followed by the separation of CTAB-beta-lactoglobulin aggregates from the bulk liquid by flotation in the aphron phase. In this way, CGAs act as carriers which facilitate the removal of protein precipitate. PMID:15816026

  4. Lactose crystallization delay in model infant foods made with lactose, beta-lactoglobulin, and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirpour, A; Landillon, V; Cuq, B; Scher, J; Banon, S; Desobry, S

    2007-08-01

    Handling and storage alter infant food powders due to lactose crystallization and interactions among components. Model infant foods were prepared by colyophilization of lactose, beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and gelatinized starch. A mixture design was used to define the percentage of each mixture component to simulate a wide range of infant food powders. The kinetics of crystallization was studied by a gravimetric method (dynamic vapor sorption) at 70% relative humidity (RH). After freeze-drying, lactose was amorphous and crystallized at 70% RH. The delay before crystallization depends on the contents of beta-LG and starch in the formulations. A mathematical model was proposed to predict crystallization time (delay) at 70% RH. For the formulation containing 50% lactose, 25% beta-LG, and 25% starch, lactose was still amorphous after 42 h at 70% RH, whereas pure amorphous lactose crystallized after approximately 70 min. Calculated and experimental results of adsorbed moisture from the formulations were compared. Adsorbed water of formulation containing lactose could not be calculated from moisture sorption properties of each component at a given RH because beta-LG and gelatinized starch prevented lactose crystal growth. PMID:17638972

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN AND KAPPA-CASEIN GENOTYPES IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TESIO C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-lactoglobulin (b-Lg and kappa-casein (k-Cn are two of the most importantproteins in the mammals’ milk synthesized by the epithelial cells of the mammaryglands. They play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation process(production of cheese and butter. The PCR-RFLP test was performed to distinguishthe different alleles in a population of Romanian Black Spotted cattle, a dairy breed.Genetic polymorphism was detected by digestion with the endonucleases Hae III (b-Lg and Hinf I (k-Cn, followed by electrophoresis in agarose high resolution gelstained with ethidium bromide. Fifty DNA samples from Romanian Black Spottedbreed were analyzed for A and B variants. This simple PCR-RFLP test makesfeasible the inclusion of b-Lg and k-Cn genotypes in breeding plans and cattleselection.

  6. Beta-Carotene chemical stability in nanoemulsions was improved by stabilized with Beta-Lactoglobulin-Catechin conjugates through free radical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)-catechin conjugates were prepared by a free radical method and investigated with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and far-UV circular dichroism (CD). Covalent binding between BLG and cat...

  7. Molecular mass distribution and epitopes of the beta lactoglobulin submitted to hydrolysis pre-transglutaminase treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas-Boas, M.B.; Zollner, R.L.; Netto, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Benede, S.; Molina, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The {beta}-Lactoglobulin ({beta}-Lg) is a whey protein with important nutritional proper ties but very resistant to pepsin digestion and consequently highly antigenic. This protein can be modified by transglutaminase (TG) although it is required a pretreatment to increase their susceptibility to the TG action. In the present study the hydrolysis pre-TG treatment was used to improve the TG accessibility on {beta}-Lg and the MM distribution and antigenic fragments were evaluated. For pre-TG treatment, the {beta}-Lg (Davisco Inc.) was hydrolyzed with bromelain (3% of {beta}-Lg w/w in distilled water; 25 U enzyme g{sup 1} of substrate, pH 7.5, 240 min) and then polymerized by TG (7% hydrolysate, 10U TG g{sup 1} protein, 50 C/180 min). The samples were evaluated by SDS-PAGE/tricine and by RP-nanoUPLC (nanoAcquity UPLC, Waters) coupled with nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a Q-Tof Ultima API mass spectrometer (MicroMass/Waters) at LNBio. The products were also submitted to pepsin digestion and the peptide identification was performed by RP-HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS/MS, Brucker) with support from CIAL. The {beta}-Lg hydrolysed by bromelain and polymerized by TG had a broad MM distribution. The intact mass analysis indicated that the non modified {beta}Lg -A showed 18.362 Da and the non modified {beta}Lg -B 18.274 Da, which is in agreement with the theoretical corresponding masses. The use of bromelain pre-TG treatment resulted in polymers with MM from 61.052 to 67.654 Da, although some non modified protein was still present. In addition, the non modified {beta}-Lg showed fragments that present high antigenicity (such as Leu{sub 95} - Leu{sub 104}, Asp{sub 95} - Phe{sub 105}, Tyr{sub 42} - Leu{sub 54}, lle{sub 29} - Val{sub 41}), previously identified as IgE-binding epitopes. After hydrolysis following by TG treatment the fragment Tyr{sub 42} - Leu{sub 54} was still present, however the other fragments that were observed in the non

  8. Competitive adsorption between beta-casein or beta-lactoglobulin and model milk membrane lipids at oil-water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninge, Rianne; Walstra, Pieter; Bastiaans, Jan; Nieuwenhuijse, Hans; Nylander, Tommy; Paulsson, Marie; Bergenståhl, Björn

    2005-02-01

    This study investigated the competitive adsorption between milk proteins and model milk membrane lipids at the oil-water interface and its dependence on the state of the lipid dispersion and the formation of emulsions. Both protein and membrane lipid surface load were determined using a serum depletion technique. The membrane lipid mixture used was a model milk membrane lipid system, containing dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine, milk sphingomyelin, dioleoylphosphatidylserine, and soybean phosphatidylinositol. The model composition mimics the lipid composition of natural milk fat globule membranes. The interactions were studied for two proteins, beta-lactoglobulin and beta-casein. The mixing order was varied to allow for differentiation between equilibrium structures and nonequilibrium structures. The results showed more than monolayer adsorption for most combinations. Proteins dominated at the oil-water interface in the protein-emulsified emulsion even after 48 h of exposure to a vesicular dispersion of membrane lipids. The membrane lipids dominated the oil-water interface in the case of the membrane lipid emulsified emulsion even after equilibration with a protein solution. Protein displacement with time was observed only for emulsions in which both membrane lipids and beta-casein were included during the emulsification. This study shows that kinetics controls the structures rather than the thermodynamic equilibrium, possibly resulting in structures more complex than an adsorbed monolayer. Thus, it can be expected that procedures such as the mixing order during emulsion preparation are of crucial importance to the emulsification performance. PMID:15686425

  9. Structural changes in emulsion-bound bovine beta-lactoglobulin affect its proteolysis and immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Miriani, Matteo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barbiroli, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption on the surface of sub-micrometric oil droplets resulted in significant changes in the tertiary structure of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a whey protein broadly used as a food ingredient and a major food allergen. The adsorbed protein had increased sensitivity to trypsin, and increased immunoreactivity towards specific monoclonal antibodies. In spite of the extensive tryptic breakdown of emulsion-bound BLG, some sequence stretches in BLG became trypsin-insensitive upon absorption of the protein on the fat droplets. As a consequence - at contrast with free BLG - proteolysis of emulsion-bound BLG did not decrease the immunoreactivity of the protein, and some of the large peptides generated by trypsinolysis of emulsion-bound BLG were still recognizable by specific monoclonal antibodies. Structural changes occurring in emulsion-bound BLG and their consequences are discussed in comparison with those occurring when the tertiary structure of BLG is modified by lipophilic salts, by urea, or upon interaction with solid hydrophobic surfaces. Such a comparison highlights the relevance of situation-specific structural modifications, that in turn may affect physiologically relevant features of the protein. PMID:27085639

  10. Comparison of immunomodulating properties of Beta-lactoglobulin and its hydrolysates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-cui Duan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Beta-lactoglobulin (β- lg is a dominant allergen in cow's milk. Hydrolysis is known as an effective method to reduce the allergenicity of proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the allergenicity of β-lg and its hydrolysates using an animal model. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and subcutaneously injected with native bovine β-lg and its hydrolysates on days 0, 7 and 14. During the sensitization period, a number of systemic anaphylactic indicators were observed in mice sensitized by β-lg compared to those sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg. Mice sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg showed a significantly lower spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than that sensitized by intact β-lg. Antibody levels of β-lg-specific IgE in serum induced by native β-lg were significantly high. Plasma histamine levels were also evaluated and showed the same trend as IgE. Moreover, the hydrolysates of β-lg significantly down-regulated IL-4 and IL-5 secretions in serum. These results suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of β-lg.

  11. Comparison of immunomodulating properties of Beta-lactoglobulin and its hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Cui-cui; Li, Ai-li; Yang, Li-jie; Zhao, Rui; Fan, Wen-guang; Huo, Gui-cheng

    2014-02-01

    Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Beta-lactoglobulin (β- lg) is a dominant allergen in cow's milk. Hydrolysis is known as an effective method to reduce the allergenicity of proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the allergenicity of β-lg and its hydrolysates using an animal model. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and subcutaneously injected with native bovine β-lg and its hydrolysates on days 0, 7 and 14. During the sensitization period, a number of systemic anaphylactic indicators were observed in mice sensitized by β-lg compared to those sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg. Mice sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg showed a significantly lower spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than that sensitized by intact β-lg. Antibody levels of β-lg-specific IgE in serum induced by native β-lg were significantly high. Plasma histamine levels were also evaluated and showed the same trend as IgE. Moreover, the hydrolysates of β-lg significantly down-regulated IL-4 and IL-5 secretions in serum. These results suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of β-lg. PMID:24338225

  12. COMPARISON OF DAILY MILK YIELD AND ITS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION BETWEEN COWS FROM SELECTED GENETIC GROUPS OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN AND KAPPACASEIN GENES

    OpenAIRE

    Beata SITKOWSKA; BOGNA KOWALISZYN; SŁAWOMIR MROCZKOWSKI

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the research was to analyse the influence of selected genetic groups on the daily milk yield and its chemical composition in black and white Holstein-Friesian cows. The genotyping of beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein genes was conducted by means of the PCR-RFLP technique. The collected numeric data were analysed statistically with the covariance analysis. The joint effects of beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein genotypes were estimated. The greatest amount of milk was obtai...

  13. COMPARISON OF DAILY MILK YIELD AND ITS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION BETWEEN COWS FROM SELECTED GENETIC GROUPS OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN AND KAPPACASEIN GENES

    OpenAIRE

    Beata SITKOWSKA; KOWALISZYN, BOGNA; MROCZKOWSKI, Sławomir

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the research was to analyse the influence of selected genetic groups on the daily milk yield and its chemical composition in black and white Holstein-Friesian cows. The genotyping of beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein genes was conducted by means of the PCR-RFLP technique. The collected numeric data were analysed statistically with the covariance analysis. The joint effects of beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein genotypes were estimated. The greatest amount of milk was obtai...

  14. Identification and site-specific relative quantification of beta-lactoglobulin modifications in heated milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltretter, Jasmin; Becker, Cord-Michael; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2008-07-01

    During milk processing, proteins can be severely modified by oxidation, condensation, and Maillard reaction, leading to changes in their nutritional and technological properties. In this study, major modifications of beta-lactoglobulin, formed during the heating and processing of milk, were screened by mass spectrometry. For this purpose, beta-lactoglobulin was isolated from the milk samples by gel electrophoresis and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry after in-gel digestion with endoproteinase AspN. In heated milk, lactulosyllysine was detected at lysine 47 and 138 or 141 as well as methionine sulfoxide at methionine 7, 24, and 145. All these modifications increased gradually when raw milk was heated for 20, 40, and 60 min at 120 degrees C. The major modifications were also relatively quantified in dairy products, such as raw, high-temperature, ultra-high-temperature, sterilized, and condensed milk as well as infant formulas. The highest contents of lactulosyllysine at Lys47 were detected in powdered infant formulas, whereas lactulosyllysine at Lys138/141 was predominant in condensed milk samples. Methionine sulfoxide at Met7 and Met24 showed a trend toward higher modification rates in more severely processed products. PMID:18537261

  15. Heat-induced gelation of globular proteins: part 3. Molecular studies on low pH beta-lactoglobulin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, G M; Clark, A H; Ross-Murphy, S B

    2000-10-10

    Heat-set gels and aggregates from beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), one of the major globular proteins from milk, have been studied on a molecular distance scale using negative-staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The microscopy showed long linear aggregates forming in solutions at pH 2 (and sometimes 2.5) after prolonged heating. While there appeared to be no differences in aggregates formed under these conditions in H(2)O as compared with D(2)O, at all other pH and pD values, and in the presence of added salt, much shorter linear aggregates were formed. These became slightly more extended the further the pH was removed from pI. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) showed a diffuse beta-sheet halo at 2θ=19 degrees in patterns for both dried native and aggregated protein (irrespective of pH) with only a small change (sharpening) of this feature on heat treatment. Solution FTIR spectra, measured at pD=2, 2.5, 3, and 7, during heating, indicated shoulder development at 1612 cm(-1) in the carbonyl-stretching Amide I region diagnostic of a modest increase in intermolecular beta-sheet. In terms of the shoulder size, no distinctions could be made between acid and neutral aggregate structures. At all pHs, beta-lactoglobulin showed only limited secondary and tertiary structural changes in aggregation, in contrast to previous studies of insulin aggregation, where highly ordered crystalline fibrils were indicated. The current work has implications both in structural studies of food biopolymers and in ongoing studies of pathological protein self-assembly in disease states, such as spongiform encephalopathies. PMID:11033176

  16. 413 Effect of Hydrolysis and Polymerization on Bovine Beta-lactoglobulin Immunoreactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Villas-Boas, Mariana Battaglin; Sabadin, Isabele Serimarco; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Enzymatic treatments such as hydrolysis with proteases and polymerization using transglutaminase (TG) have been studied to reduce the immunoreactivity of β-Lactoglobulin (β-Lg). Bromelain is a cisteine protease that is not usually used for production of hypoallergenic hydrolysates. TG is an enzyme that catalyses the formation of inter and intramolecular isopeptide bonds between glutamine and lysine residues. The present study is aimed at investigating the antigenic response of β-Lg...

  17. COMPARISON OF DAILY MILK YIELD AND ITS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION BETWEEN COWS FROM SELECTED GENETIC GROUPS OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN AND KAPPACASEIN GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata SITKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to analyse the influence of selected genetic groups on the daily milk yield and its chemical composition in black and white Holstein-Friesian cows. The genotyping of beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein genes was conducted by means of the PCR-RFLP technique. The collected numeric data were analysed statistically with the covariance analysis. The joint effects of beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein genotypes were estimated. The greatest amount of milk was obtained from the genotype combination AAAB, whereas the milk of the genotype combination AABB was characterized with the greatest fat content. The smallest number of samples was collected from cows with genes that are preferred in terms of technological processing, combination BBBB. During test milking, the BBBB genotype combination was characterised by high milk yield and protein content, but also the highest content of somatic cells in milk samples under analysis.

  18. Core-shell biopolymer nanoparticles produced by electrostatic deposition of beet pectin onto heat-denatured beta-lactoglobulin aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santipanichwong, R; Suphantharika, M; Weiss, J; McClements, D J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce and characterize core-shell biopolymer particles based on electrostatic deposition of an anionic polysaccharide (beet pectin) onto amphoteric protein aggregates (heat-denatured beta-lactoglobulin [beta-lg]). Initially, the optimum conditions for forming stable protein particles were established by thermal treatment (80 degrees C for 15 min) of 0.5 wt% beta-lg solutions at different pH values (3 to 7). After heating, stable submicron-sized (d=100 to 300 nm) protein aggregates could be formed in the pH range from 5.6 to 6. Core-shell biopolymer particles were formed by mixing a suspension of protein aggregates (formed by heating at pH 5.8) with a beet pectin solution at pH 7 and then adjusting the pH to values where the beet pectin is adsorbed (< pH 6). The impact of pH (3 to 7) and salt concentration (0 to 250 mM NaCl) on the properties of the core-shell biopolymer particles formed was then established. The biopolymer particles were stable to aggregation from pH 4 to 6, but aggregated at lower pH values because they had a relatively small -potential. The biopolymer particles remained intact and stable to aggregation up to 250 mM NaCl at pH 4, indicating that they had good salt stability. The core-shell biopolymer particles prepared in this study may be useful for encapsulation and delivery of bioactive food components or as substitutes for lipid droplets. PMID:19241582

  19. Toward Separating Alpha-lactalbumin and Beta-lactoglobulin Proteins from Whey through Cation-exchange Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mayyada; Chase, Howard

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the cation-exchange adsorption of the two major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) with the purpose of establishing a process for isolating them from cow's milk whey. The single- and two-component adsorption of 1.5 mg/ml ALA and 3 mg/ml BLG to the cation-exchanger SP Sepharose FF at 20° C using 0.1 M acetate buffer of pH 3.7 was studied. Langmuir isotherm parameters were determined for the pure proteins. In two-component systems, BLG breakthrough curve exhibited an overshoot phenomenon that gave evidence for the presence of a competitive adsorption between the two proteins. Complete separation occurred and it was possible to obtain each of the two proteins in a pure form. The process was then applied to a whey concentrate mixture where incomplete separation took place. However, BLG was produced with 95% purity and a recovery of 80%, while ALA showed an 84% recovery with low purity.

  20. Effect of simulated gastro-duodenal digestion on the allergenic reactivity of beta-lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossios Apostolos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow's milk (CM allergy affects about 2% of infants. The allergenicity of dietary proteins, including those from CM, has been related to their digestibility although the generality of the link and its causality remains to be demonstrated. In this study we use an in vitro digestion system, to investigate the digestibility of β-lactoglobulin (blg during gastrointestinal transit and to assess the impact of this process on blg allergenic reactivity in CM allergic children. Methods Blg digesta were prepared using an in vitro digestion protocol simulating either gastric digestion alone or followed by duodenal digestion with or without phosphatidylcholine (PC. Biochemical analysis of blg digesta was performed by SDS-PAGE and their concentration was measured by a sandwich ELISA. Assessment of their allergenic reactivity was done in vitro by EAST inhibition, specific basophil activation (basotest and lymphocyte proliferation (PCNA-flow cytometry assays using sera and cells from patients allergic to blg and in vivo by skin prick testing (SPT of these patients. Results Blg was only broken down to smaller peptides after gastro-duodenal digestion although a sizeable amount of intact protein still remained. Digestion did not modify the IgE binding capacity of blg except for gastro-duodenal digestion performed in the absence of PC. These results are consistent with the quantity of intact blg remaining in the digesta. Overall both gastric and gastroduodenal digestion enhanced activation of sensitized basophils and proliferation of sensitized lymphocytes by blg. However, there was a tendency towards reduction in mean diameter of SPT following digestion, the PC alone during phase 1 digestion causing a significant increase in mean diameter. Conclusions Digestion did not reduce the allergenic reactivity of blg to a clinically insignificant extent, PC inhibiting digestion and thereby protecting blg allergenic reactivity. SPT reactivity was

  1. Factors affecting the interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and fatty acids as revealed in molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Changhong; Wambo, Thierry O

    2015-09-21

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a bovine dairy protein, is a promiscuously interacting protein that can bind multiple hydrophobic ligands. Fatty acids (FAs), common hydrophobic molecules bound to BLG, are important sources of fuel for life because they yield large quantities of ATP when metabolized. The binding affinity increases with the length of the ligands, indicating the importance of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between the hydrocarbon tail and the hydrophobic calyx of BLG. An exception to this rule is caprylic acid (OCA) which is two-carbon shorter but has a stronger binding affinity than capric acid. Theoretical calculations in the current literature are not accurate enough to shed light on the underlying physics of this exception. The computed affinity values are greater for longer fatty acids without respect for the caprylic exception and those values are generally several orders of magnitude away from the experimental data. In this work, we used hybrid steered molecular dynamics to accurately compute the binding free energies between BLG and the five saturated FAs of 8 to 16 carbon atoms. The computed binding free energies agree well with experimental data not only in rank but also in absolute values. We gained insights into the exceptional behavior of caprylic acid in the computed values of entropy and electrostatic interactions. We found that the electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl group of caprylic acid and the two amino groups of K60/69 in BLG is much stronger than the vdW force between the OCA's hydrophobic tail and the BLG calyx. This pulls OCA to the top of the beta barrel where it is easier to fluctuate, giving rise to greater entropy of OCA at the binding site. PMID:26272099

  2. Analysis of Beta-Lactoglobuline Gene (LGB) Polymorphism in Different Breeds of Bulls by High Resolution Melting

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Miluchová; Anna Trakovická; Michal Gábor

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the paper was to identify  - lactoglobulin gene polymorphism in bulls. The  - lactoglobulin (LGB) is expressed in milk and is important in the evaluation of milk production potential and butterfat and protein content. LGB is localized on bovine chromosome 11. The AA genotype of LGB is associated with higher milk yield, the BB genotype with higher fat and casein content and is more desirable for cheese making. The material involved 46 bulls (Slovak spotted breed – 41 bulls, Pinzg...

  3. Molecular mass distribution and epitopes of the beta lactoglobulin submitted to hydrolysis pre-transglutaminase treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The β-Lactoglobulin (β-Lg) is a whey protein with important nutritional proper ties but very resistant to pepsin digestion and consequently highly antigenic. This protein can be modified by transglutaminase (TG) although it is required a pretreatment to increase their susceptibility to the TG action. In the present study the hydrolysis pre-TG treatment was used to improve the TG accessibility on β-Lg and the MM distribution and antigenic fragments were evaluated. For pre-TG treatment, the β-Lg (Davisco Inc.) was hydrolyzed with bromelain (3% of β-Lg w/w in distilled water; 25 U enzyme g1 of substrate, pH 7.5, 240 min) and then polymerized by TG (7% hydrolysate, 10U TG g1 protein, 50 C/180 min). The samples were evaluated by SDS-PAGE/tricine and by RP-nanoUPLC (nanoAcquity UPLC, Waters) coupled with nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a Q-Tof Ultima API mass spectrometer (MicroMass/Waters) at LNBio. The products were also submitted to pepsin digestion and the peptide identification was performed by RP-HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS/MS, Brucker) with support from CIAL. The β-Lg hydrolysed by bromelain and polymerized by TG had a broad MM distribution. The intact mass analysis indicated that the non modified βLg -A showed 18.362 Da and the non modified βLg -B 18.274 Da, which is in agreement with the theoretical corresponding masses. The use of bromelain pre-TG treatment resulted in polymers with MM from 61.052 to 67.654 Da, although some non modified protein was still present. In addition, the non modified β-Lg showed fragments that present high antigenicity (such as Leu95 - Leu104, Asp95 - Phe105, Tyr42 - Leu54, lle29 - Val41), previously identified as IgE-binding epitopes. After hydrolysis following by TG treatment the fragment Tyr42 - Leu54 was still present, however the other fragments that were observed in the non modified β-Lg were not detected by LC-MS/MS, suggesting that structural change occurred in the protein after

  4. Changes in beta-lactoglobulin conformation at the oil/water interface of emulsions studied by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiali; Miles, Andrew J; Pattenden, Leonard Keith; Lee, Tzong-Hsien; Augustin, Mary Ann; Wallace, B A; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Wooster, Tim J

    2010-08-01

    The structure of proteins at interfaces is a key factor determining the stability as well as organoleptic properties of food emulsions. While it is widely believed that proteins undergo conformational changes at interfaces, the measurement of these structural changes remains a significant challenge. In this study, the conformational changes of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) upon adsorption to the interface of hexadecane oil-in-water emulsions were investigated using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. Far-UV SRCD spectra showed that adsorption of beta-Lg to the O/W interface caused a significant increase in non-native alpha-helix structure, accompanied by a concomitant loss of beta-sheet structure. Near-UV SRCD spectra revealed that a considerable disruption of beta-Lg tertiary structure occurred upon adsorption. Moreover, heat-induced changes to the non-native beta-Lg conformation at the oil/water interface were very small compared to the dramatic loss of beta-Lg secondary structure that occurred during heating in solution, suggesting that the interface has a stabilizing effect on the structure of non-native beta-Lg. Overall, our findings provide insight into the conformational behavior of proteins at oil/water interfaces and demonstrate the applicability of SRCD spectroscopy for measuring the conformation of adsorbed proteins in optically turbid emulsions. PMID:20690721

  5. Cationic beta-lactoglobulin nanoparticles as a bioavailability enhancer: Effect of surface properties and size on the transport and delivery in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zi; Luo, Yangchao; Li, Ying; Wang, Qin

    2016-08-01

    BLG (beta-lactoglobulin) and CBLG (cationic BLG developed by our lab) were evaluated as potential nutraceutical/drug carriers. The cationic corona conferred CBLG with superior integrity and drug retention under gastrointestinal conditions, at most 40-fold higher mucoadhesion, up to 30-fold greater transepithelial permeation and, at most 285% higher cellular uptake, compared to BLG. Furthermore, the more hydrophilic CBLG species exhibited better mucoadhesion, while the more hydrophobic one exhibited higher cellular uptake. Intriguingly, protein molecules were more cytotoxic and exhibited up to 175% higher tight junction-opening capacity than did protein nanoparticles, whereas the nanoparticles displayed up to 770% higher mucoadhesion, greater transepithelial permeation and elevated cellular uptake. Finally, all these surface properties and performances were significantly altered as CBLG bound to serum proteins. Possible mechanisms underlying these findings are discussed in detail. This research sheds some light on the development of protein-based nanoencapsulants and their performance upon oral administration. PMID:26988517

  6. Preparation of antioxidant enzymatic hydrolysates from alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin. Identification of active peptides by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Dávalos, Alberto; Bartolomé, Begoña; Amigo, Lourdes

    2005-02-01

    We have investigated the antioxidant activity of hydrolysates from whey proteins bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-La) and beta-lactoglobulin A (beta-Lg A) by commercial proteases (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, thermolysin, and Corolase PP). Corolase PP was the most appropriate enzyme to obtain antioxidant hydrolysates from alpha-La and beta-Lg A (ORAC-FL values of 2.315 and 2.151 micromol of Trolox equivalent/mg of protein, respectively). A total of 42 peptide fragments were identified by HPLC-MS/MS in the beta-Lg A hydrolysate by Corolase PP. One of the sequences (Trp-Tyr-Ser-Leu-Ala-Met-Ala-Ala-Ser-Asp-Ile) possessed radical scavenging (ORAC-FL value of 2.621 micromol of Trolox equivalent/micromol of peptide) higher than that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Our results suggest that whey protein hydrolysates could be suitable as natural ingredients in enhancing antioxidant properties of functional foods and in preventing oxidation reaction in food processing. PMID:15686406

  7. Analysis of Beta-Lactoglobuline Gene (LGB Polymorphism in Different Breeds of Bulls by High Resolution Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was to identify  - lactoglobulin gene polymorphism in bulls. The  - lactoglobulin (LGB is expressed in milk and is important in the evaluation of milk production potential and butterfat and protein content. LGB is localized on bovine chromosome 11. The AA genotype of LGB is associated with higher milk yield, the BB genotype with higher fat and casein content and is more desirable for cheese making. The material involved 46 bulls (Slovak spotted breed – 41 bulls, Pinzgau breed – 3 bulls and Holstein breed – 2 bulls. Bovine genomic DNA was isolated from sperm using commercial kit NucleoSpin Tissue and used in order to estimate LGB genotypes by means of PCR RFLP method and high resolution melting analysis (HRMA. In the population of Slovak spotted breed we detected all genotypes AA, AB and BB with frequency 0.3415, 0.4390 and 0.2195, subsequently. In Pinzgau breed was detected homozygote genotypes AA and BB with frequency 0.3333 and 0.6667. In Holstein breed was observed only heterozygote genotype AB with frequency 1.

  8. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin in human milk from atopic and non-atopic mothers. Relationship to maternal intake of homogenized and unhomogenized milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Hansen, L G;

    1990-01-01

    cross-over design the atopic and non-atopic mothers alternated their intake of milk between homogenized and unhomogenized milk each week. On day 7, in each week, consecutive milk samples were taken before and 4, 8, 12 and 24 hr after a single ingestion of 500 ml of homogenized or unhomogenized milk......Human milk samples (n = 300) were collected during a 3-week period from 10 healthy mothers and from 10 atopic mothers, all with healthy, solely breast-fed infants. The milk samples were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the content of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG). In a....... Detectable amounts of BLG (0.9-150 micrograms/l, median value 4.2 micrograms/l) were measured in 19/20 of the mothers (95%), in 9 of 10 atopic mothers and in all 10 of 10 non-atopic mothers. No correlation was found between the type of milk preparation (homogenized or unhomogenized) and the presence of BLG...

  9. In vitro digestibility of beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin under simulated human gastric and duodenal conditions: A multi-laboratory evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandalari, G.; Adel-Patient, K.; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2009-01-01

    gastroduodenal digestion in the presence or absence of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Both beta-casein and beta-Lg were susceptible to hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin in the high-protease assay. In contrast, the kinetics of beta-casein digestion in the low-protease assay were slower, beta-Lg being pepsin...

  10. In search of a tolerance-induction strategy for cow's milk allergies: significant reduction of beta-lactoglobulin allergenicity via transglutaminase/cysteine polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Eduardo Olivier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the use of β-lactoglobulin polymerized using microbial transglutaminase and heating to identify whether protein polymerization could reduce in vivo allergenicity and maintain in vitro and ex vivo immunoreactivity for use in tolerance-induction protocols. METHODS: Based on previous protocols applied in mice and children, we performed in vivo challenges (using a skin prick test with native and polymerized β-lactoglobulin in adult patients with an IgE-mediated allergy to plactoglobulin. In vitro humoral immunoreactivity was analyzed using immunoblotting. Cell-mediated immunoreactivity was analyzed using ex vivo challenges with native and polymerized β-lactoglobulin and monitored by leukocyte adherence inhibition tests. RESULTS: The skin tests demonstrated that there was a significant reduction in immediate cutaneous reactivity after polymerization. Polymerization did not decrease the immunoblotting detection of s-IgE specific to β-lactoglobulin. Cell-mediated immunoreactivity, as assessed by ex vivo challenges and leukocyte adherence inhibition tests, did not exhibit significant differences between leukocytes challenged with native versus polymerized β-lactoglobulin. CONCLUSIONS: The polymerization of β-lactoglobulin decreased in vivo allergenicity and did not decrease in vitro humoral or ex vivo cell-mediated immunoreactivity. Therefore, we conclude that inducing polymerization using transglutaminase represents a promising technique to produce suitable molecules for the purpose of designing oral/ sublingual tolerance induction protocols for the treatment of allergies.

  11. Polimorfismos genéticos da kappa-caseína e da beta-lactoglobulina e produção de leite em bovinos Kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin genetic polymorphisms and milk yield in bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Stipp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As variantes gênicas da beta-lactoglobulina (β-LG e da kappa-caseína (κ-CN bovinas são associadas à produção, qualidade e características de processamento do leite. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as frequências dos genótipos AA, AB e BB, por meio da técnica de PCR-RFLP, da β-LG e da κ-CN bovinas, e suas associações com a produção de leite (kg leite/dia em bovinos das raças Girolanda, Holandesa e Jersey. Para a κ-CN, a frequência do genótipo AA foi maior nos animais das raças Holandesa (37% e Girolanda (63%. Na raça Jersey, houve predomínio do genótipo BB (60%. Para a β-LG, o genótipo AB foi o mais encontrado nas raças Girolanda (54% e Holandesa (58%, enquanto nos animais da raça Jersey houve predomínio do genótipo BB (45%. Houve associação do alelo B da κ-CN com maior produtividade leiteira nas raças Girolanda e Holandesa, e do alelo A da β-LG com maior produtividade de leite na raça Jersey. As variantes genéticas da κ-CN podem ser usadas como marcadores na seleção para a produtividade leiteira nas raças Girolanda e Holandesa. Para a raça Jersey, as variantes da β-LG seriam mais adequadas para essa seleção.Bovine beta-lactoglobulin (β-LG and kappa-casein (κ-CN genic variants are associated with productivity, quality and processing features of milk. The objective of this study was to analyze through the PCR-RFLP technique, the frequency of AA, AB and BB genotypes of bovine β-LG and κ-CN, and their association to milk production (kg milk/day in Girolanda, Holstein and Jersey cattle. For κ-CN, the frequency of the AA genotype was higher in Holstein (37% and Girolanda (63%, while there was a predominance of the BB genotype in Jersey (60%. For β-LG, the BB genotype was the most found in Girolanda (54% and Holstein (58%, while there was a predominance of the BB genotype (45% in Jersey. There was a positive association between B allele of κ-CN and milk production in the Girolanda and

  12. Study of Intermediate Products from the Cross-linking Reactions of Genipin with Beta-Lactoglobulin and Related Peptides by MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genipin, methyl-1R,2R,6S-2-hydroxy-9-(hydroxymethyl)-3-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nona-4,8-diene-5-carboxylate, is an aglycone derivative from geniposide found in the Gardenia jasminoides fruits, obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucosidase. Genipin has been shown to be capable of cross-linking...

  13. Análise de polimorfismos do gene da beta-lactoglobulina em vacas da raça Nelore e efeitos sobre o peso à desmama de suas progênies Polimorphism analisys of beta-lactoglobulin gene on Nellore cows and effects on weaning weight of the calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.C. Faria

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre peso à desmama de bezerros Nelore foram utilizadas após ajuste para idade padrão aos 205 dias, sexo, idade da mãe, touro e mês de desmama, para separar as reprodutrizes em dois grupos, segundo o peso de suas crias. As médias de peso dos bezerros ajustadas pelo método dos quadrados mínimos e erros-padrão (LSM± SE foram para os grupos pesados (P e leves (L 163,21± 2,18kg e 134,44± 2,18kg, respectivamente, com 41 animais em cada grupo. Essas reprodutrizes foram submetidas a coleta de sangue para estudo de polimorfismos do gene da beta-lactoglobulina, por meio da técnica de PCR-RFLP. A amplificação e a digestão de um fragmento do gene da beta-lactoglobulina entre o éxon II e III identificou os genótipos 1AA, 24AB e 56BB, com as freqüências de 0,16 e 0,84 para os alelos A e B, respectivamente. Os 24 animais com genótipo AB apresentaram LSM± SE de peso de seus produtos de 149,50± 4,17kg, e os 56 animais de genótipo BB tiveram média de 148,44± 2,73kg. O teste do qui-quadrado não apresentou significância (P>0,05, isto é, os grupos P e L não diferiram entre si quanto às freqüências alélicas apresentadas para esse gene. O genótipo das reprodutrizes não afetou o peso à desmama de suas crias, o que sugere haver outros fatores genéticos e não genéticos de maior magnitude que afetam o peso à desmama.Weaning weights from a Nelore herd were used after adjustment of means for 205 days of age, sex, age of dam, sire and weaning month, and resulted into two groups of cows that differed by the weaning weight of their calves. The least square means (LSM and standard error (SE were for heavy group 163.21± 2.18kg and for light group 134.44± 2.18kg, with 41 animals in each group. These animals were genotyped by DNA polymorphisms of beta -lactoglobulin gene, using PCR-RFLP. After amplification and digestion of a beta-lactoglobulin gene fragment between II and III exon, genotypes 1AA, 24AB and 56BB were

  14. Immunostimulatory Potential of β-Lactoglobulin Preparations: Effects Caused by Endotoxin Contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bovetto, L.; Fritsche, R.;

    2003-01-01

    the immunomodulatory activity. Eventually, the immunostimulatory effect was found to be caused by endotoxin contamination.Conclusion: These results identify endotoxin as the main immunostimulatory component present in some commercial beta-lactoglobulin preparations. Moreover, the present study makes it evident...

  15. Polimorfismo genético de beta-lactoglobulina y alphalactoalbúmina en el ganado criollo colombiano, mediante PCR-SSCP Genetic polymorphism of beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactoalbumin in Colombian Creole cattle by PCR-SSCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Rosero-Alpala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La población de ganado criollo colombiano ha venido presentando una inquietante disminución al pasar de 23.415 ejemplares en 1999 a 20.102 en 2003. A pesar de los esfuerzos por recuperar las razas criollas el panorama para su conservación es incierto, por tanto la búsqueda de caracteres deseables puede contribuir a su valoración y conservación. Los genes relacionados con el mejoramiento de la calidad de la leche producida por estas razas se consideran de gran importancia en la industria láctea, por tal razón y con el objetivo de caracterizar los genes beta-lactoglobulina y alpha-lactoalbúmina se analizaron 30 muestras de sangre de cada una de las razas criollas (Blanco Orejinegro, Caqueteño, Casanareño, Costeño con cuernos, Chino Santandereano, Hartón del Valle, Romosinuano y Sanmartinero, dos razas sintéticas colombianas (Lucerna y Velásquez y dos razas foráneas (Holstein y Brahman. Se amplificaron fragmentos de 262pb para beta-lactoglobulina (b-LG y de 166 pb para alpha-lactoalbúmina (a-LA que se genotipificaron mediante PCR-SSCP. El promedio de la frecuencia para b-LG A y b-LG B fue de 0.46 ± 0.020 y de 0.53 ± 0.020, respectivamente, y de 0.35 ± 0.019 para a-LA A y 0.64 ± 0.019 para a-LA B. El promedio de diversidad genética (He para b-LG fue 0.498 y de 0.455 para a-LA. Los ganados criollos representan una base genética valiosa, como alternativa para mejorar genéticamente los hatos destinados a la producción de leche con mejores características en calidad para la industria láctea.The Colombian Creole Cattle has showed a preoccupant population decreasing, from 23,415 individuals in 1999 to 20,102 in 2003. Despite that many efforts to recover the creole breeds have been done, its future conservation is unclear. Searching for economic desirable genes may contribute to its preservation and utilization as a genetic resource. Genes related with the improvement of milk proteins are considered as an economic important

  16. Microcapsules from sunflower pectin and whey lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process for microcapsule formation through interfacial reaction of sunflower pectin and whey lactoglobulin in oil/water emulsion are presented. It's shown that the formation of stable emulsion and efficiency of Piroxicam encapsulation depend on biopolymers nature, it's ratio, a pectin chain conformation, ph and ionic strength. The particle size, distribution and it's quantity in volume unit were determined using biological microscope using Motic Advanced 3.2 software. (author)

  17. Genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein of cattle breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Profitable milk production respects the interests of producers, processing industries, consumer requirements and welfare of animals. Development of new methods of direct gene analysis responsible for milk proteins polymorphism provide new tools to raise the profitability of milk production and dairy products through implementation of breed genetic profile in breeding program. Because of necessity to determinate genetic profiles of cattle breeds in Croatia using new analytical methods, the ratio of dominant allelic polymorphic variants of beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and kappa-casein (κ-CN is defined. The share of beta-lactoglobulin B variant is dominant in all investigated cattle breeds (>52.9 %. Kappa- casein allelic variant A is dominant in selected cattle breeds (60.7-76.4 %, while the share of B variant is significantly more presented in autochthonous cattle breeds (48.2-84.1 %. Knowledge about genetic profile of breeds due to studied polymorphic variants of milk proteins is useful in further breeding development and economic reaffirmation of cattle breeds, especially autochthonous ones.

  18. Functional properties of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Whey proteins are commonly used in the food industry due to their nutritive value and functional properties. The most important functional properties of whey proteins are solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, emulsification and foaming. The aim of this study was to determine functional properties of main whey protein fractions (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin which have the biggest influence on the functional properties of whey proteins. Particle size analysis and specific area of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin were performed by «Mie – theory» of «light scatering» using «Malvern Mastersizer X». The results of this analysis have shown that β-lactoglobulin had higher particle size and specific area than α-lactalbumin.By examining functional properties (solubility, dispersibility, emulsifiying properties – emulsion activity index (EAI and emulsion stability index (ESI and foaming properties of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, it has been established that β-lactoglobulin has higher solubility, dispersibility, emulsifiying properties as well as foaming properties than α-lactalbumin. Rheological properties of protein suspensions were determined by rotational viscosimeter, Brookfiel DV-III at temperature 25°C. Rheological parameters, flow behavior indeks (n and consistency coefficient (k were determined by the power-law model. The results of investigation have shown that 10% suspenzion of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin are non-Newtonian fluids and they exhibited pseudoplastic properties.

  19. Accessibility and mobility of lysine residues in β-lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N/sup epsilon/-[2H6]Isopropyllysyl-β-lactoglobulin was prepared by reductive alkylation of β-lactoglobulin with [2H6]acetone and NaBH4 to provide a 2H (NMR) probe for the study of lysine involvement in lipid-protein interactions. Amino acid analysis showed 80% of the protein's 15 lysine residues to be labeled. Unmodified lysine residues were located through peptide maps produced from CNBr, tryptic, and chymotryptic digests of the labeled protein. Average correlation times calculated from 2H NMR spectra were 20 and 320 ps for 8.7 and 3.3 residues, respectively, in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride; in nondenaturing solution, values of 70 and 320 ps were obtained for 6.5 and 3.2 residues, respectively, with the remaining 2.3 modified residues not observed, suggesting that side chains of lysine residues in unordered or flexible regions were more mobile than those in stable periodic structures. 2H NMR spectra of the protein complexed with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine confirmed the extrinsic membrane protein type behavior of β-lactoglobulin previously reported from 31P NMR studies of the phospholipids complexed with β-lactoglobulin. Although no physiological function has yet been identified, comparison of these results with the X-ray structure supports the hypothesis that residues not accessible for modification may help to stabilize the cone-shaped β-barrel thought to contain binding sites for small lipid-soluble molecules

  20. The Sensitising Capacity of Intact β-Lactoglobulin Is Reduced by Co-Administration with Digested β-Lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    to examine the sensitising capacity of the cow’s milk allergen β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and digestion products thereof in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model. Methods: Intact BLG was digested in an in vitro model simulating the gastro-duodenal digestion process and subsequently fractionated by gel permeation...

  1. Chemical modification of b-lactoglobulin by quinones

    OpenAIRE

    DUSAN SLADIC; NENAD MILOSAVIC; NATASA BOZIC; TATJANA BOZIC; ZORAN VUJCIC; IRENA NOVAKOVIC

    2003-01-01

    The avarone/avarol quinone/hydroquinone couple, as well as their derivatives show considerable antitumor activity. In this work, covalent modifications of b-lactoglobulin, isolated from cow milk, by avarone, its model compound 2-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone, and several of their alkylthio derivatives were studied. The techniques applied for assaying the modifications were: UV/VIS spectrophotometry, SDS PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. The results of the SDS PAGE suggest that polymerisation of the ...

  2. Microcapsules from low methylated pectins and whey lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative study of microcapsule formation processes through interfacial reaction of different low methylated pectins and concentrate of whey lactoglobulin, in o/w emulsion systems are presented. It is shown that the formation of stable emulsion and efficiency of drug encapsulation depends on biopolymers nature, it's ratio, pectins local charge density and molar mass. Among studied pectins the microcapsules formed from H M-apple pectin has advantageous in particle number, size and drug loading efficiency. (author)

  3. Influence of pectin characteristics on complexation with ß-lactoglobulin

    OpenAIRE

    Sperber, B.L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin and proteins are both common food constituents. The type of pectin that forms complexes with protein is known to be of great influence on the structure and stability of liquid foods. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of the overall charge and local charge density of pectin on the formation of soluble complexes with β-lactoglobulin (β-lg). Combination of state diagrams and binding isotherms shows that a high local charge density of pectin is a prerequisit...

  4. Effects of high hidrostatic pressure on the viscosity of β-lactoglobulin solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Jovanović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research new experimental data for the pressure dependence of the viscosity of β-lactoglobulin solution are presented. The experimental investigation is based on in-situ viscometric measurement technique which provides an observation of the high-pressure-induced changes of β-lactoglobulin solution during the treatment. This method refers to a rolling ball viscometer that is adapted for the use at high pressures and has a variable inclination angle. The estimation of the viscosity has been done in order to detect reversible and irreversible conformational changes of β-lactoglobulin. For investigation protein solutions concentration 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06 g/g were used. The sample solutions are exposed to pressure of 0.1-600 MPa. The results showed that there is no significant effect of 100 MPa pressure on the viscosity of β-lactoglobulin solutions. With increasing pressure, between 100 and 300 MPa, the viscosity of β-lactoglobulin solutions increase. Pressure above 300 MPa causes further increase of the viscosity due to nonreversible and more extensive effects on protein, e.g. unfolding of monomeric proteins and aggregation. The structural changes of the β-lactoglobulin under high pressure affect the hydration of the β-lactoglobulin molecules. At pressure between 100 and 300 MPa there is a significant increase in relative hydration due to structural changes and increase in number of water molecules which are associated with protein molecules. Higher pressure cause protein aggregation due to formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds and irreversible denaturation and aggregation occurs. Because of that, there is no changes in protein hydration, moreover, the hydration of β-lactoglobulin molecules have a small decreases at pressure between 400 and 600 MPa.

  5. Formation of microcapsule from high methoxyl pectins and whey lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of microencapsulation of model drug through complex formation between whey lactoglobulin concentrate and different high methoxyl pectins from apples and citrus in the oil/water interface were investigated. There are optimum conditions for obtaining stable emulsions by changing the ionic strength of the system, capable of forming a solid layer at the oil/water interface were studied. It is shown that the emulsion system formed by apple pectin has maximum particle number, higher drug loading efficiency in comparison with the citrus pectin. Delivery systems in the form of emulsion microparticles have demonstrated the ability to efficiently encapsulate the model drug-piroxicam, which can be widely used in the development of injectable and aerosol delivery systems. (author)

  6. Osmolyte Effects on the Unfolding Pathway of β-Lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are large amounts of osmolytes inside cells, which impact many physiological processes by complicated mechanisms. The osmolyte effects on the stability and folding of proteins have been studied in detail using simple two-state folding proteins. However, many important functional proteins fold in complex pathways involving various intermediates. Little is known about the osmolyte effects on the folding and unfolding of these proteins. It is noted that β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is an example of such proteins, whose unfolding involves an obvious intermediate state. Using equilibrium chemical denaturation and stopped-flow kinetics, we investigate the unfolding of BLG in the presence of different osmolytes, e.g., glycerol, ethylene glycol (EG) and poly(ethylene glycol)400 (PEG400). It is found that all these osmolytes can stabilize the unfolding intermediate by modulating the relative unfolding kinetics of the native and the intermediate states. The stabilization effects are similar for EG and PEG400 but distinct for glycerol. Since the unfolding intermediates of many proteins are directly related to protein misfolding diseases, evaluation of the osmolyte effects for the unfolding of these proteins in vitro should be beneficial for the understanding of the occurrence of the related diseases in vivo

  7. Osmolyte Effects on the Unfolding Pathway of β-Lactoglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wei; Pan, Hai; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2013-10-01

    There are large amounts of osmolytes inside cells, which impact many physiological processes by complicated mechanisms. The osmolyte effects on the stability and folding of proteins have been studied in detail using simple two-state folding proteins. However, many important functional proteins fold in complex pathways involving various intermediates. Little is known about the osmolyte effects on the folding and unfolding of these proteins. It is noted that β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is an example of such proteins, whose unfolding involves an obvious intermediate state. Using equilibrium chemical denaturation and stopped-flow kinetics, we investigate the unfolding of BLG in the presence of different osmolytes, e.g., glycerol, ethylene glycol (EG) and poly(ethylene glycol)400 (PEG400). It is found that all these osmolytes can stabilize the unfolding intermediate by modulating the relative unfolding kinetics of the native and the intermediate states. The stabilization effects are similar for EG and PEG400 but distinct for glycerol. Since the unfolding intermediates of many proteins are directly related to protein misfolding diseases, evaluation of the osmolyte effects for the unfolding of these proteins in vitro should be beneficial for the understanding of the occurrence of the related diseases in vivo.

  8. β-Lactoglobulin as nanotransporter for allicin: Sensory properties and applicability in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Sandra Catharina; Keppler, Julia Katharina; Palani, Kalpana; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-05-15

    The thiosulfinate allicin is a labile, bioactive compound of garlic. In order to enrich allicin in a functional food, a delivery system which stabilises the compound and masks its intense flavour is necessary. In the present study allicin was covalently bound to the whey protein β-lactoglobulin and the incorporation of this transporter in a food matrix was tested. The sensory properties of the pure functional ingredient as well as of an enriched beverage were characterised by quantitative descriptive analysis. The concentration of volatile compounds was analysed by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The garlic-related organoleptic properties of garlic powder were significantly improved by the binding of allicin in combination with spray drying. After purification of the modified β-lactoglobulin the garlic taste and smell were barely perceptible. β-Lactoglobulin modified with allicin provided a stable functional ingredient that can be used to enrich a broad range of food products. PMID:26776023

  9. The SKA and the Unknown Unknowns

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As new scientists and engineers join the SKA project and as the pressures come on to maintain costs within a chosen envelope it is worth restating and updating the rationale for the 'Exploration of the Unknown' (EoU). Maintaining an EoU philosophy will prove a vital ingredient for realizing the SKA's discovery potential. Since people make the discoveries enabled by technology a further axis in capability parameter space, the'human bandwidth' is emphasised. Using the morphological approach pio...

  10. VY6, a β-lactoglobulin-derived peptide, altered metabolic lipid pathways in the zebra fish liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Geba, K; Arrutia, F; Do-Huu, H; Borrell, Y J; Galal-Khallaf, A; Ardura, A; Riera, Francisco A; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-04-20

    Today enormous research efforts are being focused on alleviating the massive, adverse effects of obesity. Short peptides are key targets for research as they can be generated from natural proteins, like milk. Here we conducted trypsinogen digestion of beta-lactoglobulin (β-lg), the major mammalian milk protein, to release the hexamer VY6. It was assayed in vivo for its activities on lipid metabolism using zebra fish as a vertebrate model. Zebra fish juveniles were injected with two different doses of the peptide: 100 and 800 μg per g fish and left for 5 days before sacrificing. Lipid measurements showed significant reduction in liver triglycerides and free cholesterol, as well as increased liver HDL cholesterol. Dose-dependent increases of the mRNA levels of the genes coding for the enzymes acyl coenzyme A oxidase 1 (acox1) and lipoprotein lipase (lpl) were also found. The complete results suggest significant anti-obesity activity of the β-lg-derived VY6 peptide. Its use as a nutraceutical has been discussed. PMID:26983953

  11. The SKA and the Unknown Unknowns

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As new scientists and engineers join the SKA project and as the pressures come on to maintain costs within a chosen envelope it is worth restating and updating the rationale for the 'Exploration of the Unknown' (EoU). Maintaining an EoU philosophy will prove a vital ingredient for realizing the SKA's discovery potential. Since people make the discoveries enabled by technology a further axis in capability parameter space, the'human bandwidth' is emphasised. Using the morphological approach pioneered by Zwicky, a currently unexploited region of observational parameter space can be identified viz: time variable spectral patterns on all spectral and angular scales, one interesting example would be 'spectral transients'. We should be prepared to build up to 10 percent less collecting area for a given overall budget in order to enhance the ways in which SKA1 can be flexibly utilized.

  12. A new multistep Ca2+-Induced Cold Gelation Process for ß-Lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, C.; Baptist, H.G.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain -lactoglobulin (-lg) gels at very low protein concentrations using a new multistep Ca2+-induced cold gelation process. In the conventional cold gelation process, salt free -lg solutions were heated at neutral pH, cooled, and cross-linked by adding salts. In

  13. Role of dietary antioxidant (-)-epicatechin in the development of β-lactoglobulin fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, M; Di Venere, A; Filabozzi, A; Maselli, P; Minicozzi, V; Morante, S; Nicolai, E; Nucara, A; Placidi, E; Stellato, F

    2016-07-01

    Under specific physico-chemical conditions β-lactoglobulin is seen to form fibrils structurally highly similar to those that are formed by the amyloid-like proteins associated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. In the present study we provide insights on the possible role that the dietary flavonoid (-)-epicatechin plays on β-lactoglobulin fibril formation. Fibril formation is induced by keeping β-lactoglobulin solutions at pH2.0 and at a temperature of 80°C for 24h. Atomic Force Microscopy measurements suggest that, by adding (-)-epicatechin in the solution, fibrils density is visibly lowered. This last observation is confirmed by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy experiments. With the use of Fourier Transform IR spectroscopy we monitored the relative abundances of the secondary structures components during the heating process. We observed that in the presence of (-)-epicatechin the spectral-weight exchange between different secondary structures is partially inhibited. Molecular Dynamics simulations have been able to provide an atomistic explanation of this experimental observation, showing that (-)-epicatechin interacts with β-lactoglobulin mainly via the residues that, normally in the absence of (-)-epicatechin, are involved in β-sheet formation. Unveiling this molecular mechanism is an important step in the process of identifying suitable molecules apt at finely tuning fibril formation like it is desirable to do in food industry applications. PMID:27049464

  14. Spectroscopic studies of the interactions between β-lactoglobulin and bovine submaxillary mucin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celebioglu, Hilal Yilmaz; Guðjónsdóttir, María; Meier, Sebastian; Duus, Jens Øllgaard; Lee, Seunghwan; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2015-01-01

    The structural changes occurring during the interaction between β-lactoglobulin (BLG), the major whey protein, and bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM), a major salivary protein, were studied using high and low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and Circular Dichro...

  15. Radiation damage of proteins in the solid state: changes of β-lactoglobulin secondary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Lactoglobulin has been irradiated with 100 keV electrons simulating the environmental conditions of electron microscopy. Attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy reveals that in the dose range between 60 and 200e-/nm2, which is far below that required for high resolution imaging of isolated proteins, their secondary structure is completely randomized

  16. Mild isolation procedure discloses new protein structural properties of b-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, de H.H.J.; Groneveld, T.; Groot, de J.

    2001-01-01

    To explore the potentially available functional properties of β-lactoglobulin in, for example, the processing of food products, it is important to isolate the protein by a procedure that avoids all possible denaturing conditions, such as low pH, high ionic strength, or low or elevated temperatures t

  17. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigli, I.; Riggio, V.; Monteleone, G.; Cacioppo, D.; Rosa, A.J.M.; Maizon, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than 75

  18. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Maizon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii more than 750,000 somatic cells. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to assess the significance of LGB genotypes on MTB and MTC. The LGB genotypes significantly affected MTB (p=0.0387, and showed a tendency on MTC (p=0.1104. Least square means showed that in the analysis for MTB, individuals with genotypes BB and AB had a higher frequency of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the least square differences showed that the incidence was significantly higher in BB ewes than in AA ewes (p<0.001, and a tendency of a higher incidence among AB ewes than in AA ewes (p=0.0630. In conclusion, the results of this work show that LGB genotype BB seems to be less favourable in terms of mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice sheep breed.

  19. Highly efficient modification of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene via zinc-finger nucleases in cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengli Yu; Junjie Luo; Zhiyuan Song; Fangrong Ding; Yunping Dai; Ning Li

    2011-01-01

    Dear Editor,Gene targeting is in widespread use as a gold standard for determining the function of genes in mice and human embryonic stem cells [1].However,the poor efficiency of this technology has hindered its application to domestic animals,for which embryonic stem cells are not available.Although gene-targeted large domestic animals have been produced successfully by combination of homologous recombination-based targeting strategy and cloning [2-4],the efficiency is very low and,more importantly,the disruption of the targeted gene is usually mono-allelic.It thus takes a long time to obtain a null mutant.

  20. Role of calcium as trigger in thermal beta-lactoglobulin aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.W.F.A.; Kosters, H.A.; Visschers, R.W.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Divalent calcium ions have been suggested to be involved in intermolecular protein-Ca2+-protein cross-linking, intramolecular electrostatic shielding, or ion-induced protein conformational changes as a trigger for protein aggregation at elevated temperatures. To address the first two phenomena in th

  1. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    OpenAIRE

    Maizon, D. O.; Rosa, A.J.M.; D. Cacioppo; Monteleone, G; V. Riggio; Gigli, I

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than 750,000 somatic cells. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to assess the significance of LGB genotypes on MTB and MTC. The LGB genotypes significantly affected MTB (p=0.0387), and showed a te...

  2. Influence of sulphate, chloride, and thiocyanate salts on formation of β-lactoglobulin-pectin microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Stacey; Jones, Owen G; Adijanto, Marilyn; Gilbert, Jay

    2014-12-01

    Effects of sulphate, chloride, and thiocyanate salts on the heat-induced formation of protein-based microgels from β-lactoglobulin-pectin complexes were determined as a function of pH and protein-to-polysaccharide ratio. Aggregation temperatures were initially decreased at low ionic strength due to shielding of electrostatic interactions between β-lactoglobulin and pectin but increased with further increases in ionic strength. Turbidity of heated mixtures and associated sizes of formed microgels were increased with up to 75 mmol kg(-1) ionic strength. Aggregation and microgel formation were relatively increased in the presence of thiocyanate salts compared to chloride salts and relatively decreased in the presence of sulphate salts, indicating that the inverse Hofmeister series was relevant in this system. Topographical analysis of dried microgels by atomic force microscopy verified that microgels were smallest in the presence of sulphate salts and showed that added ions, particularly thiocyanate, increased the deformability of microgels during drying. PMID:24996306

  3. Schumpeter's unknown article Development

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Markus C.; Esslinger, Hans Ulrich; Hedtke, Ulrich; Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2004-01-01

    The present article introduces Development, a new, unpublished and hitherto unknown article written by Joseph A. Schumpeter. It was originally written in 1932 and titled Entwicklung. Development is remarkable since it helps understand the unity of Schumpeter’s work and significantly adds to Schumpeter’s known works on a number of issues that were central to his theory of economic development. Development shows that Schumpeter considered the explanation of novelty as the most im...

  4. Identifying Unknown Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Winona C.; Dayhoff, Margaret O.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper we discuss ways to identify a protein, both when its amino acid sequence is known and, particularly, prior to the determination of the complete sequence. If a similar sequence is in the Protein Sequence Database, an unknown may be identified on the basis of partial or ambiguous sequence data, or on the basis of amino acid composition. Identification in the early stages of structural determination can save time and scarce resources by preventing duplicate effort or by suggesting ...

  5. Piroxicam release kinetics from emulsion microcapsules of low methylated pectin and whey lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study describes release kinetics of piroxicam as model drug from developed two different low methylated-pectins and concentrate of lactoglobulin in condition mimicking gastrointestinal tract. It is shows that the drug release tailored from low methylated-sunflower pectin exhibit zero order kinetics in the condition of intestinal. The results demonstrate effectiveness of microcapsules system as sustained delivery system able to prolong drug release, which may reduce drug dose and its side effect. (author)

  6. Recognition of Conformational Changes in β-Lactoglobulin by Molecularly Imprinted Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Nicholas W.; Liu, Xiao; Piletsky, Sergey A.; Hlady, Vladimir; Britt, David W

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenesis in protein conformational diseases is initiated by changes in protein secondary structure. This molecular restructuring presents an opportunity for novel shape-based detection approaches, as protein molecular weight and chemistry are otherwise unaltered. Here we apply molecular imprinting to discriminate between distinct conformations of the model protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG). Thermal- and fluoro-alcohol-induced BLG isoforms were imprinted in thin films of 3-aminophenylboronic a...

  7. Generation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV-Inhibiting Peptides from β-Lactoglobulin Secreted by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Shigemori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that hydrolysates of β-lactoglobulin (BLG prepared using gastrointestinal proteases strongly inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV activity in vitro. In this study, we developed a BLG-secreting Lactococcus lactis strain as a delivery vehicle and in situ expression system. Interestingly, trypsin-digested recombinant BLG from L. lactis inhibited DPP-IV activity, suggesting that BLG-secreting L. lactis may be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Antigen-binding radioimmunoassays for human IgG antibodies to bovine ν-lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double antibody antigen-binding assay for the detection of human IgG antibodies to the bovine milk allergen ν-lactoglobulin is described. The levels of such antibodies in patients with established cows' milk protein intolerance were significantly higher than the levels observed in a healthy control group (P<0.01). The assay showed excellent correlation with a solid phase antigen binding assay (rsub(s) = 0.8, P<0.001). (Auth.)

  9. Fever of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a commonly performed imaging modality in deteting pyrogenic lesions in cases of long-standing inexplainable fever. To re-evaluate the significance of gallium imaging in such cases, a retrospective review was made of 56 scans performed in febrile patients in whom sufficient clinical and laboratory findings were obtained. Gallium scans were true positive in 30 patients, false positive in 3, true negative in 19, and false negative in 4. In the group of true positive, local inflammatory lesions were detected in 23 patients with a final diagnosis of lung tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and inflammatory joint disease. Abnormal gallium accumulation, as shown in the other 7 patients, provided clues to the diagnosis of generalized disorders, such as hematological malignancies (n=3), systemic autoimmune diseases (n=3), and severe infectious mononucleosis (n=one). In the group of false positive, gallium imaging revealed intestinal excretion of gallium in 2 patients and physiological pulmonary hilar accumulation in one. In the true negative group of 19 patients, fever of unknown origin was resolved spontaneously in 12 patients, and with antibiotics and corticosteroids in 2 and 5 patients, respectively. Four patients having false negative scans were finally diagnosed as having urinary tract infection (n=2), bacterial meningitis (n=one), and polyarteritis (n=one). Gallium imaging would remain the technique of choice in searching for origin of unknown fever. It may also be useful for early diagnosis of systemic disease, as well as focal inflammation. (N.K.)

  10. Physics: unknown radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, E; Liksonov, V I; Tsinoiev, V G

    2002-01-01

    This article reports experiments concerning the study of the electrical explosion of a titanium foil in water. During the electrical discharge a strong luminescence appears, the analysis of spectra shows the presence of new chemical elements and this presence is confirmed by the mass-spectrometry measurements performed on the precipitates found after the discharge. This experiment has been repeated about 200 times and the results are consistent an show an average titanium transmutation rate of 4%. Neither gamma nor neutron radiation have been detected but an unknown radiation, sensitive to magnetic fields, has been detected through tracks left on RF-ZMP fluo-graphical films covered with a 10 mu m-thick emulsion layer. The assumption of a radiation made up of magnetic monopoles is supported by the author. (A.C.)

  11. Clinical Values of Combined Detection of Ultrasound and Serum Beta-hCG in Evaluating Early Pregnancy of Unknown ;Location Outcome%超声及血清β-人绒毛膜促性腺激素检查对早期未知部位妊娠结局的评估价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米婉琴; 周慧丽; 向红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical values of combined detection of ultrasound and serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin(beta-hCG)examination in predicting early pregnancy of unknown location(PUL)outcome. Methods 109 cases of PUL admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from May 2011 to May 2013 were se-lected. All the cases had a history of menopause for 4 to 6 weeks,and had positive outcome of urine or serum beta-hCG examina-tion. The first ultrasound examination after admission showed no typical fertilized egg both inside and outside the uterus,and then the beta-hCG examination was performed on the day of admission and 48 h later. All the cases were divided into IUP group(31 cases),IUPM group(21 cases)and EP group(57 cases). The 48 h growth of endometrial thickness,pregnancy luteal blood flow distribution and serum beta-hCG were compared between the three groups. Results The ultrasound examination showed that the IUP group had thicker endometrial thickness〔(1. 25 ± 0. 22)cm〕compared with the IUPM group〔(0. 78 ± 0. 30)cm〕and EP group〔(0. 75 ±0. 31)cm〕(P0. 05 ) . IUPM group and EP group blood signal loss rate were higher than that of IUP group,EP group was higher than in IUPM group(P60% in IUP group〔93. 5%(29/31)〕was higher than the IUPM group〔14. 3%(3/21)〕and EP group〔33. 3%(19/57)〕,and the EP group was also higher than the IUPM group(P0.05)。IUPM组和EP组妊娠黄体血流信号缺失率高于IUP组,EP组高于IUPM组( P60%者比例〔93.5%(29/31)〕高于IUPM组〔14.3%(3/21)〕和EP组〔33.3%(19/57)〕,EP组高于IUPM组(P<0.017)。结论超声检测子宫内膜厚度、妊娠黄体血流信号缺失情况及血清β-hCG 48 h增长率对PUL的结局评估有一定临床指导价值。

  12. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  13. Specific Salt Effects on the Formation and Thermal Transitions Among β-Lactoglobulin and Pectin Electrostatic Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Hirt, Stacey Ann

    2013-01-01

    Factors of ion specificity and ionic strength (I~0-100) were studied in the electrostatic complex formation and protein particle formation by thermal treatment for a β-lactoglobulin and pectin system. ζ-potential showed β-lactoglobulin and pectin began to interact near pH 5.50 and interactions were strengthened with decrease in pH. Visible light turbidimetry and light scattering at 90° revealed a trend in critical pH transitions for electrostatic complex formation based on both the ionic str...

  14. Effects of lactation stage, parity, β-lactoglobulin genotype and milk SCC on whey protein composition in Sarda dairy ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Pulina; Gianni Battacone; Nicolò Pietro Paolo Macciotta; Maria Feligini; Anna Nudda

    2010-01-01

    In 90 Sarda dairy ewes the effects of lactation stage, parity, β-lactoglobulin genotypes, and somatic cell count (SCC) onthe milk content of total protein (TP), casein (CN), whey protein (WP) and its fractions α-lactalbumin (ALA), β-lactoglobulin(BLG), serum albumin (SA), immunoglobulin (IG) and lactoferrin (LF) were analysed using a linear mixed model.Mean values of variables (g/l) were: TP (54.0), CN (43.0), WP (11.0), BLG (4.78), ALA (1.37), SA (0.61), IG (3.83) andLF (0.28...

  15. In vitro digestion and stability assessment of b-lactoglobulin/riboflavin nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Madalena, Daniel F.; Ramos, Oscar L.; Pereira, Ricardo Nuno Correia; Bourbon, Ana Isabel Juncá Sottomayor Lisboa; Pinheiro, A. C.; Malcata, F. Xavier; J.A. Teixeira; Vicente, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    B-Lactoglobulin (b-Lg) is the major protein fraction of bovine whey serum and a primary gelling agent. b-Lg has a high nutritional value, is stable at low pH being highly resistant to proteolytic degradation in the stomach, besides, it has the ability of acting as an encapsulating agent. This study aims at assessing the ability of b-Lg nanostructures to associate a nutraceutical - i.e. riboflavin - and release it in a controlled manner throughout an in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) system. For ...

  16. Digestibility of β-lactoglobulin following cross-linking by Trametes versicolor laccase and apple polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGANA STANIĆ-VUČINIĆ; TANJA ĆIRKOVIĆ VELIČKOVIĆ; RATKO M. JANKOV; JANA OGNJENOVIĆ; BOJANA KRAVIĆ; ZIYAD TANTOUSH; LUKA MIHAJLOVIĆ

    2011-01-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) is an important nutrient of dairy products and an important allergen in cow’s milk allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of laccase to cross-link BLG in the presence of an apple phenolic extract (APE) and to characterize the obtained products for their digestibility by pepsin and pancreatin. The composition of the apple phenolics used for cross-linking was determined by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS)....

  17. Improved radical scavenging activity of β-lactoglobulin-xylobiose modified by the Maillard reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yajima, Kensuke; Onodera, Shuichi; Takeda, Yasuyuki; Shiomi, Norio

    2007-01-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) was modified and conjugated to xylobiose using the Maillard reaction. The antioxidant activity of the Maillard reaction product, β-LG-xylobiose, was measured in vitro and compared to that of conjugated β-LG-lactose. The reaction for 7 days led to conjugated β-LG-xylobiose with a relative molecular mass ranging between 19 and 22 kDa based on SDS-PAGE analysis. It is confirmed that xylobiose bound to β-LG by gas-liquid chromatography. One milligram of conjugated β-LG-xylo...

  18. β-Lactoglobulin as nanotransporter--Part II: Characterization of the covalent protein modification by allicin and diallyl disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Sandra Catharina; Treitz, Christian; Keppler, Julia Katharina; Koudelka, Tomas; Palani, Kalpana; Tholey, Andreas; Rawel, Harshadrai M; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The whey protein β-lactoglobulin has been proposed as a transporter for covalent bound bioactive compounds in order to enhance their stability and reduce their sensory perception. The garlic derived compounds allicin and diallyl disulfide were bound covalently to the native and heat denatured protein. The binding site and the influence of the modification on the digestibility were determined by mass spectrometric analysis of the modified β-lactoglobulin. Further, the conformation of the modified protein was assessed by circular dichroism and dynamic light scattering. The free thiol group of Cys(121) turned out to be the major binding site. After proteolysis with trypsin at pH 7 but not with pepsin at pH 2, a limited transfer to other cysteinyl residues was observed. The covalently bound ligands did not mask any proteolytic cleavage sites of pepsin, trypsin or chymotrypsin. The modified β-lactoglobulin showed a native like conformation, besides a moderate loosening of protein folding. The covalent binding of organosulfur compounds to β-lactoglobulin provides a bioactive ingredient without impairing the digestibility and functional properties of the protein. PMID:26617049

  19. β-lactoglobulin-pectin Nanoparticle-based Oral Drug Delivery System for Potential Treatment of Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Zhila; Divsalar, Adeleh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sawyer, Lindsay

    2016-08-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common internal malignancies, and conventional chemotherapy is not effective in its treatment. Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. The physicochemical properties of β-lactoglobulin, the main whey protein of cow's milk, such as its stability at low pH, its resistance to gastric protease, and its ability to bind hydrophobic ligands, give it potential for transporting drugs specifically for colon cancer. In the present research, β-lactoglobulin-pectin nanoparticles were designed to transfer a newly synthesized, anticancer platinum complex (bipyridine ethyl dithiocarbamate Pt(II) nitrate), to the colon. The effects of multiple factors on the size and the colloidal stability of the nanoparticles were studied using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Results showed that the best particle size and highest colloidal stability were obtained in phosphate buffer, pH 4.5, with 0.5 mg/mL β-lactoglobulin and 0.025-0.05wt% pectin. The drug release profile in simulated gastrointestinal conditions demonstrated that β-lactoglobulin with a secondary coating is stable in acidic conditions but is able to release its cargo at pH 7. Hence, these nanoparticles have potential to serve as novel and effective vehicles for oral drug delivery preparations. PMID:26896377

  20. Modification of β-lactoglobulin by oligofructose: Impact on protein adsorption at the air-water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trofimova, D.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2004-01-01

    Maillard products of β-lactoglobulin (βLg) and fructose oligosaccharide (FOS) were obtained in different degrees of modification depending on incubation time and pH. By use of a variety of biochemical and spectroscopic tools, it was demonstrated that the modification at limited degrees does not sign

  1. Changes of pH in β-Lactoglobulin and β-Casein Solutions during High Pressure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Olsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pH changes in the milk systems, β-lactoglobulin B, β-casein, and mixture of β-lactoglobulin and β-casein (pH 7 and ionic strength 0.08 M were measured in situ during increasing pressure up to 500 MPa. An initial decrease to pH 6.7 was observed from 0.1 to 150 MPa for β-lactoglobulin, followed by an increase to pH 7.3 at 500 MPa. The initial decrease is suggested to be caused by the deprotonation of histidine, while the increase is suggested to result from an increase of hydroxide ions due to the loss of tertiary structure. The change in pH of the β-casein solution displayed an almost linear increasing pressure dependency up to a pH of 7.7 at 500 MPa. The limited tertiary structure of β-casein could allow exposure of all amino acids; thus the increase of pH can be caused by binding of water protons resulting in an increase of hydroxide ions. Addition of β-casein to β-lactoglobulin (1:1 was found to suppress the initial pH decrease found for the β-lactoglobulin solution. The pH change of the mixture did not suggest any intermolecular interaction, and a simple additive model is proposed to calculate the pH change of the mixture from the corresponding individual samples.

  2. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin ... then there is a 25% chance with each pregnancy that their child will inherit two abnormal beta ...

  3. Analysis of binding interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and β-lactoglobulin by multi-spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuli; Wu, Hui; Liu, Meixia; Liu, Zhigang; Xu, Hong; Lai, Furao

    2011-11-01

    The binding interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) with bovine β-lactoglobulin (βLG) was investigated by fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. The binding parameters were determined by Stern-Volmer equation and the thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to the van't Hoff equation. The results suggested that βLG was bound by EGC, which resulted in change of native conformation of βLG. van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding probably played major roles in the binding process. Our study is helpful for further elucidation of binding interactions between catechins with milk proteins, which would contribute to the development of novel milk products.

  4. Adaptive Output Regulation of Unknown Linear Systems with Unknown Exosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Iwai, Zenta

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the adaptive regulation problem for unknown controlled systems with unknown exosystems was considered. An adaptive output feedback controller with an adaptive internal model was proposed for single input/single output linear minimum phase systems. In the proposed method, a controller with an adaptive internal model was designed through an expanded backstepping strategy of only one step with a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC).

  5. Hydrography, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic...

  6. Formal Verification under Unknown Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-hui; LI Xiao-wei

    2005-01-01

    We present a formal method of verifying designs with unknown constraints (e. g. , black boxes) using Boolean satisfiability (SAT). This method is based on a new encoding scheme of unknown constraints, and solves the corresponding conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Furthermore, this method can avoid the potential memory explosion, which the binary decision diagram (BDD) based techniques maybe suffer from, thus it has the capacity of verifying large designs. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed method.

  7. Characterization and crystallization of a recombinant IgE Fab fragment in complex with the bovine β-lactoglobulin allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-resolution mass-spectrometric characterization, crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a recombinant IgE Fab fragment in complex with bovine β-lactoglobulin are reported. A D1 Fab fragment containing the allergen-binding variable domains of the IgE antibody was characterized by ESI FT–ICR mass spectrometry and crystallized with bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. X-ray data suitable for structure determination were collected to 2.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.0, b = 100.6, c = 168.1 Å. The three-dimensional structure of the D1 Fab fragment–BLG complex will provide the first insight into IgE antibody–allergen interactions at the molecular level

  8. Probing thermal stability of the β-lactoglobulin-oleic acid complex by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion (Ciuciu), Ana-Maria; Aprodu, Iuliana; Dumitrașcu, Loredana; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Alexe, Petru; Stănciuc, Nicoleta

    2015-09-01

    Bovine β-lactoglobulin is able to interact with different bioactive compounds, thus being an important candidate in the development of delivery systems with improved functionality. The heat induced changes in the β-lactoglobulin-oleic acid complex were examined by means of fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy results indicated a rigid protein structure in the temperature range 25-70 °C, whereas at temperatures over 75 °C, the rearrangements of the polypeptide chains led to higher exposure of hydrophobic residues. The most significant increase of the accessible surface area with temperature increase was identified in case of Tyr99 and Tyr102. The phase diagram method indicated an all or none transition between two conformations. Due to conformational changes, no contact between Ile56 or Lys60 and the fatty acid could be identified at 85 °C, but new non-bonding interaction were established with Ile12 and Val15. The results obtained in this study provide important details about thermal induced changes in the conformation of β-lactoglobulin-oleic acid complex. Significant conformational changes were registered above 75 °C, suggesting the possibility of obtaining highly functional complexes between whey proteins and natural unsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Known and unknown unknowns: uncertainty estimation in satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, A. C.; Grainger, R. G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper discusses a best-practice representation of uncertainty in satellite remote sensing data. An estimate of uncertainty is necessary to make appropriate use of the information conveyed by a measurement. Traditional error propagation quantifies the uncertainty in a measurement due to well-understood perturbations in a measurement and in auxiliary data - known, quantified "unknowns". The under-constrained nature of most satellite remote sensing observations requires the use of various approximations and assumptions that produce non-linear systematic errors that are not readily assessed - known, unquantifiable "unknowns". Additional errors result from the inability to resolve all scales of variation in the measured quantity - unknown "unknowns". The latter two categories of error are dominant in under-constrained remote sensing retrievals, and the difficulty of their quantification limits the utility of existing uncertainty estimates, degrading confidence in such data. This paper proposes the use of ensemble techniques to present multiple self-consistent realisations of a data set as a means of depicting unquantified uncertainties. These are generated using various systems (different algorithms or forward models) believed to be appropriate to the conditions observed. Benefiting from the experience of the climate modelling community, an ensemble provides a user with a more complete representation of the uncertainty as understood by the data producer and greater freedom to consider different realisations of the data.

  10. Celestin Freinet, the Unknown Reformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William B.

    1983-01-01

    Although unknown in the United States, Celestin Freinet founded in France an influential educational reform movement, Ecole Moderne, based on four principles: (1) democratic values, (2) empiricism, (3) interaction with nature and life, and (4) work as a basic human need. (SK)

  11. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Induction Is Mediated by the Major Whey Proteins α-Lactalbumin and β-Lactoglobulin through the NF-κB Pathway in Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Min; Park, Young W; Yoon, Sun Young; Son, Ji Yoon; Jeong, Seok Geun; Park, Beom-Young; Kim, Jae Wha; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-12-23

    α-Lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin are two major whey proteins that specifically bind immunoglobulin E and are suspected as major allergens causing cow's milk allergy (CMA). Recent studies have shown that thymic stromal lymphopoietin is a critical factor linking at the interface of the body and environment to the T-helper 2 response. However, it is not known whether thymic stromal lymphopoietin expression is changed by α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin in immune cells. Using RT-PCR and ELISA, the present study was conducted to examine if intravenous injection of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, T-helper 2 cytokines, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin expression in several immune cells, including macrophages, mast cells, and keratinocytes. Results showed that α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin induced thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α expression. It was concluded that the allergenicity of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin may be attributed to thymic stromal lymphopoietin induction, T-helper 2 cytokines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26618482

  12. Complex equilibria, speciation, and heteroprotein coacervation of lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sean E; Malanowski, Alexander J; Kizilay, Ebru; Seeman, Daniel; Dubin, Paul L; Donato-Capel, Laurence; Bovetto, Lionel; Schmitt, Christophe

    2015-02-10

    There has been a resurgence of interest in complex coacervation, a form of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in systems of oppositely charged macroions, but very few reports describe the somewhat anomalous coacervation between acidic and basic proteins, which occurs under very narrow ranges of conditions. We sought to identify the roles of equilibrium interprotein complexes during the coacervation of β-lactoglobulin dimer (BLG2) with lactoferrin (LF) and found that this LLPS arises specifically from LF(BLG2)2. We followed the progress of complexation and coacervation as a function of r, the LF/BLG molar ratio, using turbidity to monitor the degree of coacervation and proton release and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to assess the stoichiometry and abundance of complexes. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) showed that initial complex formation is endothermic, but a large exotherm related to coacervate formation obscured other regions. On the basis of turbidimetry, proton release, and DLS, we propose a speciation diagram that presents the abundance of various complexes as a function of r. Although multiple species could be simultaneously present, distinct regions could be identified corresponding to equilibria among particular protein pairs. PMID:25565379

  13. Heat-Induced Soluble Protein Aggregates from Mixed Pea Globulins and β-Lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihi, Mohamed-Lazhar; Mession, Jean-Luc; Sok, Nicolas; Saurel, Rémi

    2016-04-01

    The present work investigates the formation of protein aggregates (85 °C, 60 min incubation) upon heat treatment of β-lactoglobulin (βlg)-pea globulins (Glob) mixtures at pH 7.2 and 5 mM NaCl from laboratory-prepared protein isolates. Various βlg/Glob weight ratios were applied, for a total protein concentration of 2 wt % in admixture. Different analytical methods were used to determine the aggregation behavior of "mixed" aggregates, that is, surface hydrophobicity and also sulfhydryl content, protein interactions by means of SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and molecule size distribution by DLS and gel filtration. The production of "mixed" thermal aggregates would involve both the formation of new disulfide bonds and noncovalent interactions between the denatured βlg and Glob subunits. The majority of "mixed" soluble aggregates displayed higher molecular weight and smaller diameter than those for Glob heated in isolation. The development of pea-whey protein "mixed" aggregates may help to design new ingredients for the control of innovative food textures. PMID:26996062

  14. Curcumin Protects β-Lactoglobulin Fibril Formation and Fibril-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Mazaheri

    Full Text Available In this study the β-lactoglobulin fibrillation, in the presence or absence of lead ions, aflatoxin M1 and curcumin, was evaluated using ThT fluorescence, Circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. To investigate the toxicity of the different form of β-Lg fibrils, in the presence or absence of above toxins and curcumin, we monitored changes in the level of reactive oxygen species and morphology of the differentiated neuron-like PC12 cells. The cell viability, cell body area, average neurite length, neurite width, number of primary neurites, percent of bipolar cells and node/primary neurite ratios were used to assess the growth and complexity of PC12 cells exposed to different form of β-Lg fibrils. Incubation of β-Lg with curcumin resulted in a significant decrease in ROS levels even in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1. The β-Lg fibrils formed in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1 attenuated the growth and complexity of PC12 cells compared with other form of β-Lg fibrils. However, the adverse effects of these toxins and protein fibrils were negated in the presence of curcumin. Furthermore, the antioxidant and inhibitory effects of curcumin protected PC12 cells against fibril neurotoxicity and enhanced their survival. Thus, curcumin may provide a protective effect toward β-Lg, and perhaps other protein, fibrils mediated neurotoxicity.

  15. Inhibitory effects of β-ionone on amyloid fibril formation of β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoliang; You, Xiong; Lu, Fujiao

    2014-03-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) is the major constituent of whey food, which has been shown to interact with a wide range of aroma compounds. In the present work, a model aroma compound, β-ionone, is used to investigate the influence of aroma compounds on the urea-induced unfolding of β-LG at pH 7.0. β-Ionone is observed to enhance the stability of β-LG at pH 7.0. Moreover, the amyloid fibrils are observed when β-LG at pH 7.0 is incubated for 12-20 days at 37 °C in the presence of 3-5M urea. However, the formation of amyloid fibrils is inhibited when β-ionone is added into the samples and the inhibitory effects follow a concentration-dependent fashion. There is a clear correlation between Cm and lag time. The correlation demonstrates that protein stability affects the amyloid fibril formation of β-LG. The results highlight the critical role of protein stability and provide an approach to prevent the formation of amyloid fibrils in vitro. PMID:24325860

  16. Stabilization mechanism of oil-in-water emulsions by β-lactoglobulin and gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Eléonore; Mekhloufi, Ghozlene; Le Potier, Isabelle; de Kerdaniel, Typhaine du Fou; Grossiord, Jean-Louis; Rosilio, Véronique; Agnely, Florence

    2011-02-15

    Natural biopolymer stabilized oil-in-water emulsions were formulated using β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), gum arabic (GA), and β-lg:GA solutions as an alternative to synthetic surfactants. Emulsions using these biopolymers and their complexes were formulated varying the biopolymer total concentration, the protein-to-polysaccharide ratio, and the emulsification protocol. This work showed that whereas β-lg enabled the formulation of emulsions at concentration as low as 0.5 (w/w)%, GA allowed to obtain emulsions at concentrations equal to or higher than 2.5 (w/w)%. In order to improve emulsion stability, β-lg and GA were complexed through strong attractive electrostatic interactions. GA solution had to be added to previously prepared β-lg emulsions in order to obtain stable emulsions. Interfacial tension and interfacial rheological measurements allowed a better understanding of the possible stabilizing mechanism. β-lg and GA both induced a very effective decrease in interfacial tension and showed interfacial elastic behaviour. In the mixed system, β-lg adsorbed at the interface and GA electrostatically bound to it, leading to the formation of a bi-layer stabilized emulsion. However, emulsion stability was not improved compared to β-lg stabilized emulsion, probably due to depletion or bridging flocculation. PMID:21145063

  17. β-lactoglobulin mutation Ala86Gln improves its ligand binding and reduces its immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem-Farzandi, Najmeh; Taheri-Kafrani, Asghar; Haertlé, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) is a member of lipocalin superfamily of transporters for small hydrophobic molecules. β-LG is also one of the major allergens in milk. Despite a lot of researches on decreasing of cow's milk allergenicity, the effects of the mutation of β-LG on its recognition by IgE from cow's milk allergy (CMA) patients have not been investigated. We described here the expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris of a mutant β-LG, in which Alanine 86 was changed into Glutamine (Ala86Gln; a mutation on one of the major epitopes of the protein). The purity and native like folded structure of the recombinant Ala86Gln have been demonstrated using circular dichroism, HPLC, SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. The effect of the mutation on the binding of IgE from CMA patients to mutant protein was evaluated by ELISA methods and the results showed that the mutation of Ala-86 was associated with weaker binding of IgE from CMA patients to Ala86Gln mutant protein. Subsequently, the binding of various ligands such as retinol, palmitic acid, resveratrol and serotonin, with native, recombinant wild type and Ala86Gln mutant β-LGs were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and an improvement on the binding affinity of the mutated protein to various ligands was observed. PMID:26275462

  18. Digestibility of β-lactoglobulin following cross-linking by Trametes versicolor laccase and apple polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA STANIĆ-VUČINIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available β-Lactoglobulin (BLG is an important nutrient of dairy products and an important allergen in cow’s milk allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of laccase to cross-link BLG in the presence of an apple phenolic extract (APE and to characterize the obtained products for their digestibility by pepsin and pancreatin. The composition of the apple phenolics used for cross-linking was determined by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS. The apple phenolic extract contained significant amounts of quercetin glycosides, catechins and chlorogenic acid. The laccase cross-linked BLG in the presence of apple phenolics. The polymerization rendered the protein insoluble in the reaction mixture. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis of the cross-linking reaction mixture revealed a heterogeneous mixture of high molecular masses (cross-linked BLG, with a fraction of the BLG remaining monomeric. Enzymatic processing of BLG by laccase and apple polyphenols as mediators can decrease the biphasal pepsin–pancreatin digestibility of the monomeric and cross-linked protein, thus decreasing its nutritional value. In addition, reduced BLG digestibility can decrease its allergenic potential. Apple polyphenols can find usage in the creation of new, more functional food products, designed to prevent obesity and hypersensitivity-related disorders.

  19. Variation of Vitamin D in Cow’s Milk and Interaction with β-Lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gigliotti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is the collective name for a group of closely related lipids, whose main biological function is to maintain serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals from the diet. We used a commercially available ELISA method for the determination of vitamin D in bovine milk. Individual milk samples from two different Italian Friesian herds were analysed. The enzyme immunoassay method used was confirmed as a useful tool to measure the vitamin D in the milk as it greatly reduces the time required to perform the conventional HPLC analysis. An interesting variation was found among individual animals that may be associated with management factors and specific genetic effects. A relationship was highlighted between vitamin D and the genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin, the main bovine whey protein which is involved in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as retinol and vitamin D. The relatively high content of vitamin D in most milk samples suggests an opportunity to improve the natural content of vitamin D in milk either by acting on the herd management or selecting individuals genetically predisposed to produce milk with a higher vitamin D content.

  20. Selenium modification of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, GuoQiang; Liu, HaoYu; Zhu, ZhenYuan; Zheng, Jie; Liu, AnJun

    2016-08-01

    β-Lg is a major whey protein in cow's milk. This study was aimed to find a new kind of organic selenium compound synthesized with β-Lg and selenium dioxide as raw materials under the conditions of vacuum and low temperature. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy revealed that seleno-β-lactoglobulin (Se-β-Lg) displayed a strong band at 878cm(-1), belonging to SeO. Circular dichroism spectra results indicated that the conformation of Se-β-Lg was transformed and α-helical, and unordered structures were increased by 9% and 11.2%, respectively, while β-sheet and β-turn were reduced by 14.2% and 6%, respectively. Electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry results showed that there were two protein bands (1-Seβ-Lg and 2-Seβ-Lg) in Se-β-Lg, only one β-Lg connected with selenate in 1-Seβ-Lg, but two β-Lgs, connected to each other, and with selenate, in 2-Seβ-Lg. Morphological observation and hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that Se-β-lg could induce K562 cell apoptosis. These results indicated that Se-β-Lg could be synthesized by selenium conjugating β-Lg and it had antitumor activity. PMID:26988499

  1. Improvement of bovine ß-lactoglobulin production and secretion by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nouaille

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The stabilizing effects of staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc and of a synthetic propeptide (LEISSTCDA, hereafter called LEISS on the production of a model food allergen, bovine ß-lactoglobulin (BLG, in Lactococcus lactis were investigated. The fusion of Nuc to BLG (Nuc-BLG results in higher production and secretion of the hybrid protein. When LEISS was fused to BLG, the production of the resulting protein LEISS-BLG was only slightly improved compared to the one obtained with Nuc-BLG. However, the secretion of LEISS-BLG was dramatically enhanced (~10- and 4-fold higher than BLG and Nuc-BLG, respectively. Finally, the fusion of LEISS to Nuc-BLG resulting in the protein LEISS-Nuc-BLG led to the highest production of the hybrid protein, estimated at ~8 µg/ml (~2-fold higher than Nuc-BLG. In conclusion, the fusions described here led to the improvement of the production and secretion of BLG. These tools will be used to modulate the immune response against BLG via delivery of recombinant lactococci at the mucosal level, in a mouse model of cow's milk allergy.

  2. Collective dynamics of hydrated β-lactoglobulin by inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koji; Hosokawa, Shinya; Baron, Alfred Q R; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    2010-10-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of hydrated β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were performed to investigate the collective dynamics of hydration water and hydrated protein on a picosecond time scale. Samples with different hydration levels h [=mass of water (g)/mass of protein (g)] of 0 (dry), 0.5, and 1.0 were measured at ambient temperature. The observed dynamical structure factor S(Q,ω)/S(Q) was analyzed by a model composed of a Lorentzian for the central peak and a damped harmonic oscillator (DHO) for the side peak. The dispersion relation between the excitation energy in the DHO model and the momentum transfer Q was obtained for the hydrated β-lg at both hydration levels, but no DHO excitation was found for the dry β-lg. The high-frequency sound velocity was similar to that previously observed in pure water. The ratio of the high-frequency sound velocity of hydrated β-lg to the adiabatic one of hydrated lysozyme (h=0.41) was estimated as ∼1.6 for h=0.5. The value is significantly smaller than that (∼2) of pure water that has the tetrahedral network structure. The present finding thus suggests that the tetrahedral network structure of water around the β-lg is partially disrupted by the perturbation from protein surface. These results are consistent with those reported from Brillouin neutron spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation studies of hydrated ribonuclease A. PMID:20942540

  3. Function analysis of unknown genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.

    2002-01-01

      This thesis entitled "Function analysis of unknown genes" presents the use of proteome analysis for the characterisation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genes and their products (proteins especially those of unknown function). This study illustrates that proteome analysis can be used to...... describe different aspects of molecular biology of the cell, to study changes that occur in the cell due to overexpression or deletion of a gene and to identify various protein modifications. The biological questions and the results of the described studies show the diversity of the information that can be...... characterising yeast genes and proteins. It reports the first global proteome database collecting 36 yeast single gene deletion mutants and selecting over 650 differences between analysed mutants and the wild type strain. The obtained results show that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry...

  4. Beta Beams Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beta Beam,the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring, called Decay Ring (DR), is the base of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the Decay Ring's ion intensity and of it's duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Therefore efficient ion production, stripping, bunching, acceleration and storing are crucial sub-projects under study and development within the Beta Beam collaboration. Specifically the feasibility of these tasks as parts of a Beta Beam implementation at CERN will be discussed in this report. The positive impact of the large {\\theta}13 indications from T2K on the Beta Beam performance will also be discussed.

  5. Intercept Capacity: Unknown Unitary Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Moran

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of intercepting communications signals between Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO communication systems. To correctly detect a transmitted message it is necessary to know the gain matrix that represents the channel between the transmitter and the receiver. However, even if the receiver has knowledge of the message symbol set, it may not be possible to estimate the channel matrix. Blind Source Separation (BSS techniques, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA can go some way to extracting independent signals from individual transmission antennae but these may have been preprocessed in a manner unknown to the receiver. In this paper we consider the situation where a communications interception system has prior knowledge of the message symbol set, the channel matrix between the transmission system and the interception system and is able to resolve the transmissionss from independent antennae. The question then becomes: what is the mutual information available to the interceptor when an unknown unitary transformation matrix is employed by the transmitter.

  6. Characterization of β-Lactoglobulin nano-hydrogels formed upon heat treatment and under selective pH range conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Óscar L.; Pereira, Ricardo; Malcata, F.X.; Vicente, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) is a globular protein from milk that has considerable potential as a functional ingredient in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. It is the major component (i.e. 50 wt%) and the primary gelling agent of whey proteins. β-Lg is known to be stable at low pH and highly resistant to proteolytic degradation in the stomach. Other property includes its ability to act as an encapsulating agent. The objective of this work was to understand the kinetics of aggre...

  7. Striving for the unknown normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    -analysing situation trying to answer: What is ADHD and what is me and my personal features? When are the drugs having the right effect? And since I have never been normal then how would I know what behavioural ideal I am striving for? Moreover, the public questioning of the diagnosis calls the individual to...... constantly claiming recognition of the diagnosis. I end by discussing the moral implications of this striving for the unknown normal and ask if the pathologization of inattentive and hyperactive behaviour is to be addressed as a problematic moral issue or if we have a moral obligation to help people who...... struggle to navigate and live up to the ideals of our contemporary society....

  8. [Recurrent seizures of unknown aetiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, Martha; Berkermann, Heiner; Ghadimi, Michael; Gaedcke, Jochen; Bürger, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    History and admission findings | A 41year old woman presented at our internistic clinic after treatment by an emergency doctor because of confusion and amnesia accompanied by a hypoglycaemic episode while driving her car. Only by giving continuous glucose intravenously a stable clinical state could be achieved. In her medical history she took Lamotrigin for 12 years since she had seizures of unknown aetiology. 16 years ago she had similar sudden attacks with confusion and hypoglycaemia. At that time thorough diagnostics at the clinic for internal medicine did not reveal any evidence for hyperinsulinaemia. While taking Lamotrigin the patient had no seizures or similar symptoms for 12 years. Treatment and course | In the present case we detected a tumor in the pancreas and a two-fold increased insulin secretion. Histopathological work-up of the removed tissue confirmed the suspected diagnosis of insulinoma. Postoperatively, Lamotrigin treatment was terminated. Since then the patient remained asymptomatic. PMID:27123728

  9. Influence of denaturation and aggregation of β-lactoglobulin on its tryptic hydrolysis and the release of functional peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Elena; Götz, Alexander; Letzel, Thomas; Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2015-11-15

    Whereas previous studies showed that thermal pre-treatment of whey proteins promote their enzymatic hydrolysis, to date no correlation between the conformation of denatured protein and the release of individual peptides has been considered. Hence, in this study total denaturation of β-lactoglobulin was performed at defined pH-values to enable the generation of different denatured particles. The denatured proteins were used as substrate for tryptic hydrolysis and the hydrolysis progress was characterised by the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the release of functional peptides, detected using LC-ESI-TOF/MS. Denaturation and subsequent aggregation of β-lactoglobulin, induced by thermal treatment at pH 5.1, altered the DH slightly, whereas the release of investigated peptides was significantly decreased. Contrary, denaturation at pH 6.8 and 8.0 led to formation of non-native monomers and reduced the DH to 75%, but showed promoting as well as reducing effects on the release of peptides, depending on their location within the protein. PMID:25977062

  10. Complexation of bovine β-lactoglobulin with malvidin-3-O-glucoside and its effect on the stability of grape skin anthocyanin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Xu, Mingzhu; Zeng, Maomao; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-15

    The binding interaction between bovine β-lactoglobulin and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (MG), the major anthocyanin in grape skin anthocyanin extracts (GSAE), was studied at pH 6.3 using fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The binding constant (KS), binding force and effect of the interaction on the β-lactoglobulin conformation and GSAE stability were investigated. The results indicated that β-lactoglobulin complexed with MG mainly via hydrophobic interaction with KS of 0.67×10(3)M(-)(1) at 297K. The secondary structure of β-lactoglobulin was changed by MG binding, with a decrease in α-helix, turn and random coil and an increase in β-sheet. Bovine whey protein effectively prevented the color fading and degradation of anthocyanin in the GSAE solution during the thermal treatment (80°C/2h), H2O2 oxidation (0.005% H2O2/1h) and photo illumination (5000lx/5d). The whey protein-anthocyanin complexation appeared to have a positive effect on the thermal, oxidation and photo stability of GSAE. PMID:27173557

  11. Efficient production and secretion of bovine β-lactoglobulin by Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal Jean-Michel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are attractive tools to deliver therapeutic molecules at the mucosal level. The model LAB Lactococcus lactis has been intensively used to produce and deliver such heterologous proteins. However, compared to recombinant lactococci, lactobacilli offer some advantages such as better survival in the digestive tract and immunomodulatory properties. Here, we compared different strategies to optimize the production of bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG, a major cow's milk allergen, in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BL23. Results Using a nisin-inducible plasmid system, we first showed that L. casei BL23 strain could efficiently secrete a reporter protein, the staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc, with the lactococcal signal peptide SPUsp45 fused to its N-terminus. The fusion of SPUsp45 failed to drive BLG secretion but led to a 10-fold increase of intracellular BLG production. Secretion was significantly improved when the synthetic propeptide LEISSTCDA (hereafter called LEISS was added to the N-terminus of the mature moiety of BLG. Secretion rate of LEISS-BLG was 6-fold higher than that of BLG alone while intracellular production reached then about 1 mg/L of culture. The highest yield of secretion was obtained by using Nuc as carrier protein. Insertion of Nuc between LEISS and BLG resulted in a 20-fold increase in BLG secretion, up to 27 μg/L of culture. Furthermore, the lactococcal nisRK regulatory genes were integrated into the BL23 chromosome. The nisRK insertion allowed a decrease of BLG synthesis in uninduced cultures while BLG production increased by 50% after nisin induction. Moreover, modification of the induction protocol led to increase the proportion of soluble BLG to around 74% of the total BLG production. Conclusion BLG production and secretion in L. casei were significantly improved by fusions to a propeptide enhancer and a carrier protein. The resulting recombinant strains will be further tested

  12. Unknown input observer based chaotic secure communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the idea of unknown input observers (UIOs), this Letter considers the problem of chaos secure communication within the master-slave configuration. The unknown constant disturbance of parameters in chaotic systems and the unknown input in chaotic signals can be regarded as messages to be recovered in the slave end. If certain conditions are satisfied, we can recover all the unknown messages by designing the UIO based slave. Theoretical analysis and simulation results fully verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme

  13. The known and the unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2010-01-01

    symposium of regenerative Medicine gives a glimpse of the stem cell research being pursued in a variety of fields including cancer biology, neurology ,dentistry etc. The abstract on enteric neural stem cells throws light on the stem cell research in the pursuit of therapies for Hirschprung’s disease or the congenital megacolon. The abstracts on Microgravity cell culture, stem cells in spinal cord injury, imaging techniques and lot more is surely a must-read for the researchers, scholars and those interested in this ever exciting field of Stem cell Research.Stem Cell field continues to grow leaving further branches of research into minute aspects ranging from research of the complex interplay of transcription factors, epigenetics, reprogramming and so on. As the field continues to grow it is the duty of such journals to make the scientific community aware of the various ongoing researches in order to contemplate the known and to explore the unknown. With that thought in mind we present to you this interesting Vol 6 Issue III of JSRM.Happy reading!

  14. Lymphocyte Responses to Chymotrypsin- or Trypsin V-Digested β-Lactoglobulin in Patients with Cow's Milk Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Masashi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chymotrypsin- or trypsin V- (a mixture of trypsin and chymotrypsin digested β-lactoglobulin (BLG peptides were prepared and were confirmed to have much less immunoglobulin (lgG and lgE reactivity compared with intact BLG by IgG inhibition enzymelinked immunosorbent assay and IgE dot blotting. The lymphocyte responses to intact BLG and these peptides were examined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from 10 patients with cow's milk allergy. The PBMCs from most patients had lower lymphocyte responses to chymotrypsin- and trypsin V-digested BLG peptides than those to intact BLG. However, PBMCs from one and two patients retained significant proliferative responses to both peptides and to only the former peptide, respectively. Interferon-c production stimulated by chymotrypsin-digested peptides was still detectable in all five patients tested. Chymotrypsindigested BLG reduced lgE reactivity but still induced some lymphocyte responses.

  15. Interactions among lactose, β-lactoglobulin and starch in co-lyophilized mixtures as determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, Zohreh; Nasirpour, Ali; Scher, Joël; Desobry, Stéphane

    2014-11-01

    Processing and storage change food powders containing a large quantity of lactose due to lactose crystallization and interactions among components. Model food systems were prepared by co-lyophilization of lactose, β-lactoglobulin (BLG), and gelatinized starch. A mixture design was used to define the percentage of each mixture component to simulate a wide range of food powders. Interactions among lactose, BLG and starch were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) at different relative humidities (RH), before and after 3 months storage. Results showed the presence of hydrogen bonds among these components. Moreover, interactions or formation of hydrogen bonds among lactose, starch and BLG preserved BLG against freezing and freeze-drying shocks. Lactose crystallization could be identified by comparing infrared spectra of amorphous and crystallized lactose at O - H and C - H stretching vibration bands. PMID:26396334

  16. Effects of lactation stage, parity, β-lactoglobulin genotype and milk SCC on whey protein composition in Sarda dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 90 Sarda dairy ewes the effects of lactation stage, parity, β-lactoglobulin genotypes, and somatic cell count (SCC onthe milk content of total protein (TP, casein (CN, whey protein (WP and its fractions α-lactalbumin (ALA, β-lactoglobulin(BLG, serum albumin (SA, immunoglobulin (IG and lactoferrin (LF were analysed using a linear mixed model.Mean values of variables (g/l were: TP (54.0, CN (43.0, WP (11.0, BLG (4.78, ALA (1.37, SA (0.61, IG (3.83 andLF (0.28. The lactation stage significantly affected all the variables analysed. TP, CN and WP concentrations tended toincrease throughout lactation, with the increase of WP being more pronounced than the corresponding variation in CN.There was no definite trend in BLG content, whereas ALA concentration decreased as lactation progressed. The parityaffected almost all variables studied. WP concentration differed significantly only between the second and fourth parity(10.45 vs 11.44 g/l. BLG and SA concentrations were significantly lower in the youngest ewes. The BLG genotype affectedmilk yield, but no effects were observed on the components of the milk. The SCC influenced almost all variables studied.The TP concentration was significantly higher in milk with SCC >1,000,000 (55.0 g/l than in milk with lower SCC(53.4 g/l. This was mainly due to the increase of WP (12.52 and 10.24 g/l in milk with SCC above and below1,000,000/ml respectively, especially in those WP fractions originating from blood.

  17. Probabilistic teleportation of an unknown atomic state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶柳; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We propose two schemes for teleporting an unknown state. In our schemes, a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state is used as a quantum channel. We show that the probabilistic teleportation of an unknown quantum state can be realized.

  18. Beta cell count instead of beta cell mass to assess and localize growth in beta cell population following pancreatic duct ligation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chintinne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic-tail duct ligation (PDL in adult rodents has been reported to induce beta cell generation and increase beta cell mass but increases in beta cell number have not been demonstrated. This study examines whether PDL increases beta cell number and whether this is caused by neogenesis of small clusters and/or their growth to larger aggregates. METHODOLOGY: Total beta cell number and its distribution over small (100 µm clusters was determined in pancreatic tails of 10-week-old mice, 2 weeks after PDL or sham. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PDL increased total beta cell mass but not total beta cell number. It induced neogenesis of small beta cell clusters (2.2-fold higher number which contained a higher percent proliferating beta cells (1.9% Ki67+cells than sham tails (<0.2%; their higher beta cell number represented <5% of total beta cell number and was associated with a similar increase in alpha cell number. It is unknown whether the regenerative process is causally related to the inflammatory infiltration in PDL-tails. Human pancreases with inflammatory infiltration also exhibited activation of proliferation in small beta cell clusters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The PDL model illustrates the advantage of direct beta cell counts over beta cell mass measurements when assessing and localizing beta cell regeneration in the pancreas. It demonstrates the ability of the adult mouse pancreas for neogenesis of small beta cell clusters with activated beta cell proliferation. Further studies should investigate conditions under which neoformed small beta cell clusters grow to larger aggregates and hence to higher total beta cell numbers.

  19. Proteomic tracking of hydrothermal Maillard and redox modification in lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin: Location of lactosylation, carboxymethylation, and oxidation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Jolon M; Clerens, Stefan; Grosvenor, Anita; Thomas, Ancy; Callaghan, Chris; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Haines, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin are important protein components of mammalian milk. Maillard reactions, as well as redox chemistry, are of particular interest for dairy products because they are known to occur during common processing steps, notably heating procedures such as pasteurization. Using a redox proteomics approach, we characterized AA residue side-chain modification across a range of heating times and with or without the specific addition of lactose, to both map the key modification sites within these proteins and evaluate their sensitivity to process-induced modification. Heating in the presence of lactose resulted in significant Maillard modification (both lactosylation and carboxymethylation) to both bovine lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin. Notably, Lys47, a key residue in the bioactive peptide lactoferricin, was particularly susceptible to modification. Lactoferrin appeared to be fairly robust to hydrothermal treatment, with relatively low levels of oxidative modification observed. In contrast, β-lactoglobulin was susceptible to significant oxidative modification under hydrothermal treatment, with the range and type of modifications observed suggesting compromised nutritional value. These results have important implications for processing applications in dairy foods where retention of biological function and optimal protein quality is desired. PMID:26923048

  20. Contours, Published in unknown, Sheboygan county.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Sheboygan County Coordinate Grid coordinate system; in a Mercator projection; The...

  1. Geographic Place Names, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geographic Place Names dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent...

  2. Watershed Boundaries, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  3. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  4. Airports and Airfields, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent...

  5. Community Colleges, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Community Colleges dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please list)...

  6. Recreational Areas, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Recreational Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please list)...

  7. Demographic Data, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Demographic Data dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please list)...

  8. State Boundaries, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other...

  9. Zoning Districts, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please list)...

  10. Soils, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Soils dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please list) coordinate...

  11. Contours, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please list) coordinate...

  12. Emergency Shelters, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Emergency Shelters dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please list)...

  13. Legislative Districts, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Legislative Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  14. School Districts, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please list)...

  15. EVALUATION OF ELISA METHOD TO DETECTION OF COW β-LACTOGLOBULIN IN SHEEP MILK AND SHEEP MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Paulov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to optimalize the ELISA method to detect the adulteration of sheep milk and sheep milk products by cow milk in the laboratory. We have focused on laboratory testing of ELISA kit (β-Lactoglobulin ELISA Set, SEDIUM R&D for detection of cow β-Lg in sheep milk order to obtain high-quality, reliable and economically advantageous method suitable for routine use in practice. The results shown that for the quality of adulteration determination  it is necessary to verify the sensitivity of applied kit by the samples dilution in accordance with the producer declared quantification range contained in the manual ELISA kit. The starting point for obtaining of relevant data was to create separate regression curves with high deter­mination coefficient, which allowed to quickly and easily detect the cow milk additions in sheep milk, cloddish sheep and Slovak sheep cheese. doi:10.5219/78  

  16. One step electrodeposition of dendritic gold nanostructures on β-lactoglobulin-functionalized reduced graphene oxide for glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Zhang, Zhenguo; Miao, Zhiying; Ma, Min; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Weizhen; Han, Bingkai; Chen, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Dendritic gold nanostructures (AuNDs) were successfully synthesized by one step electrodeposition on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) functionalized by a globular protein, β-lactoglobulin (BLG), for the first time. Owing to its sulfhydryl groups, water-soluble BLG-rGO provided a superb platform for the growth of AuNDs. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy analysis were used to investigate the as prepared BLG-rGO-AuNDs nanocomposite. Electrocatalytic ability of the nanocomposite was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric method. In order to prove the superiority of BLG-rGO-AuNDs, we developed a novel glucose biosensor on the nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) through a cross-linking method. The biosensor exhibited a remarkable sensitivity of 46.2 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), a wide linear range of 0.05-6 mM glucose, a low detection limit of 22.9 µM (S/N=3), and a rapid response time (within 6 s). The prepared biosensor also used to detect glucose in human serum and statistical analysis in the respect of reproducibility was done. PMID:26452896

  17. Proteolytic action of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 reduces antigenic response to bovine β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Rabesona, Hanitra; Drouet, Martine; Choiset, Yvan; Haertlé, Thomas; Mozzi, Fernanda; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Chobert, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-15

    The whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is highly allergenic. Lactic acid bacteria can degrade milk proteins. The capacity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 to hydrolyse the major BLG epitopes (V41-K60; Y102-R124; L149-I162) and decrease their recognition by IgE of allergic patients was evaluated. The intensity of BLG degradation was analysed by Tricine SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Peptides released were identified by LC-MS/MS and the hydrolysates were tested for their capacity to inhibit IgE binding by ELISA test. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 degraded BLG (35%, 8h). The sequence analysis of the released peptides indicated that this strain degraded three main BLG epitopes. BLG-positive sera (3-5year old children) were used for testing IgE binding inhibition of BLG hydrolysates from the Lactobacillus strain. The hydrolysates were less immuno-reactive (32%) than the heated BLG. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 could be used for developing hypoallergenic dairy products. PMID:23140691

  18. β-Lactoglobulin mutant Lys69Asn has attenuated IgE and increased retinol binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri-Kafrani, Asghar; Tavakkoli Koupaie, Neda; Haertlé, Thomas

    2015-10-20

    β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) is a member of lipocalin superfamily of transporters for small hydrophobic molecules such as retinoids, fatty acids, drugs, and vitamins. β-LG also is one of the major allergens in milk. Despite a lot of research on decreasing cow's milk allergenicity, the effects of mutations of β-LG on recognition by IgE from cow's milk allergy (CMA) patients have not been investigated. We describe here the expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris of a mutant bovine β-LG, in which lysine at position 69, in the main epitopes of the protein, was changed into asparagine (Lys69Asn). The purity and native like folded structure of the recombinant Lys69Asn β-LG was confirmed by HPLC, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and circular dichroism. Lys69Asn β-LG has a fourfold stronger affinity than the wild-type protein for retinol, palmitic acid, and resveratrol, as determined by quenching of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. At the same time the Lys69Asn mutant had a 9 fold attenuated, compared with the wild-type, affinity for IgE of sera from patients suffering from cow's milk allergy, whereas no difference could be detected between mutant and wild-type for binding of the IgGs of four monoclonal antibodies. The results of this study demonstrated the significant role of Lys69 residue on the binding and immuoreactivity properties of β-LG. PMID:26281976

  19. Structural and thermo-rheological analysis of solutions and gels of a β-lactoglobulin fraction isolated from bovine whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Fuciños, Pablo; Bargiela, Verónica; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Tovar, Clara Asunción; Luisa Rúa, M

    2016-05-01

    A β-Lactoglobulin fraction (r-βLg) was isolated from milk whey hydrolysates produced with cardosins from Cynara cardunculus. The impact of the technological process on the r-βLg structure and how in turn this determined its heat-induced gelation was investigated. Results were analysed taking pure β-Lg (p-βLg) as control sample. The process induced changes in the r-βLg native conformation causing exposure of hydrophobic groups, lower thermal stability and also, shorter thermal treatments needed to give rise to non-native and aggregated species. At pH 3.2, r-βLg and p-βLg solutions exhibited two gelation steps, with the advantage that r-βLg protein may form stable gels at lower temperature than p-βLg. At pH 7.2, a specific thermo-viscoelastic stability to 73 °C was found, which corresponded to the gel point in both protein solutions. The difference was that while for p-βLg solution in sol state δ45° (fluid-like). PMID:26769503

  20. An investigation of molecular dynamics simulation and molecular docking: interaction of citrus flavonoids and bovine β-lactoglobulin in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahihi, M; Ghayeb, Y

    2014-08-01

    Citrus flavonoids are natural compounds with important health benefits. The study of their interaction with a transport protein, such as bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG), at the atomic level could be a valuable factor to control their transport to biological sites. In the present study, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation methods were used to investigate the interaction of hesperetin, naringenin, nobiletin and tangeretin as citrus flavonoids and BLG as transport protein. The molecular docking results revealed that these flavonoids bind in the internal cavity of BLG and the BLG affinity for binding the flavonoids follows naringenin>hesperetin>tangeretin>nobiletin. The docking results also indicated that the BLG-flavonoid complexes are stabilized through hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bond interactions and π-π stacking interactions. The analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories showed that the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of various systems reaches equilibrium and fluctuates around the mean value at various times. Time evolution of the radius of gyration, total solvent accessible surface of the protein and the second structure of protein showed as well that BLG and BLG-flavonoid complexes were stable around 2500ps, and there was not any conformational change as for BLG-flavonoid complexes. Further, the profiles of atomic fluctuations indicated the rigidity of the ligand binding site during the simulation. PMID:24880994

  1. Controlling the Ratio between Native-Like, Non-Native-Like, and Aggregated β-Lactoglobulin after Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaije, Roy J B M; Gruppen, Harry; van Eijk van Boxtel, Evelien L; Cornacchia, Leonardo; Wierenga, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    The amount of heat-denatured whey protein is typically determined by pH 4.6 precipitation. Using this method, a significant amount of nondenatured protein was reported even after long heating times. Apparently, a fraction of the unfolded protein refolds into the "native" state rather than form aggregates. This fact is known and has been explained using kinetic models. How the conditions affect the refolding and aggregation is, however, not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigates the unfolding, refolding, and aggregation process of β-lactoglobulin using circular dichroism and size-exclusion chromatography to characterize different folding variants and to quantify their content. The proteins remaining in solution at pH 4.6 were confirmed to be native-like. The nonaggregated fraction contains proteins with a native-like and two types of non-native-like conformations. The nonaggregated fraction increased with decreasing temperature (60-90 °C) and concentration (1-50 g/L) and increasing electrostatic repulsion (pH 7-8; 0-50 mM). The native-like fraction in the nonaggregated fraction was independent of pH, ionic strength, and concentration but increased with decreasing temperature. PMID:27186663

  2. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-18

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states. PMID:27035290

  3. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim eSalih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  4. BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low

  5. A novel ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for the rapid determination of β-lactoglobulin as heat load indicator in commercial milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitz, Lisa I; Fiechter, Gregor; Seifried, Reinhold K; Mayer, Helmut K

    2015-03-20

    The level of undenatured acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin can be used as an indicator to assess the heat load applied to liquid milk, thus further allowing the discrimination between milk originating from different thermal production processes. In this work, a new UHPLC method for the rapid determination of bovine β-lactoglobulin in 1.8min only (total runtime 3min) is presented using simple UV detection at 205nm. Separation selectivity for possibly co-eluting other major whey proteins (bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin G) was verified, and the method validated for the analysis of liquid milk samples regarding linearity (20-560μg/mL, R(2)>0.99), instrumentation precision (RSDsrepeatability of sample work-up (RSDs≤2.6%) and method recovery (103%). In total, 71 commercial liquid milk samples produced using different preservation techniques (e.g., thermal or mechanical treatment), hence featuring different applied heat loads, were profiled for their intrinsic undenatured acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin levels. As expected, pasteurized milk showed the highest concentrations clearly above 3000mg/L due to pasteurization being the mildest thermal treatment, while in contrast, ultra-high temperature heated milk featured the lowest amounts (<200mg/L). For extended shelf life (ESL) milk, quite diverse levels were determined ranging from ∼100 up to 4000mg/L, thus clearly illustrating variable applied heat loads and impacts on the "nativeness" of milk essentially due to the fact that the production technologies used for ESL milk may differ significantly, and are currently not regulated in the EU. PMID:25700725

  6. [Unknown primary tumour - diagnostic strategies and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anne Kirstine Hundahl; Gundgaard, M.G.; Petersen, Bodil Laub;

    2008-01-01

    Unknown primary tumour (UPT) is defined as a histologically confirmed metastatic malignancy for which no primary site has been detected. It accounts for approximately 3-5% of all malignant neoplasms. UPT represents a group of heterogeneous cancers with rapid progression and random, atypical metas...

  7. Multifocal chronic osteomyelitis of unknown etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cases of chronic, inflammatory, multifocal bone lesions of unknown etiology are reported. Although bone biopsy confirmed osteomyelitis in each case in none of them were organisms found inspite of an extensive work up. Different clinical course of the disease reflects different aetiology in respective cases. These cases present changing aspects of osteomyelitis emerging since introduction of antibiotics. (orig.)

  8. Multidimensional procurement auctions with unknown weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Thomas

    This paper studies the consequences of holding a procurement auction when the principal chooses not to show its preferences. My paper extends the procurement auction model of Che (1993) to a situation where both the principal and the agents have private information. Thus, unknown parameters of both...

  9. Method for genetic identification of unknown organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Hindson, Benjamin J.; Carter, Chance J.; Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-08-23

    A method of rapid, genome and proteome based identification of unknown pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms in a complex sample. The entire sample is analyzed by creating millions of emulsion encapsulated microdroplets, each containing a single pathogenic or non-pathogenic organism sized particle and appropriate reagents for amplification. Following amplification, the amplified product is analyzed.

  10. Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis of β-Lactoglobulin and α-Lactalbumin in Different Types of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotkāja Oksana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect major whey proteins α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. RPHPLC methods were developed using the column YMC Pack-C4, which enabled the separation of whey proteins within 30 min. Mobile phase was acetonitrile/water/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA with gradient elution, flow rate was 1.0 mL·min−1, and the detection wavelength was 210 nm. Column temperature was 40°C and injection volume was 20 μL.

  11. Effect of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin on the oxidative stability of 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions depends on pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Wulff, Tune; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pH on lipid oxidation and protein partitioning in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with different whey protein isolates with varying ratios of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. Results showed that an increase in pH increased...... lipid oxidation irrespective of the emulsifier used. At pH 4, lipid oxidation was not affected by the type of whey protein emulsifier used or the partitioning of proteins between the interface and the water phase. However, at pH 7 the emulsifier with the highest concentration of β...... protein components....

  12. Interactions of chitin nanocrystals with β-lactoglobulin at the oil-water interface, studied by drop shape tensiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülseren, Ibrahim; Corredig, Milena

    2013-11-01

    Particle stabilized emulsions have been gaining increasing attention in the past few years, because of their unique interfacial properties. However, interactions between food grade particles and other surfactants at the interface still need to be understood. In this research, the interfacial properties of chitin nanocrystals (ChN) were studied in the presence of a surface active milk protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), often used to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions. ChN were prepared by acid hydrolysis of chitin. At low pH (pH 3), ChN and β-lg do not interact, as demonstrated by light scattering measurements, and both components carry positive charge. The properties of the interface were tested using drop shape tensiometry. Addition of ChN or β-lg to the aqueous phase reduced the interfacial tension, and β-lg adsorption was characterized with an increase in the interfacial elasticity. When β-lg was added to a solution containing 0.1% ChN, the film elasticity increased first and then decreased with increasing β-lg concentration. The mixed film elasticity was the highest at a combination of 0.1% ChN+0.01% β-lg, when both molecules were simultaneously added to the aqueous phase. On the other hand, when β-lg was added after ChN, the protein did not affect the properties of the interface, indicating that the ChN (0.1%) equilibrated film was stable and that protein-protein interactions, normally resulting in an increase in the film elasticity, did not occur. PMID:23907056

  13. Structural rearrangement of β-lactoglobulin at different oil-water interfaces and its effect on emulsion stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiali; Wooster, Tim J; Hoffmann, Søren V; Lee, Tzong-Hsien; Augustin, Mary Ann; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the factors that control protein structure and stability at the oil-water interface continues to be a major focus to optimize the formulation of protein-stabilized emulsions. In this study, a combination of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy, front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, and dual polarization interferometry (DPI) was used to characterize the conformation and geometric structure of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) upon adsorption to two oil-water interfaces: a hexadecane-water interface and a tricaprylin-water interface. The results show that, upon adsorption to both oil-water interfaces, β-Lg went through a β-sheet to α-helix transition with a corresponding loss of its globular tertiary structure. The degree of conformational change was also a function of the oil phase polarity. The hexadecane oil induced a much higher degree of non-native α-helix compared to the tricaprylin oil. In contrast to the β-Lg conformation in solution, the non-native α-helical-rich conformation of β-Lg at the interface was resistant to further conformational change upon heating. DPI measurements suggest that β-Lg formed a thin dense layer at emulsion droplet surfaces. The effects of high temperature and the presence of salt on these β-Lg emulsions were then investigated by monitoring changes in the ζ-potential and particle size. In the absence of salt, high electrostatic repulsion meant β-Lg-stabilized emulsions were resistant to heating to 90 °C. Adding salt (120 mM NaCl) before or after heating led to emulsion flocculation due to the screening of the electrostatic repulsion between colloidal particles. This study has provided insight into the structural properties of proteins adsorbed at the oil-water interface and has implications in the formulation and production of emulsions stabilized by globular proteins. PMID:21668007

  14. Drying and denaturation characteristics of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and bovine serum albumin in a convective drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Amdadul; Aldred, Peter; Chen, Jie; Barrow, Colin; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-05-21

    Drying and denaturation kinetics of aqueous droplets of α-lactalbumin (α-lac), β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were measured in a convective drying environment. Single droplets having an initial droplet diameter of 2 ± 0.1 mm and containing 10% (w/v) protein concentration were dried using conditioned air (65 and 80 °C, 2-3% RH, 0.5 m/s velocity) for 600 s. The denaturation of these proteins was measured by using reversed-phase HPLC. At the end of 600 s of drying 13.3 and 19.4% α-lac was found to be lost due to denaturation at 65 and 80 °C, respectively. Up to 31.0% of β-lg was found to be denatured, whereas BSA was not found to be significantly (p > 0.05) denatured in these drying conditions. The formation and strength of skin and the associated morphological features were found to be linked with the degree of denaturation of these proteins. The secondary structure of these proteins was significantly (p drying stresses. The β-sheet and random coil contents were increased in α-lac by 6.5 and 4.0%, respectively, whereas the α-helix and β-turn contents decreased by 5.5 and 5.0%, respectively. The β-sheet and random coil contents in β-lg were increased by 7.5 and 2.0%, respectively, whereas the α-helix and β-turn contents decreased by 3.5 and 6.0%, respectively. In the case of BSA the β-sheet, α-helix, and random coil contents were found to increase, whereas the β-turn content decreased. PMID:24819828

  15. Effect of maternal dietary cow’s milk on the immune response to beta-lactoglobulin in the offspring: A four generation study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of immune responses to food proteins in animal models requires that the animals are not already sensitized or orally tolerized against the proteins in question. Since maternal transfer of specific immune responses has been observed, breeding of animals on an antigen-free diet for sever...

  16. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies of metastable intermediates of beta-lactoglobulin isolated after heat-induced aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrotta, R.; Arleth, L.; Pedersen, J.S.;

    2003-01-01

    distance distribution functions for the two intermediate fractions as well as for the native protein have been obtained by indirect Fourier transformation. In addition, the scattering intensity data for samples of the native protein at different concentrations were fitted using a combination of monomer and...

  17. Pregnancy of unknown location (PUL: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setu Rathod

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While most pregnancies are obviously within the uterus, Pregnancy of Unknown Location (PUL is used to describe cases where, there is a positive pregnancy test but no sign of a pregnancy inside or outside the uterus, on transvaginal ultrasound or even at laparoscopy. We report a case of multigravida with history of disturbed tubal ectopic pregnancy in previous pregnancy presented with lower abdominal pain and spotting per vaginum following 6 weeks amenorrhoea. The patient was clinically stable with no evidence of intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy in transvaginal sonography with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG above descriminatory levels. Provisional diagnosis of Pregnancy of Unknown Location (PUL was made and serial beta-hCG levels shows increasing levels. Endometrial curettage done with histopathology report showed product of conception following which there was a fall in serum beta-hCG. She was finally diagnosed as a case of silent miscarriage. Expectant management has been shown to be safe and effective in reducing the need for surgical intervention but does require close surveillance of patients who present with PUL. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 808-811

  18. Fever of unknown origin in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkulov Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Causes of fever of unknown origin are different. It is considered that it can be caused with over 200 different clinical entities. Aetiological causes differ according to different categories of age. Febricity in the elderly is at most the result of autoimmune processes, malignancies, bacterial infections and vasculitis. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the most common characteristics of fever, the most common laboratory, bacterial and viral tests and to analyze applied therapy in patients with unknown febrile state, and to affirm final diagnosis in elderly patients, as well as younger than 65 years old, and to define outcome of disease in both groups of patients. Methods. Research comprised 100 patients who had been treated at the Infectious Disease Clinic of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina in Novi Sad, during a three-year period, and in whom fever of unknown origin had been diagnosed. Patients were divided into two homogenous groups of 50 people. The first one (S consisted of patients older than 65 years, and the second, control group (K was constituted of patients younger than the age of 65. All of them were chosen by random sample method. Results. Average results of standard laboratory parameters of infection were obtained, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, fibrinogen, CRP, and especially leukocyte, and those were significantly higher in the group of elderly patients. The cause had not been found in 10% of elderly patient group, and in the younger group, not even in the third of patients. Among known causative agents dominant were infections, usually of respiratory and urinary tract, in both tested groups. Even 28% of the elderly had sepsis, and 10% endocarditis. Malignant diseases were more frequent in group of the elderly patients, and immune i.e. systematic disorders were evenly noticed in both groups of patients. Conclusion. Despite advanced studies in medicine, and existence of modern

  19. Taganrog's Clandestine Guerrilla Groups: Unknown Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy S. Chumachenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first publication of archival documents captured during the battle containing previously unknown information about the activities of one anti-fascist Taganrog’s guerrilla group, which operated during the occupation of the town by German troops in 1941–1943. It is a part of the investigative materials of the punitive operation against the guerrillas carried out by the Russian police, where traitors served, under the guidance of the German counterintelligence.

  20. High-dimensional regression with unknown variance

    CERN Document Server

    Giraud, Christophe; Verzelen, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We review recent results for high-dimensional sparse linear regression in the practical case of unknown variance. Different sparsity settings are covered, including coordinate-sparsity, group-sparsity and variation-sparsity. The emphasize is put on non-asymptotic analyses and feasible procedures. In addition, a small numerical study compares the practical performance of three schemes for tuning the Lasso esti- mator and some references are collected for some more general models, including multivariate regression and nonparametric regression.

  1. TOURISM PROMOTION FOR UNKNOWN AREAS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Fotache Lacramioara; Micu Adrian; Bleoju Gianita

    2013-01-01

    The paper is an effort to unknown areas identity affirmation, through collaborative development of advertising mix, with an emphasis on virtual platforms as admissible solution for increasing visibility. Based upon comparative effective analysis of categories of communication particularities, it is suggested a positioning strategic solution, via virtual advertising platform as unique, integrated, complex and very attractive tourism product promotion, fitted for the internal and internationa...

  2. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  3. β-Lactoglobulin detected in human milk forms noncovalent complexes with maltooligosaccharides as revealed by chip-nanoelectrospray high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitan, Florina; Robu, Adrian C; Schiopu, Catalin; Ilie, Constantin; Chait, Brian T; Przybylski, Michael; Zamfir, Alina D

    2015-11-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy in exclusively breastfed infants, the main cause of food intolerance during the first 6 months of life, is triggered by the mother's diet. β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) present in cow's milk is one of the most potent allergens for newborns. Since no prophylactic treatment is available, finding ligands capable of binding BLG and reducing its allergenicity is currently the focus of research. In this work, an innovative methodology encompassing microfluidics based on fully automated chip-nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI), coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF MS) instrument was developed. This platform was employed for the assessment of the noncovalent interactions between maltohexaose (Glc6) and β-lactoglobulin extracted from human milk upon deliberate intake of cow's milk. The experiments were carried out in (+) ESI mode, using ammonium acetate (pH 6.0) as the buffer and also in pure water. In both cases, the MS analysis revealed the formation of BLG-Glc6 complex, which was characterized by top-down fragmentation in tandem MS (MS/MS) using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Our findings have a significant biomedical impact, indicating that Glc6 binds BLG under conditions mimicking the in vivo environment and therefore might represent a ligand, able to reduce its allergenicity. PMID:26123988

  4. Multigrain indexing of unknown multiphase materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2016-01-01

    A multigrain indexing algorithm for use with samples comprising an arbitrary number of known or unknown phases is presented. No a priori crystallographic knowledge is required. The algorithm applies to data acquired with a monochromatic beam and a conventional two-dimensional detector for...... similar to 100 reflections per grain resulted in 99.2% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.5% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. Simulations with 200 grains associated with four mineral phases and 50-700 reflections per grain resulted in 99.9% of all grains being indexed...... dilute phases....

  5. An Unknown Poem of Tevfik Fikret

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRYÜREK, Meral

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an unknown poem of Tevfik Fikret, a revolutionary pen of Turkish literature, is presented. This poem was discovered in lrşad, a monthly review that was published between 1920-1922. As a review, Irşad has aimed to give conciousness to Cypriot Turks on scientific and economic issues. Mehmet Akif, Cenap Şehabettin, Ziya Gökalp, Mehmet Emin, Hüseyin Suat and Tevfik Fikret were the personalities whose poems were seen in Irşad. Tevfik Fikret's mentioned poem that was published in Irş...

  6. TOURISM PROMOTION FOR UNKNOWN AREAS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotache Lacramioara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an effort to unknown areas identity affirmation, through collaborative development of advertising mix, with an emphasis on virtual platforms as admissible solution for increasing visibility. Based upon comparative effective analysis of categories of communication particularities, it is suggested a positioning strategic solution, via virtual advertising platform as unique, integrated, complex and very attractive tourism product promotion, fitted for the internal and international tourism circuit. The active promotion of the specified territorial identity will launch a brand with an impact among tourists by using marketing techniques and innovating technical means and prioritizing tourism as a principal vector of local and regional development.

  7. Characterization of unknown objects containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunhofer-INT is going to equip a transportable container with a system for the detection, identification and characterization of radioactive material inside objects with unknown content. This system will be a prototype for a mobile system to detect illicit trafficking of radioactive and especially nuclear material and will thus prohibit nuclear proliferation. This container will be equipped with systems for passive and active nondestructive measurements. For active measurements we use a sealed tube 14 MeV neutron generator with an without a moderating assembly between the interrogating neutron source and the object of interest. Because stolen or diverted radioactive material generally may not have a fixed geometry and will not be packaged in standard containers the main emphasis in this paper is on in-situ gamma measurements taking into account possible shielding around the radioactive source. High-resolution gamma measurements were performed on radioactive material behind different types of shielding. The measured data were evaluated by modeling the different parameters like the wall thickness of the box, matrix and shielding material inside and so on. Comparison with the actual experimental setup of the models showed good agreement and proved the power of this method. In this way significant information was gained on the content of the unknown box, which is important for further actions. (author)

  8. Bmal1 and Beta cell clock are required for adaptation to circadian disruption, and their loss of function leads to oxidative stress-induced Beta cell failure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circadian disruption has deleterious effects on metabolism. Global deletion of Bmal1, a core clock gene, results in Beta cell dysfunction and diabetes. However, it is unknown if this is due to loss of cell-autonomous function of Bmal1 in Beta cells. To address this, we generated mice with Beta cell ...

  9. Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 protects beta cells against IL-1beta-mediated toxicity through inhibition of multiple nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated proapoptotic pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Allan Ertman; Heding, P E; Frobøse, H;

    2004-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta induces apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells via pathways dependent on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C. We recently showed suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 to be a natural negative feedback...... regulator of IL-1beta- and IFN-gamma-mediated signalling in rat islets and beta cell lines, preventing their deleterious effects. However, the mechanisms underlying SOCS-3 inhibition of IL-1beta signalling and prevention against apoptosis remain unknown....

  10. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  11. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return of the...

  12. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    Few issues are more important for finance practice than the computation of market betas. Existing approaches compute market betas using historical data. While these approaches differ in terms of statistical sophistication and the modeling of the time-variation in the betas, they are all backward-...

  13. The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.

  14. Intelligent Virtual Agents Architecture in Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfan Feng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As the contemporary performing behavior in the reciprocity of virtual agents is glazed excessively and can't satisfy complex unknown environment, the research of Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA with active learning and local apperception must be accelerated. In this paper, we design and implement a new IVA system architecture, for which active learning and local apperceive interaction were approached. Active learning using knowledge acquisition and knowledge evolution improved the self-regulation of behavior mechanism significantly, while local apperceive interaction could sense disturbances of the simulated environment and interactively communicate with other simulated agents within perception dimension effectively. Ultimately, the experimental result provides effectiveness and practicability of the performance in our prototype IVA system.

  15. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Favier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carcinomatous meningitis (CM occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

  16. Neutrinoless double beta decay from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Amy; Chang, Chia Cheng; Clark, M A; Joo, Balint; Kurth, Thorsten; Rinaldi, Enrico; Tiburzi, Brian; Vranas, Pavlos; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2016-01-01

    While the discovery of non-zero neutrino masses is one of the most important accomplishments by physicists in the past century, it is still unknown how and in what form these masses arise. Lepton number-violating neutrinoless double beta decay is a natural consequence of Majorana neutrinos and many BSM theories, and many experimental efforts are involved in the search for these processes. Understanding how neutrinoless double beta decay would manifest in nuclear environments is key for understanding any observed signals. In these proceedings we present an overview of a set of one- and two-body matrix elements relevant for experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, describe the role of lattice QCD calculations, and present preliminary lattice QCD results.

  17. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

  18. Direct water-phase synthesis of lead sulfide quantum dots encapsulated by β-lactoglobulin for in vivo second near infrared window imaging with reduced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Kong, Yifei; Wang, Wei; Fang, Hongwei; Wo, Yan; Zhou, Dejian; Wu, Ziying; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-03-14

    Compared to conventional fluorescence imaging in the visible (400-700 nm) and NIR-I regions (700-900 nm), optical fluorescence imaging in the second near infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1400 nm) offers reduced photon scattering, deeper tissue penetration and lower auto-fluorescence. Despite excellent imaging capabilities, current NIR-II probes have not yet reached their full potential due to weak quantum yield, low water solubility and suboptimal biocompatibility. To address these problems, we report herein a new NIR-II fluorescent PbS quantum dots (QDs) that are fabricated in water using β-lactoglobulin (LG) as a biological template. The LG-PbS QDs exhibit satisfactory dispersibility, relatively high quantum yield and favorable biocompatibility, and therefore are suitable for high-resolution in vivo imaging applications. PMID:26888668

  19. Production of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from β-lactoglobulin- and casein-derived peptides: an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welderufael, Fisseha T; Gibson, Trevor; Jauregi, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition is one of the mechanisms by which reduction in blood pressure is exerted. Whey proteins are a rich source of ACE inhibitory peptides and have shown a blood pressure reduction effect i.e. antihypertensive activity. The aim of this work was to develop a simplified process using a combination of adsorption and microfiltration steps for the production of hydrolysates from whey with high ACE inhibitory activity and potency; the latter was measured as the IC50, which is the peptide concentration required to reduce ACE activity by half. This process integrates the selective separation of β-lactoglobulin- and casein-derived peptides (CDP) from rennet whey and their hydrolysis, which results in partially pure, less complex hydrolysates with high bioactive potency. Hydrolysis was carried out with protease N "Amano" in a thermostatically controlled membrane reactor operated in a batch mode. By applying the integrative approach it was possible to produce from the same feedstock two different hydrolysates that exhibited high ACE inhibition. One hydrolysate was mainly composed of casein-derived peptides with IC50=285 μg/mL. In this hydrolysate we identified the well-known potent ACE-inhibitor and antihypertensive tripeptide Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) and another novel octapeptide Gln-Asp-Lys-Thr-Glu-Ile-Pro-Thr (QDKTEIPT). The second hydrolysate was mainly composed of β-lactoglobulin derived peptides with IC50=28 μg/mL. This hydrolysate contained a tetrapeptide (Ile-Ile-Ala-Glu) IIAE as one of the two major peptides. A further advantage to this process is that enzyme activity was substantially increased as enzyme product inhibition was reduced. PMID:22467199

  20. Computational prospecting the great viral unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Bonnie L; U'Ren, Jana M; Youens-Clark, Ken

    2016-05-01

    Bacteriophages play an important role in host-driven biological processes by controlling bacterial population size, horizontally transferring genes between hosts and expressing host-derived genes to alter host metabolism. Metagenomics provides the genetic basis for understanding the interplay between uncultured bacteria, their phage and the environment. In particular, viral metagenomes (viromes) are providing new insight into phage-encoded host genes (i.e. auxiliary metabolic genes; AMGs) that reprogram host metabolism during infection. Yet, despite deep sequencing efforts of viral communities, the majority of sequences have no match to known proteins. Reference-independent computational techniques, such as protein clustering, contig spectra and ecological profiling are overcoming these barriers to examine both the known and unknown components of viromes. As the field of viral metagenomics progresses, a critical assessment of tools is required as the majority of algorithms have been developed for analyzing bacteria. The aim of this paper is to offer an overview of current computational methodologies for virome analysis and to provide an example of reference-independent approaches using human skin viromes. Additionally, we present methods to carefully validate AMGs from host contamination. Despite computational challenges, these new methods offer novel insights into the diversity and functional roles of phages in diverse environments. PMID:27030726

  1. Equipment cost: 2012, a big unknown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The drop in the prices of photovoltaic systems appeared in 2011, this fall was due to the collapse of the price of the module that reached 45% in one year. Other components' prices have also decreased but not to such an extent. The reason is that the production capacities have increased very fast in 2010 when the offer was still below the demand. Now, in 2012 the sale of photovoltaic systems have slowed down because of the crisis and the partial end of financial support programs from European states. The market is now very competitive with low prices, but a lot of enterprises are expected to reorganize or even to bankrupt. For the rest of 2012 the trend is unknown but for a longer term new technological progress are looming: the replacement of silver by copper, the fabrication of thinner sheets of glass and the use of less expensive polymers. These technological advances will give a new and sane margin for the reduction of costs and will make photovoltaic energy more competitive with other energies. (A.C.)

  2. beta-Endorphin immunoreactive material and authentic beta-endorphin in the plasma of males undergoing anaerobic exercise on a rowing ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, A; Harbach, H; Katz, N; Geiger, L; Teschemacher, H

    2000-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin immunoreactive material (beta-endorphin IRM), and authentic beta-endorphin (1 -31) have been determined in the plasma of 23 volunteers undergoing anaerobic exercise on a rowing ergometer. The volunteers had different histories of training from occasional physical activities up to intensive preparation for international rowing competitions. ACTH and beta-endorphin-IRM were determined using commercially available immunometric assays; for determination of beta-endorphin (1-31) a highly specific two-site fluid phase immunoprecipitation radioimmunoassay was developed, which did not cross-react with any beta-endorphin derivative or any other opioid peptide tested. In agreement with reports from the literature ACTH and beta-endorphin-IRM concentrations in the plasma rose upon anaerobic exercise in all 23 subjects; this increase in the ACTH and beta-endorphin IRM levels was significantly correlated with the increase of lactate levels observed upon anaerobic exercise. Authentic beta-endorphin (1-31) was only found in two plasma samples containing minor concentrations of the peptide. We conclude that the beta-endorphin immunoreactive material released into blood under anaerobic exercise is identical with authentic beta-endorphin (1-31) only to a minor extent and thus should not be called "beta-endorphin". The major part of the material in fact released into the blood upon anaerobic exercise is probably identical with beta-lipotropin and further components so far unknown. PMID:11071055

  3. Koedam {beta} factors revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, J.E. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Doughty, D.A. [Perkin-Elmer Optoelectronics, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Lister, G.G. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc., Beverly, MA (United States)

    2002-07-21

    A Koedam {beta} factor makes it possible to compute the total output power in line radiation from a positive column discharge using a single radiance measurement normal to an aperture in the wall. The results of analytic derivations of {beta} factors are presented for columns with uniform ({beta}=1.0) and parabolic ({beta}=0.75) excitation rates per unit volume and with negligible opacity. A Monte Carlo code for simulating radiation trapping with a spatially uniform density of absorbing atoms is then used to determine {beta} factors as a function of opacity. The code includes partial frequency redistribution and a Voigt line shape with radiative broadening, resonance collisional broadening, and Doppler broadening. The resulting {beta} factors are found to be nearly independent of opacity over a wide range of column radii for spectral line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening or by resonance collisional broadening. Additional Monte Carlo simulations are used to study {beta} factors as a function of a non-uniform density of absorbing atoms from radial cataphoresis with line shapes dominated by Doppler broadening, foreign gas broadening, and resonance collisional broadening. Radial cataphoresis is found to increase {beta} factors in all cases. Geometrical effects, refraction, and imperfect transmission at the glass wall are studied and found to decrease {beta} factors. (author)

  4. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  5. Effects of a beta-blocker on the cardiovascular response to MDMA (Ecstasy)

    OpenAIRE

    Hysek, C M; Vollenweider, F X; Liechti, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'Ecstasy') produces tachycardia and hypertension and is rarely associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. In clinical practice, beta-blockers are often withheld in patients with stimulant intoxication because they may increase hypertension and coronary artery vasospasm due to loss of beta(2)-mediated vasodilation and unopposed alpha-receptor activation. However, it is unknown whether beta-blockers affect the cardiovas...

  6. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Stuart A

    2009-11-01

    Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We aimed to determine the mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and indentify how 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity.

  7. Double beta decay experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  8. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  9. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for...

  10. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  11. How to Deal with Unknown Words in EFL Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李夏雯

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge plays an important role in EFL reading,and learners need to employ different strategies to deal with unknown words. Research has shown that when facing the challenge of unknown words learners rely on dictionary too much while lexical inferencing should be recommended most to them. Therefore,this paper focuses on how to encourage learners to use various strategies to deal with unknown words in EFL reading.

  12. Pruning False Unknown Words to Improve Chinese Word Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Chooi-Ling; 浅原, 正幸; 松本, 裕治

    2005-01-01

    During the process of unknown word detection in Chinese word segmentation, many detected word candidates are invalid. These false unknown word candidates deteriorate the overall segmentation accuracy, as it will affect the segmentation accuracy of known words. Therefore, we propose to eliminate as many invalid word candidates as possible by a pruning process. Our experiments show that by cutting down the invalid unknown word candidates, we improve the segmentation accuracy of known words and ...

  13. Multiple Adaptive Fading Schmidt-Kalman Filter for Unknown Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Shan Lou; Zhi-Hua Wang; Meng-Li Xiao; Hui-Min Fu

    2014-01-01

    Unknown biases in dynamic and measurement models of the dynamic systems can bring greatly negative effects to the state estimates when using a conventional Kalman filter algorithm. Schmidt introduces the “consider” analysis to account for errors in both the dynamic and measurement models due to the unknown biases. Although the Schmidt-Kalman filter “considers” the biases, the uncertain initial values and incorrect covariance matrices of the unknown biases still are not considered. To solve th...

  14. Estimation of Parameters of the Beta-Extreme Value Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper The Beta Extreme Value Type (III distribution which is developed by Zafar and Aleem (2007 is considered and parameters are estimated by using moments of the Beta-Extreme Value (Type III Distribution when the parameters ‘m’ & ‘n’ are real and moments of the Beta-Extreme Value (Type III Distribution when the parameters ‘m��� & ‘n’ are integers and then a Comparison between rth moments about origin when parameters are ‘m’ & ‘n’ are real and when parameters are ‘m’ & ‘n’ are integers. At the end second method, method of Maximum Likelihood is used to estimate the unknown parameters of the Beta Extreme Value Type (III distribution.

  15. Structure and diversity of the T cell antigen receptor beta-chain in a teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partula, S; de Guerra, A; Fellah, J S; Charlemagne, J

    1995-07-15

    Cell-mediated immunity (e.g., allograft rejection) is found in all vertebrates, and these reactions are known to depend on thymus-derived cells in amphibian, avian, and mammalian species. The participation of peripheral T cell-like lymphocytes subpopulations to fish immunity is now well documented, but the developmental origin, migration, and peripheral tissue distribution of these cells remain practically unknown. This is mainly due to the difficulty of efficiently thymectomizing fish at an early stage of development and to the lack of Ab strictly specific for thymocytes and T cell surface Ag. One strategy for analyzing T cell biology in fish would be to characterize the genes encoding polypeptides homologous to the TCR molecules. This report describes cDNA clones from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that have sequences very similar to amphibian, avian, and mammalian TCR beta-chains. Three complete trout V beta segments belonging to different families were analyzed; one of them had limited amino acid sequence similarity to the human V beta 20 family. The 10 trout beta-chain-joining segments all retain the invariant mammalian J beta residues, and comparison of 66 V beta-J beta junctions led to the identification of a D beta-like sequence (GGACAGGG) that is shorter than but very similar to the chicken D beta and mammalian D beta 1 sequences. There is considerable diversity at the V beta-D beta and D beta-J beta junctions, suggesting the presence of N-nucleotides. The trout C beta extracellular domain is shorter than mammalian C beta, and the hinge region has no cysteine residue. The transmembrane C beta domain contains a lysine residue that in mammals is thought to be involved in charged interactions with members of the CD3 complex. PMID:7608547

  16. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and deterioration of the lining of the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking beta-carotene by mouth doesn’t appear to prevent the development of oral mucositis during radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Pancreatic cancer. Taking ...

  17. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given. (author)

  18. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  19. [High beta tokamak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 20 months of the present grant period can be divided into six areas: reconstruction and modeling of high beta equilibria in HBT; measurement and analysis of MHD instabilities observed in HBT; measurements of impurity transport; diagnostic development on HBT; numerical parameterization of the second stability regime; and conceptual design and assembly of HBT-EP. Each of these is described in some detail in the sections of this progress report

  20. High beta multipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta

  1. Autoregressive conditional beta

    OpenAIRE

    Yunmi Kim

    2012-01-01

    The capital asset pricing model provides various predictions about equilibrium expected returns on risky assets. One key prediction is that the risk premium on a risky asset is proportional to the nondiversifiable market risk measured by the asset's beta coefficient. This paper proposes a new method for estimating and drawing inferences from a time-varying capital asset pricing model. The proposed method, which can be considered a vector autoregressive model for multiple beta coefficients, is...

  2. Facile synthesis of β-lactoglobulin-functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrode for electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Miao, Zhiying; Zhang, Di; Fang, Yuxin; Ma, Min; Chen, Qiang

    2014-12-15

    A facile approach was developed for the preparation of nanocomposite based on β-lactoglobulin (BLG)-functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for the first time. Owing to the amphipathic nature, BLG can be adopted onto the surface of MWCNTs to form BLG-MWCNTs with uniform dispersion in water. Taking advantage of sulfhydryl groups on BLG-MWCNTs, GNPs were decorated on the BLG-MWCNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by electrodeposition. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric method were used to evaluate the electrocatalytic ability of the nanocomposite. Furthermore, a glucose biosensor was developed based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase with cross-linking in the matrix of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the nanocomposite modified GCE. The resulting biosensor exhibited high sensitivity (3.98 μA mM(-1)), wider linear range (0.025-5.5 mM), low detection limit (1.1 μM at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3) and fast response time (within 7s) for glucose detection. PMID:24984286

  3. Real-Time Monitoring of Heat-Induced Aggregation of β-Lactoglobulin in Aqueous Solutions Using High-Resolution Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochenduszko, Agnieszka; Buckin, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy was applied for real-time monitoring of the heat-induced denaturation and aggregation processes in aqueous solutions of β-lactoglobulin. The temperature profiles for the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in the frequency range from 4MHz to 16MHz were measured during heating and cooling cycles, 35°C to 120°C to 35°C, with different heating and cooling rates. Two processes were identified in the heating profiles: transition to the molten globular state followed by formation of protein aggregates. Both processes are accompanied by a decrease in the ultrasonic velocity and an increase in compressibility. The ultrasonic attenuation did not show a significant change during the transition to the molten globule but increased significantly during aggregation. The diameter of the aggregates (calculated from ultrasonic attenuation) was of the order of 100nm and depended on the pH and the heating rate. Variation of pH from 6.0 to 7.5 had a pronounced effect on the size of protein aggregates. Some effect of pH on the intrinsic properties of aggregates was also detected.

  4. Exploring the heat-induced structural changes of β-lactoglobulin -linoleic acid complex by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion Ciuciu, Ana-Maria; Aprodu, Iuliana; Dumitrașcu, Loredana; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Alexe, Petru; Stănciuc, Nicoleta

    2015-12-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is the precursor of bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites and arachidonic acid, therefore is essential for human growth and plays an important role in good health in general. Because of the low water solubility and sensitivity to oxidation, new ways of LA delivery without compromising the sensory attributes of the enriched products are to be identified. The major whey protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg), is a natural carrier for hydrophobic molecules. The thermal induced changes of the β-Lg-LA complex were investigated in the temperature range from 25 to 85 °C using fluorescence spectroscopy techniques in combination with molecular modeling study and the results were compared with those obtained for β-Lg. Experimental results indicated that, regardless of LA binding, the polypeptide chain rearrangements at temperatures higher than 75 °C lead to higher exposure of hydrophobic residues causing the increase of fluorescence intensity. Phase diagram indicated an all or none transition between two conformations. The LA surface involved in the interaction with β-Lg was about 497 Ǻ(2), indicating a good affinity between those two components even at high temperatures. Results obtained in this study provide important details about heat-induced changes in the conformation of β-Lg-LA complex. The thermal treatment at high temperature does not affect the LA binding and carrier functions of β-Lg. PMID:26604382

  5. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E(max) values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high...... sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value of the...

  6. Targeting insulin-producing beta cells for regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Adriana; Roscioni, Sara S; Lickert, Heiko

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic beta cells differ in terms of glucose responsiveness, insulin secretion and proliferative capacity; however, the molecular pathways that regulate this cellular heterogeneity are unknown. We have identified the Wnt-planar cell polarity (PCP) effector Flattop (FLTP) as a biomarker that identifies mature beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. Interestingly, three-dimensional architecture and Wnt-PCP ligands are sufficient to trigger mouse and human beta cell maturation. These results highlight the fact that novel biomarkers shed light on the long-standing mystery of beta cell heterogeneity and identify the Wnt-PCP pathway as triggering beta cell maturation. Understanding heterogeneity in the islets of Langerhans might allow targeting of beta cell subpopulations for regenerative therapy and provide building principles for stem cell-derived islets. This review summarises a presentation given at the 'Can we make a better beta cell?' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Amin Ardestani and Kathrin Maedler, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3892-9 , and by Harry Heimberg and colleagues, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3879-6 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Shanta Persaud (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3870-2 ). PMID:27412250

  7. Probabilistic teleportation of unknown two-particle state via POVM

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Fengli; Ding, Hewei

    2005-01-01

    We propose a scheme for probabilistic teleportation of unknown two-particle state with partly entangled four-particle state via POVM. In this scheme the teleportation of unknown two-particle state can be realized with certain probability by performing two Bell state measurements, a proper POVM and a unitary transformation.

  8. Characterisation of beta-globin gene mutations in Malaysian children: a strategy for the control of beta-thalassaemia in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Meow-Keong; Tan, J A M A; Tan, K L; Yap, S F

    2005-12-01

    beta-thalassaemia major, an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy, is one of the most common single gene disorders in multi-racial Malaysia. The control of beta-thalassaemia major requires a multi-disciplinary approach that includes population screening, genetic counselling, prenatal diagnosis and the option of termination of affected pregnancies. To achieve this objective, the molecular characterisation of the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in each of the affected ethnic groups is required. We studied 88 consecutive unrelated individuals and their respective families with beta-thalassaemia (74 beta-thalassaemia major, 12 HbE-beta-thalassaemia, 2 with HbE homozygotes) and four individuals with beta-thalassaemia trait that contributed a total 180 alleles for study. Using a 2-step molecular diagnostic strategy consisting of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) to identify the 8 most common mutations followed by other DNA-based diagnostic techniques, a total of 177 (98.3 per cent) of the 180 beta-thalassaemia alleles were characterised. One out of 91 (1 per cent) of the Chinese alleles, one out of 46 (2.2 per cent) Malay alleles and one out of two Indian alleles remained unknown. A 100 per cent success rate was achieved in studying the Kadazandusun community in this study. A strategy to identify beta-globin gene mutations in Malaysians with beta-thalassaemia is proposed based on this outcome. PMID:15967770

  9. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  10. Double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great sensitivity of double beta decay to neutrino mass and right handed currents has motivated many new and exciting attempts to observe this elusive nuclear phenomenon directly. Experiments in operation and other coming on line in the next one or two years are expected to result in order-of-magnitude improvements in detectable half lives for both the two-neutrino and no-neutrino modes. A brief history of double beta decay experiments is presented together with a discussion of current experimental efforts, including a gas filled time projection chamber being used to study selenium-82. (author)

  11. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author)

  12. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions of...... differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears that the...

  13. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for the determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields and the method has been used for the establishment of beta calibration fields. The paper describes important details of the method and presents results from the measurement...... of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E(max) values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high...... sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value of the...

  14. Interleukin-1beta induced changes in the protein expression of rat islets: a computerized database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H U; Fey, S J; Larsen, Peter Mose;

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is caused by an autoimmune destruction of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. The cytokine interleukin 1 inhibits insulin release and is selectively cytotoxic to beta-cells in isolated pancreatic rat islets. The antigen(s) triggering the immune response...... as well as the intracellular mechanisms of action of interleukin 1-mediated beta-cell cytotoxicity are unknown. However, previous studies have found an association of beta-cell destruction with alterations in protein synthesis. Thus, two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis of pancreatic islet......% of %IOD was 45.7% in the NEPHGE gels. Addition of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) to the cultures resulted in statistically significant modulation or de novo synthesis of 105 proteins in the 10% gels. In conclusion, we present the first 10% and 15% acrylamide 2-D gel protein databases of neonatal rat...

  15. Activation of Beta-Catenin Signaling in Androgen Receptor–Negative Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinhai; Liu, Jie; Lu, Jing-Fang; Tzelepi, Vassiliki; Yang, Jun; Starbuck, Michael W.; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Efstathiou, Eleni; Vazquez, Elba S.; Troncoso, Patricia; Maity, Sankar N.; Navone, Nora M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study Wnt/beta-catenin in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and understand its function independently of the beta-catenin–androgen receptor (AR) interaction. Experimental Design We performed beta-catenin immunocytochemical analysis, evaluated TOP-flash reporter activity (a reporter of beta-catenin–mediated transcription), and sequenced the beta-catenin gene in MDA PCa 118a, MDA PCa 118b, MDA PCa 2b, and PC-3 prostate cancer (PCa) cells. We knocked down beta-catenin in AR-negative MDA PCa 118b cells and performed comparative gene-array analysis. We also immunohistochemically analyzed beta-catenin and AR in 27 bone metastases of human CRPCs. Results Beta-catenin nuclear accumulation and TOP-flash reporter activity were high in MDA PCa 118b but not in MDA PCa 2b or PC-3 cells. MDA PCa 118a and 118b cells carry a mutated beta-catenin at codon 32 (D32G). Ten genes were expressed differently (false discovery rate, 0.05) in MDA PCa 118b cells with downregulated beta-catenin. One such gene, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), synthesizes hyaluronan, a core component of the extracellular matrix. We confirmed HAS2 upregulation in PC-3 cells transfected with D32G-mutant beta-catenin. Finally, we found nuclear localization of beta-catenin in 10 of 27 human tissue specimens; this localization was inversely associated with AR expression (P = 0.056, Fisher’s exact test), suggesting that reduced AR expression enables Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Conclusion We identified a previously unknown downstream target of beta-catenin, HAS2, in PCa, and found that high beta-catenin nuclear localization and low or no AR expression may define a subpopulation of men with bone-metastatic PCa. These findings may guide physicians in managing these patients. PMID:22298898

  16. k-Casein, b-lactoglobulin and growth hormone allele frequencies and genetic distances in Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Augusta Kemenes

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The genotypes for k-casein (k-CN, b-lactoglobulin (b-LG and growth hormone (GH were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion in seven breeds of cattle (Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. k-Casein had two alleles with the A allele occurring at a higher frequency in Bos indicus breeds (0.93, 0.92 and 0.91% for Gyr, Guzerá and Nelore, respectively. The b-lactoglobulin locus had two alleles in all of the breeds. European breeds had a higher frequency of the b-LG A allele than Zebu breeds. The GH locus had two alleles (L and V in Bos taurus and was monomorphic (L allele only in all of the Bos indicus breeds evaluated. The highest frequency for the V allele was observed in Charolais cattle. The markers used revealed a considerable similarity among breeds, with two main groups being discernible. One group consisted of Zebu and Santa Gertrudis breeds and the other consisted of European and Canchim breeds.Os genótipos de k-caseína (k-CN, b-lactoglobulina (b-LG e hormônio de crescimento foram determinados por reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR e digestão com enzima de restrição em sete raças de bovinos (Nelore, Gir, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolesa, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. A k-caseína apresentou dois alelos e as freqüências mais elevadas para o alelo A foram observadas em Bos indicus (0,93, 0,92 e 0,91% para as raças Gir, Guzerá e Nelore, respectivamente. A b-lactoglobulina apresentou dois alelos em todas as raças estudadas, sendo a freqüência do alelo A mais elevada nas raças européias. O loco de hormônio de crescimento apresentou dois alelos em Bos taurus e foi monomórfico (alelo L em todas as raças zebuínas. A maior freqüência para o alelo V foi observado na raça Charolesa. Os marcadores investigados revelaram alta similaridade entre as raças, com a formação de dois grupos principais: um composto de raças zebuínas e a raça Santa Gertrudis e outro

  17. Decentralized Restless Bandit with Multiple Players and Unknown Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Haoyang; Zhao, Qing

    2011-01-01

    We consider decentralized restless multi-armed bandit problems with unknown dynamics and multiple players. The reward state of each arm transits according to an unknown Markovian rule when it is played and evolves according to an arbitrary unknown random process when it is passive. Players activating the same arm at the same time collide and suffer from reward loss. The objective is to maximize the long-term reward by designing a decentralized arm selection policy to address unknown reward models and collisions among players. A decentralized policy is constructed that achieves a regret with logarithmic order when an arbitrary nontrivial bound on certain system parameters is known. When no knowledge about the system is available, we extend the policy to achieve a regret arbitrarily close to the logarithmic order. The result finds applications in communication networks, financial investment, and industrial engineering.

  18. Forests and Forest Cover, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  19. Hospitals, Hospital locations, Published in unknown, Trempealeau County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hospitals dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Hospital locations'. Data by this publisher are...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Oconto County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building Permit...

  1. Fire Hydrants, Fire Hydrants Shapefile, Published in unknown, Cleveland County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire Hydrants dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Fire Hydrants Shapefile'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system;...

  2. State Boundaries, Published in unknown, Madison County Council of Governments.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Transverse Mercator projection; The...

  3. Watershed Boundaries, Published in unknown, Person County GIS/IT.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  4. Doctor Offices, Clinic Location, Published in unknown, Trempealeau County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Doctor Offices dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Clinic Location'. Data by this publisher...

  5. Assisted Living Facilities, Published in unknown, Trempealeau County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  6. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  7. Government Districts, Other, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a GCS_North_American_1983...

  8. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Madison County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building...

  10. Zoning Districts, Countywide Zoning Shapefile, Published in unknown, Cleveland County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Countywide Zoning Shapefile'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, Published in unknown, CLAY COUNTY.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Parcels'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in...

  12. Hydrography, Published in unknown, Berrien County Board of Tax Assessors.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Transverse Mercator projection; The extent...

  13. Cities, Towns and Villages, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  14. Airports and Airfields, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  15. Child Day Care Centers, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Child Day Care Centers dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  16. Park Land and Nature Preserves, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Park Land and Nature Preserves dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other...

  17. Election Districts and Precincts, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other...

  18. Topographic Digital Raster Graphics, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Topographic Digital Raster Graphics dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  19. Hydrography, WIDNR Hydrography Layer, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'WIDNR Hydrography Layer'. Data by this publisher are...

  20. Geographic Place Names, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geographic Place Names dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  1. Cities, Towns and Villages, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  2. Land Use and Land Cover, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  3. Forests and Forest Cover, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links...

  5. Fire and EMS Districts, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire and EMS Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  6. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Published in unknown, DCP Midstream.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  7. Key role of cysteine residues and sulfenic acids in thermal- and H2O2-mediated modification of β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Anna C; Thulstrup, Peter W; Lund, Marianne N; Davies, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Oxidation results in protein deterioration in mammals, plants, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals, via changes in amino acid composition, fragmentation, aggregation, solubility, hydrophobicity, conformation, function and susceptibility to digestion. This study investigated whether and how individual or combined treatment with heat, a commonly encountered factor in industrial processing, and H2O2 alters the structure and composition of the major whey protein β-lactoglobulin. Thermal treatment induced reducible cross-links, with this being enhanced by low H2O2 concentrations, but decreased by high concentrations, where fragmentation was detected. Cross-linking was prevented when the single free Cys121 residue was blocked with iodoacetamide. Low concentrations of H2O2 added before heating depleted thiols, with H2O2 alone, or H2O2 added after heating, having lesser effects. A similar pattern was detected for methionine loss and methionine sulfoxide formation. Tryptophan loss was only detected with high levels of H2O2, and no other amino acid was affected, indicating that sulfur-centered amino acids are critical targets. No protection against aggregation was provided by high concentrations of the radical scavenger 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), consistent with molecular oxidation, rather than radical reactions, being the major process. Sulfenic acid formation was detected by Western blotting and LC-MS/MS peptide mass-mapping of dimedone-treated protein, consistent with these species being significant intermediates in heat-induced cross-linking, especially in the presence of H2O2. Studies using circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence indicate that H2O2 increases unfolding during heating. These mechanistic insights provide potential strategies for modulating the extent of modification of proteins exposed to thermal and oxidant treatment. PMID:27430598

  8. Direction detector for distributed targets in unknown noise and interference

    OpenAIRE

    Bandiera, Francesco; Besson, Olivier; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive detection of distributed radar targets in homogeneous Gaussian noise plus subspace interference is addressed. It is assumed that the actual steering vectors lie along a fixed and unknown direction of a preassigned and known subspace, while interfering signals are supposed to belong to an unknown subspace, with directions possibly varying from one resolution cell to another. The resulting detection problem is formulated in the framework of statistical hypothesis testing and solved usi...

  9. Male Pelvic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Chiec; Sadhna Verma; Ady Kendler; Nagla Abdel Karim

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelv...

  10. Evaluation of neutrino masses from $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values

    CERN Document Server

    Khrushchov, V V

    2008-01-01

    A neutrino mass matrix is considered under conditions of the CP invariance and the negligible reactor mixing $\\theta_{13}$ angle. Absolute mass values for three neutrinos are evaluated in normal and inverted hierarchy spectra on the ground of data for oscillation mixing neutrino parameters and effective neutrino mass entering into a probability of neutrinoless two beta decay $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values.

  11. Low-beta structures

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vretenar(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland)

    2012-01-01

    'Low-beta' radio-frequency accelerating structures are used in the sections of a linear accelerator where the velocity of the particle beam increases with energy. The requirement for space periodicity to match the increasing particle velocity led to the development of a large variety of structures, both normal and superconducting, which are described in this lecture.

  12. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  13. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross-section...

  14. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay $(A,Z) \\to (A,Z+2) + 2 e^-$. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  15. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements

  16. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Your Genes Your Health Disease InfoSearch: Beta Thalassemia Genomics Education Programme (UK) MalaCards: dominant beta-thalassemia Merck Manual ...

  18. Beta gets better with age

    OpenAIRE

    Tomunen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of my thesis is to study the cause for the low beta anomaly, which is an observation that the high beta stocks perform poorly relative to the low beta stocks. Based on earlier findings, I hypothesize that if a stock has high investor attention, its price overreacts to market-wide shocks, which results in a positive measurement error in its beta. Simultaneously, high attention causes overpricing, because the stock overreacts more often to positive shocks than to negat...

  19. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  20. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies

  1. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  2. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license. PMID:26950055

  3. Metastases of unknown origin: Principles of diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available DEFINITION Cancer of unknown primary (CUP origin refers to patients who present with histologically confirmed metastatic cancer in whom a detailed medical history, complete physical examination, including pelvic and rectal examination, full blood count and biochemistry, urinalysis and stool occult blood testing, histopathological review of biopsy speimens with the use of immunohistochemistry, chest radiography, computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis, and in certain cases mammography, fail to identify the primary site. EPIDEMIOLOGY of CUP The cancer of unknown primary accounts for 3%-5% of all human cancers. DIAGNOSIS of CUP The standard diagnostic procedure for the majority of patients includes histopathologic review of biopsy specimens with the use of immunohistochemistry, full blood count, routine biochemistry, fecal occult blood testing, urine testing, chest radiography, and computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis. The four common histologic diagnoses are: adenocarcinoma (70%, poorly differentiated carcinoma (20%, squamous carcinoma (10%, and poorly differentiated neoplasms (5%. PROGNOSIS of CUP The prognosis for most patients with unknown primary tumors is poor, with survival often less than 6 months from diagnosis. THERAPY of CUP Based on clinical and pathologic features, approximately 40% of patients can be categorized within subsets for which specific treatment has been defined. Empiric therapy is an option for the remaining 60% of patients. CONCLUSION Metastatic tumors of unknown origin have a unique clinical presentation due to a specific biology. Insight into the molecular biology of unknown primary tumors will be essential for the development of more effective treatments.

  4. Male Pelvic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Chiec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies.

  5. Male pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiec, Lauren; Verma, Sadhna; Kendler, Ady; Abdel Karim, Nagla

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25478265

  6. Grasping Unknown Objects in an Early Cognitive Vision System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Mila

    2011-01-01

    Grasping of unknown objects presents an important and challenging part of robot manipulation. The growing area of service robotics depends upon the ability of robots to autonomously grasp and manipulate a wide range of objects in everyday environments. Simple, non task-specific grasps of unknown...... presents a system for robotic grasping of unknown objects us- ing stereo vision. Grasps are defined based on contour and surface information provided by the Early Cognitive Vision System, that organizes visual informa- tion into a biologically motivated hierarchical representation. The contributions...... objects can also be used in the search-and-rescue scenarios, planetary exploration, or for the handling of the nuclear material. When a robotic system is perceived as a developing cognitive agent, attaining physical control over objects is a precondition for starting a bootstrapping process in which...

  7. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  8. Beta and muon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes represent a series of lectures delivered by the authors in the Junta de Energia Nuclear, during the Spring term of 1965. They were devoted to graduate students interested in the Theory of Elementary Particles. Special emphasis was focussed into the computational problems. Chapter I is a review of basic principles (Dirac equation, transition probabilities, final state interactions.) which will be needed later. In Chapter II the four-fermion punctual Interaction is discussed, Chapter III is devoted to the study of beta-decay; the main emphasis is given to the deduction of the formulae corresponding to electron-antineutrino correlation, electron energy spectrum, lifetimes, asymmetry of electrons emitted from polarized nuclei, electron and neutrino polarization and time reversal invariance in beta decay. In Chapter IV we deal with the decay of polarized muons with radiative corrections. Chapter V is devoted to an introduction to C.V.C. theory. (Author)

  9. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...... of language interoperability between Java and BETA is required. The first approach is to use the Java Native Interface and use C to bridge between Java and BETA. This results in a workable, but complicated solution. The second approach is to let the BETA compiler generate Java class files. With this...... approach it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  10. COM Support in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Component technologies based on binary units of independent production are some of the most important contributions to software architecture and reuse during recent years. Especially the COM technologies and the CORBA standard from the Object Management Group have contributed new and interesting ...... principles for software architecture, and proven to be useful in parctice. In this paper ongoing work with component support in the BETA language is described....

  11. Beta decay for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1962-01-01

    The ""pedestrian approach"" was developed to describe some essentially simple experimental results and their theoretical implications in plain language. In this graduate-level text, Harry J. Lipkin presents simply, but without oversimplification, the aspects of beta decay that can be understood without reference to the formal theory; that is, the reactions that follow directly from conservation laws and elementary quantum mechanics.The pedestrian treatment is neither a substitute for a complete treatment nor a watered-down version.

  12. Scheme for teleportation of unknown states of trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Mei-Feng; Ma Song-She

    2008-01-01

    A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped ion system.The scheme only requires a single laser beam.It allows the trap to be in any state with a few phonons,e.g.a thermal motion.Furthermore,it works in the regime,where the Rabi frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency.Thus,the teleportation speed is greatly increased,which is important for decreasing the decoherence effect.This idea can also be used to teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

  13. Scheme for teleportation of unknown states of trapped ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Feng; Ma, Song-She

    2008-02-01

    A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped ion system. The scheme only requires a single laser beam. It allows the trap to be in any state with a few phonons, e.g. a thermal motion. Furthermore, it works in the regime, where the Rabi frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency. Thus, the teleportation speed is greatly increased, which is important for decreasing the decoherence effect. This idea can also be used to teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

  14. FDG PET/CT in carcinoma of unknown primary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Basu, Sandip [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tata Memorial Center Annexe, Radiation Medicine Center (Bhabha Atomic Research Center), Bombay (India); Cheng, Gang; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous group of metastatic malignancies in which a primary tumor could not be detected despite thorough diagnostic evaluation. Because of its high sensitivity for the detection of lesions, combined {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)/computed tomography (CT) may be an excellent alternative to CT alone and conventional magnetic resonance imaging in detecting the unknown primary tumor. This article will review the use, diagnostic performance, and utility of FDG PET/CT in CUP and will discuss challenges and future considerations in the diagnostic management of CUP. (orig.)

  15. Time-Varying FOPDT System Identification with Unknown Disturbance Input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhen; Yang, Zhenyu

    2012-01-01

    -FOPDT identification problem turns to estimate these time-varying parameters based on measured control input and system output. This work considers a TV-FOPDT identification problem in the presence of an unknown disturbance input. By regarding the unknown input as one extra system parameter, the considered...... identification problem is formulated as a Stochastic Mixed Integral Programming (SMIP) problem after discretizing the original problem. The sliding window technique with forgetting factor is employed to cope with time resolution issue, and the Least Mean Square (LMS) method is used to obtain the optimal solution...

  16. NOISY OBSERVATION BASED STABILIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION FOR UNKNOWN SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hanfu(Han-Fu Chen)

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses optimization of a performance function which either is optimized via stabilizing and controlling the underlying unknown system or is directly optimized on the basis of its noise-corrupted observations. For the first case the unknown system is identified and then the indirect adaptive control approach is applied to optimize the performance function. For the second case the stochastic approximation method is used to optimize the objective function, and it appears that a number of problems arising from applications may be reduced to the one solvable by this approach. The paper demonstrates some basic results in the area, but with no intention to give a complete survey.

  17. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  18. Spectra Study on the Stability of β-lactoglobulin%β-乳球蛋白结构稳定性的光谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾慧; 王志清; 魏晶; 董又铭; 于志月; 李慧卿

    2016-01-01

    在pH=7的缓冲溶液及室温条件下,通过盐酸胍、尿素对β-乳球蛋白的结构稳定性进行了研究。β-乳球蛋白在盐酸胍溶液中的Cm为2.3 mol·L-1、结构稳定化能为14.051 kJ/( mol·L-1)。β-乳球蛋白可以结合与结合N-苯基-1-萘胺,结合该配体使蛋白在盐酸胍中的结构稳定化能提高到17.443 kJ/( mol·L-1)。在尿素溶液中结合N-苯基-1-萘胺后的β-乳球蛋白,其稳定化能也从14.250 kJ/( mol·L-1) 提高到17.736 kJ/( mol·L-1) , 与蛋白在盐酸胍溶液中的变化趋于一致。%The stability ofβ-lactoglobulin (β-LG) in guanidine hydrochloride ( GuHCl) acid or nrea solution was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy at room temperature in pH 7. 0 phosphate buffer. The denaturation transition midpoint of β-LG in GuHCl ( Cm) was 2. 3 mol·L-1 , the free energy of stabilization was 14. 051 kJ/( mol·L-1 ) . β-LG can binding N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine ( AN) . Thus, the free energy of stabilization was increased to 17. 443 kJ/( mol·L-1 ) , and it was consistent with the free energies of stabilization of theβ-LG (14. 250 kJ/( mol·L-1 ) ) andβ-LG-AN complex (17. 736 kJ/( mol·L-1 ) ) obtained from urea.

  19. β-乳球蛋白启动子控制生长激素基因在293细胞中的表达%The Expression of hGH Gene Driven byβ-lactoglobulin Promoter in 293 Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 杨冉; 万鹏; 姚雅楠; 杨国庆

    2015-01-01

    Human growth hormone(hGH)gene driven by bovine beta-lactoglobulin(BLG)promoter in vector pBLGH62 was highly expressed in mammary epithelial cells of transgenic mice. To explore the possibility that the production of hGH would be available in cultured cells,the plasmid pBLGH62 was transfected into embryonic kidney 293 cells for transient expression in the presence or absence of induction by insulin,dexamethasone and prolactin. The results showed that hGH was detected in supernatant,demonstrating that hGH gene expressed in 293 cells and the product secreted outside. However,the effect of hormone induction was compromised. In addition, alternative splicing was observed in the process of hGH gene expression in the cells.%牛β-乳球蛋白(β-lactoglobulin,BLG)启动子控制人生长激素(hGH)基因的表达载体pBLGH62可以在转基因小鼠的乳腺上皮细胞中高效表达。为了探索利用此表达载体在培养的细胞中生产人生长激素的可能性,将pBLGH62转染非乳腺细胞-人胚肾293细胞用胰岛素、地塞米松和催乳素进行诱导。结果显示,在细胞培养液中检测到人生长激素,说明pBLGH62能在293细胞中表达并能分泌到细胞外。但是,激素诱导对表达量的影响不明显。此外,人生长激素基因存在着可变剪接现象。

  20. Teleportation of Unknown Superpositions of Collective Atomic Coherent States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG ShiBiao

    2001-01-01

    We propose a scheme to teleport an unknown superposition of two atomic coherent states with different phases. Our scheme is based on resonant and dispersive atom-field interaction. Our scheme provides a possibility of teleporting macroscopic superposition states of many atoms first time.``

  1. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

  2. Teleportation of Unknown Atomic Entangled States Using GHZ Class States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose two physical schemes, which can teleport unknown atomic entangled states from user A (Alice) to user B (Bob) via GHZ class states as quantum channel. The two schemes are both based on cavity QED techniques. In the two schemes, teleportation and distillation procedures can be realized simultaneously. The second teleportation scheme is more advantageous than the first one.

  3. Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.

  4. Metastatic Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Presenting as Jugular Venous Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Jugular venous thrombosis is unusual and is associated with central venous catheterisation, intravenous drug abuse and head and neck sepsis. It is rarely associated with malignancy. We report a case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary in a forty year old female which presented with jugular venous thrombosis. The discussion includes investigation and treatment options for this condition.

  5. Robust adaptive control of continuous system with unknown deadzone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents an adaptive controller for continuous systems with unknown deadzones and known linear part which consists of an adaptive deadzone inverse to cancel the effects of deadzone and a linear-like control law to track the system output. It concludes from simulation results that this control possesses good robustness and improves the tracking performance of the system.

  6. Cancer of unknown primitive metastatic. About two clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the two clinical cases about the unknown primitive metastatic cancer. The main techniques used for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of different s carcinomas are: Electronic microscope, molecular biology and genetics, especially histopathological study, topographic survey, ultrasound, radiography, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

  7. Pyrexia of Unknown Origin: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, James C., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin is one of the supreme diagnostic challenges in medicine. Most cases are caused by common problems presenting in unusual ways. Infections account for 40%, neoplasms 20% and collagen vascular diseases 15% of cases. Repeated clinical evaluation and individualization in planning investigative procedures are the keys to early diagnosis. Several possible causes of pyrexia are discussed.

  8. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating

  9. Territory: An Unknown Quantity in Debates on Territorial Cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2013-01-01

    There are complaints about territorial cohesion being a vague concept, but in relevant debates territory, too, figures as an unknown quantity. Thus, is it the fixed property of any state, region or local administrative unit, or is it a malleable social construct; rather than being filled with bounde

  10. Vision-based autonomous grasping of unknown piled objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer vision techniques have been used to develop a vision-based grasping capability for autonomously picking and placing unknown piled objects. This work is currently being applied to the problem of hazardous waste sorting in support of the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Operations Program

  11. Consensus for switched networks with unknown but bounded disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Bauso, D.; Giarré, L.; Pesenti, R

    2006-01-01

    We consider stationary consensus protocols for networks of dynamic agents with switching topologies. The measure of the neighbors' state is affected by Unknown But Bounded disturbances. Here the main contribution is the formulation and solution of what we call the $\\epsilon$-consensus problem, where the states are required to converge in a tube of ray $\\epsilon$ asymptotically or in finite time.

  12. Beta cell imaging - a key tool in optimized diabetes prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Martin; Eizirik, Decio L; Cnop, Miriam; Brom, Maarten

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is 382 million worldwide, and is expected to rise to 592 million in 2035 (http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas); 2.5-15% of national annual healthcare budgets are related to diabetes care, potentially increasing to 40% in high-prevalence countries. Beta cell dysfunction and death are central events in diabetes pathogenesis, but the natural history of beta cell loss remains unknown. Clinical imaging of beta cells will play a pivotal role in developing strategies for optimized diabetes prevention and treatment. PMID:24726483

  13. The search for Majorana neutrinos with neutrinoless double beta decays: From CUORICINO to LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma I-00185 (Italy) and INFN - Sezione di Roma, Roma I-00185 (Italy)

    2012-11-20

    The study of neutrino properties is one of the fundamental challenges in particle physics nowadays. Fifty years of investigations established that neutrinos are massive but the absolute mass scale has not yet been measured. Moreover its true nature is still unknown. Is the neutrino its own antiparticle (thus violating the lepton number) as proposed by Majorana in 1937? The only way to probe the neutrino nature is through the observation of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}), a very rare spontaneous nuclear transition which emits two electrons and no neutrinos. In this paper, after a brief introduction to the theoretical framework of Majorana's neutrino, a presentation of experimental challenges posed by 0{nu}{beta}{beta} search will be given as well as an overview of present status and future perpectives of experiments.

  14. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps. PMID:27596390

  15. Pax4 Expression does not Transduce Pancreatic Alpha Cells to Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The lack of available beta cells greatly limits the use of beta cell transplantation as a therapy for diabetes. Thus, generation of beta cells from other sources is substantially required. Pax4 has been shown to induce reprograming of alpha cells into beta cells during embryogenesis. Nevertheless, whether expression of Pax4 in adult alpha cells could trigger this alpha-to-beta cell reprogramming is unknown. Methods: Here we generated an adeno-associated virus carrying Pax4 and GFP under a CMV promoter (AAV-Pax4. We used AAV-Pax4 to transduce a mouse alpha cell line in vitro, and to transduce primary alpha cells in diabetic mice. Reprogramming was examined by double immunostaining and by changes in beta cell number. The effects on blood glucose were evaluated by fasting blood glucose and glucose response. Results: In vitro, Pax4 overexpression neither induced insulin expression, nor suppressed glucagon expression in alpha cells. In vivo, Pax4 overexpression failed to increase beta cell number, and did not alter hyperglycemia and glucose response in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Pax4 expression is not sufficient to transduce pancreatic alpha cells into beta cells. Overexpression of Pax4 in alpha cells may not increase functional beta cell number in diabetic patients.

  16. Known and unknown unknowns: the application of ensemble techniques to uncertainty estimation in satellite remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Povey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a best-practice representation of uncertainty in satellite remote sensing data. An estimate of uncertainty is necessary to make appropriate use of the information conveyed by a measurement. Traditional error propagation quantifies the uncertainty in a measurement due to well-understood perturbations in a measurement and auxiliary data – known, quantified "unknowns". The underconstrained nature of most satellite remote sensing observations requires the use of various approximations and assumptions that produce non-linear systematic errors that are not readily assessed – known, unquantifiable "unknowns". Additional errors result from the inability to resolve all scales of variation in the measured quantity – unknown "unknowns". The latter two categories of error are dominant in underconstrained remote sensing retrievals and the difficulty of their quantification limits the utility of existing uncertainty estimates, degrading confidence in such data. This paper proposes the use of ensemble techniques to present multiple self-consistent realisations of a data set as a means of depicting unquantified uncertainties. These are generated using various systems (different algorithms or forward models believed to be appropriate to the conditions observed. Benefiting from the experience of the climate modelling community, an ensemble provides a user with a more complete representation of the uncertainty as understood by the data producer and greater freedom to consider different realisations of the data.

  17. Known and unknown unknowns: the application of ensemble techniques to uncertainty estimation in satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, A. C.; Grainger, R. G.

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses a best-practice representation of uncertainty in satellite remote sensing data. An estimate of uncertainty is necessary to make appropriate use of the information conveyed by a measurement. Traditional error propagation quantifies the uncertainty in a measurement due to well-understood perturbations in a measurement and auxiliary data - known, quantified "unknowns". The underconstrained nature of most satellite remote sensing observations requires the use of various approximations and assumptions that produce non-linear systematic errors that are not readily assessed - known, unquantifiable "unknowns". Additional errors result from the inability to resolve all scales of variation in the measured quantity - unknown "unknowns". The latter two categories of error are dominant in underconstrained remote sensing retrievals and the difficulty of their quantification limits the utility of existing uncertainty estimates, degrading confidence in such data. This paper proposes the use of ensemble techniques to present multiple self-consistent realisations of a data set as a means of depicting unquantified uncertainties. These are generated using various systems (different algorithms or forward models) believed to be appropriate to the conditions observed. Benefiting from the experience of the climate modelling community, an ensemble provides a user with a more complete representation of the uncertainty as understood by the data producer and greater freedom to consider different realisations of the data.

  18. Xeroradiography in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Tamarozzi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Xeroradiographic investigations of the skull, hand, and elbow were performed on 27 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia. The results were compared with plain radiographic examinations. Xeroradiography, because of its technical properties (i.e. edge contrast enhancement and wide latitude), was shown to demonstrate cortical thinning of long bones, swelling of the diploic space in the skull, and reticulated patterns in the elbow better than standard radiography. Moreover, the use of 'positive' mode imaging was shown to have advantages in the study of the skull and extremities.

  19. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known as...... conditional beta series during the financial crises.......We introduce a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model that incorporates realized measures of variances and covariances. Realized measures extract information about the current levels of volatilities and correlations from high-frequency data, which is...

  20. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  1. Double beta decay: present status

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments (including the search for $2\\beta^{+}$, EC$\\beta^{+}$ and ECEC processes) are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Average and recommended half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay are presented. Conservative upper limits on effective Majorana neutrino mass and the coupling constant of the Majoron to the neutrino are established as $ < 0.75$ eV and $ < 1.9 \\cdot 10^{-4}$, respectively. Proposals fo...

  2. Situation assessment for aggregated vehicle merging at an unknown location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaria, Kanupriya; Das, Suman; Hinman, Michael; Salerno, John; Bai, Li

    2005-05-01

    This paper introduces the merge at a point (MAP) algorithm to detect the vehicles convoys whose destination locations are unknown. The algorithm will predict the merged vehicles identification numbers in an iterative manner. We applied this method using the simulated Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) data. The technique is similar to the dead reckoning and Kalman filtering algorithms. This algorithm consists of following procedures: 1) approximates the destination locations for each vehicle using its tracks, 2) validates what vehicles are going to merge at these predicted destination locations using the minimum error solution (MES), and 3) predicts the future destination locations where the vehicles will be merged at for the next iteration. This algorithm will be iteratively processed until predicted destination locations converge. We can use this algorithm to associate the vehicles that will merge to some unknown destination locations. It also has the potential to identify the convoy names and the threats associated with these vehicle groups.

  3. Towards high-speed autonomous navigation of unknown environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles; Roy, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we summarize recent research enabling high-speed navigation in unknown environments for dynamic robots that perceive the world through onboard sensors. Many existing solutions to this problem guarantee safety by making the conservative assumption that any unknown portion of the map may contain an obstacle, and therefore constrain planned motions to lie entirely within known free space. In this work, we observe that safety constraints may significantly limit performance and that faster navigation is possible if the planner reasons about collision with unobserved obstacles probabilistically. Our overall approach is to use machine learning to approximate the expected costs of collision using the current state of the map and the planned trajectory. Our contribution is to demonstrate fast but safe planning using a learned function to predict future collision probabilities.

  4. Learning Unknown Structure in CRFs via Adaptive Gradient Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of fitting probabilistic graphical models to the given data when the structure is not known. More specifically, we focus on learning unknown structure in conditional random fields, especially learning both the structure and parameters of a conditional random field model simultaneously. To do this, we first formulate the learning problem as a convex minimization problem by adding an l_2-regularization to the node parameters and a group l_1-regularization to the edge parameters, and then a gradient-based projection method is proposed to solve it which combines an adaptive stepsize selection strategy with a nonmonotone line search. Extensive simulation experiments are presented to show the performance of our approach in solving unknown structure learning problems.

  5. A New Method of Force Control for Unknown Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Mallapragada

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Current robotic systems are expected to interact with unknown environment where controlling the interaction forces becomes an important issue. We propose a new control technique for force control on unknown environments that tunes the force controller based on online estimation of the environment parameters. However, the proposed approach overcomes the need for precise estimation of environment parameters, which are needed in many system identification-based force control approaches. This framework uses an artificial neural network (ANN-based proportional-integral (PI-gain scheduling force controller to track the desired force by adjusting control gains such that error in parameter estimation can be accommodated. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control framework. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the proposed controller are discussed.

  6. Markov sequential pattern recognition : dependency and the unknown class.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Kevin Thomas; Haschke, Greg Benjamin; Koch, Mark William

    2004-10-01

    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) minimizes the expected number of observations to a decision and can solve problems in sequential pattern recognition. Some problems have dependencies between the observations, and Markov chains can model dependencies where the state occupancy probability is geometric. For a non-geometric process we show how to use the effective amount of independent information to modify the decision process, so that we can account for the remaining dependencies. Along with dependencies between observations, a successful system needs to handle the unknown class in unconstrained environments. For example, in an acoustic pattern recognition problem any sound source not belonging to the target set is in the unknown class. We show how to incorporate goodness of fit (GOF) classifiers into the Markov SPRT, and determine the worse case nontarget model. We also develop a multiclass Markov SPRT using the GOF concept.

  7. Dynamic Modeling from Flight Data with Unknown Time Skews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    A method for estimating dynamic model parameters from flight data with unknown time skews is described and demonstrated. The method combines data reconstruction, nonlinear optimization, and equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain to accurately estimate both dynamic model parameters and the relative time skews in the data. Data from a nonlinear F-16 aircraft simulation with realistic noise, instrumentation errors, and arbitrary time skews were used to demonstrate the approach. The approach was further evaluated using flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft, where the measured data were known to have relative time skews. Comparison of modeling results obtained from time-skewed and time-synchronized data showed that the method accurately estimates both dynamic model parameters and relative time skew parameters from flight data with unknown time skews.

  8. An Iterative Method for Extracting Chinese Unknown Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shan; ZHU Jie

    2001-01-01

    An iterative method for extractingunknown words from a Chinese text corpus is pro-posed in this paper. Unlike traditional non-iterativesegmentation-detection approaches, which use onlyknown words for segmentation, the proposed methoditeratively extracts new words and adds them into thelexicon. Then the augmented dictionary, which in-cludes known words and potential unknown words, isused in the next iteration to re-segment the input cor-pus. Experiments show that both the precision andrecall rates of segmentation are improved.

  9. Adaptive Stabilization for Nonholonomic Systems with Unknown Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive control strategy for a class of nonholonomic systems in chained form with virtual control coefficients, nonlinear uncertainties, and unknown time delays. State scaling technique and backstepping recursive approach are applied to design a nonlinear state feedback controller, which can guarantee the stabilization of the closed-loop systems. The simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Adaptive synchronization of Chua's circuits with fully unknown parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses adaptive synchronization of the original Chua's circuit and the modified Chua's circuit with x vertical bar x vertical bar when the parameters of the drive system are fully unknown and different with those of the response system. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the sufficient conditions for the synchronization have been derived theoretically. Numerical simulations are presented to verify that synchronization can be achieved by using this approach

  11. Territory: An Unknown Quantity in Debates on Territorial Cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Faludi

    2013-01-01

    There are complaints about territorial cohesion being a vague concept, but in relevant debates territory, too, figures as an unknown quantity. Thus, is it the fixed property of any state, region or local administrative unit, or is it a malleable social construct; rather than being filled with bounded territories, does space overall contain a dynamic network with fuzzy internal, as well as external boundaries, with implications for territorial cohesion? After all, if the former were to be true...

  12. Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

    When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “common sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; common sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; common sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover common sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “Common Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of common sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “Common Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same common sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the process will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.

  13. Inventory control in case of unknown demand and control parameters.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with unknown demand and control parameters in inventory control. Inventory control involves decisions on what to order when and in what quantity. These decisions are based on information about the demand. Models are constructed using complete demand information; these models ensure that a certain service level is achieved. However, in real life the demand information is not known completely. Often, only some historical demand observations are available, and these are used to...

  14. Controller Design for Unknown Multivariable Systems Using Monotone Modelling Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, D.H.; Chotai, A

    1981-01-01

    The problem of controller design for an unknown discrete or continuous multivariable system in the frequency domain based on open-loop step response data alone is considered. The approach is based upon the use of simple approximate plant models possessing the property that the resulting error in modelling the plant open-loop step response is both monotonic and sign definite as a function of time.

  15. Reconstruction of unknown characteristics in a third-order system

    OpenAIRE

    Keesman, K.; V.I. Maksimov

    2013-01-01

    The article considers dynamic identification of unknown characteristics in a third-order system. A realtime algorithm is proposed for the solution of the problem. The algorithm relies on constructs from stable dynamical inversion theory, which combines methods of the theory of ill-posed problems and positional control theory. In the proposed procedure, the reconstruction algorithm is represented as a control algorithm for some artificial dynamical system - a model. The model control is adapte...

  16. Simulation Results for Manipulation of Unknown Objects in Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiang; Haschke, Robert; Ritter, Helge; Bolder, Bram

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors proposed a novel reactive strategy to solve a unknown object local manipulation problem with an multifingered robot hand. In this method, the micro manipulation assumption is proposed and the object can be manipulated within the robot hand workspace without the active and explicit controlling about the rolling and sliding of the fingertips on the object. A 6 D.O.F reactive controller based on the hybrid of the contact force and the contact posit...

  17. A robot fuzzy motion planning approach in unknown environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yi-li; JIN Bao; LI Han; WANG Shu-guo

    2006-01-01

    A fuzzy robot motion planning approach is proposed in unknown environments for three-degree industrial robots.The proposed planning system is composed of several separate fuzzy units,which control individually each manipulator joint.Each unit combines a repelling influence,which is related to the nearby obstacle,with the attracting influence produced by the final manipulator configuration,to generate actuating command for each link.Effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified through simulation.

  18. Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location

    OpenAIRE

    Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.

    2013-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for...

  19. [Identification of an exhumed unknown infant through DNA analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp, Eilin; Püschel, Klaus; Warschke, Christian; Kaufmann, Richard; Krebs, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and subsequent DNA analysis of the skeletal remains of an unknown male newborn from 1988. Molecular biological methods confirmed the maternity of a woman who was already convicted of infanticide. Since homicide could not be clearly proven and manslaughter becomes barred by the statute of limitation after 20 years, the woman cannot be held accountable for the alleged killing of her first child. PMID:25004622

  20. Experimental creation of superposition of unknown photonic quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Hu, Meng-Jun; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Liu, Bi-Heng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most intriguing intrinsic properties of quantum world, quantum superposition provokes great interests in its own generation. Oszmaniec [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110403 (2016)] have proven that though a universal quantum machine that creates superposition of arbitrary two unknown states is physically impossible, a probabilistic protocol exists in the case of two input states have nonzero overlaps with the referential state. Here we report a heralded quantum machine realizing superpo...

  1. TGF-beta inhibits Ang II-induced MAPK p44/42 signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells by Ang II type 1 receptor downregulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, B.D.; Wouden, E.A. van der; Pelgrom, V.; Henning, R.H.; Sharma, K.; Deelman, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular changes in diabetes are characterized by reduced vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Previously, we demonstrated that TGF-beta1 impairs Ang II-induced contraction through reduced calcium mobilization. However, the effect of TGF-beta1 on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling is unknown. T

  2. TGF-beta Inhibits Ang II-Induced MAPK p44/42 Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Ang II Type 1 Receptor Downregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, Bernadet D. M.; van der Wouden, Els A.; Pelgrom, Vincent; Henning, Robert H.; Sharma, Kumar; Deelman, Leo E.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular changes in diabetes are characterized by reduced vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Previously, we demonstrated that TGF-beta 1 impairs Ang II-induced contraction through reduced calcium mobilization. However, the effect of TGF-beta 1 on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling is unknown.

  3. Scintillator based beta batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  4. Microarray-based method for detection of unknown genetic modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butenko Melinka A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the increased use of genetic modifications in crop improvement, there is a need to develop effective methods for the detection of both known and unknown transgene constructs in plants. We have developed a strategy for detection and characterization of unknown genetic modifications and we present a proof of concept for this method using Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice. The approach relies on direct hybridization of total genomic DNA to high density microarrays designed to have probes tiled throughout a set of reference sequences. Results We show that by using arrays with 25 basepair probes covering both strands of a set of 235 vectors (2 million basepairs we can detect transgene sequences in transformed lines of A. thaliana and rice without prior knowledge about the transformation vectors or the T-DNA constructs used to generate the studied plants. Conclusion The approach should allow the user to detect the presence of transgene sequences and get sufficient information for further characterization of unknown genetic constructs in plants. The only requirements are access to a small amount of pure transgene plant material, that the genetic construct in question is above a certain size (here ≥ 140 basepairs and that parts of the construct shows some degree of sequence similarity with published genetic elements.

  5. Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

  6. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bahcall, Neta [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brinkmann, Jonathan [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Muna, Demitri [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pâris, Isabelle [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, Patrick [Université Paris 6 et CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Streblyanska, Alina [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: nishanta@andrew.cmu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study.

  7. Adaptive Robust Waveform Selection for Unknown Target Detection in Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Lu Wang; Hong-Qiang Wang; Yu-Liang Qin; Yong-Qiang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    @@@A basic assumption of most recently proposed waveform design algorithms is that the target impulse response is a known deterministic function or a stochastic process with a known power spectral density (PSD). However, it is well-known that a target impulse response is neither easily nor accurately obtained; besides it changes sharply with attitude angles. Both of the aforementioned cases complicate the waveform design process. In this paper, an adaptive robust waveform selection method for unknown target detection in clutter is proposed. The target impulse response is considered to be unknown but belongs to a known uncertainty set. An adaptive waveform library is devised by using a signal-to-clutter-plus-noise ratio (SCNR)- based optimal waveform design method. By applying the minimax robust waveform selection method, the optimal robust waveform is selected to ensure the lowest performance bound of the unknown target detection in clutter. Results show that the adaptive waveform library outperforms the predefined linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveform library on the SCNR bound.

  8. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study

  9. Re-expression of IGF-II is important for beta cell regeneration in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxian Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The key factors which support re-expansion of beta cell numbers after injury are largely unknown. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II plays a critical role in supporting cell division and differentiation during ontogeny but its role in the adult is not known. In this study we investigated the effect of IGF-II on beta cell regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed an in vivo model of 'switchable' c-Myc-induced beta cell ablation, pIns-c-MycER(TAM, in which 90% of beta cells are lost following 11 days of c-Myc (Myc activation in vivo. Importantly, such ablation is normally followed by beta cell regeneration once Myc is deactivated, enabling functional studies of beta cell regeneration in vivo. IGF-II was shown to be re-expressed in the adult pancreas of pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/+ (MIG mice, following beta cell injury. As expected in the presence of IGF-II beta cell mass and numbers recover rapidly after ablation. In contrast, in pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/- (MIGKO mice, which express no IGF-II, recovery of beta cell mass and numbers were delayed and impaired. Despite failure of beta cell number increase, MIGKO mice recovered from hyperglycaemia, although this was delayed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that beta cell regeneration in adult mice depends on re-expression of IGF-II, and supports the utility of using such ablation-recovery models for identifying other potential factors critical for underpinning successful beta cell regeneration in vivo. The potential therapeutic benefits of manipulating the IGF-II signaling systems merit further exploration.

  10. Multivariate statistics in the identification of unknown nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification, and hence origin determination, of unknown nuclear material that might be found undeclared away from designated locations in the nuclear fuel cycle, is an important task in the frame of nuclear forensics. Material with forensic importance can be found at the microscopic level as particles in environmental samples indicating possible clandestine production of fissile material, and as bulky samples in the case of illicit trafficking of nuclear material. The objective of this work is to present, at a theoretical level, an isotopic finger-printing methodology which would determine the origin of unknown nuclear material with forensic importance. This is demonstrated for the case when the unknown nuclear material is spent nuclear fuel. The methodology is based on multivariate statistics, such as cluster and factor analysis, complemented by spent fuel isotopic composition simulations using the zero-dimensional depletion computer code ORIGEN2. A major source of error in the calculation of the evolution of the fuel in a reactor is the burnup dependence of the cross-sections used. The cross-section libraries should accurately represent a given reactor- fuel system. The procedures followed and associated limitations are discussed. The origin is determined from the characterisation of the material in terms of its initial enrichment, reactor type and burnup. The characterisation is based on the fact that the composition of spent nuclear fuel in individual nuclides is inherently consistent. A given composition of spent nuclear fuel, being the outcome of its initial composition, reactor type and irradiation history, should characterise uniquely the fuel and hence identify its origin. The sought characterisation of the unknown spent nuclear fuel material is obtained from the comparison of its actinides and fission products content, with isotopics calculated with ORIGEN2 for a range of commercial spent fuels from PWR (UO2 and MOX), BWR, CANDU and FBR. This

  11. Multivariate statistics in the identification of unknown nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification, and hence origin determination, of unknown nuclear material that might be found undeclared away from designated locations in the nuclear fuel cycle, is an important task in the frame of nuclear forensics. Material with forensic importance can be found at the microscopic level, as particles in environmental samples, indicating possible clandestine production of fissile material, and as bulky samples in the case of illicit trafficking of nuclear material. The objective of this work is to present, at a theoretical level, an isotopic finger-printing methodology which would determine the origin of unknown nuclear material with forensic importance. This is demonstrated for the case when the unknown nuclear material is spent nuclear fuel. The methodology is based on multivariate statistics, such as cluster and factor analysis, complemented by spent fuel isotopic composition simulations using the zero-dimensional depletion computer code ORIGEN2. A major source of error in the calculation of the evolution of the fuel in a reactor is the burnup dependence of the cross-sections used. The cross-section libraries should accurately represent a given reactor-fuel system. The procedures followed and associated limitations are discussed. The origin is determined from the characterisation of the material in terms of its initial enrichment, reactor type and burnup. The characterisation is based on the fact that the composition of spent nuclear fuel in individual nuclides is inherently consistent. A given composition of spent nuclear fuel, being the outcome of its initial composition, reactor type and irradiation history, should characterise uniquely the fuel and hence identify its origin. The sought characterisation of the unknown spent nuclear fuel material is obtained from the comparison of its actinides and fission products content, with isotopics calculated with ORIGEN2 for a range of commercial spent fuels from PWR (UO2 and MOX), BWR, CANDU and FBR. This

  12. CP-Violation in Neutrino Oscillations from EC/{beta}{sup +} decaying ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Catalina [Centre for Theoretical Particle Physics, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-08-15

    We discuss the separation of unknown neutrino properties by means of the energy dependence of the oscillation probability and we consider an hybrid setup which combines the electron capture and the {beta}{sup +} decay from the same radioactive proton-rich ion with the same boost. We conclude that the combination of the two decay channels, with different neutrino energies, achieves remarkable results.

  13. Stabilisation d’émulsions d’intérêt pharmaceutique par des protéines et des polysaccharides : exemples de la β-lactoglobuline, de la gomme arabique et de la gomme xanthane

    OpenAIRE

    Jouanny-Bouyer, Eléonore,

    2011-01-01

    L’objectif de cette étude a été de formuler et caractériser des émulsions simples huile/eau d’intérêt pharmaceutique stabilisées par de la β-lactoglobuline (β-lg), de la gomme arabique (GA), de la gomme xanthane (GX) et des mélanges β-lg:GA et β-lg:GX. Les concentrations massiques totales des dispersions de biopolymères étaient de 1 % et ont été augmentées à 2,5 % si les émulsions formulées n’étaient pas stables. Le mélange β-lg:GA a été réalisé à pH 4,2 afin de permettre la formation de comp...

  14. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  15. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  16. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  17. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  18. [Eutopic and ectopic production of glycoprotein hormones alpha and beta subunits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidart, J M; Baudin, E; Troalen, F; Bellet, D; Schlumberger, M

    1997-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, linked together by a covalent bond. Ectopic production of hCG has been described in various histological types of cancer. Actually, these malignant tumors predominantly secrete the free beta subunit (hCG beta) and not hCG. Production of free hCG beta is especially found in patients with bladder, pancreas, uterine and lung tumors. In patients with neuroendocrine tumors, serum levels of free hCG beta are higher in gastrointestinal-pancreatic and lung tumors. The significance of ectopic production of hCG beta--epiphenomena or intrinsic biological role--remains unknown. Several reports on the similar structure of hCG beta and certain growth factors suggest that free hCG beta could have an effect on cell proliferation. Increased serum levels of the free alpha subunit are found mainly in patients with neuroendocrine tumors localized in the gut or lung. Serum levels may also be raised in patients with a pituitary tumor, but such production is often associated with a rise in other pituitary hormones. The free alpha subunit plays a role in embryon development and would stimulate production of prolactin by decidual cells. The free alpha subunit may also play a role in tumor growth. PMID:9239230

  19. Maximum-revenue tariff under Bertrand duopoly with unknown costs

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda A. Ferreira; Ferreira, Flávio

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers an international trade under Bertrand model with differentiated products and with unknown production costs. The home government imposes a specific import tariff per unit of imports from the foreign firm. We prove that this tariff is decreasing in the expected production costs of the foreign firm and increasing in the production costs of the home firm. Furthermore, it is increasing in the degree of product substitutability. We also show that an increase in the tariff result...

  20. Simulating Events of Unknown Probabilities via Reverse Time Martingales

    OpenAIRE

    Latuszynski, Krzysztof; Kosmidis, Ioannis; Papaspiliopoulos, Omiros; Gareth O. Roberts

    2009-01-01

    Assume that one aims to simulate an event of unknown probability $s\\in (0,1)$ which is uniquely determined, however only its approximations can be obtained using a finite computational effort. Such settings are often encountered in statistical simulations. We consider two specific examples. First, the exact simulation of non-linear diffusions, second, the celebrated Bernoulli factory problem of generating an $f(p)-$coin given a sequence $X_1,X_2,...$ of independent tosses of a $p-$coin (with ...

  1. Adaptive synchronization between two different chaotic systems with unknown parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified mathematical expression describing a class of chaotic systems is presented, for which the problem of adaptive synchronization between two different chaotic systems with unknown parameters has been studied. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive synchronization controller is designed and analytic expression of the controller and the adaptive laws of parameters are developed. The adaptive synchronizations between Lorenz and Chen systems, a modified Chua's circuit and Roessler systems are taken as two illustrative examples to show the effectiveness of the proposed method

  2. Maximum Likelihood Localization of Radiation Sources with unknown Source Intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Baidoo-Williams, Henry E

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a novel and robust maximum likelihood approach to localizing radiation sources with unknown statistics of the source signal strength. The result utilizes the smallest number of sensors required theoretically to localize the source. It is shown, that should the source lie in the open convex hull of the sensors, precisely $N+1$ are required in $\\mathbb{R}^N, ~N \\in \\{1,\\cdots,3\\}$. It is further shown that the region of interest, the open convex hull of the sensors, is entirely devoid of false stationary points. An augmented gradient ascent algorithm with random projections should an estimate escape the convex hull is presented.

  3. Control of Unknown Chaotic Systems Based on Neural Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDong-Mei; WANGZheng-Ou

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the predictive control into the control of chaotic system and propose a neural network control algorithm based on predictive control. The proposed control system stabilizes the chaotic motion in an unknown chaotic system onto the desired target trajectory. The proposed algorithm is simple and its convergence speed is much higher than existing similar algorithms. The control system can control hyperchaos. We analyze the stability of the control system and prove the convergence property of the neural controller. The theoretic derivation and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  4. Epipolar image rectification through geometric algorithms with unknown parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Herráez Boquera, José; Denia Rios, José Luís; Navarro Esteve, Pablo José; RODRÍGUEZ PEREÑA, JAIME; MARTÍN SÁNCHEZ, MARÍA TERESA

    2013-01-01

    Herráez Boquera, J., Denia Rios, J.L., Navarro Esteve, P.J., Rodríguez Pereña, J., Martín Sánchez M.T."Epipolar image rectification through geometric algorithms with unknown parameters". JJ. Electron. Imaging. 22(4), 043021 (Dec 02, 2013). © (2013) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or mo...

  5. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Generalized Beta Closed Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta open mappings. We investigate some of their properties. We also introduce intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings as well as intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta open mappings. We provide the relation between intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings.

  6. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  7. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    OpenAIRE

    Robison-Cox, James F.; Robert J. Boik

    1998-01-01

    The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q) is the beta function. Dutka (1981) gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  8. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  9. Cholesterol enhances amyloid {beta} deposition in mouse retina by modulating the activities of A{beta}-regulating enzymes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiying [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko, E-mail: k.ohno.oph@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Morita, Ikuo [Section of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cholesterol-treated RPE produces more A{beta} than non-treated RPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neprilysin expression and activity decreased in cholesterol-treated RPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}-Secretase expression and activity decreased in cholesterol-treated RPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cholesterol-enriched diet induced subRPE deposits in aged mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} were present in cholesterol-enriched-diet-induced subRPE deposits in aged mice. -- Abstract: Subretinally-deposited amyloid {beta} (A{beta}) is a main contributor of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the mechanism causing A{beta} deposition in AMD eyes is unknown. Hypercholesterolemia is a significant risk for developing AMD. Thus, we investigated the effects of cholesterol on A{beta} production in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro and in the mouse retina in vivo. RPE cells isolated from senescent (12-month-old) C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 {mu}g/ml cholesterol for 48 h. A{beta} amounts in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Activity and expression of enzymes and proteins that regulate A{beta} production were examined by activity assay and real time PCR. The retina of mice fed cholesterol-enriched diet was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Cholesterol significantly increased A{beta} production in cultured RPE cells. Activities of A{beta} degradation enzyme; neprilysin (NEP) and anti-amyloidogenic secretase; {alpha}-secretase were significantly decreased in cell lysates of cholesterol-treated RPE cells compared to non-treated cells, but there was no change in the activities of {beta}- or {gamma}-secretase. mRNA levels of NEP and {alpha}-secretase (ADAM10 and ADAM17) were significantly lower in cholesterol-treated RPE cells than non-treated cells. Senescent (12-month-old) mice fed cholesterol-enriched chow developed subRPE deposits containing A{beta}, whereas

  10. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  11. Collective Effect Studies of a Beta Beam Decay Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The Beta Beam, the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring called the Decay Ring (DR), is the basis of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the DR's ion intensity and of its duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Different methods, including analytical calculations and multiparticle tracking simulations, were used to estimate the DR's potential to contain enough ions in as small a part of the ring as needed for the sensitivities. Studies of transverse blow up of the beams due to resonance wake fields show that a very challenging upper limit of the transverse broadband impedance is required to avoid instabilities and beam loss.

  12. Collective Effect Studies of a Beta Beam Decay Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beta Beam, the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring called the Decay Ring (DR), is the basis of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the DR's ion intensity and of its duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Different methods, including analytical calculations and multiparticle tracking simulations, were used to estimate the DR's potential to contain enough ions in as small a part of the ring as needed for the sensitivities. Studies of transverse blow up of the beams due to resonance wake fields show that a very challenging upper limit of the transverse broadband impedance is required to avoid instabilities and beam loss.

  13. Searching for a particle of unknown mass and lifetime in the presence of an unknown non-monotonic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics hypothesize the existence of new low-mass particles. Typically there are few theoretical constraints on the mass or lifetime of such particles. This requires the experimentalist to perform a search in which both the mass and lifetime of the particle are unknown. Such searches for low-mass particles are complicated by the possible presence of resonances and other non-monotonic backgrounds. This paper presents a simple and fast approach to assigning significance and setting limits in such searches

  14. Effect of beta blockade and beta stimulation on stage fright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantigan, C O; Brantigan, T A; Joseph, N

    1982-01-01

    Stage fright, physiologically the "fight or flight" reaction, is a disabling condition to the professional musician. Because it is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we have investigated the effects of beta blockade on musical performance with propranolol in a double blind fashion and the effects of beta stimulation using terbutaline. Stage fright symptoms were evaluated in two trials, which included a total of 29 subjects, by questionnaire and by the State Trai Anxiety Inventory. Quality of musical performance was evaluated by experienced music critics. Beta blockade eliminates the physical impediments to performance caused by stage fright and even eliminates the dry mouth so frequently encountered. The quality of musical performance as judged by experienced music critics is significantly improved. This effect is achieved without tranquilization. Beta stimulating drugs increase stage fright problems, and should be used in performing musicians only after consideration of the detrimental effects which they may have on musical performance. PMID:6120650

  15. Rapid Evolution of Beta-Keratin Genes Contribute to Phenotypic Differences That Distinguish Turtles and Birds from Other Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang I.; Kong, Lesheng; Ponting, Chris P; Haerty, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing of vertebrate genomes permits changes in distinct protein families, including gene gains and losses, to be ascribed to lineage-specific phenotypes. A prominent example of this is the large-scale duplication of beta-keratin genes in the ancestors of birds, which was crucial to the subsequent evolution of their beaks, claws, and feathers. Evidence suggests that the shell of Pseudomys nelsoni contains at least 16 beta-keratins proteins, but it is unknown whether this is a complete set...

  16. Beta decay of 31Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete study of 31Ar beta decay has been made by high-resolution charged-particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Beta-delayed radiation was detected by an array of three charged-particle detectors and a large-volume germanium detector. Fifteen new energy levels were discovered in 31Cl. The beta-strength distribution, measured to 14.5 MeV, is compared with a shell-model calculation in the full sd space. The quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength and the isospin impurity of the IAS in 31Cl are discussed. (orig.)

  17. The Age of Beta Pic

    OpenAIRE

    Navascues, D. Barrado y; Stauffer, J. R.; Song, I.; Caillault, J-P.

    1999-01-01

    We have reanalyzed data for the proposed moving group associated with beta Pic in order to determine if the group (or part of it) is real, and, if so, to derive an improved age estimate for beta Pic. By using new, more accurate proper motions from PPM and Hipparcos and a few new radial velocities, we conclude that on kinematic grounds, two M dwarfs have space motions that coincide with that of beta Pic to within 1 km/s with small error bars. Based on a CM diagram derived from accurate photome...

  18. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well...... only superior to the common capitalization weighted index but also to their smart beta benchmark, even after cost for value, size, and low volatility funds. We encourage investors to increase the use of smart beta as benchmarks while still obtaining extra performance through active management—a concept...

  19. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  20. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  1. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Arazi; Hadi Rohani; Ahmad Ghiasi; Nasrin Abdi Keikanloo

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated i...

  2. PHYLOGENOMICS - GUIDED VALIDATION OF FUNCTION FOR CONSERVED UNKNOWN GENES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V, DE CRECY-LAGARD; D, HANSON A

    2012-01-03

    Identifying functions for all gene products in all sequenced organisms is a central challenge of the post-genomic era. However, at least 30-50% of the proteins encoded by any given genome are of unknown function, or wrongly or vaguely annotated. Many of these 'unknown' proteins are common to prokaryotes and plants. We accordingly set out to predict and experimentally test the functions of such proteins. Our approach to functional prediction is integrative, coupling the extensive post-genomic resources available for plants with comparative genomics based on hundreds of microbial genomes, and functional genomic datasets from model microorganisms. The early phase is computer-assisted; later phases incorporate intellectual input from expert plant and microbial biochemists. The approach thus bridges the gap between automated homology-based annotations and the classical gene discovery efforts of experimentalists, and is much more powerful than purely computational approaches to identifying gene-function associations. Among Arabidopsis genes, we focused on those (2,325 in total) that (i) are unique or belong to families with no more than three members, (ii) are conserved between plants and prokaryotes, and (iii) have unknown or poorly known functions. Computer-assisted selection of promising targets for deeper analysis was based on homology .. independent characteristics associated in the SEED database with the prokaryotic members of each family, specifically gene clustering and phyletic spread, as well as availability of functional genomics data, and publications that could link candidate families to general metabolic areas, or to specific functions. In-depth comparative genomic analysis was then performed for about 500 top candidate families, which connected ~55 of them to general areas of metabolism and led to specific functional predictions for a subset of ~25 more. Twenty predicted functions were experimentally tested in at least one prokaryotic organism

  3. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1997-01-01

    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposited...... in the EMBL database under the accession numbers R08806 and Z17360, for the ribosomal protein L5 and for A-Raf kinase. All isolated clones except the one for CK2 beta showed no interaction with the catalytic alpha subunit of CK2. A-Raf kinase is a new interesting partner of CK2 beta. The isolated A...

  4. Impact of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Sixty-three consecutive intensive care patients with suspicion of an abscess and negative or inconclusive previous radiological examinations were included. CT was performed using the helical technique. A total of 45 abdominal and 38 chest examinations were evaluated. Results: 5/38 examinations of the chest revealed the source of sepsis (pleural empyema 2, lung abscess 1, mediastinitis 1, retrosternal abscess 1). 7/45 abdominal CT examinations showed the source of sepsis (intraabdominal abscess 2, hepatic abscess 3, intestinal perforation 1, gangrenous colitis 1). Conclusion: CT is useful for the evaluation of patients with fever or sepsis without a known source. Due to the detection of a spetic focus by CT, 19% of the patients in our study could be immediately referred to causal therapy as percutaneous drainage or surgery. (orig.)

  5. 'Through privation to knowledge': unknown documents from Freud's university years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, E

    1993-08-01

    The paper is centred on three hitherto unknown grants, two of them donated by different Jewish Foundations to the medical student Freud shortly before the end of his studies. It furthermore turned out that Freud's salary as a demonstrator in Brücke's Laboratory had been a grant too, donated by the University of Vienna. Aspects of the contemporary background by means of the private foundations and their donors as well as of the aspiring tendencies at the University of Vienna are described. Documentary evidence demonstrates that Brücke promoted Sigmund Freud continuously, more than hitherto known in the biography. The significance of Brücke and Charcot as identification-figures, on the one hand, and for Freud's development as a scientist, on the other, is elaborated. Contemporary quotations shed light on Freud's poverty in his youth as well as the arising anti-Semitism at the University of Vienna. PMID:8407131

  6. Fever of unknown origin - Hidden in the head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kishore Pandita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The original algorithmic approach, as outlined by de Kleijn and colleagues and practiced commonly, envisages performing computed tomography (CT of chest, abdomen, and pelvis in patients with classical fever of unknown origin (FUO, in whom no potentially diagnostic clue exists. It further envisages performing positron emission tomography (PET scan, if CT scan is unrevealing. Imaging of head and neck especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has not been included in this algorithm, that leaves these important regions unexplored in most settings where PET scan is unavailable. MRI is a safe modality for evaluating central nervous system lesions and its role in FUO has not been adequately evaluated. We present three patients of FUO in whom the diagnosis of tuberculoma of brain as a cause of prolonged pyrexia got delayed because the MRI of head was not done initially, to comply with the approach of minimum diagnostic evaluation.

  7. Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Undersea Vehicle in Unknown Unstructured Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.

  8. Villitis of unknown aetiology: correlation of recurrence with clinical outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeley, L

    2010-01-01

    Villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Consequently, an ability to predict recurrence could be clinically relevant. We examined placentas where villitis was diagnosed in a previous pregnancy to establish the risk of recurrence and outcome. A total of 304 cases of VUA were diagnosed in our laboratory over a 4-year period. Subsequently, 19 of this cohort had a second placenta examined histologically. Recurrence and clinical outcome were recorded. Villitis recurred in 7 of 19 cases (37%). There was a high level of adverse pregnancy outcome in this cohort overall, characterised by small for gestational age infants and stillbirth, particularly in cases with high-grade villitis. We identified recurrent villitis more frequently than previously reported. Our findings confirm an association between high-grade villitis and poor outcome. Adequately powered prospective studies are required to determine if enhanced surveillance of subsequent pregnancies is indicated following a diagnosis of villitis.

  9. Pole assignment for stochastic systems with unknown coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翰馥[1; 曹希仁[2

    2000-01-01

    This paper solves the exact pole assignment problem for the single-input stochastic systems with unknown coefficients under the controllability assumption which is necessary and sufficient for the arbitrary pole assignment for systems with known coefficients. The system noise is required to be mutually independent with zero mean and bounded second moment. Two approaches to solving the problem are proposed: One is the iterative learning approach which can be applied when the state at a fixed time can be repeatedly observed with different feedback gains; the other is the adaptive control approach which works when the trajectories satisfy a nondegeneracy condition. Both methods are essentially based on stochastic approximation, and the feedback gains are recursively given without invoking the certainty-equivalency-principle.

  10. Cancer of unknown primary origin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa De Carlo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP accounts for 2-10% of all malignancies. The apparent absence of the primary tumour, the development of early, uncommon systemic metastases and the resistance to therapy and poor prognosis are hallmarks of this heterogeneous clinical entity and are a challenge for physicians. The diagnostic workup of patients with CUP includes a large amount of histopathological examination, as well as the use of imaging techniques that often fail to identify the primary tumour. Therefore, the optimal workup and treatment for these patients remains to be determined. Molecular diagnostic tools, such as DNA microarray analysis, could help in the search for "lost" CUP origin and guide the further treatment approach. We report the case of a 66-year-old man, with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis of carcinoma and neurological syndrome with diplopia and balance disorders, in which many exams have been performed without finding the primary tumour.

  11. CROSS IDENTIFICATION OF STARS WITH UNKNOWN PROPER MOTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross identification of sources in separate catalogs is one of the most basic tasks in observational astronomy. It is, however, surprisingly difficult and generally ill defined. Recently, Budavari and Szalay formulated the problem in the realm of probability theory and laid down the statistical foundations of an extensible methodology. In this paper, we apply their Bayesian approach to stars with detectable proper motion and show how to associate their observations. We study models on a sample of stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which allow for an unknown proper motion per object, and demonstrate the improvements over the analytic static model. Our models and conclusions are directly applicable to upcoming surveys such as PanSTARRS, the Dark Energy Survey, Sky Mapper, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, whose data sets will contain hundreds of millions of stars observed multiple times over several years.

  12. A Brief Introduction on Mystery, the Unknown, Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this age of globalization, this age of so many ways to know—and so many ways to know things so quickly—it is both satisfying and deeply unnerving to come upon things and events that are really hard to understand, things and events so shocking or strange or mysterious, that they seem Unknown. Perhaps even unknowable. The first note of NANO Issue 2 focuses on an unsolved murder and reveals a mystery that is confounding, creepy, and yet oddly compelling. In “Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age,” Jeremy Biles and Brian Collins explore the edges of where cyber-crime threatens to turn real—and vice versa. In the second note, Jennifer Ballengee compares Oedipus at Colonus with Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.

  13. Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied. This is...... accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the actual force(s) applied to the structure. The white noise input(s) and the structures responses are then used to...... identify the compined system. Identification results are then sorted as either structural parameters or input force(s) characteristics....

  14. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  15. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  16. An unknown mass: the differential diagnosis of digit tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, William D; Khachemoune, Amor

    2015-11-01

    There is little discussion of tumors arising in the digits in the dermatology literature. The patient with an undifferentiated mass of the finger is frequently encountered in the clinic, and variances in presentation of common and uncommon entities pose a challenge that may prompt further investigation for proper diagnosis and treatment. In this review, the authors illustrate the approach and work-up of an unknown digit mass of a 45-year-old female patient. They go on to discuss the presentation and treatment of common tumor lesions of the finger likely to be encountered in the dermatologist's clinic including: ganglion cyst/mucous cyst, giant-cell tumor, verruca vulgaris, epidermal inclusion cyst, poroma, porocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, infantile digital fibromatosis, acquired digital fibrokeratoma, Koenen's tumor, schwannoma, cutaneous neurofibroma, pyogenic granuloma, hemangioma, glomus tumor, epithelioid sarcoma, and metastatic disease. PMID:26235189

  17. Phase shift estimation in interferograms with unknown phase step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, Oscar; Rivera, Mariano; Gonzalez, Adonai

    2016-08-01

    We first present two closed formulas for computing the phase shift in interferograms with unknown phase step. These formulas obtain theoretically the exact phase step in fringe pattern without noise and only require the information in two pixels of the image. The previous formulas allows us to define a functional that yields an estimate of the phase step in interferograms corrupted by noise. In the experiment we use the standard Least Square formulation which also yields a closed formula, although the general formulation admits a robust potential. We provide two possible implementations of our approach, one in which the sites can be randomly selected and the other in which we can scan the whole image. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm presents the best results compared with state of the art algorithms.

  18. The Difficulty of Sexing Skeletons from Unknown Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sierp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of sex from skeletal remains is performed using a number of methods developed by biological anthropology. They must be evaluated for consistency and for their performance in a forensic setting. Twenty skeletons of varied provenance had their sex determined by 15 existing methods of forensic anthropology (7 metric and 8 morphological. The methods were evaluated for their consistency in determination of sex. No single individual was identified as belonging to one sex exclusively. Ambiguous results were obtained by metric methods for fourteen individuals (70% and by morphological methods for only five individuals (25% (Chi-squared = 4.3, df = 1, P<0.05. Methods which use the size of bones as an indicator of sex perform poorly on skeletal remains of individuals of unknown provenance. Methods which combine morphologic and metric techniques, that is, geometric morphometric analysis, may result in greater levels of consistency.

  19. FPGA Implementation of NLMS Algorithm for Identification of unknown system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Rekha,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a VHDL implementation of a variable step size Least Mean Square (NLMS adaptive algorithm. The envisaged application is the identification of an unknown system. The good convergence of NLMS algorithm has made us to choose it. It also has good stability. Adaptive filtering constitutes one of the core technologies in digital signal processing and finds numerous application areas in science as well as in industry. Adaptive filtering techniques are used in a wide range of applications, including system identification, adaptive equalization, adaptive noise cancellation, wire less communication and echo cancellation. A HDL implementation is developed for a 4th order NLMS adaptive filter. As compared conventional LMS it has been proven that NLMS Algorithm has good behavior. ModelSim simulations results altogether with plots obtained in Matlab prove the same.

  20. Alternate Location Method of a Robot Team in Unknown Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-zhong; LIU Jing-jing

    2008-01-01

    The alternate location method of a robot team is proposed. Three of the robots are kept still as beacon robots, not always the same ones, while the others are regarded as mobile robots. The mobile robots alternatively measure the distance between one of them and three beacon robots with ultrasonic measurement module. The distance data are combined with its dead-reckoning information using iterated extended Kalman filter(IEKF) to realize the optimal estimate of its position. According to the condition the future beacon robots positions should be desired ones, the target function and the nonlinear constrain equations are set up which are used by nonlinear optimization algorithm to estimate the position of the future beacon robots. By alternately changing the robots roles as active beacon, the alternate location in unknown environment can be realized. Process and result of the simulation test are given and the position estimation error is within±10mm, which proves the validity of this method.

  1. Altamira cave Paleolithic paintings harbor partly unknown bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2002-05-21

    Since it has been reported that microorganisms can affect painting pigments, Paleolithic painting microbiology deserves attention. The present study is the first report on the bacterial colonization of the valuable Paleolithic paintings in the famous Altamira cave (Spain). One sample taken from a painting area in the Polychromes Hall was analyzed culture-independently. This was the first time microbiologists were allowed to take sample material directly from Altamira paintings. Identification methods included PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The applied approach gave insight into a great bacterial taxonomic diversity, and allowed the detection of unexpected and unknown bacteria with potential effects on the conservation of the painting. Regarding the number of 29 visible DGGE bands in the community fingerprint, the numbers of analyzed clones described about 72% of the phylogenetic diversity present in the sample. Thirty-eight percent of the sequences analyzed were phylogenetically most closely related to cultivated bacteria, while the majority (62%) were most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones. Bacteria identified in Altamira were related with sequence similarities between 84.8 and 99.4% to members of the cosmopolitan Proteobacteria (52.3%), to members of the Acidobacterium division (23.8%), Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides phylum (9.5%), green non-sulfur bacteria (4.8%), Planctomycetales (4.8%) and Actinobacteria (4.8%). The high number of clones most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones showed the broad spectrum of unknown and yet to be cultivated bacteria in Altamira cave. PMID:12052543

  2. Detection of Unknown Primary Tumors Using Whole Body FDG PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJun; LINXiangtong; GUANYihui; ZUOChuantao; HUAFengchun; SHENGXiaofang; WANGYang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in locating occult primary lesions. Methods: 50 patients with varying hetero-geneous metastases of unknown primary origin were referred for FDG PET. The locations of the known metastatic tumor manifestations were distributed as follows: cervical lymph nodes metastases (n=18),skeletal metastases (n=15), cerebral metastases (n=12), others (n=5). All patients underwent whole body 18F-FDG PET imaging. The images were interpreted by visual inspection and semi-quantitative analysis(standardized uptake value, SUV). The patients had undergone conventional imaging within 2 weeks of FDG PET. Surgical, clinical and histopathologic findings were used to assess the performance of FDG PET.Results: FDG PET was able to detect the location of the primary tumor in 32/50 patients (64%). The primary tumors were proved by histopathologic results, and located in the lungs (n=17), the nasopharynx(n=9), the breast (n=2), the ovary (n=l), the colon(n=l), the prostate(n=l),the thyroid (n=l). FDG PET were proved false positive in 2 patients (4%), and the suspicious primary tumors were in uterus and colon respectively. During the clinical follow-up of 2 to 26 months, the primary tumor was found in only 2 patients ( prostate cancer, gastric cancer). Conclusion: PET imaging allows identification of the primary site and metastatic lesions(including bone and soft tissue metastases) at a single examination.Whole body lSF-FDG PET allows effective localization of the unknown primary site of origin and can contribute substantially to patient care.

  3. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means. 2 figs

  4. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms such as headaches, bone or muscle aches, fever, chills, and tiredness during your treatment with peginterferon beta- ... not go away: headache muscle or joint pain fever chills weakness Some side effects can be serious. If ...

  5. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly

  6. Recent double beta decay results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balysh, A. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Beck, M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Belyaev, S.T. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Bensch, F.; Bockholt, J. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Demehin, A.; Gurov, A. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Heusser, G.; Hirsch, M.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Kondratenko, I.; Lebedev, V.I. (Kurchatov Institute, 123 182 Moscow (Russian Federation)); Maier, B. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany)); Mueller, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare LNGS, 67010 Assergi (Italy)); Petry, F.; Piepke, A.; Strecker, H.; Voellinger, M.; Zuber, K. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, W-6900 Heidelberg (Germany))

    1992-02-01

    The status and recent results of second generation [beta][beta]-experiments using isotopically enriched source materials are described. These experiments are at present the most sensitive tools to distinguish Dirac from Majorana neutrinos. The at present most advanced experimental techniques, namely the use of high-resolution calorimetric detectors and of time projection chambers are compared. New limits on the Majorana neutrino mass as well as for the Majoron-neutrino coupling are presented.

  7. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  8. Synthesis of Beta Pyridyl Carbinol Tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Shukla

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available A process for the synthesis of Beta pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester starting from quinoline has been developed. Beta-pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride gave Beta-pyridy1 carbinol which on treatment tartaric acid yielded Beta-pyridy1 carbinol tartrate, a vaso dilator known in trade as "Ronicoltartrate".

  9. Use of AWCC in evaluation of unknown fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important technological problem in the sphere of non-proliferation and safeguards is nondestructive analysis (NDA) methodology for qualitative and quantitative characterization of nuclear materials. Additionally, NDA tends to be labor and time intensive. Two NDA techniques used at KIPT included Gamma Spectroscopy (for qualitative analysis) and Neutron activation (for quantitative analysis). Gamma Spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of radionuclides within the samples, whereas an Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) in the active mode was used to quantitatively determine the 235U content in particular types of fissile materials at KIPT. This paper describes the usage of the AWCC at NSC KIPT for characterizing nuclear materials for IAEA safeguards. It was also an opportunity to estimate fissile materials of unknown composition. The equipment used was a model JCC-51 AWCC using a shift register model JSR-12 from Canberra and two neutron sources [AN-HP (241AmLi)]. A Compaq Presario computer using Windows version of NCC (Los Alamos software) was used to operate the AWCC. Materials studied in this project included highly enriched nuclear material in the form of powder, compacts (tablets, microspheres, rods), salt and scrap. The chemical composition of nuclear material included uranium metal, uranium dioxide, uranium nitride, uranium carbonitride, thorium dioxide, and mixtures of these compounds. New standards were used to recalibrate the AWCC using material obtained at KIPT with documented compositional values more similar to the materials to be measured, and in similar containers as well. During this study, the AWCC calibration curves were obtained for uranium metal and uranium dioxide with different enrichments up to 90 % for 235U. A broad spectrum of other fissile materials of unknown composition with differing enrichments has also been studied, and the items' isotopic and quantitative compositions have also been determined. Using the new calibration

  10. Clinicopathological study on TTV infection in hepatitis of unknown etiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Jie Hu; Zhen-Wei Lang; Yu-Sen Zhou; Hui-Ping Yan; De-Zhuang Huang; Wan-Rong Chen; Zhao-Xia Luo

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the state of infection, replication site,pathogenicity and clinical significance of transfusiontransmitted virus (TTV) in patients with hepatitis, especiallyin patients of unknown etiology.METHODS: Liver tissues taken from 136 cases of non-A non-G hepatitis were tested for Tr virus antigen and nucleic acidby in situ hybridization (ISH) and nested-polymerase chainreaction (PCR). Among them, TT virus genome and itscomplemental strand were also detected in 24 cases ofautopsy liver and extrahepatic tissues with ISH. Meanwhile,TTV DNA was detected in the sera of 187 hepatitis patientsby nested-PCR. The pathological and clinical data of thecases infected with nv only were analyzed.RESULTS: In liver, the total positive rate of rrv DNA was32.4 % and the positive signals were located in the nuclei ofhepatocytes. In serus, rrv DNA was detected in 21. 4 %cases of hepatitis A-G, 34.4 % of non-A non-G hepatitis and15 % of healthy donors. The correspondence rate of lrvDNA detection between liver tissue with ISH and sera withPCR was 63.2 % and 89.3 % in the same liver tissues by ISHand by PCR, respectively. Using double-strand probes andsingle-strand probes designed to detect TTV genome, thecorrespondence rate of Trv DNA detected in liver andextrahepatic tissues was 85. 7 %. Using single-strandprobes, TTV genome could he detected in liver andextrahepatic tissues by PCR, but its complemental strands(replication strands) could be observed only in livers. Theliver function of most cases infected with TTV alone wasabnormal and the liver tissues had different pathologicaldamage such es ballooning, acidophilia degeneration,formation of apoptosis bodies and focus of necrosis, but the inflammation in the Iobule and portal area was mild.CONCLUSION: The positive rate of TTV DNA among cases ofhepatitis was higher than that of donors, especially inpatients with nonA non-G hepatitis, but most of them werecoinfected with other hepatitis viruses. Lrv can infect notonly

  11. Vasodilatory mechanisms of beta receptor blockade.

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Géraldine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Dessy, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers are widely prescribed for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Compared to traditional beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-blockers of the new generation exhibit ancillary properties such as vasodilation through different mechanisms. This translates into a more favorable hemodynamic profile. The relative affinities of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists towards the three beta-adrenoreceptor isotypes matter for predicting their functional impact on vasomotor contro...

  12. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Beta contamination monitor energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration

  14. Crowdsourcing the unknown: the satellite search for Genghis Khan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, A Y M; Lin, Albert Yu-Min; Huynh, Andrew; Lanckriet, Gert; Barrington, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Massively parallel collaboration and emergent knowledge generation is described through a large scale survey for archaeological anomalies within ultra-high resolution earth-sensing satellite imagery. Over 10K online volunteers contributed 30K hours (3.4 years), examined 6,000 km², and generated 2.3 million feature categorizations. Motivated by the search for Genghis Khan's tomb, participants were tasked with finding an archaeological enigma that lacks any historical description of its potential visual appearance. Without a pre-existing reference for validation we turn towards consensus, defined by kernel density estimation, to pool human perception for "out of the ordinary" features across a vast landscape. This consensus served as the training mechanism within a self-evolving feedback loop between a participant and the crowd, essential driving a collective reasoning engine for anomaly detection. The resulting map led a National Geographic expedition to confirm 55 archaeological sites across a vast landscape. A increased ground-truthed accuracy was observed in those participants exposed to the peer feedback loop over those whom worked in isolation, suggesting collective reasoning can emerge within networked groups to outperform the aggregate independent ability of individuals to define the unknown. PMID:25549335

  15. Fever in Children and Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Agarwal, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    Fever is the most common symptom in children and can be classified as fever with or without focus. Fever without focus can be less than 7 d and is subclassified as fever without localizing signs and fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO is defined as a temperature greater than 38.3 °C, for more than 3 wk or failure to reach a diagnosis after 1 wk of inpatient investigations. The most common causes of FUO in children are infections, connective tissue disorders and neoplasms. Infectious diseases most commonly implicated in children with FUO are salmonellosis, tuberculosis, malaria and rickettsial diseases. Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the connective tissue disease frequently associated with FUO. Malignancy is the third largest group responsible for FUO in children. Diagnostic approach of FUO includes detailed history and examination supported with investigations. Age, history of contact, exposure to wild animals and medications should be noted. Examination should include, apart from general appearance, presence of sweating, rashes, tonsillitis, sinusitis and lymph node enlargement. Other signs such as abdominal tenderness and hepatosplenomegly should be looked for. The muscles and bones should be carefully examined for connective tissue disorders. Complete blood count, blood smear examination and level of acute phase reactants should be part of initial investigations. Radiological imaging is useful aid in diagnosing FUO. Trials of antimicrobial agents should not be given as they can obscure the diagnosis of the disease in FUO. PMID:25724501

  16. Neutrino masses and mixings: Status of known and unknown $3\

    CERN Document Server

    Capozzi, F; Marrone, A; Montanino, D; Palazzo, A

    2016-01-01

    Within the standard 3nu mass-mixing framework, we present an up-to-date global analysis of neutrino oscillation data (as of January 2016), including the latest available results from experiments with atmospheric neutrinos (Super-Kamiokande and IceCube DeepCore), at accelerators (first T2K anti-nu and NOvA nu runs in both appearance and disappearance mode), and at short-baseline reactors (Daya Bay and RENO far/near spectral ratios), as well as a reanalysis of older KamLAND data in the light of the "bump" feature recently observed in reactor spectra. We discuss improved constraints on the five known oscillation parameters (delta m^2, |Delta m^2|, sin^2theta_12, sin^2theta_13, sin^2theta_23), and the status of the three remaining unknown parameters: the mass hierarchy, the theta_23 octant, and the possible CP-violating phase delta. With respect to previous global fits, we find that the reanalysis of KamLAND data induces a slight decrease of both delta m^2 and sin^2theta_12, while the latest accelerator and atmos...

  17. Physics at 13 TeV: CMS - scanning the unknown

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    CMS is getting ready to use its accurate detector to scan the many ripples of the unknown physics that may lie beyond the Standard Model. Foremost in everyone’s mind is the search for signs of the production of dark matter at a man-made machine.   Interestingly, the observation of dark matter or new weakly interacting particles implies detecting that some energy has escaped, i.e. it’s missing from the upcoming proton collisions at the LHC. This is why measuring and understanding “missing energy” will be a very important step in that direction. “A large amount of missing energy is the signature for many processes of physics beyond the Standard Model. However, it’s not the only interesting signature that we will be able to exploit when the new collision energy is available,” explains Luca Malgeri, CMS Physics Coordinator. Among the interesting things not associated with missing energy are high-mass resonanc...

  18. Crowdsourcing the unknown: the satellite search for Genghis Khan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Y M Lin

    Full Text Available Massively parallel collaboration and emergent knowledge generation is described through a large scale survey for archaeological anomalies within ultra-high resolution earth-sensing satellite imagery. Over 10K online volunteers contributed 30K hours (3.4 years, examined 6,000 km², and generated 2.3 million feature categorizations. Motivated by the search for Genghis Khan's tomb, participants were tasked with finding an archaeological enigma that lacks any historical description of its potential visual appearance. Without a pre-existing reference for validation we turn towards consensus, defined by kernel density estimation, to pool human perception for "out of the ordinary" features across a vast landscape. This consensus served as the training mechanism within a self-evolving feedback loop between a participant and the crowd, essential driving a collective reasoning engine for anomaly detection. The resulting map led a National Geographic expedition to confirm 55 archaeological sites across a vast landscape. A increased ground-truthed accuracy was observed in those participants exposed to the peer feedback loop over those whom worked in isolation, suggesting collective reasoning can emerge within networked groups to outperform the aggregate independent ability of individuals to define the unknown.

  19. Use of AWCC in evaluation of unknown fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important technological problem in the sphere of non-proliferation and safeguards is nondestructive analysis (NDA) methodology for qualitative and quantitative characterization of nuclear materials. Additionally, NDA tends to be labor and time intensive. Two NDA techniques used at KIPT included Gamma Spectroscopy (for qualitative analysis) and Neutron activation (for quantitative analysis). Gamma Spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of radionuclides within the samples, whereas an Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) in the active mode was used to quantitatively determine the 235U content in particular types of fissile materials at KIPT. This paper describes the usage of the AWCC at NSG KIPT for characterizing nuclear materials for IAEA safeguards. It was also an opportunity to estimate fissile materials of unknown composition. The equipment used was a model JCC-51 AWCC using a shift register model JSR-12 from Canberra and two neutron sources [AN-HP (241ArnLi)]. A Compaq Presario computer using Windows version of NCC (Los Alamos software) was used to operate the AWCC. Materials studied in this project included highly enriched nuclear material in the form of powder, compacts (tablets, microspheres, rods), salt and scrap. The chemical composition of nuclear material included uranium metal, uranium dioxide, uranium nitride, uranium carbonitride, thorium dioxide, and mixtures of these compounds. Scrap consisted of uranium and impurities of hydrocarbons, carbon, silicon, tungsten, etc

  20. Radiotherapeutic concepts in cancer of unknown primary site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term cancer of unknown primary (CUP) encompasses a group of entities which differ to a great extent regarding etiology, prognosis and therapeutic management. The aim of the study was an elaboration of the role of radiotherapy in CUP syndrome. Systematic literature search and specification of the available treatment options. Radiotherapy is an integral part of interdisciplinary management approaches for patients with CUP in both curative and palliative situations. Radio-oncological techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy increase the therapeutic window. Modern diagnostic modalities from radiology and nuclear medicine are the cornerstone of radiotherapeutic interventions, especially in terms of target volume definition and pretherapeutic staging. In the interdisciplinary setting radiation oncology offers the possibility of curative and often organ preserving approaches in patients with axillary and cervical CUP. In addition, improvement and preservation of quality of life can be achieved in patients with metastatic disease. Radiation oncology is a crucial component of the interdisciplinary management of patients with CUP. Therapeutic decisions in patients with CUP should be made in an interdisciplinary setting. (orig.)

  1. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Rose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres.

  2. George Augustus Linhart - as a "widely unknown" thermodynamicist

    CERN Document Server

    Starikov, E B

    2011-01-01

    The name of George Augustus Linhart is in fact "widely unknown". In effect, he was a Viennese-born USA-American physicist-chemist, partially associated with the Gilbert Newton Lewis' school of thermodynamics at the University of California in Berkeley. As a lone small boy, he had arrived (from Austria via Hamburg) at New York in 1896, but was officially USA-naturalized only in 1912. He was able to pick up English in the streets of New York and Philadelphia, when occasionally working as a waiter and/or as a tailor - just to somehow survive. But, nonetheless, he could successfully graduate a high school in about one year - and then went to the universities for his further education. After obtaining his BS from the University of Pennsylvania, he could manage getting both MA and then PhD from the Yale University, Kent Chemical Laboratory. George Augustus Linhart was afterwards definitely able to successfully work out the true foundations of thermodynamics and could thus outdistance many famous thermodynamicists o...

  3. Familial clustering of Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata: an unknown genetic syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daboul Isam

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD is defined as the occurrence of multiple tumorous intraabdominal lesions, which are myomatous nodules. LPD is a rare disease with only about 100 cases reported. The usual course of LPD is benign with the majority of the patients being premenopausal females. Only two cases involving men have been reported, no syndrome or familial occurrence of LPD has been described. Case presentation We describe a Caucasian-American family in which six members (three men are diagnosed with Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD and three deceased family members most likely had LPD (based on the autopsy reports. Furthermore we describe the association of LPD with Raynaud's syndrome and Prurigo nodularis. Conclusion Familial clustering of Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD has not been reported so far. The etiology of LPD is unknown and no mode of inheritance is known. We discuss possible modes of inheritance in the presented case, taking into account the possibility of a genetic syndrome. Given the similarity to other genetic syndromes with leiomyomatosis and skin alterations, we describe possible similar genetic pathomechanisms.

  4. Impedance spectroscopy for the detection and identification of unknown toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, B. C.; Plopper, G. E.; Paluh, J. L.; Phamduy, T. B.; Corr, D. T.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    Advancements in biological and chemical warfare has allowed for the creation of novel toxins necessitating a universal, real-time sensor. We have used a function-based biosensor employing impedance spectroscopy using a low current density AC signal over a range of frequencies (62.5 Hz-64 kHz) to measure the electrical impedance of a confluent epithelial cell monolayer at 120 sec intervals. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were grown to confluence on thin film interdigitated gold electrodes. A stable impedance measurement of 2200 Ω was found after 24 hrs of growth. After exposure to cytotoxins anthrax lethal toxin and etoposide, the impedance decreased in a linear fashion resulting in a 50% drop in impedance over 50hrs showing significant difference from the control sample (~20% decrease). Immunofluorescent imaging showed that apoptosis was induced through the addition of toxins. Similarities of the impedance signal shows that the mechanism of cellular death was the same between ALT and etoposide. A revised equivalent circuit model was employed in order to quantify morphological changes in the cell monolayer such as tight junction integrity and cell surface area coverage. This model showed a faster response to cytotoxin (2 hrs) compared to raw measurements (20 hrs). We demonstrate that herein that impedance spectroscopy of epithelial monolayers serves as a real-time non-destructive sensor for unknown pathogens.

  5. Territory: An Unknown Quantity in Debates on Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are complaints about territorial cohesion being a vague concept, but in relevant debates territory, too, figures as an unknown quantity. Thus, is it the fixed property of any state, region or local administrative unit, or is it a malleable social construct; rather than being filled with bounded territories, does space overall contain a dynamic network with fuzzy internal, as well as external boundaries, with implications for territorial cohesion? After all, if the former were to be true, territorial cohesion would refer to qualities of what is inside bounded territories. If it were to be the latter, then the meaning of territorial cohesion would include qualities of the relations within a complex network of socially constructed, sometimes ephemeral constructs. There are implications for the ways subsidiarity and multi-level governance are invoked in EU discourse where there is a similar failure to question the underlying notion of territory. What is relevant here is the distinction between a ‘territorial’ and ‘relational’ geography. Considered opinion suggests that these alternatives can and, in view of the persistence of the principle of territorial representation, must be reconciled. However, though firmly entrenched, some constitutional theorists question the very principle. The debate is far from conclusive but at least it shows that discussion, even of this apparently fundamental principle is possible.

  6. Detection and Prevention of New and Unknown Malware using Honeypots

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shishir

    2009-01-01

    Security has become ubiquitous in every domain today as newly emerging malware pose an ever-increasing perilous threat to systems. Consequently, honeypots are fast emerging as an indispensible forensic tool for the analysis of malicious network traffic. Honeypots can be considered to be traps for hackers and intruders and are generally deployed complimentary to Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) in a network. They help system administrators perform a rigorous analysis of external and internal attacks on their networks. They are also used by security firms and research labs to capture the latest variants of malware. However, honeypots would serve a slightly different purpose in our proposed system. We intend to use honeypots for generating and broadcasting instant cures for new and unknown malware in a network. The cures which will be in the form of on-the-fly anti-malware signatures would spread in a fashion that is similar to the way malware spreads across networks. The ...

  7. A sensitive transcriptome analysis method that can detect unknown transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Ryutaro; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Saito, Toshiyuki; Tsutsumi, Yoko; Fujimori, Akira; Sato, Shinji; Tatsumi, Kouichi; Araki, Ryoko; Abe, Masumi

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an AFLP-based gene expression profiling method called ‘high coverage expression profiling’ (HiCEP) analysis. By making improvements to the selective PCR technique we have reduced the rate of false positive peaks to ∼4% and consequently the number of peaks, including overlapping peaks, has been markedly decreased. As a result we can determine the relationship between peaks and original transcripts unequivocally. This will make it practical to prepare a database of all peaks, allowing gene assignment without having to isolate individual peaks. This precise selection also enables us to easily clone peaks of interest and predict the corresponding gene for each peak in some species. The procedure is highly reproducible and sensitive enough to detect even a 1.2-fold difference in gene expression. Most importantly, the low false positive rate enables us to analyze gene expression with wide coverage by means of four instead of six nucleotide recognition site restriction enzymes for fingerprinting mRNAs. Therefore, the method detects 70–80% of all transcripts, including non-coding transcripts, unknown and known genes. Moreover, the method requires no sequence information and so is applicable even to eukaryotes for which there is no genome information available. PMID:12907746

  8. Standoff detection of explosive residues on unknown surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, C. W.; Liu, Xunchen; Gupta, Manisha; Kim, Seonghwan; Tsui, Ying; Thundat, T.

    2012-06-01

    Standoff identification of explosive residues may offer early warnings to many hazards plaguing present and future military operations. The greatest challenge is posed by the need for molecular recognition of trace explosive compounds on real-world surfaces. Most techniques that offer eye-safe, long-range detection fail when unknown surfaces with no prior knowledge of the surface spectral properties are interrogated. Inhomogeneity in the surface concentration and optical absorption from background molecules can introduce significant reproducibility challenges for reliable detection when surface residue concentrations are below tens of micrograms per square centimeter. Here we present a coupled standoff technique that allows identification of explosive residues concentrations in the sub microgram per square centimeter range on real-world surfaces. Our technique is a variation of standoff photoacoustic spectroscopy merged with ultraviolet chemical photodecomposition for selective identification of explosives. We demonstrate the detection of standard military grade explosives including RDX, PETN, and TNT along with a couple of common compounds such as diesel and sugar. We obtain identification at several hundred nanograms per centimeter square at a distance of four meters.

  9. DGGE-based detection method for Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, R J; Cushman, E; Moran, D M; Uhlinger, K R; Leavitt, D; Smolowitz, R

    2006-06-12

    Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) is a significant cause of hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria mortality along the northeast coast of the United States. It infects both wild and cultured clams, often annually in plots that are heavily farmed. Subclinically infected clams can be identified by histological examination of the mantle tissue, but there is currently no method available to monitor the presence of QPX in the environment. Here, we report on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method that will facilitate the detection of QPX in natural samples and seed clams. With our method, between 10 and 100 QPX cells can be detected in 1 l of water, 1 g of sediment and 100 mg of clam tissue. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is used to establish whether the PCR products are the same as those in the control QPX culture. We used the method to screen 100 seed clams of 15 mm, and found that 10 to 12% of the clams were positive for the presence of the QPX organism. This method represents a reliable and sensitive procedure for screening both environmental samples and potentially contaminated small clams. PMID:16875398

  10. Environmental distribution and persistence of Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Rebecca J; Moran, Dawn M; Audemard, Corinne; Lyons, M Maille; DeFavari, Jackie; Reece, Kimberly S; Leavitt, Dale; Smolowitz, Roxanna

    2008-09-24

    Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) is the cause of mass mortality events of hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria from Virginia, USA, to New Brunswick, Canada. Aquaculture areas in Massachusetts, USA, have been particularly hard hit. The parasite has been shown to be a directly infective organism, but it is unclear whether it could exist or persist outside of its clam host. We used molecular methods to examine water, sediment, seaweeds, seagrass and various invertebrates for the presence of QPX. Sites in Virginia and Massachusetts were selected based upon the incidence of QPX-induced clam die-offs, and they were monitored seasonally. QPX was detectable in almost all of our different sample types from Massachusetts, indicating that the parasite was widely distributed in the environment. Significantly more samples from Massachusetts were positive than from Virginia, and there was a seasonal pattern to the types of samples positive from Massachusetts. The data suggest that, although it may be difficult to completely eradicate QPX from the environment, it may be possible to keep the incidence of disease under control through good plot husbandry and the removal of infected and dying clams. PMID:18998586

  11. Characterizing Villitis of Unknown Etiology and Inflammation in Stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derricott, Hayley; Jones, Rebecca L; Greenwood, Susan L; Batra, Gauri; Evans, Margaret J; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2016-04-01

    Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) is an enigmatic inflammatory condition of the placenta associated with fetal growth restriction and stillbirth. Greater understanding of this condition is essential to understand its contribution to adverse outcomes. Our aim was to identify and quantify the cells in VUE in cases of stillbirth and to characterize immune responses specific to this condition. Immunohistochemistry was performed on placentas from stillborn infants whose cause of death was recorded as VUE to identify CD45(+) leukocytes, CD163(+) macrophages, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Images were quantified with HistoQuest software. CD45(+) leukocytes comprised 25% of cells in VUE lesions: macrophages (12%) and CD4 T cells (11%) being predominant cell types; CD8 T cells were observed in all lesions. Leukocytes and macrophages were increased throughout the placenta in stillbirths; pan-placental CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells outside VUE lesions were increased in stillbirth with VUE. There was increased IL-2 and IL-12 and reduced IL-4 immunostaining in VUE lesions. Our results suggest VUE in stillbirth has a similar immune cell profile to live birth. Pan-placental macrophages, CD4 and CD8 T cells indicate a wider inflammatory response unrestricted to VUE lesions. The cytokine profile observed suggests a skew towards inappropriate Th1 immune responses. Full characterisation VUE lesion phenotype confirms its immunological origins and provides foundations to develop novel investigations. PMID:26851347

  12. Influence of preadsorbed milk proteins on adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Makhlafi, H; McGuire, J.; Daeschel, M

    1994-01-01

    The adsorption of beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-casein for 8 h and beta-lactoglobulin and bovine serum albumin for 1 h at silanized silica surfaces of low and high hydrophobicity, followed by incubation in buffer and contact with Listeria monocytogenes, resulted in different numbers of cells adhered per unit of surface area. Adhesion to both surfaces was greatest when beta-lactoglobulin was present and was lowest when bovine serum albumin was present. P...

  13. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  14. Peroxidase-like Catalytic Activity of Copper-Mediated Protein-Inorganic Hybrid Nanoflowers and Nanofibers of β-Lactoglobulin and α-Lactalbumin: Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, Microscopic Features, and Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawari, Atul Gajanan; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla

    2016-04-27

    A free Cys-SH-containing protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and another protein not possessing the same, viz., apo-α-lactoglobulin (apo-α-LA), were used in studies to demonstrate the role of this amino acid, along with its secondary structure, in the formation of a protein dimer and a protein-inorganic hybrid nanoflower and in the creation of the peroxidase-like activity of the nanomaterials produced when the proteins were treated with varying Cu(2+) concentration under different pH conditions. An increase in the pH as well as the Cu(2+) mole ratio results in increasing dimer formation in case of β-LG due to the presence of free Cys121-SH, while the dimer is not formed in case of apo-α-LA under the same conditions. The role of Cys in the dimer formation has been demonstrated both by MALDI and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies. Both of the proteins exhibited changes in their secondary structures to different extents as a function of pH, and the structures were stabilized by Cu(2+) interactions, as studied by CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. The small and spherical nanoparticles formed at pH 7 with lower equivalents of Cu(2+) join together to form larger aggregates at higher equivalents of Cu(2+). For the same concentration at pH 9, both the aggregates and the nanoflowers were noticed. However, at pH 12, the Cu(2+) binding induces the formation of fibers along with the flowers. Both the nanoflowers and nanofibers exhibited peroxidase-like activity in a catalytic manner. Nanoflowers were also shown to detect phenol in the concentration range from 10 to 200 μM. The copper-induced nanobiomaterial obtained in the case of apo-α-LA also exhibited peroxidase-like activity. Thus, this paper deals with the green synthesis of copper-induced protein (β-LG/apo-α-LA)-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials that are important due to their applications as nanobiomaterials. PMID:27049752

  15. Cardiac glycoside-like structure and function of 5 beta,14 beta-pregnanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5 beta-Reduction and 14 beta-substitution convert the planar progesterone molecule to the cardiac glycoside configuration--A and D rings of the steroid moiety are bent toward the alpha-face relative to the B and C rings. Potency of the 5 beta,14 beta-derivative in a [3H]ouabain binding assay or its ability to inhibit the sodium pump in red blood cells is enhanced by 3 beta-hydroxylation, 20 beta-hydroxylation, and 3 beta-glycosidation. Synthesis of 14,20 beta-dihydroxy-3 beta-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)- 5 beta,14 beta-pregnane from digitoxin is described. The glucoside is 1/20 as potent as ouabain and elicits prominent, sustained, positive inotropy in isolated cardiac muscle

  16. Cerebral oxygenation decreases during exercise in humans with beta-adrenergic blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T.; Rasmussen, P.; Secher, Niels H.;

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Beta-blockers reduce exercise capacity by attenuated increase in cardiac output, but it remains unknown whether performance also relates to attenuated cerebral oxygenation. METHODS: Acting as their own controls, eight healthy subjects performed a continuous incremental cycle test to exhaustion...... with or without administration of the non-selective beta-blocker propranolol. Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity were measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound and those in cerebral oxygenation were evaluated using near-infrared spectroscopy and the calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen...

  17. Beta-2-Microglobulin in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Goines

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m, a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16 but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 months. We found no statistically significant differences in plasma ß 2m levels between groups. Therefore, plasma levels of ß2m measured in early childhood in autism may not reflect changes in MHC class I in autism.

  18. Popular Music in Jia Zhangke’s Unknown Pleasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With his documentary-style films reflecting upon China’s unprecedented transformation from a state-controlled to a market-driven economy, Jia Zhangke has risen from within the movement of independent Chinese cinema that began to flourish in the late 1990s to become one of the most recognized filmmakers of contemporary China. Born in 1970 and raised in the underdeveloped Shanxi Province, Jia studied film theory at Beijing Film Academy and was first noticed for his controversial “Hometown Trilogy”—'Pickpocket '('Xiao Wu', 1997, 'Platform '('Zhantai', 1999, and 'Unknown Pleasures '('Ren xiao yao', 2002. These three films, shot with handheld video camera on the streets of his hometown province, focus on the reckless changes that China’s aggressive economic growth and globalization have brought to socially marginalized groups. Like other independently made films—films that are produced with capital from outside the state-sponsored avenues and without the approval of film censorship, and that are not allowed to be shown in China’s public theaters—Jia’s first three films reach domestic audiences only through unofficial DVD copies and small-scaled screenings at universities, film bars, and art salons. His limited domestic influence sharply contrasts with the critical acclaim that he receives from international film festival audiences, who are searching for alternative film culture from China after the Fifth Generation directors. By the late 1990s, Jia had become a spokesperson for an ever-increasing group of aspiring Chinese independent filmmakers, particularly through writings and interviews that theorize independent Chinese cinema’s practice.

  19. Hyperprolactinemia after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An unknown phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omrani Gholamhossein R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ovarian drilling on the serum levels of gonadotropins and androgens have been studied previously. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ovarian drilling on the serum prolactin levels and its relation to ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods This is a prospective controlled study. Thirty-six women with PCOS underwent ovarian electrocauterization in university hospitals. Control group consisted of 35 ovulatory women with unexplained infertility. Hormonal assessment performed in early follicular phase of spontaneous or induced cycle before operation in the two groups and repeated one week after operation. Hormonal assay was also performed in the early follicular phase of the first post-operative menstruation, folliculometry and progesterone assay were also performed in the same cycle. Data were analyzed by "repeated measurement design, discriminant analysis, correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact test". Results Six to ten weeks after operation the serum mean +/- SD prolactin levels increased from 284.41 +/- 114.32 mIU/ml to 354.06 +/- 204.42 mIU/ml (P = 0.011. The same values for the control group were 277.73 +/- 114.65 to 277.4 +/- 111.4 (P = 0.981 respectively. Approximately 45% of subjects in PCOS group remained anovulatory in spite of decreased level of LH and testosterone. Prolactin level remained elevated in 73.2% of women who did not ovulate 6–10 weeks after the procedure. Conclusion Hyperprolactinemia after ovarian cauterization may be considered as a possible cause of anovulation in women with polycystic ovaries and improved gonadotropin and androgen levels. The cause of hyperprolactinemia is unknown. Hormonal assay particularly PRL in anovulatory patients after ovarian cauterization is recommended.

  20. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alladi Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, a benign self-limited lymphadenopathy is an uncommon cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO. Methods: We retrospectively studied the case-records of 13 patients presenting with PUO who were diagnosed to have Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease on peripheral lymph node excision biopsy and report the salient clinical manifestations and histopathological findings in them. All of them received symptomatic treatment. Results: Their median age was 28 [interquartile range (IQR 18.5-38.0] years. Women (11/13, 84.6% were more frequently affected. All of them were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seronegative. Prior to presenting to us, two were being treated for lymph node tuberculosis with DOTS. Cervical lymph nodes were predominantly involved, the distribution being: right cervical (n=10, 76.9%; left cervical (n=4; and bilateral cervical (n=2. Axillary and generalized lymphadenopathy were rare being seen in 2 and 1 patient respectively. The median (IQR erythrocyte sedimentation rate (n=11 was 53 (35-89 mm at the end of first hour. Salient histopathological features were paracortical patchy zones of eosinophilic fibrinoid necrosis with karyorrhectic debris, large numbers of histiocytes, including histiocytes with peripherally placed “crescentic” nuclei. Spontaneous regression of fever and lymphadenopathy was observed over a median (IQR period of 8 (6.75-10.25 months in all of them. Conclusions: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a rare but important cause of PUO presenting with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Women are most often affected and cervical lymph nodes are the most frequently involved site. Clinical suspicion and thoughtful collaboration between clinicians and pathologists are essential for accurate diagnosis, and to minimize unnecessary investigations and inappropriate aggressive treatment.

  1. Cancer of unknown primary is associated with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Li, Xinjun

    2016-05-01

    The incidences of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and T2D are increasing worldwide. T2D is associated with many cancers. However, no data are available on cancer of unknown primary (CUP), a relatively common, fatal cancer for which tobacco smoking is the only known risk factor. At diagnosis, CUP metastases are found in various organs, which has implications for prognosis. We carried out a nationwide study on the association of CUP with T1D and T2D. 32 600 T1D patients and 178 000 T2D patients were identified from the national healthcare registers and these were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CUP from 1997 through 2010 using anyone without diabetes as a reference. The SIR of CUP in 421 diabetic patients was 1.71, highest for CUP with liver (2.17) and respiratory system (1.95) metastases. The SIR was 2.91 for T1D, but with a small number of patients, 1.38 for T2D with insulin treatment, and 1.78 for the main group of T2D. CUP with liver and respiratory system metastases increased for each diabetic type; however, for T2D, CUP with gastrointestinal and bone metastases also increased. The results provide the first demonstration that CUP is one of the cancers associated with diabetes, with definite evidence on T2D. CUP has a poor prognosis, which may be even worse when diabetes is the underlying comorbidity. A mechanistic question for future work is to determine whether diabetes promotes primaries that escape detection or their metastatic spread. PMID:26011105

  2. Data Series Subtraction with Unknown and Unmodeled Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Stefano; Congedo, Giuseppe; Dolesi, Rita; Ferroni, Valerio; Hueller, Mauro; Vetrugno, Daniele; Weber, William Joseph; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Hewitson, Martin; Korsakova, Natalia; Ferraioli, Luigi; Gibert, Ferran; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Nofrarias, Miquel; Inchauspe, Henri; Plagnol, Eric; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul W.; Armano, Michele; Thorpe, James Ira; Wass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory of the European Space Agency, will measure the degree to which two test masses can be put into free fall, aiming to demonstrate a suppression of disturbance forces corresponding to a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below (30 fm/sq s/Hz)(sup 2) around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the disturbance forces are obtained as the difference between the acceleration data and a linear combination of other measured data series. In many circumstances, the coefficients for this linear combination are obtained by fitting these data series to the acceleration, and the disturbance forces appear then as the data series of the residuals of the fit. Thus the background noise or, more precisely, its PSD, whose knowledge is needed to build up the likelihood function in ordinary maximum likelihood fitting, is here unknown, and its estimate constitutes instead one of the goals of the fit. In this paper we present a fitting method that does not require the knowledge of the PSD of the background noise. The method is based on the analytical marginalization of the posterior parameter probability density with respect to the background noise PSD, and returns an estimate both for the fitting parameters and for the PSD. We show that both these estimates are unbiased, and that, when using averaged Welchs periodograms for the residuals, the estimate of the PSD is consistent, as its error tends to zero with the inverse square root of the number of averaged periodograms. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively reweighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD and on data from several experiments performed with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

  3. Lymphoid enhancer factor-1 blocks adenomatous polyposis coli-mediated nuclear export and degradation of beta-catenin. Regulation by histone deacetylase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Beric R; Galea, Melanie; Schuechner, Stefan; Leung, Louie

    2002-07-01

    The oncogenic protein beta-catenin is overexpressed in many cancers, frequently accumulating in nuclei where it forms active complexes with lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1)/T-cell transcription factors, inducing genes such as c-myc and cyclin D1. In normal cells, nuclear beta-catenin levels are controlled by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein through nuclear export and cytoplasmic degradation. Transient expression of LEF-1 is known to increase nuclear beta-catenin levels by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that APC and LEF-1 compete for nuclear beta-catenin with opposing consequences. APC can export nuclear beta-catenin to the cytoplasm for degradation. In contrast, LEF-1 anchors beta-catenin in the nucleus by blocking APC-mediated nuclear export. LEF-1 also prevented the APC/CRM1-independent nuclear export of beta-catenin as revealed by in vitro assays. Importantly, LEF-1-bound beta-catenin was protected from degradation by APC and axin in SW480 colon cancer cells. The ability of LEF-1 to trap beta-catenin in the nucleus was down-regulated by histone deacetylase 1, and this correlated with a decrease in LEF1 transcription activity. Our findings identify LEF-1 as key regulator of beta-catenin nuclear localization and stability and suggest that overexpression of LEF-1 in colon cancer and melanoma cells may contribute to the accumulation of oncogenic beta-catenin in the nucleus. PMID:11986304

  4. 50 years forward: beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halban, Philippe A

    2015-08-01

    Our understanding of beta cell development and function has increased substantially these past 50 years but much remains to be learned before this knowledge can be put to clinical use. A comprehensive business plan will be necessary to develop a detailed molecular and functional blueprint of the beta cell in health and disease based on an integrated approach involving all necessary research disciplines. This blueprint will provide a platform for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of both major forms of diabetes, foremost among them beta cell replacement therapy. This is one of a series of commentaries under the banner '50 years forward', giving personal opinions on future perspectives in diabetes, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Diabetologia (1965-2015). PMID:25957776

  5. Predicting Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, M; Valle, J W F; Moral, A V; Ma, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A_4 family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter |m_{ee}| >= 0.17 \\sqrt{\\Delta m^2_{ATM}}. This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on |m_{ee}| is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, neutrinoless double beta decay may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

  6. Mechanism of inactivation of alanine racemase by beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alanine racemases are a group of PLP-dependent bacterial enzymes that catalyze the racemization of alanine, providing D-alanine for cell wall synthesis. Inactivation of the alanine racemases from the Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive organism Bacillus stearothermophilus with beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine has been studied. The inactivation occurs with the same rate constant as that for formation of a broad 460-490-nm chromophore. Loss of two fluoride ions per mole of inactivated enzyme and retention of [1-14C]trifluoroalanine label accompany inhibition, suggesting a monofluoro enzyme adduct. Partial denaturation (1 M guanidine) leads to rapid return of the initial 420-nm chromophore, followed by a slower (t1/2 approximately 30 min-1 h) loss of the fluoride ion and 14CO2 release. At this point, reduction by NaB3H4 and tryptic digestion yield a single radiolabeled peptide. Purification and sequencing of the peptide reveals that lysine-38 is covalently attached to the PLP cofactor. A mechanism for enzyme inactivation by trifluoroalanine is proposed and contrasted with earlier results on monohaloalanines, in which nucleophilic attack of released aminoacrylate on the PLP aldimine leads to enzyme inactivation. For trifluoroalanine inactivation, nucleophilic attack of lysine-38 on the electrophilic beta-difluoro-alpha, beta-unsaturated imine provides an alternative mode of inhibition for these enzymes

  7. Metabolome profiling to understand the defense response to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG 2-2 IIIB, is an important disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular processes that mediate sugar beet resistance to R. solani are largely unknown and identifying the metabolites associated with R. solani infection ma...

  8. Hepatic Hypertransaminasaemia of unknown Etiology Aclinico-pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed El-Meghawry El Sayed*, Hany Abu Zeid*, Salah Mohamed

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic aminotransferases are sensitive indicators of liver cell injury. In some patients with persistent elevation of such enzymes; routine clinical, laboratory and serological data cannot establish the underlying causes. This study was designed to evaluate such patients both clinically and pathologically as a trial to reach the underlying etiology. Thirty patients with hepatic hypertransaminasaemia of unknown cause (18 females & 12 males, aged 18-50 years (mean age 37.7 4.6 years, together with ten controls (5 males & 5 females [matched in age and body mass index with patients]; were included in this study. Both patients and controls were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, estimation of blood glucose and lipid profile, liver function tests, serum iron & ferrtin estimation, hepatitis viral markers (HBs Ag HCV-Ab, anti Epstien Barr (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV antibodies, abdominal ultrasonography (U/Sand needle liver biopsy (done only for 15 patients who approved undergoing it. The study revealed that 18 patients had non alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD (bright liver on U/S, eleven patients out of them underwent liver biopsy that showed simple hepatic steatosis in four of them and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH in the other seven patients. Most of the eighteen patients with NAFLD were obese, diabetic and hypertensive. Four patients had positive serology for autoimmune hepatitis and two patients had positive serology for cytomegalovirus infection. All patients had normally ranged serum iron & ferritin. The remaining six patients had normal hepatic U/S and negative serology for different hepatic viruses; four of them underwent liver biopsy that revealed simple hepatic steatosis in two of them and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH in the other two patients. Conclusion & recommendation: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD was found to be the commonest cause of unexplained hepatic hypertransamina-saemia. However

  9. Detection of Rare Beta Globin Gene Mutations in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent molecular studies on Iranian β-thalassemia genes revealed the presence of eight common mutations associated with thalassemia. Although these mutations are frequent, there are other rare and unknown mutations that can create large problems in designing preventive programs. We detected and explained the common mutations in north-western Iran previously and detection of the rare and unknown mutations could be useful in diagnosis and design of future preventive programs. Methods: In this study, 5ml peripheral blood from 20 Azari- β-thalassemia patients whose mutation was not revealed in the previous study was collected and DNA extraction was done by isopropanol and proteinase k method. Initially, samples were examined for the rare mutations: Codon6, Codon16, Codon41/42, Codon36/37, -88 and Codon22 by ARMS – PCR techniques and then the unknown cases were directly sequenced. Results: According to our results, Codon15(TGG-TGA, Codon16(-C, Codon36/37(-T, IVSII-848(C-A, IVSII-745(C-G, -28(A-C( and Codon25/26(+T were recognized and added to the spectrom of beta globin gene mutations in Azerbaijan and Iran. Also, we detected four SNP sites: 5’UTR+20(C-T, Codon2 (CAC-CAT , IVSII-16(C-G and IVSII-666(T-C in β-thalassemia genes. Conclusion: Our results could be useful for developing molecular screening plans and help prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassemia in Azerbaijan , Iran and other neighboring countries.

  10. File list: InP.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX38...1248,SRX390619,SRX390617 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 TFs and others Yeast strain Unknown SRX695965,SRX6...98,SRX381289 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 All antigens Yeast strain Unknown SRX695965,SRX695...SRX381297,SRX423150,SRX386372,SRX381305,SRX381298,SRX390619,SRX390617 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/ALL.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 TFs and others Yeast strain Unknown SRX105548,SRX6...00,SRX381289,SRX381298 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX38...1248,SRX390617,SRX390619 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 All antigens Yeast strain Unknown SRX695965,SRX695...SRX386340,SRX423150,SRX390617,SRX381288,SRX381305,SRX381248,SRX381298,SRX390619,SRX381289 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/ALL.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 TFs and others Yeast strain Unknown SRX695967,SRX6...98,SRX381289,SRX381235 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX39...0617,SRX381248,SRX390619 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX39...0619,SRX390617 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  19. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway regulates Gli-mediated Myf5 expression during somitogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borello, Ugo; Berarducci, Barbara; Murphy, Paula; Bajard, Lola; Buffa, Viviana; Piccolo, Stefano; Buckingham, Margaret; Cossu, Giulio

    2006-09-01

    Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates the activation of the myogenic determination gene Myf5 at the onset of myogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, we report that the Wnt signal is transduced in muscle progenitor cells by at least two Frizzled (Fz) receptors (Fz1 and/or Fz6), through the canonical beta-catenin pathway, in the epaxial domain of newly formed somites. We show that Myf5 activation is dramatically reduced by blocking the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in somite progenitor cells, whereas expression of activated beta-catenin is sufficient to activate Myf5 in somites but not in the presomitic mesoderm. In addition, we identified Tcf/Lef sequences immediately 5' to the Myf5 early epaxial enhancer. These sites determine the correct spatiotemporal expression of Myf5 in the epaxial domain of the somite, mediating the synergistic action of the Wnt/beta-catenin and the Shh/Gli pathways. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Myf5 is a direct target of Wnt/beta-catenin, and that its full activation requires a cooperative interaction between the canonical Wnt and the Shh/Gli pathways in muscle progenitor cells. PMID:16936075

  20. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  1. *608440 LACTAMASE, BETA; LACTB [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 608440 FIELD TI 608440 LACTAMASE, BETA; LACTB ;;MITOCHONDRIAL RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN L56; MR ... Chen et al. (2008) recorded weight, fat mass, and lean ... mass for Lpl heterozygous null mice, Lactb transge ... ifferent from those of controls, with the fat mass/lean ... mass ratio difference generally increasing over ti ...

  2. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  3. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 5,2015 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  4. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  5. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a subcutaneous injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms and slow the development of ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  6. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  7. Beta adrenergic receptors in pigmented ciliary processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Trope, G. E.; Clark, B.

    1982-01-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors from membrane fragments of pigmented sheep eyes were studied and characterised by ligand binding techniques after the removal of melanin. In a representative experiment the beta max (total number of beta receptors) was 394.9 fmol/mg protein. The receptor affinity (Ka) was 440 pM. The potency series of drugs to displace 125I-HYP from the receptors was timolol = (-) propranolol greater than (+) propranolol greater than salbutamol greater than practolol. beta 1 Recepto...

  8. Unknown Input and Sensor Fault Estimation Using Sliding-Mode Observers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Hui, Stefen; Zak, Stanislaw

    2011-06-29

    Sliding-mode observers are used to construct unknown input estimators. Then, these unknown input estimators are combined with sensor fault estimation schemes into one architecture that employs two sliding-mode observers for simultaneously estimating the plant’s actuator faults (part of the unknown input) and detecting sensor faults. Closed form expressions are presented for the estimates of unknown inputs and sensor faults. A benchmark example of a controlled inverted pendulum system from the literature is utilized in the simulation study. The study shows that the observers analyzed in this paper generate good estimates of the unknown input and sensor faults signals in noisy environments for nonlinear plants.

  9. Production of Poly &beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid (PHB) by Rhizobium elti and Pseudomonas stutzeri

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    The amount of chemosynthetic plastic waste increases every year and exact time for its degradation is unknown. Two poly &beta-Hydroxybutyric producing bacteria from different microbial sources were isolated and characterized for their morphological, biochemical properties. Based on their 16S rDNA, they were identified as Rhizobium elti E1 and Pseudomonas stutzeri E114. The bacterial strains were screened for PHB production and compared for the intensity of fluorescence using Nile red staining...

  10. Sox17 regulates the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Li-Jin; Shen, Weiping; Ming, Xiaotian; Senatorov, Vladimir V.; Chen, Hui-Ling; Ying CHENG; Hong, Elim; Knoblach, Susan; Gallo, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The SRY-box (Sox) transcription factors regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation, but their signaling targets are largely unknown. We have identified a major signal transduction pathway regulated by Sox17 in the oligodendrocyte lineage. Microarray analysis in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) after Sox17 attenuation revealed upregulated genes associated with cell cycle control and activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin-pathway. Sox17 knockdown also increases the levels of cyclinD1, Axin2 an...

  11. Theory of high-beta tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical researches on high beta tokamak are reviewed. The ballooning mode instability is thought to be the most serious problem for the high beta tokamaks, and the theoretical results on the ballooning mode instability are discussed in detail. The experimental results in high beta belt pinch devices are also discussed. (author)

  12. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow the development of disability in patients ... Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection comes as a powder in vials to be mixed into a solution for injection. Interferon beta-1a intramuscular ...

  13. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that 234Th- /sup 234m/Pa, 231Th, 137Cs, and 90Sr/90Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and 60Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs

  14. Beta-Amyloid Deposition and Alzheimer's Type Changes Induced by Borrelia Spirochetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miklossy,J.; Kis, A.; Radenovic, A.; Miller, L.; Forro, L.; Martins, R.; Reiss, K.; Darbinian, N.; Darekar, P.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) consist of {beta}-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in affected brain areas. The processes, which drive this host reaction are unknown. To determine whether an analogous host reaction to that occurring in AD could be induced by infectious agents, we exposed mammalian glial and neuronal cells in vitro to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes and to the inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Morphological changes analogous to the amyloid deposits of AD brain were observed following 2-8 weeks of exposure to the spirochetes. Increased levels of {beta}-amyloid presursor protein (A{beta}PP) and hyperphosphorylated tau were also detected by Western blots of extracts of cultured cells that had been treated with spirochetes or LPS. These observations indicate that, by exposure to bacteria or to their toxic products, host responses similar in nature to those observed in AD may be induced.

  15. Exercise-induced changes in circulating levels of transforming growth factor-beta-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja; Langberg, Henning; Kjaer, Michael

    resting subjects (reported values range from 500 to 18,300 pg ml(-1)) and also the extent of intra-individual variation is unknown. As a basis for detecting exercise-induced changes in transforming growth factor-beta-1, we measured its concentration, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in plasma from...... eight healthy resting subjects. Plasma was sampled from each subject on five successive days according to a procedure designed to minimize activation of platelets, as platelet alpha-granules contain large amounts of transforming growth factor-beta-1. The mean plasma level was relatively low [1155 (30......Mechanical loading of cells induces the expression of transforming growth factor-beta-1, and acute exercise, which involves mechanical loading of several tissues, could thus increase its circulating level in humans. However, no consensus exists regarding the plasma concentration of this cytokine in...

  16. Measurement of the beta asymmetry in neutron beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron beta decay is the simplest semi-leptonic weak decay and described accurately by the standard model using the first CKM-matrix element and the ratio of vector and axial vector couplings, λ. With more than a dozen observables it is a sensitive probe for investigating the nature of weak interaction and to search for physics beyond the standard model. In the past, measuring the beta asymmetry A in polarized neutron decay has been the most precise way of determining λ and nowadays it allows - together with other observables - to derive limits on non-standard model interactions, such as scalar and tensor couplings. The neutron decay spectrometer Perkeo III was installed at the PF1B cold neutron beam site at the Institut Laue-Langevin to measure the beta asymmetry. By using a pulsed beam combined with an improved detector design a significant reduction of several systematic uncertainties has been achieved compared to the predecessor, Perkeo II. In this talk recent results of the measurements with Perkeo III will be presented. In particular, we show the energy distribution of the electrons together with the calibration tools for the detectors.

  17. Failure of Clindamycin To Eradicate Infection with Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci Inducibly Resistant to Clindamycin in an Animal Model and in Human Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, James S.; Lepak, Alex J.; Thompson, George R.; Craig, William A.; Andes, David R.; Sabol-Dzintars, Kathryn E.; Jorgensen, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Inducible clindamycin resistance in beta-hemolytic streptococci remains an underrecognized phenomenon of unknown clinical significance. We performed an evaluation of inducible clindamycin resistance using an animal model as well as retrospectively reviewing the charts of patients treated with clindamycin monotherapy who were infected with beta-hemolytic streptococci inducibly resistant to clindamycin. The neutropenic mouse thigh model of infection was used to evaluate the in vivo activity of ...

  18. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots.

    OpenAIRE

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; A. Figus; Loi, A; Pirastu, M.; Cao, A

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation ...

  19. Plan beta: Core or Cusp?

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Thomas; Lehnert, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The inner profile of Dark Matter (DM) halos remains one of the central problems in small-scale cosmology. At present, the problem can not be resolved in dwarf spheroidal galaxies due to a degeneracy between the DM profile and the velocity anisotropy beta of the stellar population. We discuss a method which can break the degeneracy by exploiting 3D positions and 1D line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. With the full 3D spatial information, we can determine precisely what fraction of each stars LOS motion is in the radial and tangential direction. This enables us to infer the anisotropy parameter beta directly from the data. The method is particularly effective if the galaxy is highly anisotropic. Finally, we argue that such a test could be applied to Sagittarius and potentially other dwarfs with RR Lyrae providing the necessary depth information.

  20. Beta spectrum of 185W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the shape of the first forbidden beta transition of 185W is interesting from the point of view of the fact that this nucleus belongs to the deformed region 150185W is carried out employing an optimized Siegbahn-Slatis beta ray spectrometer and the result is compared with the theoretical shape factor incorporating Nilsson's wavefunctions using Simms formalism. The experimental shape factor is fitted to the correction factor C(W)=k(1+aW) with α=0.0026+-0.0432. The theoretical shape factor computed following the matrix elements due to Nilsson model is in good agreement with the present experimental shape factor. The value Λ(2.358) computed in the present measurement in the light of Nilsson model matrix elements of 185W is in agreement with the predicted value (2.4) of J.J. Fujita. (author)

  1. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    1983-01-01

    The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs...... to SMALLTALK, BETA is a language in the ALGOL 60 ([ALGOL]) family. SIMULA 67 is a system description and a programming language. The DELTA language ([DELTA]) is a system description language only, allowing description of full concurrency, continuous change and component interaction, developed from a SIMULA...

  2. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    , and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons...... the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure....

  3. Review of double beta experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Sarazin, X.

    2012-01-01

    C13-10-22.1 International audience This paper gives a review of the double beta experimental techniques and projects, in the search for the Majorana neutrino. The purpose of this review is to detail, for each technique, the different origins of background, how they can be identified, and how they can be reduced. Advantages and limitations of the different techniques are discussed. 1. Introduction The neutrino is one of the most puzzling elementary particle with very unique properties. I...

  4. Electrolytic hydrogen in beta titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permeation of electrolytic hydrogen through beta titanium foils with palladium coated surfaces was studied using Ti--11.5 Mo--6 Zr--4.5 Sn. Ion bombardment etching followed by thin film vapor deposition of palladium were used to produce oxide-free titanium specimens for electrochemical hydrogen permeation and embrittlement studies. A thin metallic foil is cathodically charged with hydrogen on one side while the other side is maintained at a sufficiently anodic potential so that all the diffusing hydrogen is oxidized and turned into an equivalent current. The current is analyzed to determine diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen. X-ray diffraction was also used to determine the effects of hydrogen on the lattice parameter. Permeation experiments conducted with basic cyanide solutions exhibited simple diffusion behavior. The diffusivity at 210C for hydrogen through the beta alloy was 5.60 (+-1.92) x 10-7 cm2/s. Anomalous permeation occurred with hydrogen chemical potentials in acidic and basic solutions without cyanide during the later stages of the approach to steady state in the charging. This behavior is consistent with the trapping model of hydrogen in metals of McNabb and Foster. Plastic deformation and spontaneous cracking at the wetted portion of the specimen were observed under extreme conditions during this anomalous behavior. Part of the deformation is found to be reversible. In the mandrel bend experiments on the embrittlement phenomenon, the transgranular cleavage mode of fracture occurred. Interstitially dissolved hydrogen expanded the bcc lattice of the beta titanium with accompanying diffraction line broadening. The lattice contracted upon removal of the hydrogen. The satisfactory performance of the beta alloy Ti--11.5 Mo--6 Zr--4.5 Sn, in moderate electrochemical environments results principally from the protective oxide film

  5. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been performed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taki...

  6. Myokardinfarkt und Beta-Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger H-G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen eines akuten koronaren Syndroms (akuter Herzinfarkt, Angina pectoris kommt es, aufgrund eines Ungleichgewichtes zwischen Angebot und Bedarf, zu einem akuten Mangel an Sauerstoff im Herzmuskel. Ursache ist eine reduzierte Sauerstoffzufuhr durch verengte bzw. verschlossene Gefäße. Bis zur Behebung der Ursache vergehen oft mehrere Stunden. In dieser Phase muß - durch Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs im Herzmuskel - eine Verlangsamung der Nekroseentwicklung erreicht werden. Das Ausmaß der Nekrose wird reduziert, somit die für die Langzeitprognose wichtige Linksventrikelfunktion verbessert. Eine Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs erreicht man durch kontrollierte Frequenzsenkung mittels intravenöser Beta-Blockade. In optimaler Weise wird diese Methode durch die Anwendung eines kardioselektiven Beta-Blockers mit kurzer Halbwertszeit durchgeführt. Beta-Blocker haben nicht nur auf die Nekroseentwicklung, sondern auch auf die Inzidenz von Rhythmusstörungen - besonders in der Akutphase - Auswirkungen. Vor allem die mit dieser therapeutischen Maßnahme verbundene Reduktion von Kammerflimmern ist von großer Bedeutung.

  7. Antiviral activities of whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Wang, Yan; Ip, Denis Tsz Ming; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Xia, Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Milk contains an array of proteins with useful bioactivities. Many milk proteins encompassing native or chemically modified casein, lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin demonstrated antiviral activities. Casein and alpha-lactalbumin gained anti-HIV activity after modification with 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride. Many milk proteins inhibited HIV reverse transcriptase. Bovine glycolactin, angiogenin-1, lactogenin, casein, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine lactoferrampin, and human lactoferrampin inhibited HIV-1 protease and integrase. Several mammalian lactoferrins prevented hepatitis C infection. Lactoferrin, methylated alpha-lactalbumin and methylated beta-lactoglobulin inhibited human cytomegalovirus. Chemically modified alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin and lysozyme, lactoferrin and lactoferricin, methylated alpha-lactalbumin, methylated and ethylated beta-lactoglobulins inhibited HSV. Chemically modified bovine beta-lactoglobulin had antihuman papillomavirus activity. Beta-lactoglobulin, lactoferrin, esterified beta-lactoglobulin, and esterified lactoferrindisplayed anti-avian influenza A (H5N1) activity. Lactoferrin inhibited respiratory syncytial virus, hepatitis B virus, adenovirus, poliovirus, hantavirus, sindbis virus, semliki forest virus, echovirus, and enterovirus. Milk mucin, apolactoferrin, Fe(3+)-lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin, human lactadherin, bovine IgG, and bovine kappa-casein demonstrated antihuman rotavirus activity. PMID:26198883

  8. Off-Policy Actor-Critic Structure for Optimal Control of Unknown Systems With Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank L; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Huaguang

    2016-05-01

    An optimal control method is developed for unknown continuous-time systems with unknown disturbances in this paper. The integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm is presented to obtain the iterative control. Off-policy learning is used to allow the dynamics to be completely unknown. Neural networks are used to construct critic and action networks. It is shown that if there are unknown disturbances, off-policy IRL may not converge or may be biased. For reducing the influence of unknown disturbances, a disturbances compensation controller is added. It is proven that the weight errors are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov techniques. Convergence of the Hamiltonian function is also proven. The simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control method for unknown systems with disturbances. PMID:25935054

  9. Complete assignment of 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shifts for bovine β-lactoglobulin: Secondary structure and topology of the native state is retained in a partially unfolded form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) has been studied extensively for more than 50 years, its physical properties in solution are not yet understood fully in terms of its three-dimensional (3D) structure. For example, despite a recent high-resolution crystal structure, it is still not clear why the two common variants of bovine β-LG which differ by just two residues have different aggregation properties during milk processing. We have conducted solution-state NMR studies on a recombinant form of the A variant of β-LG at low pH conditions where the protein is partially unfolded and exists as a monomer rather than a dimer. Using a13 C,15N-labelled sample, expressed in Pichia pastoris, we have employed the standard combination of 3D heteronuclear NMR techniques to obtain near complete assignments of proton, carbon and nitrogen resonances. Using a novel pulse sequence we were able to obtain additional assignments, in particular those of methyl groups in residues preceding proline within the sequence. From chemical shifts and on the basis of inter-residue NOEs, we have inferred the secondary structure and topology of monomeric β-LG A. It includes eight antiparallel β-strands arranged in a barrel, flanked by an α-helix, which is typical of a member of the lipocalin family. A detailed comparison with the crystal structure of the dimeric form (for a mixture of A and B variants) at pH 6.5 reveals a close resemblance in both secondary structure and overall topology. Both forms have a ninth β-strand which, at the higher pH, forms part of the dimer interface. These studies represent the first full NMR assignment of β-LG and will form the basis for a complete characterisation of the solution structure and dynamics of this protein and its variants

  10. Adaptive Robust Actuator Fault Accommodation for a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Control Gains

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive robust fault tolerant control approach is proposed for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown signs of high-frequency gain and unmeasured states. In the recursive design, neural networks are employed to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, K-filters are designed to estimate the unmeasured states, and a dynamical signal and Nussbaum gain functions are introduced to handle the unknown sign of the virtual control direction. By incorporating the switching function...

  11. Metalo-beta-lactamases Metallo-beta-lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Elisandro Mendes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem sido observada maior incidência de bacilos Gram-negativos resistentes a cefalosporinas de espectro ampliado no ambiente hospitalar, ocasionando, assim, maior uso de betalactâmicos mais potentes, como os carbapenens. A utilização de carbapenens exerce maior pressão seletiva sobre a microbiota hospitalar, o que pode ocasionar aumento da resistência a esses agentes. Entre os mecanismos de resistência a carbapenens mais comumente identificados estão a produção de betalactamases, como, por exemplo, as pertencentes à classe D de Ambler e as que pertencem à classe B de Ambler, ou metalo-beta-lactamases (MbetaL. Essas últimas hidrolisam todos betalactâmicos comercialmente disponíveis, sendo a única exceção o monobactam aztreonam. Desde o início da década de 1990, novos genes que codificam MbetaLs têm sido descritos em microrganismos clinicamente importantes, como Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp. e membros da família Enterobacteriaceae. O encontro desses microrganismos não-sensíveis a carbapenens pode ser submetido a metodologias fenotípicas para detecção da produção de MbetaL com o intuito de auxiliar a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH e prevenir a disseminação desses determinantes de resistência, uma vez que genes que codificam MbetaLs estão contidos em estruturas genéticas que propiciam sua mobilidade de forma muito efetiva, sendo então facilmente disseminados.Increase isolation of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporin has been observed during the last few years, thus determining the use of more potent beta-lactams, such as carbapenems. The use of these antimicrobial agents may lead to the emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacilli in the nosocomial environment. Carbapenem resistance may be due to the production of Ambler class D beta-lactamase or Ambler class B beta-lactamase, also called metallo-beta-lactamase (MbetaL. Apart from

  12. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on growth and differentiation of the continuous rat thyroid follicular cell line, FRTL-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) has been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of many widely varied cell types in vitro, including some that are endocrinologically active. We have investigated the previously unknown effects of this unique growth factor in the differentiated rat thyroid follicular cell line FRTL-5. The cells demonstrated specific, high affinity binding of TGF beta, and as with other epithelial cells, the growth of these thyroid follicular cells was potently inhibited by addition of TGF beta to the culture medium. TGF beta caused a significant reduction in TSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in the cells. The addition of (Bu)2cAMP along with the growth factor to cultures partially reversed the characteristic morphological changes seen with TGF beta, but did not reverse the growth inhibition. To further investigate the possible mechanisms of the effects of TGF beta on the cells, we measured the influence of the growth factor on [125I]TSH binding. TGF beta did not compete for specific TSH-binding sites; however, exposure of the cells to TGF beta for 12 or more h resulted in a dose-dependent down-regulation of TSH receptors that was fully reversible. While cellular proliferation was potently inhibited by TGF beta, differentiated function, as manifest by iodine-trapping ability, was stimulated by the growth factor. This stimulation of iodine uptake was independent of, and additive to, the stimulatory effects of TSH. Finally, FRTL-5 cells in serum-free medium and in response to TSH were shown to secrete TGF beta-like activity that competed for [125I]TGF beta in a RRA. These studies suggest that TGF beta may represent an autocrine mechanism of controlling the growth response to TSH in thyroid follicular cells, while allowing the continuance of differentiated function

  13. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures

  14. Prenatal expression of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 in the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, J A; Carretero, J; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Gato, A; Mano, A de la

    2008-12-01

    It is known that interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are expressed post-natally in normal and tumoral cells in the anterior pituitary, and that they play a role in both the liberation of different hormones and in the growth, proliferation and tumor formation of the pituitary gland. However, their expression and role during embryonic and fetal development remain unknown. We have performed an immunocytochemistry study of prenatal expression and distribution of IL-1beta and IL-6 in isolated embryonic rat Rathke's pouch prior to birth, more specifically between 13.5 and 19.5 days p.c. Western-blot analysis carried out on 19.5-day p.c. embryos showed positive immunolabelling for IL-1beta and IL-6. These interleukins were initially expressed simultaneously in the rostral and ventral portions of Rathke's pouch in 15.5-day p.c. embryos, and this expression progressed caudodorsally in later developmental stages, extending to most of the hypophysis before birth. The number of cells expressing these interleukins increased throughout this period: 48.22% of anterior pituitary cells expressed IL-6 in 19.5-day embryos, whilst IL-1beta was positive in 39.8% of the cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that some adenohypophyseal cells co-express both interleukins. Such findings represent the first step towards an understanding of the physiological role of these interleukins in anterior pituitary development. PMID:19041259

  15. On gaps in Rényi $\\beta$-expansions of unity for $\\beta > 1$ an algebraic number.

    OpenAIRE

    Verger-Gaugry, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\beta> 1$ be an algebraic number. We study the strings of zeros (“gaps”) in the Rényi $\\beta$ -expansion $d_{\\beta}(1)$ of unity which controls the set $\\mathbb{Z}_{\\beta}$ of $\\beta$-integers. Using a version of Liouville's inequality which extends Mahler's and Güting's approximation theorems, the strings of zeros in $d_{\\beta}(1)$ are shown to exhibit a “gappiness” asymptotically bounded above by $log(M(\\beta ))/ log(\\beta)$, where $M(\\beta)$ is the Mahler measure of $\\beta$ . The proo...

  16. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  17. GSK3beta is involved in JNK2-mediated beta-catenin inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK JNK1 downregulates beta-catenin signaling and plays a critical role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and in suppressing tumor formation. This study was designed to determine whether JNK2, another MAPK, has similar and/or different functions in the regulation of beta-catenin signaling. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an in vitro system with manipulation of JNK2 and beta-catenin expression and found that activated JNK2 increased GSK3beta activity and inhibited beta-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. However, JNK2-mediated downregulation of beta-catenin was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and GSK3beta inhibitor lithium chloride. Moreover, targeted mutations at GSK3beta phosphorylation sites (Ser33 and Ser37 of beta-catenin abrogated JNK2-mediated suppression of beta-catenin. In vivo studies further revealed that JNK2 deficiency led to upregulation of beta-catenin and increase of GSK3-beta phosphorylation in JNK2-/- mouse intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, physical interaction and co-localization among JNK2, beta-catenin and GSK3beta were observed by immunoprecipitation, mammalian two-hybridization assay and confocal microscopy, respectively. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: In general, our data suggested that JNK2, like JNK1, interacts with and suppresses beta-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo, in which GSK3beta plays a key role, although previous studies have shown distinct functions of JNK1 and JNK2. Our study also provides a novel insight into the crosstalk between Wnt/beta-catenin and MAPK JNKs signaling.

  18. Hyper-beta-alaninemia associated with beta-aminoaciduria and gamma-aminobutyricaciduaia, somnolence and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriver, C R; Pueschel, S; Davies, E

    1966-03-24

    Hyper-beta-alaninemia was found in a somnolent, convulsing infant. Hyper-beta-aminoaciduria (beta-ala, betaAIB and taurine) was also observed, varying directly with plasma beta-alanine concentration. The beta-aminoaciduria is explained by the interaction between beta-alanine and a specific cellular-transport system with preference for beta-amino compounds. Gamma-aminobutyricaciduria was also observed, its excretion being independent of beta-alanine levels. Dietary modifications, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and antibiotic therapy were not beneficial. Post-mortem tissues had elevated levels of beta-alanine and carnosine; GABA levels in brain were probably elevated for the age of the patient. A proposed block in beta-alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase would expand the free beta-alanine pool, thus increasing tissue carnosine. beta-Alanine is a central-nervous-system depressant. Associated inhibition of GABA transaminase and displacement of GABA from central-nervous-system binding sites would produce GABAuria and convulsions. PMID:17926374

  19. MiR-214 inhibits cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through suppression of {beta}-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Ji [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Li, Feng [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Lin, Yanting [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhongwei [Department of Interventional Therapy, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Jiaji, E-mail: jiang_jjcn@yahoo.com.cn [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 is frequently downregulated in human HCC cell lines and tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 overexpression inhibits HCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 directly targets {beta}-catenin 3 Prime -UTR in HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 regulates {beta}-catenin downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: Mounting evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in carcinogenesis and can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Recent profile studies of miRNA expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-214) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its potential functions and underlying mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that miR-214 is significantly downregulated in HCC cells and specimens. Ectopic overexpression of miR-214 inhibited proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Further studies revealed that miR-214 could directly target the 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) of {beta}-catenin mRNA and suppress its protein expression. Similar to the restoring miR-214 expression, {beta}-catenin downregulation inhibited cell growth, whereas restoring the {beta}-catenin expression abolished the function of miR-214. Moreover, miR-214-mediated reduction of {beta}-catenin resulted in suppression of several downstream genes including c-Myc, cyclinD1, TCF-1, and LEF-1. These findings indicate that miR-214 serves as tumor suppressor and plays substantial roles in inhibiting the tumorigenesis of HCC through suppression of {beta}-catenin. Given these, miR-214 may serve as a useful prognostic or therapeutic target for treatment of HCC.

  20. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo......-interstitial nephropathy, increased quantities of beta 2M are excreted in the urine. If the rate of glomerular filtration is reduced, serum-beta 2M is increased and this is also the case in persons with increased cell division despite normal renal function. Serum-beta 2M is, therefore, raised in numerous malignant...... diseases and reflects the size of the tumour mass. During cytostatic treatment of myelomatosis and chronic lymphatic leukaemia, the serum-beta 2M levels decrease on remission and increase on relapse. In acute leukaemia and malignant lymphoma with infiltration of the CNS, similar conditions prevail for CSF...