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Sample records for beta lactoglobulin unknown

  1. Association behavior of native beta-lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheul, M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Roefs, S.P.F.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The association behavior of beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration of the solution. By indirect Fourier transformation of the spectra, pair-distance distribution functions for the variou...

  2. Differences in the processes of beta-lactoglobulin cold and heat denaturations.

    OpenAIRE

    Griko YuV; Kutyshenko, V. P.

    1994-01-01

    The changes in beta-lactoglobulin upon cold and heat denaturation were studied by scanning calorimetry, CD, and NMR spectroscopy. It is shown that, in the presence of urea, these processes of beta-lactoglobulin denaturation below and above 308 K are accompanied by different structural and thermodynamic changes. Analysis of the NOE spectra of beta-lactoglobulin shows that changes in the spin diffusion of beta-lactoglobulin after disruption of the unique tertiary structure upon cold denaturatio...

  3. Solvent effects in TLS determination of beta-lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental presence of small quantities of different allergens such as beta-lactoglobulin in food products is a problem for unaware allergic consumers. Therefore, sensitive methods are needed for detection of trace quantities of allergens. By implementing TLS detection into a FIA system, the sensitivity of beta-lactoglobulin detection was improved. The use of different solvents in the FIA system, however, causes perturbations in the TLS signals. The aim of this research was to reduce the influence of spurious signals and to improve the detection limits of the analytical assay. The optimal performance of the FIA-TLS system for beta-lactoglobulin determination was achieved by using PBS buffer solutions (pH 7.5), which resulted in lowest limits of detection of 2 pM BLG and the total assay time of 10 min.

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN AND KAPPACASEIN GENOTYPES IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. VĂTĂŞESCU-BALCAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Beta-lactoglobulin (b-Lg and kappa-casein (k-Cn are two of the most important proteins in the mammals’ milk synthesized by the epithelial cells of the mammary glands. They play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation process (production of cheese and butter. The PCR-RFLP test was performed to distinguish the different alleles in a population of Romanian Black Spotted cattle, a dairy breed. Genetic polymorphism was detected by digestion with the endonucleases Hae III (b-Lg and Hinf I (k-Cn, followed by electrophoresis in agarose high resolution gel stained with ethidium bromide. Fifty DNA samples from Romanian Black Spotted breed were analyzed for A and B variants. This simple PCR-RFLP test makes feasible the inclusion of b-Lg and k- Cn genotypes in breeding plans and cattle selection.

  5. Scale-up of native beta-lactoglobulin affinity separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, H K; Izco, J M; Jiménez-Flores, R

    2002-07-01

    Affinity separation of beta-lactoglobulin in its native form with all-trans-retinal immobilized on calcium bio-silicate was scaled up and applied to separate it from industrial sweet whey. Three different methods of mixing the modified calcium bio-silicate and whey for the interaction between all-trans-retinal and beta-lactoglobulin were tried at pilot scale. The three methods used were 1) a column packed with calcium bio-silicate, 2) a stirred tank, and 3) a fluidized bed column of calcium bio-silicate particles. Adsorption and desorption of beta-lactoglobulin were carried out at pH 5.1 and 7.0, using 0.01 and 0.1 M phosphate buffers, respectively. The phosphate buffer containing desorbed beta-lactoglobulin was concentrated 20 times using ultrafiltration and then freeze-dried. The packed column, stirred tank, and fluidized bed column produced beta-lactoglobulin with purity of 80, >95, and >95%, and recovery of 0.65, 2.88, and 2.88 g per kilogram of calcium bio-silicate, respectively. The comparative poor purity and recovery of beta-lactoglobulin in the case of the packed column was attributed to insufficient contact between the passing fluids and the calcium bio-silicate during adsorption, desorption, and intermittent washing. The fluidized bed column method, with a gentle mixing action, was considered the best suited for further scale up to the industrial level. PMID:12201513

  6. Hydration water in dynamics of a hydrated beta-lactoglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Bellissent-Funel, M.-C.; Longeville, S.

    2007-02-01

    Incoherent spin-echo signals of a hydrated β-lactoglobulin protein were investigated, at 275 and 293 K. The intermediate scattering functions I(Q,t) were divided in two contributions from surface water and protein, respectively. On one hand, the dynamics of the surface water follows a KWW stretched exponential function (the exponent is ~0.5), on the other hand, that of the protein follows a single exponential. The present results are consistent with our previous results of hydrated C-phycocyanin combining elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering and by molecular dynamics simulation.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide contamination of beta-lactoglobulin affects the immune response against intraperitoneally and orally administered antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Kjær, T.M.R.; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2004-01-01

    intraperitoneal immunization without adjuvant was measured, and oral tolerance induction against beta-LG after administration of either an aqueous solution or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion of beta-LG was evaluated. Results: LPS contamination of beta-LG provoked a beta-LG-specific IgG2a lresponse, as well......'s milk. It is not well established, however, how this presence of LPS affects oral tolerance induction. Methods: We studied the effect of LPS contamination in a commercial preparation of the cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) on antigen-specific immune responses. IgG1/IgG2a production upon......-LG was contaminated with LPS. Conclusions: LPS contamination of an aqueous protein solution does not affect oral tolerance induction, whereas LPS present in emulsion prevents oral tolerance induction towards the food protein....

  8. Lipopolysaccharide contamination of beta-lactoglobulin affects the immune response against intraperitoneally and orally administrated antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Kjær, T.M.R.; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2004-01-01

    intraperitoneal immunization without adjuvant was measured, and oral tolerance induction against beta-LG after administration of either an aqueous solution or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion of beta-LG was evaluated. RESULTS: LPS contamination of beta-LG provoked a beta-LG-specific IgG2a response, as well......'s milk. It is not well established, however, how this presence of LPS affects oral tolerance induction. METHODS: We studied the effect of LPS contamination in a commercial preparation of the cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) on antigen-specific immune responses. IgG1/IgG2a production upon......-LG was contaminated with LPS. CONCLUSIONS: LPS contamination of an aqueous protein solution does not affect oral tolerance induction, whereas LPS present in emulsion prevents oral tolerance induction towards the food protein....

  9. Comparison of immunomodulating properties of Beta-lactoglobulin and its hydrolysates.

    OpenAIRE

    Cui-cui Duan; Ai-li Li; Li-jie Yang; Rui Zhao; Wen-guang Fan; Gui-cheng Huo

    2014-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Beta-lactoglobulin (β- lg) is a dominant allergen in cow's milk. Hydrolysis is known as an effective method to reduce the allergenicity of proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the allergenicity of β-lg and its hydrolysates using an animal model. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and subcutaneously injected with native bovine β-lg and its hydrolysates on days 0, 7 and 14. During...

  10. Thermodynamic stability and retinol binding property of {beta}-lactoglobulin in the presence of cationic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahihi, M. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, A.K., E-mail: bordbar@chem.ui.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghayeb, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > The stability parameters of {beta}-lactoglobulin, BLG, in the presence of C{sub n}TAB have been evaluated. > Rising in hydrocarbon chain length increases the denaturating power of surfactants. > C{sub n}TAB enhances the retinol binding affinity of BLG in all of its concentration range. - Abstract: In this work the stability parameters of bovine {beta}-lactoglobulin, variant A (BLG-A), with regard to their transition curves induced by dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 12}TAB), tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 14}TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C{sub 16}TAB) as cationic surfactants, were determined at 298 K. For each transition curve, the conventional method of analysis which assumes a linear concentration dependence of the pre- and post-transition base lines, gave the most realistic values for {Delta}G{sub D}(H{sub 2}O). The results represent the increase in the denaturating power of surfactants with an increase in hydrocarbon chain length. The value of about 22.27 kJ . mol{sup -1} was obtained for {Delta}G{sub D}(H{sub 2}O) from transition curves. Subsequently, the retinol binding property of BLG as its functional indicator was investigated in the presence of these surfactants using the spectrofluorimeter titration method. The results represent the substantial enhancement of retinol binding affinity of BLG in the presence of these surfactants.

  11. Proteolysis of bovine beta-lactoglobulin during thermal treatment in subdenaturing conditions highlights some structural features of the temperature-modified protein and yields fragments with low immunoreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iametti, S.; Rasmussen, P.; Frøkiær, Hanne;

    2002-01-01

    Bovine beta-lactoglobulin was hydrolyzed with trypsin or chymotrypsin in the course of heat treatment at 55, 60 and 65 C at neutral pH. At these temperatures beta-lactoglobulin undergoes significant but reversible structural changes. In the conditions used in the present study, beta-lactoglobulin......Bovine beta-lactoglobulin was hydrolyzed with trypsin or chymotrypsin in the course of heat treatment at 55, 60 and 65 C at neutral pH. At these temperatures beta-lactoglobulin undergoes significant but reversible structural changes. In the conditions used in the present study, beta......-lactoglobulin was virtually insensitive to proteolysis by either enzyme at room temperature, but underwent extensive proteolysis when either protease was present during the heat treatment. High-temperature proteolysis occurs in a progressive manner. Mass spectrometry analysis of some large-sized breakdown intermediates...... formed in the early steps of hydrolysis indicated that both enzymes effectively hydrolyzed some regions of beta-lactoglobulin that were transiently exposed during the physical treatments and that were not accessible in the native protein. The immunochemical properties of the products of beta...

  12. Adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to silica surfaces after sequential and competitive adsorption of bovine serum albumin and beta-lactoglobulin.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Makhlafi, H; Nasir, A; McGuire, J.; Daeschel, M

    1995-01-01

    Adsorbed bovine serum albumin was resistant to exchange with beta-lactoglobulin, and when albumin was adsorbed from a mixture, its surface concentration increased with time. The passivating character of adsorbed albumin and its resistance to desorption were consistent with the level of Listeria monocytogenes adhesion evoked by albumin-containing protein films.

  13. Selective separation of beta-lactoglobulin from sweet whey using CGAs generated from the cationic surfactant CTAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuda, Elisabeth; Bhatia, Divesh; Pyle, D L; Jauregi, Paula

    2005-06-01

    The selective separation of whey proteins was studied using colloidal gas aphrons generated from the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). From the titration curves obtained by zeta potential measurements of individual whey proteins, it was expected to selectively adsorb the major whey proteins, i.e., bovine serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin to the aphrons and elute the remaining proteins (lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase) in the liquid phase. A number of process parameters including pH, ionic strength, and mass ratio of surfactant to protein (M(CTAB)/M(TP)) were varied in order to evaluate their effect on protein separation. Under optimum conditions (2 mmol/l CTAB, M(CTAB)/M(TP) = 0.26-0.35, pH 8, and ionic strength = 0.018 mol/l), 80-90% beta-lactoglobulin was removed from the liquid phase as a precipitate, while about 75% lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase, 80% bovine serum albumin, 95% immunoglobulin, and 65% alpha-lactalbumin were recovered in the liquid fraction. Mechanistic studies using zeta potential measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy proved that electrostatic interactions modulate only partially the selectivity of protein separation, as proteins with similar surface charges do not separate to the same extent between the two phases. The selectivity of recovery of beta-lactoglobulin probably occurs in two steps: the first being the selective interaction of the protein with opposite-charged surfactant molecules by means of electrostatic interactions, which leads to denaturation of the protein and subsequent formation and precipitation of the CTAB-beta-lactoglobulin complex. This is followed by the separation of CTAB-beta-lactoglobulin aggregates from the bulk liquid by flotation in the aphron phase. In this way, CGAs act as carriers which facilitate the removal of protein precipitate. PMID:15816026

  14. Lactose crystallization delay in model infant foods made with lactose, beta-lactoglobulin, and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirpour, A; Landillon, V; Cuq, B; Scher, J; Banon, S; Desobry, S

    2007-08-01

    Handling and storage alter infant food powders due to lactose crystallization and interactions among components. Model infant foods were prepared by colyophilization of lactose, beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and gelatinized starch. A mixture design was used to define the percentage of each mixture component to simulate a wide range of infant food powders. The kinetics of crystallization was studied by a gravimetric method (dynamic vapor sorption) at 70% relative humidity (RH). After freeze-drying, lactose was amorphous and crystallized at 70% RH. The delay before crystallization depends on the contents of beta-LG and starch in the formulations. A mathematical model was proposed to predict crystallization time (delay) at 70% RH. For the formulation containing 50% lactose, 25% beta-LG, and 25% starch, lactose was still amorphous after 42 h at 70% RH, whereas pure amorphous lactose crystallized after approximately 70 min. Calculated and experimental results of adsorbed moisture from the formulations were compared. Adsorbed water of formulation containing lactose could not be calculated from moisture sorption properties of each component at a given RH because beta-LG and gelatinized starch prevented lactose crystal growth. PMID:17638972

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN AND KAPPA-CASEIN GENOTYPES IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TESIO C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-lactoglobulin (b-Lg and kappa-casein (k-Cn are two of the most importantproteins in the mammals’ milk synthesized by the epithelial cells of the mammaryglands. They play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation process(production of cheese and butter. The PCR-RFLP test was performed to distinguishthe different alleles in a population of Romanian Black Spotted cattle, a dairy breed.Genetic polymorphism was detected by digestion with the endonucleases Hae III (b-Lg and Hinf I (k-Cn, followed by electrophoresis in agarose high resolution gelstained with ethidium bromide. Fifty DNA samples from Romanian Black Spottedbreed were analyzed for A and B variants. This simple PCR-RFLP test makesfeasible the inclusion of b-Lg and k-Cn genotypes in breeding plans and cattleselection.

  16. Molecular mass distribution and epitopes of the beta lactoglobulin submitted to hydrolysis pre-transglutaminase treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas-Boas, M.B.; Zollner, R.L.; Netto, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Benede, S.; Molina, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The {beta}-Lactoglobulin ({beta}-Lg) is a whey protein with important nutritional proper ties but very resistant to pepsin digestion and consequently highly antigenic. This protein can be modified by transglutaminase (TG) although it is required a pretreatment to increase their susceptibility to the TG action. In the present study the hydrolysis pre-TG treatment was used to improve the TG accessibility on {beta}-Lg and the MM distribution and antigenic fragments were evaluated. For pre-TG treatment, the {beta}-Lg (Davisco Inc.) was hydrolyzed with bromelain (3% of {beta}-Lg w/w in distilled water; 25 U enzyme g{sup 1} of substrate, pH 7.5, 240 min) and then polymerized by TG (7% hydrolysate, 10U TG g{sup 1} protein, 50 C/180 min). The samples were evaluated by SDS-PAGE/tricine and by RP-nanoUPLC (nanoAcquity UPLC, Waters) coupled with nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a Q-Tof Ultima API mass spectrometer (MicroMass/Waters) at LNBio. The products were also submitted to pepsin digestion and the peptide identification was performed by RP-HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS/MS, Brucker) with support from CIAL. The {beta}-Lg hydrolysed by bromelain and polymerized by TG had a broad MM distribution. The intact mass analysis indicated that the non modified {beta}Lg -A showed 18.362 Da and the non modified {beta}Lg -B 18.274 Da, which is in agreement with the theoretical corresponding masses. The use of bromelain pre-TG treatment resulted in polymers with MM from 61.052 to 67.654 Da, although some non modified protein was still present. In addition, the non modified {beta}-Lg showed fragments that present high antigenicity (such as Leu{sub 95} - Leu{sub 104}, Asp{sub 95} - Phe{sub 105}, Tyr{sub 42} - Leu{sub 54}, lle{sub 29} - Val{sub 41}), previously identified as IgE-binding epitopes. After hydrolysis following by TG treatment the fragment Tyr{sub 42} - Leu{sub 54} was still present, however the other fragments that were observed in the non

  17. Metal ions modulate thermal aggregation of beta-lactoglobulin: a joint chemical and physical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, Giovanna; Tinti, Anna; Di Foggia, Michele; Leone, Maurizio; Militello, Valeria; Torreggiani, Armida

    2014-08-01

    Molecular basis of the role played by Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions during the thermal aggregation processes of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) was studied by using a joint application of different techniques. In particular, Raman spectroscopy was very useful in identifying the different effects caused by the two metals at molecular level (i.e. changes in His protonation state, disulfides bridge conformation, and micro-environment of aromatic residues), evidencing the primary importance of the protein charge distribution during the aggregation process. Both metal ions are able to act on this factor and favor the protein aggregation, but Zn(2+) is able to alter the natural conformational state of BLG, causing a slight unfolding, whereas Cu(2+) ions play a role only during the thermal treatment. Thus, Zn(2+) ions favor the formation of bigger aggregates and branched fibril-like structures, whereas for Cu(2+) ions a greater number of cross-beta structures during thermal incubation and finally, fibrillar structures. The aggregation process occurs in two phases, as suggested by the measurements on the time evolution of the BLG aggregates: the first one is characterized by a partial unfolding of the protein and aggregate growth, forming oligomers and protofibrils, whereas the second one is characterized by further supramolecular assembly, leading to the formation of fibrils.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of beta-lactoglobulin interactions with two flavor compounds, gamma-decalactone and beta-ionone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Markus; Guichard, Elisabeth; Tromelin, Anne; Le Quéré, Jean Luc

    2002-11-20

    Interactions between a well-characterized protein, beta-lactoglobulin, and two flavor compounds, beta-ionone and gamma-decalactone, were studied by 2D NMR spectroscopy. NMR spectra were recorded in aqueous solution (pH 2.0, 12 mM NaCl, 10% D(2)O) under conditions such that beta-lactoglobulin is present in a monomeric state. TOCSY and NOESY spectra were recorded on the protein and the complexes between protein and ligands. The spectra of the NH-CH(alpha) region showed the cross-signals due to the coupling between N- and C-bonded protons in the polypeptide backbone. The observed chemical shift variations in the presence of ligands can be assigned to changes in the protein conformation. It appears that the side chains of several amino acids are affected by binding of gamma-decalactone point into the central cavity (Leu46, Ile56, Met107, and Gln120), whereas binding of beta-ionone affects amino acids located in a groove near the outer surface of the protein (Leu104, Tyr120, and Asp129), as illustrated by molecular visualization. This NMR study provides precise information of the location of binding and confirms the existence of two different binding sites for aroma compounds on beta-lactoglobulin, which was suggested in previous competition studies by fluorometry or affinity chromatography and by structural information obtained from infrared spectroscopy. PMID:12428965

  19. Comparison of immunomodulating properties of Beta-lactoglobulin and its hydrolysates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-cui Duan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Beta-lactoglobulin (β- lg is a dominant allergen in cow's milk. Hydrolysis is known as an effective method to reduce the allergenicity of proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the allergenicity of β-lg and its hydrolysates using an animal model. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and subcutaneously injected with native bovine β-lg and its hydrolysates on days 0, 7 and 14. During the sensitization period, a number of systemic anaphylactic indicators were observed in mice sensitized by β-lg compared to those sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg. Mice sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg showed a significantly lower spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than that sensitized by intact β-lg. Antibody levels of β-lg-specific IgE in serum induced by native β-lg were significantly high. Plasma histamine levels were also evaluated and showed the same trend as IgE. Moreover, the hydrolysates of β-lg significantly down-regulated IL-4 and IL-5 secretions in serum. These results suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of β-lg.

  20. Comparison of immunomodulating properties of Beta-lactoglobulin and its hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Cui-cui; Li, Ai-li; Yang, Li-jie; Zhao, Rui; Fan, Wen-guang; Huo, Gui-cheng

    2014-02-01

    Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Beta-lactoglobulin (β- lg) is a dominant allergen in cow's milk. Hydrolysis is known as an effective method to reduce the allergenicity of proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the allergenicity of β-lg and its hydrolysates using an animal model. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and subcutaneously injected with native bovine β-lg and its hydrolysates on days 0, 7 and 14. During the sensitization period, a number of systemic anaphylactic indicators were observed in mice sensitized by β-lg compared to those sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg. Mice sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg showed a significantly lower spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than that sensitized by intact β-lg. Antibody levels of β-lg-specific IgE in serum induced by native β-lg were significantly high. Plasma histamine levels were also evaluated and showed the same trend as IgE. Moreover, the hydrolysates of β-lg significantly down-regulated IL-4 and IL-5 secretions in serum. These results suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of β-lg. PMID:24338225

  1. Structural changes in emulsion-bound bovine beta-lactoglobulin affect its proteolysis and immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Miriani, Matteo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barbiroli, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption on the surface of sub-micrometric oil droplets resulted in significant changes in the tertiary structure of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a whey protein broadly used as a food ingredient and a major food allergen. The adsorbed protein had increased sensitivity to trypsin, and increased immunoreactivity towards specific monoclonal antibodies. In spite of the extensive tryptic breakdown of emulsion-bound BLG, some sequence stretches in BLG became trypsin-insensitive upon absorption of the protein on the fat droplets. As a consequence - at contrast with free BLG - proteolysis of emulsion-bound BLG did not decrease the immunoreactivity of the protein, and some of the large peptides generated by trypsinolysis of emulsion-bound BLG were still recognizable by specific monoclonal antibodies. Structural changes occurring in emulsion-bound BLG and their consequences are discussed in comparison with those occurring when the tertiary structure of BLG is modified by lipophilic salts, by urea, or upon interaction with solid hydrophobic surfaces. Such a comparison highlights the relevance of situation-specific structural modifications, that in turn may affect physiologically relevant features of the protein. PMID:27085639

  2. In vitro digestibility of beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin under simulated human gastric and duodenal conditions: A multi-laboratory evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandalari, G.; Adel-Patient, K.; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2009-01-01

    Initially the resistance to digestion of two cow's milk allergens, beta-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), was compared using a "high-protease assay" and a "low-protease assay" in a single laboratory. The low-protease assay represents an alternative standardised protocol mimicking conditions...... found in the gastrointestinal tract. For the high-protease assay, both proteins were incubated with either pepsin or pancreatin and digestion monitored by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The low-protease assay involved...... gastroduodenal digestion in the presence or absence of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Both beta-casein and beta-Lg were susceptible to hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin in the high-protease assay. In contrast, the kinetics of beta-casein digestion in the low-protease assay were slower, beta-Lg being pepsin...

  3. Influence of the overall charge and local charge density of pectin on the complex formation between pectin and beta-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, Bram L. H. M.; Schols, Henk A.; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Norde, Willem; Voragen, Alphons G. J.

    2009-01-01

    The complex formation between beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) and pectin is studied using pectins with different physicochemical characteristics. Pectin allows for the control of both the overall charge by degree of methyl-esterification as well as local charge density by the degree of blockiness. Vary

  4. 413 Effect of Hydrolysis and Polymerization on Bovine Beta-lactoglobulin Immunoreactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Villas-Boas, Mariana Battaglin; Sabadin, Isabele Serimarco; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Enzymatic treatments such as hydrolysis with proteases and polymerization using transglutaminase (TG) have been studied to reduce the immunoreactivity of β-Lactoglobulin (β-Lg). Bromelain is a cisteine protease that is not usually used for production of hypoallergenic hydrolysates. TG is an enzyme that catalyses the formation of inter and intramolecular isopeptide bonds between glutamine and lysine residues. The present study is aimed at investigating the antigenic response of β-Lg...

  5. Effect of prolactin, beta-lactoglobulin, and kappa-casein genotype on milk yield in East Friesian sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, E A; Thonney, M L; Buchanan, J W; Rogers, E R; Oltenacu, P A; Mateescu, R G

    2010-04-01

    The effect of prolactin (PRL), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and kappa-casein (CSN3) on milk yield was estimated in an East Friesian dairy sheep population from Old Chatham Sheepherding Company, New York. Genotypes were determined by PCR amplification followed by digestion with HaeIII and RsaI for PRL and beta-LG, respectively, and by PCR amplification for CSN3. Monthly milking records and pedigree information were used to evaluate the effect of each polymorphism on milk yield. Results indicated that PRL genotype had a significant effect on milk yield. Ewes carrying one A allele produced 110.6g more milk per day than ewes with no A alleles. There was no statistical difference between ewes with only one A allele and ewes with 2 A alleles. No association among polymorphisms at the beta-LG and CSN3 loci and milk yield was found. The results presented in this study indicate that the PRL gene is a potential marker that could be used in selection programs for improving milk yield in dairy sheep.

  6. Thermodynamics of binding interactions between bovine beta-lactoglobulin A and the antihypertensive peptide beta-Lg f142-148.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roufik, Samira; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Leng, Xiaojing; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2006-02-01

    The binding capacity of bovine beta-lactoglobulin variant A (beta-Lg A) for six peptides derived from beta-Lg was evaluated using an ultrafiltration method under the following conditions: pH 6.8, 40 degrees C, and a beta-Lg A/peptide molar ratio of 1:5. Only peptides beta-Lg f102-105, f142-148, and f69-83 bound in significant amounts to beta-Lg A corresponding to 1.5, 1.1, and 0.7 mol of peptide per mole of beta-Lg A, respectively. The interaction between beta-Lg A and the antihypertensive peptide beta-Lg f142-148 was investigated further by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding isotherms at pH 6.8 and 25 degrees C confirmed that beta-Lg f142-148 bound to beta-Lg A and that the interaction followed a sequential three-site binding model with constants of association of 2 x 10(3), 1 x 10(3), and 0.4 x 10(3) M(-1) for the first, second, and third binding sites, respectively. The enthalpy of binding was exothermic for the first and second binding sites and endothermic for the third binding site. Binding of the peptide to all three sites was spontaneous as shown by the negative free energy values. These results show for the first time that beta-Lg A can bind bioactive peptides. This potential could be exploited to transport bioactive peptides and protect them in the gastrointestinal tract following their oral administration as nutraceuticals.

  7. Toward Separating Alpha-lactalbumin and Beta-lactoglobulin Proteins from Whey through Cation-exchange Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mayyada; Chase, Howard

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the cation-exchange adsorption of the two major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) with the purpose of establishing a process for isolating them from cow's milk whey. The single- and two-component adsorption of 1.5 mg/ml ALA and 3 mg/ml BLG to the cation-exchanger SP Sepharose FF at 20° C using 0.1 M acetate buffer of pH 3.7 was studied. Langmuir isotherm parameters were determined for the pure proteins. In two-component systems, BLG breakthrough curve exhibited an overshoot phenomenon that gave evidence for the presence of a competitive adsorption between the two proteins. Complete separation occurred and it was possible to obtain each of the two proteins in a pure form. The process was then applied to a whey concentrate mixture where incomplete separation took place. However, BLG was produced with 95% purity and a recovery of 80%, while ALA showed an 84% recovery with low purity.

  8. Identification of a novel angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide corresponding to a tryptic fragment of bovine beta-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, M M; Meisel, H; FitzGerald, R J

    1997-02-01

    The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of a tryptic digest of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) was investigated. Intact beta-lg essentially did not inhibit ACE while the tryptic digest gave an 84.3% inhibition of ACE. Peptide material eluting between 20 and 25% acetonitrile during C18 solid-phase extraction of the beta-lg tryptic digest inhibited ACE by 93.6%. This solid-phase extraction fraction was shown by mass spectroscopy to contain beta-lg f(142-148). This peptide had an ACE IC50 value of 42.6 micromol/l. The peptide was resistant to further digestion with pepsin and was hydrolysed to a very low extent with chymotrypsin. The contribution of specific amino acid residues within the peptide to ACE inhibitory activity and the potential application of this peptide as a nutraceutical is discussed.

  9. Factors affecting the interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and fatty acids as revealed in molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Changhong; Wambo, Thierry O

    2015-09-21

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a bovine dairy protein, is a promiscuously interacting protein that can bind multiple hydrophobic ligands. Fatty acids (FAs), common hydrophobic molecules bound to BLG, are important sources of fuel for life because they yield large quantities of ATP when metabolized. The binding affinity increases with the length of the ligands, indicating the importance of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between the hydrocarbon tail and the hydrophobic calyx of BLG. An exception to this rule is caprylic acid (OCA) which is two-carbon shorter but has a stronger binding affinity than capric acid. Theoretical calculations in the current literature are not accurate enough to shed light on the underlying physics of this exception. The computed affinity values are greater for longer fatty acids without respect for the caprylic exception and those values are generally several orders of magnitude away from the experimental data. In this work, we used hybrid steered molecular dynamics to accurately compute the binding free energies between BLG and the five saturated FAs of 8 to 16 carbon atoms. The computed binding free energies agree well with experimental data not only in rank but also in absolute values. We gained insights into the exceptional behavior of caprylic acid in the computed values of entropy and electrostatic interactions. We found that the electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl group of caprylic acid and the two amino groups of K60/69 in BLG is much stronger than the vdW force between the OCA's hydrophobic tail and the BLG calyx. This pulls OCA to the top of the beta barrel where it is easier to fluctuate, giving rise to greater entropy of OCA at the binding site. PMID:26272099

  10. Molecular mass distribution and epitopes of the beta lactoglobulin submitted to hydrolysis pre-transglutaminase treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The β-Lactoglobulin (β-Lg) is a whey protein with important nutritional proper ties but very resistant to pepsin digestion and consequently highly antigenic. This protein can be modified by transglutaminase (TG) although it is required a pretreatment to increase their susceptibility to the TG action. In the present study the hydrolysis pre-TG treatment was used to improve the TG accessibility on β-Lg and the MM distribution and antigenic fragments were evaluated. For pre-TG treatment, the β-Lg (Davisco Inc.) was hydrolyzed with bromelain (3% of β-Lg w/w in distilled water; 25 U enzyme g1 of substrate, pH 7.5, 240 min) and then polymerized by TG (7% hydrolysate, 10U TG g1 protein, 50 C/180 min). The samples were evaluated by SDS-PAGE/tricine and by RP-nanoUPLC (nanoAcquity UPLC, Waters) coupled with nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a Q-Tof Ultima API mass spectrometer (MicroMass/Waters) at LNBio. The products were also submitted to pepsin digestion and the peptide identification was performed by RP-HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS/MS, Brucker) with support from CIAL. The β-Lg hydrolysed by bromelain and polymerized by TG had a broad MM distribution. The intact mass analysis indicated that the non modified βLg -A showed 18.362 Da and the non modified βLg -B 18.274 Da, which is in agreement with the theoretical corresponding masses. The use of bromelain pre-TG treatment resulted in polymers with MM from 61.052 to 67.654 Da, although some non modified protein was still present. In addition, the non modified β-Lg showed fragments that present high antigenicity (such as Leu95 - Leu104, Asp95 - Phe105, Tyr42 - Leu54, lle29 - Val41), previously identified as IgE-binding epitopes. After hydrolysis following by TG treatment the fragment Tyr42 - Leu54 was still present, however the other fragments that were observed in the non modified β-Lg were not detected by LC-MS/MS, suggesting that structural change occurred in the protein after

  11. In vitro transport and satiety of a beta-lactoglobulin dipeptide and beta-casomorphin-7 and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Simone; Chen, Wei; Addepalli, Rama; Colgrave, Michelle; Singh, Tanoj; Tran, Cuong; Day, Li

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the digestive behaviour and biological activities of dairy proteins may help to develop model dairy products with targeted health outcomes including increased satiety and healthy weight maintenance. Caseins and whey proteins constitute over 95% of milk proteins with consumption of these proteins associated with increased satiety and a decreased prevalence of metabolic disorders. To investigate the in vitro digestive behaviour and satiety of dairy proteins at the intestinal epithelium, the in vitro transport and hydrolysis of 500-2000 μM β-casomorphin-7 (YPFPGPI or β-CM7) and a β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) dipeptide (YL) was measured using Caco-2 cell monolayers grown on transwells as a model of the intestinal epithelium. Transport of YL was concentration dependent and ranged from 0.37-5.26 × 10(-6) cm s(-1), whereas transport of β-CM7 was only detected at 2000 μM and was significantly lower at 0.13 × 10(-6) cm s(-1). Rapid hydrolysis of β-CM7 in the apical chamber by the Caco-2 cells produced three peptide metabolites: YP, GPI and FPGPI. All of these metabolites were detected in the basolateral chamber after 30 min with both the YP and GPI peptides transporting at a higher rate than intact β-CM7. In vitro satiety was indicated by the secretion of cholecystokinin [26-33] (CCK-8) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-17-36NH2) in the STC-1 enteroendocrine cell model. CCK-8 secretion was highest in response to β-CM7 followed by the β-CM7 metabolite FPGPI. CCK-8 secretion however was not significantly stimulated by the tri- or dipeptides. Secretion of GLP-1 was not significantly stimulated by β-CM7 or YL. These in vitro results suggest that dairy peptide size enhances CCK-8 secretion, whilst limiting transport across Caco-2 monolayers.

  12. Associations of a polymorphic AP-2 binding site in the 5'-flanking region of the bovine beta-lactoglobulin gene with milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, A W; Gogol, J; Geidermann, H

    2003-06-01

    Studies on a polymorphic position (R10) in an Activator-Protein-2 (AP-2) binding site of the bovine beta-Lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) gene promoter region and quantitative traits of individual milk proteins were based on material from 79 German Holstein Friesian (HF) and 61 Simmental (Sm) cows. At least four milk samples per cow were analyzed with alkaline Urea-PAGE in combination with densitometry for quantification of individual milk proteins. The two alleles of the R10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) carry either G or C in position -435 bp of the beta-Lg promoter region. G- and C-alleles were found in Sm with nearly equal frequencies, while in HF the C-allele frequency was higher (0.73) than that of the G-allele. In both breeds, the R10 G-homozygotes had higher (P beta-Lg secreted per day and proportion of beta-Lg in milk protein compared with the C-homozygotes. A similar association was found for alpha-lactalbumin, whereas the relative proportions and daily secreted amounts of caseins (alphaS1, beta, kappa) showed lower values in beta-Lg R10 G-homozygotes. A positive association (P beta-Lg locus to a candidate gene for this trait. The association between the SNP in the AP-2 binding site of the beta-Lg gene and its gene product can be explained as the result of differences in protein binding activity, and, therefore, allele specific differences in gene expression. Thus, our study clearly links a DNA polymorphism of molecular function very closely with in vivo expression parameters of the same locus.

  13. Effect of maternal dietary cow’s milk on the immune response to beta-lactoglobulin in the offspring: A four generation study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2005-01-01

    generations may be necessary to obtain immunologically naive animals. METHODS: To determine the most appropriate breeding conditions of mice to be used in immunological studies on food proteins, we examined immune responses towards beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) in mice bred on a milk-containing diet (F0......Evaluation of immune responses to food proteins in animal models requires that the animals are not already sensitized or orally tolerized against the proteins in question. Since maternal transfer of specific immune responses has been observed, breeding of animals on an antigen-free diet for several...... appropriate for immunological studies of food proteins. Although the small quantity of BLG in the milk-free diet did not induce detectable oral tolerance in the present study, it is strongly recommended that the potential effect of contaminating dietary antigen is considered in future studies on food proteins...

  14. Analysis of Beta-Lactoglobuline Gene (LGB Polymorphism in Different Breeds of Bulls by High Resolution Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was to identify  - lactoglobulin gene polymorphism in bulls. The  - lactoglobulin (LGB is expressed in milk and is important in the evaluation of milk production potential and butterfat and protein content. LGB is localized on bovine chromosome 11. The AA genotype of LGB is associated with higher milk yield, the BB genotype with higher fat and casein content and is more desirable for cheese making. The material involved 46 bulls (Slovak spotted breed – 41 bulls, Pinzgau breed – 3 bulls and Holstein breed – 2 bulls. Bovine genomic DNA was isolated from sperm using commercial kit NucleoSpin Tissue and used in order to estimate LGB genotypes by means of PCR RFLP method and high resolution melting analysis (HRMA. In the population of Slovak spotted breed we detected all genotypes AA, AB and BB with frequency 0.3415, 0.4390 and 0.2195, subsequently. In Pinzgau breed was detected homozygote genotypes AA and BB with frequency 0.3333 and 0.6667. In Holstein breed was observed only heterozygote genotype AB with frequency 1.

  15. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin in human milk from atopic and non-atopic mothers. Relationship to maternal intake of homogenized and unhomogenized milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Hansen, L G;

    1990-01-01

    Human milk samples (n = 300) were collected during a 3-week period from 10 healthy mothers and from 10 atopic mothers, all with healthy, solely breast-fed infants. The milk samples were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the content of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG......). In a cross-over design the atopic and non-atopic mothers alternated their intake of milk between homogenized and unhomogenized milk each week. On day 7, in each week, consecutive milk samples were taken before and 4, 8, 12 and 24 hr after a single ingestion of 500 ml of homogenized or unhomogenized milk....... Detectable amounts of BLG (0.9-150 micrograms/l, median value 4.2 micrograms/l) were measured in 19/20 of the mothers (95%), in 9 of 10 atopic mothers and in all 10 of 10 non-atopic mothers. No correlation was found between the type of milk preparation (homogenized or unhomogenized) and the presence of BLG...

  16. Marked effect of beta-lactoglobulin polymorphism on the ratio of casein to total protein in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundén, A; Nilsson, M; Janson, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between genetic variants for milk protein and the composition of milk was analyzed on 4475 repeated milk samples from individual cows; 371 dairy cows of the Swedish Red and White breed and 204 cows of the Swedish Holstein breed were used. The registrations included percentages of casein, protein, fat, and lactose in combination with milk yield and SCC. The genotype of individual cows for alpha(s1)-CN, beta-CN, kappa-CN, and beta-LG was determined by alkaline and acidic PAGE. A mixed animal model was used for the analysis; beta-LG and aggregate casein genotypes were included simultaneously as separate fixed effects in the statistical model. The results suggest a positive additive effect of the beta-LG B allele on casein content and on the ratio of casein to total protein. For the latter trait, the beta-LG genotype accounted for a relatively large part of the phenotypic variance, corresponding to a reduction in residual variance of 11% when included in the model. The corresponding value for casein content was 0.5%. The lack of unfavorable associations between milk protein variants and the traits included in this study makes the beta-LG gene an obvious candidate when the breeding objective is improved conversion of milk protein into cheese.

  17. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies of metastable intermediates of beta-lactoglobulin isolated after heat-induced aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrotta, R.; Arleth, L.; Pedersen, J.S.;

    2003-01-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering was used for studying intermediate species, isolated after heat-induced aggregation of the A variant of bovine P-lactoglobulin. The intermediates were separated in two fractions, the heated metastable dimer and heated metastable oligomers larger than the dimer. The pa...

  18. Guanidinium chloride and urea denaturations of beta-lactoglobulin A at pH 2.0 and 25 degrees C: the equilibrium intermediate contains non-native structures (helix, tryptophan and hydrophobic patches).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Tanveer Ali; Singh, Laishram Rajendrakumar; Islam, Asimul; Anjum, Farah; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ahmad, Faizan

    2007-05-01

    We have carried out guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) and urea denaturations of bovine beta-lactoglobulin A (beta-lgA) at pH 2.0 and 25 degrees C, using far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism, near-UV absorption and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopies. The stable intermediate state that occurs during GdmCl denaturation has been characterized by the far- and near-UV circular dichroism, tryptophan difference absorption, tryptophan fluorescence and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulphonic acid binding measurements. Following conclusions have been reached. (a) Urea-induced denaturation is not a two-state process. (b) GdmCl-induced denaturation is composed of two distinct two-state processes. (c) alpha-Helical content, burial of tryptophan residues and burial of hydrophobic surface area are more in the GdmCl-induced stable intermediate than those originally present in the native protein.

  19. Sequencing of Candidate Genes Selected by Beta Cell Experts in Monogenic Diabetes of Unknown Aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Edghill

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Approximately 39% of cases with permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM and about 11% with maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY have an unknown genetic aetiology. Many of the known genes causing MODY and PNDM were identified as being critical for beta cell function before their identification as a cause of monogenic diabetes. Objective We used nominations from the EU beta cell consortium EURODIA project partners to guide gene candidacy. Subjects Seventeen cases with permanent neonatal diabetes and 8 cases with maturity onset diabetes of the young. Main outcome measures The beta cell experts within the EURODIA consortium were asked to nominate 3 “gold”, 3 “silver” and 4 “bronze” genes based on biological or genetic grounds. We sequenced twelve candidate genes from the list based on evidence for candidacy. Results Sequencing ISL1, LMX1A, MAFA, NGN3, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, PAX4, PAX6, SOX2, SREBF1, SYT9 and UCP2 did not identify any pathogenic mutations. Conclusion Further work is needed to identify novel causes of permanent neonatal diabetes and maturity onset diabetes of the young utilising genetic approaches as well as further candidate genes.

  20. Study of Intermediate Products from the Cross-linking Reactions of Genipin with Beta-Lactoglobulin and Related Peptides by MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genipin, methyl-1R,2R,6S-2-hydroxy-9-(hydroxymethyl)-3-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nona-4,8-diene-5-carboxylate, is an aglycone derivative from geniposide found in the Gardenia jasminoides fruits, obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucosidase. Genipin has been shown to be capable of cross-linking...

  1. Análise de polimorfismos do gene da beta-lactoglobulina em vacas da raça Nelore e efeitos sobre o peso à desmama de suas progênies Polimorphism analisys of beta-lactoglobulin gene on Nellore cows and effects on weaning weight of the calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.C. Faria

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre peso à desmama de bezerros Nelore foram utilizadas após ajuste para idade padrão aos 205 dias, sexo, idade da mãe, touro e mês de desmama, para separar as reprodutrizes em dois grupos, segundo o peso de suas crias. As médias de peso dos bezerros ajustadas pelo método dos quadrados mínimos e erros-padrão (LSM± SE foram para os grupos pesados (P e leves (L 163,21± 2,18kg e 134,44± 2,18kg, respectivamente, com 41 animais em cada grupo. Essas reprodutrizes foram submetidas a coleta de sangue para estudo de polimorfismos do gene da beta-lactoglobulina, por meio da técnica de PCR-RFLP. A amplificação e a digestão de um fragmento do gene da beta-lactoglobulina entre o éxon II e III identificou os genótipos 1AA, 24AB e 56BB, com as freqüências de 0,16 e 0,84 para os alelos A e B, respectivamente. Os 24 animais com genótipo AB apresentaram LSM± SE de peso de seus produtos de 149,50± 4,17kg, e os 56 animais de genótipo BB tiveram média de 148,44± 2,73kg. O teste do qui-quadrado não apresentou significância (P>0,05, isto é, os grupos P e L não diferiram entre si quanto às freqüências alélicas apresentadas para esse gene. O genótipo das reprodutrizes não afetou o peso à desmama de suas crias, o que sugere haver outros fatores genéticos e não genéticos de maior magnitude que afetam o peso à desmama.Weaning weights from a Nelore herd were used after adjustment of means for 205 days of age, sex, age of dam, sire and weaning month, and resulted into two groups of cows that differed by the weaning weight of their calves. The least square means (LSM and standard error (SE were for heavy group 163.21± 2.18kg and for light group 134.44± 2.18kg, with 41 animals in each group. These animals were genotyped by DNA polymorphisms of beta -lactoglobulin gene, using PCR-RFLP. After amplification and digestion of a beta-lactoglobulin gene fragment between II and III exon, genotypes 1AA, 24AB and 56BB were

  2. Investigation of the Interaction between Mucins and β-Lactoglobulin under Tribological Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celebioglu, Hilal Yilmaz; Guðjónsdóttir, María; Chronakis, Ioannis S.;

    2016-01-01

    The interaction characteristics between mucins and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) under tribological stress were investigated by comparing the lubricity of mixed solutions of mucineBLG with that of neat protein solutions at compliant hydrophobic interfaces. Surface adsorption properties of the proteins...

  3. Immunostimulatory Potential of β-Lactoglobulin Preparations: Effects Caused by Endotoxin Contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bovetto, L.; Fritsche, R.;

    2003-01-01

    Background: The immunomodulating potential residing in cow's milk proteins is currently receiving increasing attention because of growing interest in functional foods and the complex problem of cow's milk allergy. One of the major cow's milk allergens, whey protein beta-lactoglobulin, has...

  4. Polimorfismo genético de beta-lactoglobulina y alphalactoalbúmina en el ganado criollo colombiano, mediante PCR-SSCP Genetic polymorphism of beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactoalbumin in Colombian Creole cattle by PCR-SSCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Rosero-Alpala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La población de ganado criollo colombiano ha venido presentando una inquietante disminución al pasar de 23.415 ejemplares en 1999 a 20.102 en 2003. A pesar de los esfuerzos por recuperar las razas criollas el panorama para su conservación es incierto, por tanto la búsqueda de caracteres deseables puede contribuir a su valoración y conservación. Los genes relacionados con el mejoramiento de la calidad de la leche producida por estas razas se consideran de gran importancia en la industria láctea, por tal razón y con el objetivo de caracterizar los genes beta-lactoglobulina y alpha-lactoalbúmina se analizaron 30 muestras de sangre de cada una de las razas criollas (Blanco Orejinegro, Caqueteño, Casanareño, Costeño con cuernos, Chino Santandereano, Hartón del Valle, Romosinuano y Sanmartinero, dos razas sintéticas colombianas (Lucerna y Velásquez y dos razas foráneas (Holstein y Brahman. Se amplificaron fragmentos de 262pb para beta-lactoglobulina (b-LG y de 166 pb para alpha-lactoalbúmina (a-LA que se genotipificaron mediante PCR-SSCP. El promedio de la frecuencia para b-LG A y b-LG B fue de 0.46 ± 0.020 y de 0.53 ± 0.020, respectivamente, y de 0.35 ± 0.019 para a-LA A y 0.64 ± 0.019 para a-LA B. El promedio de diversidad genética (He para b-LG fue 0.498 y de 0.455 para a-LA. Los ganados criollos representan una base genética valiosa, como alternativa para mejorar genéticamente los hatos destinados a la producción de leche con mejores características en calidad para la industria láctea.The Colombian Creole Cattle has showed a preoccupant population decreasing, from 23,415 individuals in 1999 to 20,102 in 2003. Despite that many efforts to recover the creole breeds have been done, its future conservation is unclear. Searching for economic desirable genes may contribute to its preservation and utilization as a genetic resource. Genes related with the improvement of milk proteins are considered as an economic important

  5. Genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein of cattle breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Profitable milk production respects the interests of producers, processing industries, consumer requirements and welfare of animals. Development of new methods of direct gene analysis responsible for milk proteins polymorphism provide new tools to raise the profitability of milk production and dairy products through implementation of breed genetic profile in breeding program. Because of necessity to determinate genetic profiles of cattle breeds in Croatia using new analytical methods, the ratio of dominant allelic polymorphic variants of beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and kappa-casein (κ-CN is defined. The share of beta-lactoglobulin B variant is dominant in all investigated cattle breeds (>52.9 %. Kappa- casein allelic variant A is dominant in selected cattle breeds (60.7-76.4 %, while the share of B variant is significantly more presented in autochthonous cattle breeds (48.2-84.1 %. Knowledge about genetic profile of breeds due to studied polymorphic variants of milk proteins is useful in further breeding development and economic reaffirmation of cattle breeds, especially autochthonous ones.

  6. Functional properties of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Whey proteins are commonly used in the food industry due to their nutritive value and functional properties. The most important functional properties of whey proteins are solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, emulsification and foaming. The aim of this study was to determine functional properties of main whey protein fractions (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin which have the biggest influence on the functional properties of whey proteins. Particle size analysis and specific area of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin were performed by «Mie – theory» of «light scatering» using «Malvern Mastersizer X». The results of this analysis have shown that β-lactoglobulin had higher particle size and specific area than α-lactalbumin.By examining functional properties (solubility, dispersibility, emulsifiying properties – emulsion activity index (EAI and emulsion stability index (ESI and foaming properties of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, it has been established that β-lactoglobulin has higher solubility, dispersibility, emulsifiying properties as well as foaming properties than α-lactalbumin. Rheological properties of protein suspensions were determined by rotational viscosimeter, Brookfiel DV-III at temperature 25°C. Rheological parameters, flow behavior indeks (n and consistency coefficient (k were determined by the power-law model. The results of investigation have shown that 10% suspenzion of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin are non-Newtonian fluids and they exhibited pseudoplastic properties.

  7. A variant peptide of buffalo colostrum β-lactoglobulin inhibits angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, A C; Sathisha, K; Aparna, H S

    2012-07-01

    β-lactoglobulin is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The LC-MS separated tryptic peptides of buffalo colostrum β-lactoglobulin (BLG-col) were computed based on MS-MS fragmentation for de novo sequencing. Among the selected peptides (P1-P8), a variant was detected with methionine at position 74 instead of glutamate. The sequences of two peptides were identical to hypocholesterolemic peptides whereas the remaining peptides were in accordance with buffalo milk β-lactoglobulin. Comparative sequence analysis of BLG-col to milk β-lactoglobulin was carried out using CLUSTALW2 and a molecular model for BLG-col was constructed (PMDB ID-PM0076812). The synthesized variant pentapeptide (IIAMK, m/z-576 Da) was found to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) with an IC(50) of 498 ± 2 μM, which was rationalized through docking simulations using Molgrow virtual docker. PMID:22541393

  8. DSC study of denaturation of β-lactoglobulin B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王邦宁; 谈夫

    1995-01-01

    The denaturation of bovine β-lactoglobulin B (β-Lg B) has been studied in phosphate solutions with various concentrations of GuHCl with differential scanning calorimetry The experiments demonstrated that the presence of GuHCl made the β-Lg B undergo both cold denaturation and heat denaturation under the condition of a high concentration of the protein. The enthalpy changes of both kinds of denaturation exhibit opposite signs. Both the cold denaturation and the renaturation of the protein are reproducible, but its heat denaturation is irreversible. The cooperation among monomer molecules of the protein is involved in its heat denaturation The heat denaturation of the protein can be represented by the thermodynamic model Nc D→F. The activation energy of heat denaturation is 285 kJ/mol, which imples that the depression of temperature and enthalpy of heat denaturation of the P-Lg B does not result from decreasing considerably the activation energy by GuHCl As for the cold denaturation of the protein, es

  9. Structure of bovine β-lactoglobulin-lactoferrin coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilay, Ebru; Seeman, Daniel; Yan, Yunfeng; Du, Xiaosong; Dubin, Paul L; Donato-Capel, Laurence; Bovetto, Lionel; Schmitt, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) are among the protein pairs that exhibit heteroprotein coacervation, a unique and relatively unexamined type of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). In prior work we found that LF and BLG undergo coacervation at highly constrained conditions of pH, ionic strength and protein stoichiometry. The molar stoichiometry in coacervate and supernatant is LF : BLG2 1 : 2 (where BLG2 represents the 38 kDa BLG dimer), suggesting that this is the primary unit of the coacervate. The precise balance of repulsive and attractive forces among these units, thought to stabilize the coacervate, is achieved only at limited conditions of pH and I. Our purpose here is to define the process by which such structural units form, and to elucidate the forces among them that lead to the long-range order found in equilibrium coacervates. We use confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and rheology to (1) define the uniformity of interprotein spacing within the coacervate phase, (2) verify structural unit dimensions and spacing, and (3) rationalize bulk fluid properties in terms of inter-unit forces. Electrostatic modeling is used in concert with SANS to develop a molecular model for the primary unit of the coacervate that accounts for bulk viscoelastic properties. Modeling suggests that the charge anisotropies of the two proteins stabilize the dipole-like LF(BLG2)2 primary unit, while assembly of these dipoles into higher order equilibrium structures governs the macroscopic properties of the coacervate.

  10. Structure of bovine β-lactoglobulin-lactoferrin coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilay, Ebru; Seeman, Daniel; Yan, Yunfeng; Du, Xiaosong; Dubin, Paul L; Donato-Capel, Laurence; Bovetto, Lionel; Schmitt, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) are among the protein pairs that exhibit heteroprotein coacervation, a unique and relatively unexamined type of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). In prior work we found that LF and BLG undergo coacervation at highly constrained conditions of pH, ionic strength and protein stoichiometry. The molar stoichiometry in coacervate and supernatant is LF : BLG2 1 : 2 (where BLG2 represents the 38 kDa BLG dimer), suggesting that this is the primary unit of the coacervate. The precise balance of repulsive and attractive forces among these units, thought to stabilize the coacervate, is achieved only at limited conditions of pH and I. Our purpose here is to define the process by which such structural units form, and to elucidate the forces among them that lead to the long-range order found in equilibrium coacervates. We use confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and rheology to (1) define the uniformity of interprotein spacing within the coacervate phase, (2) verify structural unit dimensions and spacing, and (3) rationalize bulk fluid properties in terms of inter-unit forces. Electrostatic modeling is used in concert with SANS to develop a molecular model for the primary unit of the coacervate that accounts for bulk viscoelastic properties. Modeling suggests that the charge anisotropies of the two proteins stabilize the dipole-like LF(BLG2)2 primary unit, while assembly of these dipoles into higher order equilibrium structures governs the macroscopic properties of the coacervate. PMID:25099892

  11. Identification of novel SNP in caprine β -lactoglobulin gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LEILA GHAREDAGHI; HOSEIN MORADI SHAHRBABAK; MOSTAFA SADEGHI

    2016-09-01

    β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) gene is suggested as a functional candidate gene for milk yield and milk composition. β-LG polymorphism has been reported to be associated with milk yield in cows, sheep and Indian goats. This study was performed to identify SNPs in exon 7 of β-LG gene and their association with milk traits in Iranian local Mahabadi goats using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and PCR-sequencing. Three SSCP patterns were observed with frequencies 0.678, 0.096 and 0.226, respectively. Subsequently, after sequencing each unique pattern nine novel mutations were identified. These mutations include: T InDel at nucleotide position 93 and substitutions T/C, T/G, T/C, G/T, T/G, T/C, G/A and A/T at nucleotide positions 99, 124, 126, 134, 147, 156, 176 and 177, respectively. Of these, seven mutationswere same among the genotypic patterns while differences were related to T deletion and insertion (-/T) at nucleotide position 93 with frequencies 0.22 and 0.78 in the presence and absence of T allele, respectively; and substitution (A/T) at nucleotide position 177 with frequencies 0.16 and 0.84 for A and T alleles, respectively. Milk traits including milk production (gr), milk fat and protein (%) were also measured. These findings demonstrated that β -LG gene had a significant effect on milk protein percentage (P< 0.05), but had no significant effect on milk production and milk fat percentage.

  12. A new multistep Ca2+-Induced Cold Gelation Process for ß-Lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, C.; Baptist, H.G.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain -lactoglobulin (-lg) gels at very low protein concentrations using a new multistep Ca2+-induced cold gelation process. In the conventional cold gelation process, salt free -lg solutions were heated at neutral pH, cooled, and cross-linked by adding salts. In

  13. Mild isolation procedure discloses new protein structural properties of b-lactoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, de H.H.J.; Groneveld, T.; Groot, de J.

    2001-01-01

    To explore the potentially available functional properties of β-lactoglobulin in, for example, the processing of food products, it is important to isolate the protein by a procedure that avoids all possible denaturing conditions, such as low pH, high ionic strength, or low or elevated temperatures t

  14. Role of calcium as trigger in thermal beta-lactoglobulin aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.W.F.A.; Kosters, H.A.; Visschers, R.W.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Divalent calcium ions have been suggested to be involved in intermolecular protein-Ca2+-protein cross-linking, intramolecular electrostatic shielding, or ion-induced protein conformational changes as a trigger for protein aggregation at elevated temperatures. To address the first two phenomena in th

  15. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigli, I.; Riggio, V.; Monteleone, G.; Cacioppo, D.; Rosa, A.J.M.; Maizon, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than 75

  16. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Maizon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii more than 750,000 somatic cells. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to assess the significance of LGB genotypes on MTB and MTC. The LGB genotypes significantly affected MTB (p=0.0387, and showed a tendency on MTC (p=0.1104. Least square means showed that in the analysis for MTB, individuals with genotypes BB and AB had a higher frequency of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the least square differences showed that the incidence was significantly higher in BB ewes than in AA ewes (p<0.001, and a tendency of a higher incidence among AB ewes than in AA ewes (p=0.0630. In conclusion, the results of this work show that LGB genotype BB seems to be less favourable in terms of mastitis resistance in Valle del Belice sheep breed.

  17. Highly efficient modification of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene via zinc-finger nucleases in cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengli Yu; Junjie Luo; Zhiyuan Song; Fangrong Ding; Yunping Dai; Ning Li

    2011-01-01

    Dear Editor,Gene targeting is in widespread use as a gold standard for determining the function of genes in mice and human embryonic stem cells [1].However,the poor efficiency of this technology has hindered its application to domestic animals,for which embryonic stem cells are not available.Although gene-targeted large domestic animals have been produced successfully by combination of homologous recombination-based targeting strategy and cloning [2-4],the efficiency is very low and,more importantly,the disruption of the targeted gene is usually mono-allelic.It thus takes a long time to obtain a null mutant.

  18. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    OpenAIRE

    Maizon, D. O.; Rosa, A.J.M.; D. Cacioppo; Monteleone, G; V. Riggio; Gigli, I

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than 750,000 somatic cells. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to assess the significance of LGB genotypes on MTB and MTC. The LGB genotypes significantly affected MTB (p=0.0387), and showed a te...

  19. The SKA and the Unknown Unknowns

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As new scientists and engineers join the SKA project and as the pressures come on to maintain costs within a chosen envelope it is worth restating and updating the rationale for the 'Exploration of the Unknown' (EoU). Maintaining an EoU philosophy will prove a vital ingredient for realizing the SKA's discovery potential. Since people make the discoveries enabled by technology a further axis in capability parameter space, the'human bandwidth' is emphasised. Using the morphological approach pioneered by Zwicky, a currently unexploited region of observational parameter space can be identified viz: time variable spectral patterns on all spectral and angular scales, one interesting example would be 'spectral transients'. We should be prepared to build up to 10 percent less collecting area for a given overall budget in order to enhance the ways in which SKA1 can be flexibly utilized.

  20. The Sensitising Capacity of Intact β-Lactoglobulin Is Reduced by Co-Administration with Digested β-Lactoglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is generally believed that protein hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract decreases the allergenicity of food allergens. However, it remains unknown if specific properties of digestion products determine whether a sensitisation or tolerogenic immune response will develop. We sought...

  1. Impact of α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin ratio on the heat stability of model infant milk formula protein systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Shane V; Dowling, Aisling P; Caldeo, Veronica; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A

    2016-03-01

    Model infant milk formula systems (5.5% protein) were formulated to contain α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1.3, 2.1 or 4.6 and assessed for heat stability and heat-induced changes. 'Humanising' the model formulas by increasing α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin enhanced heat stability at 140°C in the pH range 6.6-6.9. The model formulas were analysed after lab-scale high-temperature short-time heating at pH 6.8. Gel electrophoresis indicated that increased heat stability in high α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin samples was due to decreased covalent interactions between proteins. In low α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin formulas, protein-protein interactions caused marked increases in protein particle size and viscosity of the heated systems; conversely, covalent interactions between proteins were minimal in high α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin formulas. Reduced protein-protein interactions with increasing α-lactalbumin:β-lactoglobulin has important implications for subsequent processing; for example, lower viscosity post-heating may affect bulk density in spray-dried products or physical stability in ready-to-feed products.

  2. Generation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV-Inhibiting Peptides from β-Lactoglobulin Secreted by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Shigemori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that hydrolysates of β-lactoglobulin (BLG prepared using gastrointestinal proteases strongly inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV activity in vitro. In this study, we developed a BLG-secreting Lactococcus lactis strain as a delivery vehicle and in situ expression system. Interestingly, trypsin-digested recombinant BLG from L. lactis inhibited DPP-IV activity, suggesting that BLG-secreting L. lactis may be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Recognition of Conformational Changes in β-Lactoglobulin by Molecularly Imprinted Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Nicholas W.; Liu, Xiao; Piletsky, Sergey A.; Hlady, Vladimir; Britt, David W

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenesis in protein conformational diseases is initiated by changes in protein secondary structure. This molecular restructuring presents an opportunity for novel shape-based detection approaches, as protein molecular weight and chemistry are otherwise unaltered. Here we apply molecular imprinting to discriminate between distinct conformations of the model protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG). Thermal- and fluoro-alcohol-induced BLG isoforms were imprinted in thin films of 3-aminophenylboronic a...

  4. Antigen-binding radioimmunoassays for human IgG antibodies to bovine ν-lactoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double antibody antigen-binding assay for the detection of human IgG antibodies to the bovine milk allergen ν-lactoglobulin is described. The levels of such antibodies in patients with established cows' milk protein intolerance were significantly higher than the levels observed in a healthy control group (P<0.01). The assay showed excellent correlation with a solid phase antigen binding assay (rsub(s) = 0.8, P<0.001). (Auth.)

  5. Fever of unknown origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders-Manders, C.; Simon, A.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    More than 50 years after the first definition of fever of unknown origin (FUO), it still remains a diagnostic challenge. Evaluation starts with the identification of potential diagnostic clues (PDCs), which should guide further investigations. In the absence of PDCs a standardised diagnostic protoco

  6. Schumpeter's unknown article Development

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Markus C.; Esslinger, Hans Ulrich; Hedtke, Ulrich; Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2004-01-01

    The present article introduces Development, a new, unpublished and hitherto unknown article written by Joseph A. Schumpeter. It was originally written in 1932 and titled Entwicklung. Development is remarkable since it helps understand the unity of Schumpeter’s work and significantly adds to Schumpeter’s known works on a number of issues that were central to his theory of economic development. Development shows that Schumpeter considered the explanation of novelty as the most im...

  7. Identifying Unknown Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Winona C.; Dayhoff, Margaret O.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper we discuss ways to identify a protein, both when its amino acid sequence is known and, particularly, prior to the determination of the complete sequence. If a similar sequence is in the Protein Sequence Database, an unknown may be identified on the basis of partial or ambiguous sequence data, or on the basis of amino acid composition. Identification in the early stages of structural determination can save time and scarce resources by preventing duplicate effort or by suggesting ...

  8. Determination of the osmotic second virial coefficient and the dimerization of β-lactoglobulin in aqueous solutions with added salt at the isoelectric point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaink, H.M.; Smit, J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of β-lactoglobulin (at the isoelectric point pH=5.18) have been studied by membrane osmometry. The osmotic second virial coefficient as well as the monomer–dimer equilibrium of β-lactoglobulin have been found to depend significantly on the salt concentration. At low salt concentrat

  9. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  10. Clinical Values of Combined Detection of Ultrasound and Serum Beta-hCG in Evaluating Early Pregnancy of Unknown ;Location Outcome%超声及血清β-人绒毛膜促性腺激素检查对早期未知部位妊娠结局的评估价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米婉琴; 周慧丽; 向红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical values of combined detection of ultrasound and serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin(beta-hCG)examination in predicting early pregnancy of unknown location(PUL)outcome. Methods 109 cases of PUL admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from May 2011 to May 2013 were se-lected. All the cases had a history of menopause for 4 to 6 weeks,and had positive outcome of urine or serum beta-hCG examina-tion. The first ultrasound examination after admission showed no typical fertilized egg both inside and outside the uterus,and then the beta-hCG examination was performed on the day of admission and 48 h later. All the cases were divided into IUP group(31 cases),IUPM group(21 cases)and EP group(57 cases). The 48 h growth of endometrial thickness,pregnancy luteal blood flow distribution and serum beta-hCG were compared between the three groups. Results The ultrasound examination showed that the IUP group had thicker endometrial thickness〔(1. 25 ± 0. 22)cm〕compared with the IUPM group〔(0. 78 ± 0. 30)cm〕and EP group〔(0. 75 ±0. 31)cm〕(P0. 05 ) . IUPM group and EP group blood signal loss rate were higher than that of IUP group,EP group was higher than in IUPM group(P60% in IUP group〔93. 5%(29/31)〕was higher than the IUPM group〔14. 3%(3/21)〕and EP group〔33. 3%(19/57)〕,and the EP group was also higher than the IUPM group(P0.05)。IUPM组和EP组妊娠黄体血流信号缺失率高于IUP组,EP组高于IUPM组( P60%者比例〔93.5%(29/31)〕高于IUPM组〔14.3%(3/21)〕和EP组〔33.3%(19/57)〕,EP组高于IUPM组(P<0.017)。结论超声检测子宫内膜厚度、妊娠黄体血流信号缺失情况及血清β-hCG 48 h增长率对PUL的结局评估有一定临床指导价值。

  11. In vitro digestion and stability assessment of b-lactoglobulin/riboflavin nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Madalena, Daniel F.; Ramos, Oscar L.; Pereira, Ricardo Nuno Correia; Bourbon, Ana Isabel Juncá Sottomayor Lisboa; Pinheiro, A. C.; Malcata, F. Xavier; J.A. Teixeira; Vicente, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    B-Lactoglobulin (b-Lg) is the major protein fraction of bovine whey serum and a primary gelling agent. b-Lg has a high nutritional value, is stable at low pH being highly resistant to proteolytic degradation in the stomach, besides, it has the ability of acting as an encapsulating agent. This study aims at assessing the ability of b-Lg nanostructures to associate a nutraceutical - i.e. riboflavin - and release it in a controlled manner throughout an in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) system. For ...

  12. Tryptophan 19 residue is the origin of bovine β-lactoglobulin fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Jihad René; Vogelaer, Julie; Bretesche, Loïc; Kmiecik, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    β-Lactoglobulin consists of a single polypeptide of 162 amino acid residues with 2 Trp residues, Trp 19 present in a hydrophobic pocket and Trp 61 present at the surface of the protein near the pocket. This study aimed to characterize the respective contribution of the two Trp residues to the overall fluorescence of the protein. We added for that calcofluor white, an extrinsic fluorophore, which, at high concentration compared to that of the protein, quenches completely emission of hydrophobic Trp residue(s). The study was performed at different pHs by recording fluorescence steady state spectra and measuring fluorescence lifetimes of the Trp-residues using Single Time Photon Counting method. Our results indicate that addition of calcofluor white does not induce a red shift of the tryptophan(s) emission peak (332nm) but only a decrease in the fluorescence intensity. This means that Trp 61 residue does not contribute to the protein emission, tryptophan emission occurs from Trp 19 residue only. Also, excitation spectrum peak position (283nm) of β-lactoglobulin is not modified upon calcofluor white binding. These results mean that structural rearrangements within β-lactoglobulin are not occurring upon calcofluor white binding. Energy transfer between Trp 19 residue and calcofluor white occurs with 100% efficiency, i.e. the two fluorophores are very close one to each other (lifetimes, equal to 0.48, 1.49 and 4.29ns at pH 2 (monomeric state). Very close values were obtained at the different studied pHs (2-12) and where β-lactoglobulin is at different quaternary structure or present in solution in a mixture of dimers and monomers. Our data are interpreted as the results of emission occurring from different substructures of the tryptophan, reached at the excited state. The populations of these substructures characterized by the pre-exponential parameters of the fluorescence lifetimes are dependent on the microenvironment of the fluorophore and on the local protein

  13. Improved radical scavenging activity of β-lactoglobulin-xylobiose modified by the Maillard reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yajima, Kensuke; Onodera, Shuichi; Takeda, Yasuyuki; Shiomi, Norio

    2007-01-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) was modified and conjugated to xylobiose using the Maillard reaction. The antioxidant activity of the Maillard reaction product, β-LG-xylobiose, was measured in vitro and compared to that of conjugated β-LG-lactose. The reaction for 7 days led to conjugated β-LG-xylobiose with a relative molecular mass ranging between 19 and 22 kDa based on SDS-PAGE analysis. It is confirmed that xylobiose bound to β-LG by gas-liquid chromatography. One milligram of conjugated β-LG-xylo...

  14. Digestibility of β-lactoglobulin following cross-linking by Trametes versicolor laccase and apple polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGANA STANIĆ-VUČINIĆ; TANJA ĆIRKOVIĆ VELIČKOVIĆ; RATKO M. JANKOV; JANA OGNJENOVIĆ; BOJANA KRAVIĆ; ZIYAD TANTOUSH; LUKA MIHAJLOVIĆ

    2011-01-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) is an important nutrient of dairy products and an important allergen in cow’s milk allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of laccase to cross-link BLG in the presence of an apple phenolic extract (APE) and to characterize the obtained products for their digestibility by pepsin and pancreatin. The composition of the apple phenolics used for cross-linking was determined by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS)....

  15. Recension: Mao - The Unknown Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Anmeldelse - kritisk! - til Sveriges førende Kinatidsskrift af Jung Chang & Jon Halliday's sensationelle "Mao - the Unknown Story".......Anmeldelse - kritisk! - til Sveriges førende Kinatidsskrift af Jung Chang & Jon Halliday's sensationelle "Mao - the Unknown Story"....

  16. β-lactoglobulin-pectin Nanoparticle-based Oral Drug Delivery System for Potential Treatment of Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Zhila; Divsalar, Adeleh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sawyer, Lindsay

    2016-08-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common internal malignancies, and conventional chemotherapy is not effective in its treatment. Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. The physicochemical properties of β-lactoglobulin, the main whey protein of cow's milk, such as its stability at low pH, its resistance to gastric protease, and its ability to bind hydrophobic ligands, give it potential for transporting drugs specifically for colon cancer. In the present research, β-lactoglobulin-pectin nanoparticles were designed to transfer a newly synthesized, anticancer platinum complex (bipyridine ethyl dithiocarbamate Pt(II) nitrate), to the colon. The effects of multiple factors on the size and the colloidal stability of the nanoparticles were studied using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Results showed that the best particle size and highest colloidal stability were obtained in phosphate buffer, pH 4.5, with 0.5 mg/mL β-lactoglobulin and 0.025-0.05wt% pectin. The drug release profile in simulated gastrointestinal conditions demonstrated that β-lactoglobulin with a secondary coating is stable in acidic conditions but is able to release its cargo at pH 7. Hence, these nanoparticles have potential to serve as novel and effective vehicles for oral drug delivery preparations. PMID:26896377

  17. Modification of β-lactoglobulin by oligofructose: Impact on protein adsorption at the air-water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trofimova, D.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2004-01-01

    Maillard products of β-lactoglobulin (βLg) and fructose oligosaccharide (FOS) were obtained in different degrees of modification depending on incubation time and pH. By use of a variety of biochemical and spectroscopic tools, it was demonstrated that the modification at limited degrees does not sign

  18. Changes of pH in β-Lactoglobulin and β-Casein Solutions during High Pressure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Olsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pH changes in the milk systems, β-lactoglobulin B, β-casein, and mixture of β-lactoglobulin and β-casein (pH 7 and ionic strength 0.08 M were measured in situ during increasing pressure up to 500 MPa. An initial decrease to pH 6.7 was observed from 0.1 to 150 MPa for β-lactoglobulin, followed by an increase to pH 7.3 at 500 MPa. The initial decrease is suggested to be caused by the deprotonation of histidine, while the increase is suggested to result from an increase of hydroxide ions due to the loss of tertiary structure. The change in pH of the β-casein solution displayed an almost linear increasing pressure dependency up to a pH of 7.7 at 500 MPa. The limited tertiary structure of β-casein could allow exposure of all amino acids; thus the increase of pH can be caused by binding of water protons resulting in an increase of hydroxide ions. Addition of β-casein to β-lactoglobulin (1:1 was found to suppress the initial pH decrease found for the β-lactoglobulin solution. The pH change of the mixture did not suggest any intermolecular interaction, and a simple additive model is proposed to calculate the pH change of the mixture from the corresponding individual samples.

  19. Analysis of binding interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and β-lactoglobulin by multi-spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuli; Wu, Hui; Liu, Meixia; Liu, Zhigang; Xu, Hong; Lai, Furao

    2011-11-01

    The binding interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) with bovine β-lactoglobulin (βLG) was investigated by fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. The binding parameters were determined by Stern-Volmer equation and the thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to the van't Hoff equation. The results suggested that βLG was bound by EGC, which resulted in change of native conformation of βLG. van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding probably played major roles in the binding process. Our study is helpful for further elucidation of binding interactions between catechins with milk proteins, which would contribute to the development of novel milk products.

  20. Hydrography, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic...

  1. Formal Verification under Unknown Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-hui; LI Xiao-wei

    2005-01-01

    We present a formal method of verifying designs with unknown constraints (e. g. , black boxes) using Boolean satisfiability (SAT). This method is based on a new encoding scheme of unknown constraints, and solves the corresponding conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Furthermore, this method can avoid the potential memory explosion, which the binary decision diagram (BDD) based techniques maybe suffer from, thus it has the capacity of verifying large designs. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed method.

  2. Effects of Labeling Thiophilic FRET Dyes on the Stability and Dimerization Process of β-Lactoglobulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Hai; XIE Jin-Bing; CAO Yi; QIN Meng; WANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    The stability and dimeric state of (3-lactoglobulin β-Ig) can be dramatically affected by labeling the thiophilic agent to Cysl21, whereas the underlining mechanism of such an effect is still unclear. We label a fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET) pair of donor (1,5-IAEDANS) and acceptor (5-IAF) dyes to Cysl21 of β-Ig monomers to investigate the effect of bulky thiophilic modification on the structure and stability of (3-lg. It is found that the modification dramatically destroys the native structure of β-Ig and results in an obvious increase of the α-helical content, coincident with the accumulation of non-native α-helical intermediates during its folding process. Importantly, the dimeric state of β-Ig can still be reached whereas its dimerization rate decreases dramatically, allowing us to characterize the dimerization process using the FRET method based on a stopped-flow apparatus. Our results reveal that the dimerization process occurs before the completely folding of individual monomers, providing direct evidence on the cooperativity of folding and binding processes.%The stability and dimeric state of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) can be dramatically affected by labeling the thiophilic agent to Cys121,whereas the underlining mechanism of such an effect is still unclear.We label a fluorescenceresonance-energy-transfer (FRET) pair of donor (1,5-IAEDANS) and acceptor (5-IAF) dyes to Cys121 of β-lgmonomers to investigate the effect of bulky thiophilic modification on the structure and stability of β-lg.It is found that the modification dramatically destroys the native structure of β-lg and results in an obvious increase of the α-helical content,coincident with the accumulation of non-native α-helical intermediates during its folding process.Importantly,the dimeric state of β-lg can still be reached whereas its dimerization rate decreases dramatically,allowing us to characterize the dimerization process using the FRET method based on a stoppedflow

  3. Variation of Vitamin D in Cow’s Milk and Interaction with β-Lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gigliotti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is the collective name for a group of closely related lipids, whose main biological function is to maintain serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals from the diet. We used a commercially available ELISA method for the determination of vitamin D in bovine milk. Individual milk samples from two different Italian Friesian herds were analysed. The enzyme immunoassay method used was confirmed as a useful tool to measure the vitamin D in the milk as it greatly reduces the time required to perform the conventional HPLC analysis. An interesting variation was found among individual animals that may be associated with management factors and specific genetic effects. A relationship was highlighted between vitamin D and the genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin, the main bovine whey protein which is involved in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as retinol and vitamin D. The relatively high content of vitamin D in most milk samples suggests an opportunity to improve the natural content of vitamin D in milk either by acting on the herd management or selecting individuals genetically predisposed to produce milk with a higher vitamin D content.

  4. Selenium modification of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, GuoQiang; Liu, HaoYu; Zhu, ZhenYuan; Zheng, Jie; Liu, AnJun

    2016-08-01

    β-Lg is a major whey protein in cow's milk. This study was aimed to find a new kind of organic selenium compound synthesized with β-Lg and selenium dioxide as raw materials under the conditions of vacuum and low temperature. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy revealed that seleno-β-lactoglobulin (Se-β-Lg) displayed a strong band at 878cm(-1), belonging to SeO. Circular dichroism spectra results indicated that the conformation of Se-β-Lg was transformed and α-helical, and unordered structures were increased by 9% and 11.2%, respectively, while β-sheet and β-turn were reduced by 14.2% and 6%, respectively. Electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry results showed that there were two protein bands (1-Seβ-Lg and 2-Seβ-Lg) in Se-β-Lg, only one β-Lg connected with selenate in 1-Seβ-Lg, but two β-Lgs, connected to each other, and with selenate, in 2-Seβ-Lg. Morphological observation and hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that Se-β-lg could induce K562 cell apoptosis. These results indicated that Se-β-Lg could be synthesized by selenium conjugating β-Lg and it had antitumor activity. PMID:26988499

  5. Identification of SNPs in the promoter of β-lactoglobulin gene in three Sicilian goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassare Portolano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to sequence the full-length promoter region of the caprine β-lactoglobulin (β-lg gene in three Sicilian goat breeds (Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria, in order to identify polymorphisms, to search for transcription factors (TFs sites, and to check if polymorphisms found lay within TFs binding sites. The promoter region of β-lg gene in Sicilian goat breeds showed high level of polymorphism due to the presence of 31 SNPs. Binding sites for several TFs were found within the goat β-lg promoter and within regions conserved between ovine and caprine species. Two SNPs were detected within TFs binding sites, such as MPBF and NF-I. Further studies are in progress to confirm polymorphic sites, to evaluate the possible effect of these mutations on binding affinity of TFs, their relationship with β-lg gene expression, and the functional role of SNPs within the TFs sites of the promoter region on milk traits.

  6. Improvement of bovine ß-lactoglobulin production and secretion by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nouaille

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The stabilizing effects of staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc and of a synthetic propeptide (LEISSTCDA, hereafter called LEISS on the production of a model food allergen, bovine ß-lactoglobulin (BLG, in Lactococcus lactis were investigated. The fusion of Nuc to BLG (Nuc-BLG results in higher production and secretion of the hybrid protein. When LEISS was fused to BLG, the production of the resulting protein LEISS-BLG was only slightly improved compared to the one obtained with Nuc-BLG. However, the secretion of LEISS-BLG was dramatically enhanced (~10- and 4-fold higher than BLG and Nuc-BLG, respectively. Finally, the fusion of LEISS to Nuc-BLG resulting in the protein LEISS-Nuc-BLG led to the highest production of the hybrid protein, estimated at ~8 µg/ml (~2-fold higher than Nuc-BLG. In conclusion, the fusions described here led to the improvement of the production and secretion of BLG. These tools will be used to modulate the immune response against BLG via delivery of recombinant lactococci at the mucosal level, in a mouse model of cow's milk allergy.

  7. Digestibility of β-lactoglobulin following cross-linking by Trametes versicolor laccase and apple polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA STANIĆ-VUČINIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available β-Lactoglobulin (BLG is an important nutrient of dairy products and an important allergen in cow’s milk allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of laccase to cross-link BLG in the presence of an apple phenolic extract (APE and to characterize the obtained products for their digestibility by pepsin and pancreatin. The composition of the apple phenolics used for cross-linking was determined by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS. The apple phenolic extract contained significant amounts of quercetin glycosides, catechins and chlorogenic acid. The laccase cross-linked BLG in the presence of apple phenolics. The polymerization rendered the protein insoluble in the reaction mixture. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis of the cross-linking reaction mixture revealed a heterogeneous mixture of high molecular masses (cross-linked BLG, with a fraction of the BLG remaining monomeric. Enzymatic processing of BLG by laccase and apple polyphenols as mediators can decrease the biphasal pepsin–pancreatin digestibility of the monomeric and cross-linked protein, thus decreasing its nutritional value. In addition, reduced BLG digestibility can decrease its allergenic potential. Apple polyphenols can find usage in the creation of new, more functional food products, designed to prevent obesity and hypersensitivity-related disorders.

  8. Ionic liquid-induced formation of the α-helical structure of β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekiyo, Takahiro; Koyama, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2013-09-01

    Structural modification of bovine milk β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) in aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([bmim][NO3]) and ethylammonium nitrate ([EAN][NO3]) solutions has been investigated by Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Remarkably, high ionic liquid (IL) concentrations (>15 mol %IL) caused formation of a non-native α-helical structure of β-LG and disruption of its tertiary structure. Furthermore, while [bmim][NO3] promoted protein aggregation, [EAN][NO3] inhibited it probably owing to differences in the unique solution structure (nanoheterogeneity) of the ILs by the different cationic species. The IL-induced α-helical formation of β-LG shows a behavior similar to the alcohol denaturation, but a disordered structure-rich state was observed in the β-α transition process by adding IL, in contrast to the case of an aqueous alcohol solution of protein. We propose that the molten salt-like property of aqueous IL solutions strongly support α-helical formation of proteins.

  9. Inhibitory effects of β-ionone on amyloid fibril formation of β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoliang; You, Xiong; Lu, Fujiao

    2014-03-01

    β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) is the major constituent of whey food, which has been shown to interact with a wide range of aroma compounds. In the present work, a model aroma compound, β-ionone, is used to investigate the influence of aroma compounds on the urea-induced unfolding of β-LG at pH 7.0. β-Ionone is observed to enhance the stability of β-LG at pH 7.0. Moreover, the amyloid fibrils are observed when β-LG at pH 7.0 is incubated for 12-20 days at 37 °C in the presence of 3-5M urea. However, the formation of amyloid fibrils is inhibited when β-ionone is added into the samples and the inhibitory effects follow a concentration-dependent fashion. There is a clear correlation between Cm and lag time. The correlation demonstrates that protein stability affects the amyloid fibril formation of β-LG. The results highlight the critical role of protein stability and provide an approach to prevent the formation of amyloid fibrils in vitro. PMID:24325860

  10. Selenium modification of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, GuoQiang; Liu, HaoYu; Zhu, ZhenYuan; Zheng, Jie; Liu, AnJun

    2016-08-01

    β-Lg is a major whey protein in cow's milk. This study was aimed to find a new kind of organic selenium compound synthesized with β-Lg and selenium dioxide as raw materials under the conditions of vacuum and low temperature. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy revealed that seleno-β-lactoglobulin (Se-β-Lg) displayed a strong band at 878cm(-1), belonging to SeO. Circular dichroism spectra results indicated that the conformation of Se-β-Lg was transformed and α-helical, and unordered structures were increased by 9% and 11.2%, respectively, while β-sheet and β-turn were reduced by 14.2% and 6%, respectively. Electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry results showed that there were two protein bands (1-Seβ-Lg and 2-Seβ-Lg) in Se-β-Lg, only one β-Lg connected with selenate in 1-Seβ-Lg, but two β-Lgs, connected to each other, and with selenate, in 2-Seβ-Lg. Morphological observation and hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that Se-β-lg could induce K562 cell apoptosis. These results indicated that Se-β-Lg could be synthesized by selenium conjugating β-Lg and it had antitumor activity.

  11. Curcumin Protects β-Lactoglobulin Fibril Formation and Fibril-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Mazaheri

    Full Text Available In this study the β-lactoglobulin fibrillation, in the presence or absence of lead ions, aflatoxin M1 and curcumin, was evaluated using ThT fluorescence, Circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. To investigate the toxicity of the different form of β-Lg fibrils, in the presence or absence of above toxins and curcumin, we monitored changes in the level of reactive oxygen species and morphology of the differentiated neuron-like PC12 cells. The cell viability, cell body area, average neurite length, neurite width, number of primary neurites, percent of bipolar cells and node/primary neurite ratios were used to assess the growth and complexity of PC12 cells exposed to different form of β-Lg fibrils. Incubation of β-Lg with curcumin resulted in a significant decrease in ROS levels even in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1. The β-Lg fibrils formed in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1 attenuated the growth and complexity of PC12 cells compared with other form of β-Lg fibrils. However, the adverse effects of these toxins and protein fibrils were negated in the presence of curcumin. Furthermore, the antioxidant and inhibitory effects of curcumin protected PC12 cells against fibril neurotoxicity and enhanced their survival. Thus, curcumin may provide a protective effect toward β-Lg, and perhaps other protein, fibrils mediated neurotoxicity.

  12. Collective dynamics of hydrated β-lactoglobulin by inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koji; Hosokawa, Shinya; Baron, Alfred Q R; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    2010-10-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of hydrated β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were performed to investigate the collective dynamics of hydration water and hydrated protein on a picosecond time scale. Samples with different hydration levels h [=mass of water (g)/mass of protein (g)] of 0 (dry), 0.5, and 1.0 were measured at ambient temperature. The observed dynamical structure factor S(Q,ω)/S(Q) was analyzed by a model composed of a Lorentzian for the central peak and a damped harmonic oscillator (DHO) for the side peak. The dispersion relation between the excitation energy in the DHO model and the momentum transfer Q was obtained for the hydrated β-lg at both hydration levels, but no DHO excitation was found for the dry β-lg. The high-frequency sound velocity was similar to that previously observed in pure water. The ratio of the high-frequency sound velocity of hydrated β-lg to the adiabatic one of hydrated lysozyme (h=0.41) was estimated as ∼1.6 for h=0.5. The value is significantly smaller than that (∼2) of pure water that has the tetrahedral network structure. The present finding thus suggests that the tetrahedral network structure of water around the β-lg is partially disrupted by the perturbation from protein surface. These results are consistent with those reported from Brillouin neutron spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation studies of hydrated ribonuclease A. PMID:20942540

  13. Beta Beams Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beta Beam,the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring, called Decay Ring (DR), is the base of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the Decay Ring's ion intensity and of it's duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Therefore efficient ion production, stripping, bunching, acceleration and storing are crucial sub-projects under study and development within the Beta Beam collaboration. Specifically the feasibility of these tasks as parts of a Beta Beam implementation at CERN will be discussed in this report. The positive impact of the large {\\theta}13 indications from T2K on the Beta Beam performance will also be discussed.

  14. Identification of unknown nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, G. [University of Thrace, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laboratory of Nuclear Technology, Kimmerria Campus, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Aim: provenance determination of unknown nuclear material: - demonstrated for spent nuclear fuel; - information sought for unknown: fuel type, reactor type where fuel was irradiated, final burnup; Using an isotopic finger-printing method: - U, Pu or Pu isotopics or fission products; - simulations of fuel evolution during irradiation, using ORIGEN; - multivariate statistical tools. Fuel considered: simulated commercial spent fuel for a range of burnups: - PWR UO{sub 2} 3.1% and 3.5% {sup 235}U, - PWR thermal MOX, - BWR UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - CANDU-N natural U, - CANDU-S UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - fast Reactor MOX; simulated commercial spent fuel for a range of burnups: - PWR UO{sub 2} 3.1% and 3.5% {sup 235}U, - PWR thermal MOX, - BWR UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - CANDU-N natural U, - CANDU-S UO{sub 2} 3.2% {sup 235}U, - fast Reactor MOX; 'unknown' spent fuel: - PWR 1: UO{sub 2} 3.1% {sup 235}U (26 GWd/t), - PWR 2: UO{sub 2} 3.1% {sup 235}U (32 GWd/t). Procedures: U, Pu or Pu isotopic compositions or fission products: - isotopic composition of unknown spent fuel, - simulated for commercial spent fuel from a range of nuclear power reactors {yields} comparison of compositions through factor analysis {yields} unknown has the provenance of the commercial spent fuel with which it exhibits the most similar composition. In conclusion: different reactor-fuel types well resolved; fuel and reactor type accurately predicted; burnup predicted to within 5% of declared; different reactor-fuel types. (authors)

  15. Function analysis of unknown genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.

    2002-01-01

      This thesis entitled "Function analysis of unknown genes" presents the use of proteome analysis for the characterisation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genes and their products (proteins especially those of unknown function). This study illustrates that proteome analysis can be used...... to describe different aspects of molecular biology of the cell, to study changes that occur in the cell due to overexpression or deletion of a gene and to identify various protein modifications. The biological questions and the results of the described studies show the diversity of the information that can...... genes and proteins. It reports the first global proteome database collecting 36 yeast single gene deletion mutants and selecting over 650 differences between analysed mutants and the wild type strain. The obtained results show that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based proteome...

  16. Intercept Capacity: Unknown Unitary Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Moran

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of intercepting communications signals between Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO communication systems. To correctly detect a transmitted message it is necessary to know the gain matrix that represents the channel between the transmitter and the receiver. However, even if the receiver has knowledge of the message symbol set, it may not be possible to estimate the channel matrix. Blind Source Separation (BSS techniques, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA can go some way to extracting independent signals from individual transmission antennae but these may have been preprocessed in a manner unknown to the receiver. In this paper we consider the situation where a communications interception system has prior knowledge of the message symbol set, the channel matrix between the transmission system and the interception system and is able to resolve the transmissionss from independent antennae. The question then becomes: what is the mutual information available to the interceptor when an unknown unitary transformation matrix is employed by the transmitter.

  17. HPLC Analysis of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin in Bovine Milk with C4 and C18 Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Xiao-yu; Wang Jing; Tang Yan-jun; Li Dan-dan; Zhang Nan-nan; Jiang Jin-dou; Liu Ning

    2012-01-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with C4 column and C18 column for analyzing β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in bovine milk was developed and the performance and characteristic of two columns were compared. Shiseido Proteonavi C4 column (250 mm×4.6 mm×5μm) and Shiseido CAPCELL PAK SG 300 C18 column (250 mm× 4.6 mm×5 μm) were used in the experiment. Phase A was composed of 0.1% (V/V) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in ultrapure water and Phase B (organic phase) was composed of 0.1% TFA in acetonitrile. Gradient elution was taken. Flow rate was 1 mL min-1. The detection wavelength was 215 nm. The injection volume was 20 μL and the column temperature was 30℃. The results showed that linear relationship was good and recovery of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin was 86.12%-104.38%, C18 column had stronger ability to resist acid and more stable, and the method with C4 column had excellent sensitivities and good separation.

  18. Protein-polysaccharide interactions: The determination of the osmotic second virial coefficients in aqueous solutions of ß-lactoglobulin and dextran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaink, H.M.; Smit, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Solutions containing dextran and solutions containing mixtures of dextran +ß-lactoglobulin are studied by membrane osmometry. The low concentration range of these solutions is considered. From the measured osmotic pressures the virial coefficients are obtained. These are analyzed using the osmotic v

  19. Complexation of bovine β-lactoglobulin with malvidin-3-O-glucoside and its effect on the stability of grape skin anthocyanin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyong; Zhu, Haidong; Xu, Mingzhu; Zeng, Maomao; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-10-15

    The binding interaction between bovine β-lactoglobulin and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (MG), the major anthocyanin in grape skin anthocyanin extracts (GSAE), was studied at pH 6.3 using fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The binding constant (KS), binding force and effect of the interaction on the β-lactoglobulin conformation and GSAE stability were investigated. The results indicated that β-lactoglobulin complexed with MG mainly via hydrophobic interaction with KS of 0.67×10(3)M(-)(1) at 297K. The secondary structure of β-lactoglobulin was changed by MG binding, with a decrease in α-helix, turn and random coil and an increase in β-sheet. Bovine whey protein effectively prevented the color fading and degradation of anthocyanin in the GSAE solution during the thermal treatment (80°C/2h), H2O2 oxidation (0.005% H2O2/1h) and photo illumination (5000lx/5d). The whey protein-anthocyanin complexation appeared to have a positive effect on the thermal, oxidation and photo stability of GSAE. PMID:27173557

  20. Deactivation of ferrylmyoglobin by vanillin as affected by vanillin binding to β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardi, Silvia Helena; Borges, Júlio C; Skibsted, Leif H; Cardoso, Daniel R

    2011-06-01

    Vanillin was found to be efficient as a deactivator of ferrylmyoglobin with a second-order rate constant of k(2) = 57 ± 1 L mol(-1) s(-1) for reduction to metmyoglobin with ΔH(‡) = 58.3 ± 0.3 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(‡) = -14 ± 1 J mol(-1) K(-1) in aqueous pH 7.4 solution at 25 °C. Binding to β-lactoglobulin (βLG) was found to affect the reactivity of vanillin at 25 °C only slightly to k(2) = 48 ± 2 L mol(-1) s(-1) (ΔH(‡) = 68.4 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(‡) = 17 ± 1 J mol(-1) K(-1)) for deactivation of ferrylmyoglobin. Binding of vanillin to βLG was found to have a binding stoichiometry vanillin/βLG > 10 with K(A) = 6 × 10(2) L mol(-1) and an apparent total ΔH° of approximately -38 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS° = -55.4 ± 4 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 25 °C and ΔC(p, obs) = -1.02 kJ mol(-1) K(-1) indicative of increasing ordering in the complex, as determined by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. From tryptophan fluorescence quenching for βLG by vanillin, approximately one vanillin was found to bind to each βLG far stronger with K(A) = 5 × 10(4) L mol(-1) and a ΔH° = -10.2 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS° = 55 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 25 °C. The kinetic entropy/enthalpy compensation effect seen for vanillin reactivity by binding to βLG is concluded to relate to the weakly bound vanillin oriented through hydrogen bonds on the βLG surface with the phenolic group pointing toward the solvent, in effect making both ΔH(‡) and ΔS(‡) more positive. The more strongly bound vanillin capable of tryptophan quenching in the βLG calyx seems less or nonreactive.

  1. Efficient production and secretion of bovine β-lactoglobulin by Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wal Jean-Michel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are attractive tools to deliver therapeutic molecules at the mucosal level. The model LAB Lactococcus lactis has been intensively used to produce and deliver such heterologous proteins. However, compared to recombinant lactococci, lactobacilli offer some advantages such as better survival in the digestive tract and immunomodulatory properties. Here, we compared different strategies to optimize the production of bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG, a major cow's milk allergen, in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BL23. Results Using a nisin-inducible plasmid system, we first showed that L. casei BL23 strain could efficiently secrete a reporter protein, the staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc, with the lactococcal signal peptide SPUsp45 fused to its N-terminus. The fusion of SPUsp45 failed to drive BLG secretion but led to a 10-fold increase of intracellular BLG production. Secretion was significantly improved when the synthetic propeptide LEISSTCDA (hereafter called LEISS was added to the N-terminus of the mature moiety of BLG. Secretion rate of LEISS-BLG was 6-fold higher than that of BLG alone while intracellular production reached then about 1 mg/L of culture. The highest yield of secretion was obtained by using Nuc as carrier protein. Insertion of Nuc between LEISS and BLG resulted in a 20-fold increase in BLG secretion, up to 27 μg/L of culture. Furthermore, the lactococcal nisRK regulatory genes were integrated into the BL23 chromosome. The nisRK insertion allowed a decrease of BLG synthesis in uninduced cultures while BLG production increased by 50% after nisin induction. Moreover, modification of the induction protocol led to increase the proportion of soluble BLG to around 74% of the total BLG production. Conclusion BLG production and secretion in L. casei were significantly improved by fusions to a propeptide enhancer and a carrier protein. The resulting recombinant strains will be further tested

  2. Effect of polymorphic variants of GH, Pit-1, and beta-LG genes on milk production of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, M; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Zerehdaran, S

    2012-04-01

    Effect of polymorphic variants of growth hormone (GH), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), and Pit-1 genes on milk yield was analyzed in a Holstein herd. Genotypes of the cows for these genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Allele frequencies were 0.884 and 0.116 for L and V variants of GH, 0.170 and 0.830 for A and B variants of Pit-1, and 0.529 and 0.471 for A and B variants of beta-LG, respectively. GLM procedure of SAS software was used to test the effects of these genes on milk yield. Results indicated significant effects of these genes on milk yield (P LG gene, milk yield of animals with AA genotype was more than BB genotype (P LG (AA) were superior compared to heterozygote genotypes, whereas, the heterozygote genotype of Pit-1 gene (AB) was desirable.

  3. Interactions among lactose, β-lactoglobulin and starch in co-lyophilized mixtures as determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, Zohreh; Nasirpour, Ali; Scher, Joël; Desobry, Stéphane

    2014-11-01

    Processing and storage change food powders containing a large quantity of lactose due to lactose crystallization and interactions among components. Model food systems were prepared by co-lyophilization of lactose, β-lactoglobulin (BLG), and gelatinized starch. A mixture design was used to define the percentage of each mixture component to simulate a wide range of food powders. Interactions among lactose, BLG and starch were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) at different relative humidities (RH), before and after 3 months storage. Results showed the presence of hydrogen bonds among these components. Moreover, interactions or formation of hydrogen bonds among lactose, starch and BLG preserved BLG against freezing and freeze-drying shocks. Lactose crystallization could be identified by comparing infrared spectra of amorphous and crystallized lactose at O - H and C - H stretching vibration bands. PMID:26396334

  4. Magnetic-responsive hybrids of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with β-lactoglobulin amyloid fibrils and nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Vallooran, Jijo J; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2013-07-23

    We report on the synthesis and magnetic-responsive behavior of hybrids formed by dispersing negatively charged iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles in positively charged β-lactoglobulin protein solutions at acidic pH, followed by heating at high temperatures. Depending on the pH used, different hybrid aggregates can be obtained, such as nanoparticle-modified amyloid fibrils (pH 3) and spherical nanoclusters (pH 4.5). We investigate the effect of magnetic fields of varying strengths (0-5 T) on the alignment of these Fe3O4-modified amyloid fibrils and spherical nanoclusters using a combination of scattering, birefringence and microscopic techniques and we find a strong alignment of the hybrids upon increasing the intensity of the magnetic field, which we quantify via 2D and 3D order parameters. We also demonstrate the possibility of controlling magnetically the sol-gel behavior of these hybrids: addition of salt (NaCl, 150 mM) to a solution containing nanoparticles modified with β-lactoglobulin amyloid fibrils (2 wt % fibrils modified with 0.6 wt % Fe3O4 nanoparticles) induces first the formation of a reversible gel, which can then be converted back to solution upon application of a moderate magnetic field of 1.1 T. These hybrids offer a new appealing functional colloidal system in which the aggregation, orientational order and rheological behavior can be efficiently controlled in a purely noninvasive way by external magnetic fields of weak intensity.

  5. The known and the unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2010-01-01

    symposium of regenerative Medicine gives a glimpse of the stem cell research being pursued in a variety of fields including cancer biology, neurology ,dentistry etc. The abstract on enteric neural stem cells throws light on the stem cell research in the pursuit of therapies for Hirschprung’s disease or the congenital megacolon. The abstracts on Microgravity cell culture, stem cells in spinal cord injury, imaging techniques and lot more is surely a must-read for the researchers, scholars and those interested in this ever exciting field of Stem cell Research.Stem Cell field continues to grow leaving further branches of research into minute aspects ranging from research of the complex interplay of transcription factors, epigenetics, reprogramming and so on. As the field continues to grow it is the duty of such journals to make the scientific community aware of the various ongoing researches in order to contemplate the known and to explore the unknown. With that thought in mind we present to you this interesting Vol 6 Issue III of JSRM.Happy reading!

  6. Beta cell count instead of beta cell mass to assess and localize growth in beta cell population following pancreatic duct ligation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chintinne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic-tail duct ligation (PDL in adult rodents has been reported to induce beta cell generation and increase beta cell mass but increases in beta cell number have not been demonstrated. This study examines whether PDL increases beta cell number and whether this is caused by neogenesis of small clusters and/or their growth to larger aggregates. METHODOLOGY: Total beta cell number and its distribution over small (100 µm clusters was determined in pancreatic tails of 10-week-old mice, 2 weeks after PDL or sham. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PDL increased total beta cell mass but not total beta cell number. It induced neogenesis of small beta cell clusters (2.2-fold higher number which contained a higher percent proliferating beta cells (1.9% Ki67+cells than sham tails (<0.2%; their higher beta cell number represented <5% of total beta cell number and was associated with a similar increase in alpha cell number. It is unknown whether the regenerative process is causally related to the inflammatory infiltration in PDL-tails. Human pancreases with inflammatory infiltration also exhibited activation of proliferation in small beta cell clusters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The PDL model illustrates the advantage of direct beta cell counts over beta cell mass measurements when assessing and localizing beta cell regeneration in the pancreas. It demonstrates the ability of the adult mouse pancreas for neogenesis of small beta cell clusters with activated beta cell proliferation. Further studies should investigate conditions under which neoformed small beta cell clusters grow to larger aggregates and hence to higher total beta cell numbers.

  7. Proteomic tracking of hydrothermal Maillard and redox modification in lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin: Location of lactosylation, carboxymethylation, and oxidation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Jolon M; Clerens, Stefan; Grosvenor, Anita; Thomas, Ancy; Callaghan, Chris; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Haines, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin are important protein components of mammalian milk. Maillard reactions, as well as redox chemistry, are of particular interest for dairy products because they are known to occur during common processing steps, notably heating procedures such as pasteurization. Using a redox proteomics approach, we characterized AA residue side-chain modification across a range of heating times and with or without the specific addition of lactose, to both map the key modification sites within these proteins and evaluate their sensitivity to process-induced modification. Heating in the presence of lactose resulted in significant Maillard modification (both lactosylation and carboxymethylation) to both bovine lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin. Notably, Lys47, a key residue in the bioactive peptide lactoferricin, was particularly susceptible to modification. Lactoferrin appeared to be fairly robust to hydrothermal treatment, with relatively low levels of oxidative modification observed. In contrast, β-lactoglobulin was susceptible to significant oxidative modification under hydrothermal treatment, with the range and type of modifications observed suggesting compromised nutritional value. These results have important implications for processing applications in dairy foods where retention of biological function and optimal protein quality is desired. PMID:26923048

  8. Probabilistic teleportation of an unknown atomic state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶柳; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We propose two schemes for teleporting an unknown state. In our schemes, a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state is used as a quantum channel. We show that the probabilistic teleportation of an unknown quantum state can be realized.

  9. EVALUATION OF ELISA METHOD TO DETECTION OF COW β-LACTOGLOBULIN IN SHEEP MILK AND SHEEP MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Paulov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to optimalize the ELISA method to detect the adulteration of sheep milk and sheep milk products by cow milk in the laboratory. We have focused on laboratory testing of ELISA kit (β-Lactoglobulin ELISA Set, SEDIUM R&D for detection of cow β-Lg in sheep milk order to obtain high-quality, reliable and economically advantageous method suitable for routine use in practice. The results shown that for the quality of adulteration determination  it is necessary to verify the sensitivity of applied kit by the samples dilution in accordance with the producer declared quantification range contained in the manual ELISA kit. The starting point for obtaining of relevant data was to create separate regression curves with high deter­mination coefficient, which allowed to quickly and easily detect the cow milk additions in sheep milk, cloddish sheep and Slovak sheep cheese. doi:10.5219/78  

  10. Modulating β-lactoglobulin nanofibril self-assembly at pH 2 using glycerol and sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Anant C; Loveday, Simon M; Anema, Skelte G; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-01-13

    β-Lactoglobulin (β-lg) forms fibrils when heated at 80 °C, pH 2, and low ionic strength (sorbitol (0-50% w/v) on β-lg self-assembly at pH 2. Glycerol and sorbitol stabilize native protein structure and modulate protein functionality by preferential exclusion. In our study, both polyols decreased the rate of β-lg self-assembly but had no effect on the morphology of fibrils. The mechanism of these effects was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE. Sorbitol inhibited self-assembly by stabilizing β-lg against unfolding and hydrolysis, resulting in fewer fibrillogenic species, whereas glycerol inhibited nucleation without inhibiting hydrolysis. Both polyols increased the viscosity of the solutions, but viscosity appeared to have little effect on fibril assembly, and we believe that self-assembly was not diffusion-limited under these conditions. This is in agreement with previous reports for other proteins assembling under different conditions. The phenomenon of peptide self-assembly can be decoupled from protein hydrolysis using glycerol.

  11. Targeting Human α-Lactalbumin Gene Insertion into the Goat β-Lactoglobulin Locus by TALEN-Mediated Homologous Recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhu

    Full Text Available Special value of goat milk in human nutrition and well being is associated with medical problems of food allergies which are caused by milk proteins such as β-lactoglobulin (BLG. Here, we employed transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN-assisted homologous recombination in goat fibroblasts to introduce human α-lactalbumin (hLA genes into goat BLG locus. TALEN-mediated targeting enabled isolation of colonies with mono- and bi-allelic transgene integration in up to 10.1% and 1.1%, respectively, after selection. Specifically, BLG mRNA levels were gradually decreasing in both mo- and bi-allelic goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs while hLA demonstrated expression in GMECs in vitro. Gene-targeted fibroblast cells were efficiently used in somatic cell nuclear transfer, resulting in production of hLA knock-in goats directing down-regulated BLG expression and abundant hLA secretion in animal milk. Our findings provide valuable background for animal milk optimization and expedited development for agriculture and biomedicine.

  12. One step electrodeposition of dendritic gold nanostructures on β-lactoglobulin-functionalized reduced graphene oxide for glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Zhang, Zhenguo; Miao, Zhiying; Ma, Min; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Weizhen; Han, Bingkai; Chen, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Dendritic gold nanostructures (AuNDs) were successfully synthesized by one step electrodeposition on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) functionalized by a globular protein, β-lactoglobulin (BLG), for the first time. Owing to its sulfhydryl groups, water-soluble BLG-rGO provided a superb platform for the growth of AuNDs. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy analysis were used to investigate the as prepared BLG-rGO-AuNDs nanocomposite. Electrocatalytic ability of the nanocomposite was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric method. In order to prove the superiority of BLG-rGO-AuNDs, we developed a novel glucose biosensor on the nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) through a cross-linking method. The biosensor exhibited a remarkable sensitivity of 46.2 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), a wide linear range of 0.05-6 mM glucose, a low detection limit of 22.9 µM (S/N=3), and a rapid response time (within 6 s). The prepared biosensor also used to detect glucose in human serum and statistical analysis in the respect of reproducibility was done. PMID:26452896

  13. Cloning of 5’ regulatory element of bovine β-lactoglobulin gene and its utilization in generation of mammary bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国庆; 戴蕴平; 朱宝利; 陈永福; 齐顺章

    1996-01-01

    To obtain a regulatory element for generating mammary bioreactors. a DNA fragment derived from bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene was cloned, which consisted of a 650-bp 5’ flanking sequence, exon Ⅰ, intron Ⅰ and exon Ⅱ. A 661-bp region of the cloned fragment, consisting of the 650-bp 5’ flanking sequence and a non-coding sequence of 11 bp downstream of the transcription initiation site, was used as a regulatory element to combine with human growth hormone (hGH) gene to generate a bovine BLG/hGH fusion construct, which was then introduced into cultured primary mammary epithelial cells of goat for transient expression of hGH gene. It was demonstrated that the hGH gene was able to express following hormone induction and the expressed product was able to be secreted into the medium. The bovine BLG/hGH fusion construct was also used to generate transgenic mice by microinjection. Subsequently, five transgenic mice were generated. The hGH in milk by one transgenic female mouse was 420μg/mL, while the cont

  14. Judicial Districts, Published in unknown, Richland County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Judicial Districts dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Wisconsin County Coordinates (Richland) coordinate system; in a Lambert...

  15. Building Permits, Published in unknown, Trempealeau County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Building Permits dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  16. Watershed Boundaries, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  17. Geographic Place Names, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geographic Place Names dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent...

  18. Airports and Airfields, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent...

  19. Contours, Published in unknown, Sheboygan county.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Sheboygan County Coordinate Grid coordinate system; in a Mercator projection; The...

  20. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  1. Effect of casein genes - beta-LGB, DGAT1, GH, and LHR - on milk production and milk composition traits in crossbred Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molee, A; Poompramun, C; Mernkrathoke, P

    2015-03-30

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a single gene and composite genotype of the casein gene family, including the beta-lactoglobulin gene (beta-LGB), acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), growth hormone gene (GH), and luteinizing hormone receptor gene (LHR) on milk yield, milk composition, the percentage of fat, protein, solids-not-fat, and total solid in crossbred Holsteins. A total of 231 crossbred Holstein cows were examined for the study. The genotype of the beta-casein gene was analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while the alpha-S1, alpha-S2, kappa-casein, DGAT1, beta-LGB, and GH genes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The association between genes and milk yield and milk composition was analyzed. Three pairs of genes, for which significant associations were detected, were beta + kappa-casein, DGAT1 + beta-casein, and GH + beta-LGB. In the single-gene model, most loci are significantly associated with traits. A significant association between the composite genotype and the traits was detected in all composite genotypes. GH + beta-LGB appears to be the most suitable variants for improving milk production and percentage of milk protein. Overall, the effects of the composite genotype and single gene were different. A physical or functional relationship between genes is necessary for investigating gene markers.

  2. BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low

  3. Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis of β-Lactoglobulin and α-Lactalbumin in Different Types of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotkāja Oksana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect major whey proteins α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. RPHPLC methods were developed using the column YMC Pack-C4, which enabled the separation of whey proteins within 30 min. Mobile phase was acetonitrile/water/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA with gradient elution, flow rate was 1.0 mL·min−1, and the detection wavelength was 210 nm. Column temperature was 40°C and injection volume was 20 μL.

  4. Effect of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin on the oxidative stability of 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions depends on pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Wulff, Tune; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pH on lipid oxidation and protein partitioning in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with different whey protein isolates with varying ratios of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. Results showed that an increase in pH increased...... lipid oxidation irrespective of the emulsifier used. At pH 4, lipid oxidation was not affected by the type of whey protein emulsifier used or the partitioning of proteins between the interface and the water phase. However, at pH 7 the emulsifier with the highest concentration of β...... protein components....

  5. Spectroscopic and dynamic properties of arachidonoyl serotonin- β-lactoglobulin complex: A molecular modeling and chemometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Samira; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Akvan, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    UV-Vis absorption data of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and arachidonoyl serotonin (AA-5HT) in BLG complex were examined and analyzed using chemometrics method. Analysis of the spectral data matrices by using the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm resulted to the pure concentration calculation and spectral profiles resolution of the chemical constituents and the values of (6.433±0.019)×10(4)M(-1), (4.532±0.007)×10(4)M(-1), (3.364±0.010)×10(4)M(-1) and (2.977±0.013)×10(4)M(-1) as estimated equilibrium constants at 288, 293, 298 and 303K, respectively. The number of chemical constituents involved in the interaction which was extracted by PCA method were free and bound BLG. The spontaneity of the binding process and critical role of hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions in stabilizing protein-ligand complex have been designated by negative values of Gibbs free energy, entropy and enthalpy changes. Molecular docking study showed that AA-5HT binds to Val(41), Leu(39), Leu(54), Ile(71), Phe(82), Asn(90), Val(92), Phe(105), Met(107), Glu(108) with the free binding energy of -37.478kJ/mol. Computational studies predicted that in spite of serotonin (5HT) which anchors to the outer surface of BLG by hydrogen bonds, AA-5HT is situated in the calyx pose and stayed there during the entire time of simulation. This binding is accompanying with no apparent influence on secondary structure and partially destabilization of tertiary structure of BLG which pointed the suitability of this protein as drug carrier for AA-5HT. PMID:27472903

  6. Spectroscopic and dynamic properties of arachidonoyl serotonin- β-lactoglobulin complex: A molecular modeling and chemometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Samira; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Akvan, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    UV-Vis absorption data of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and arachidonoyl serotonin (AA-5HT) in BLG complex were examined and analyzed using chemometrics method. Analysis of the spectral data matrices by using the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm resulted to the pure concentration calculation and spectral profiles resolution of the chemical constituents and the values of (6.433±0.019)×10(4)M(-1), (4.532±0.007)×10(4)M(-1), (3.364±0.010)×10(4)M(-1) and (2.977±0.013)×10(4)M(-1) as estimated equilibrium constants at 288, 293, 298 and 303K, respectively. The number of chemical constituents involved in the interaction which was extracted by PCA method were free and bound BLG. The spontaneity of the binding process and critical role of hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions in stabilizing protein-ligand complex have been designated by negative values of Gibbs free energy, entropy and enthalpy changes. Molecular docking study showed that AA-5HT binds to Val(41), Leu(39), Leu(54), Ile(71), Phe(82), Asn(90), Val(92), Phe(105), Met(107), Glu(108) with the free binding energy of -37.478kJ/mol. Computational studies predicted that in spite of serotonin (5HT) which anchors to the outer surface of BLG by hydrogen bonds, AA-5HT is situated in the calyx pose and stayed there during the entire time of simulation. This binding is accompanying with no apparent influence on secondary structure and partially destabilization of tertiary structure of BLG which pointed the suitability of this protein as drug carrier for AA-5HT.

  7. β-lactoglobulin's conformational requirements for ligand binding at the calyx and the dimer interphase: a flexible docking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Domínguez-Ramírez

    Full Text Available β-lactoglobulin (BLG is an abundant milk protein relevant for industry and biotechnology, due significantly to its ability to bind a wide range of polar and apolar ligands. While hydrophobic ligand sites are known, sites for hydrophilic ligands such as the prevalent milk sugar, lactose, remain undetermined. Through the use of molecular docking we first, analyzed the known fatty acid binding sites in order to dissect their atomistic determinants and second, predicted the interaction sites for lactose with monomeric and dimeric BLG. We validated our approach against BLG structures co-crystallized with ligands and report a computational setup with a reduced number of flexible residues that is able to reproduce experimental results with high precision. Blind dockings with and without flexible side chains on BLG showed that: i 13 experimentally-determined ligands fit the calyx requiring minimal movement of up to 7 residues out of the 23 that constitute this binding site. ii Lactose does not bind the calyx despite conformational flexibility, but binds the dimer interface and an alternate Site C. iii Results point to a probable lactolation site in the BLG dimer interface, at K141, consistent with previous biochemical findings. In contrast, no accessible lysines are found near Site C. iv lactose forms hydrogen bonds with residues from both monomers stabilizing the dimer through a claw-like structure. Overall, these results improve our understanding of BLG's binding sites, importantly narrowing down the calyx residues that control ligand binding. Moreover, our results emphasize the importance of the dimer interface as an insufficiently explored, biologically relevant binding site of particular importance for hydrophilic ligands. Furthermore our analyses suggest that BLG is a robust scaffold for multiple ligand-binding, suitable for protein design, and advance our molecular understanding of its ligand sites to a point that allows manipulation to control

  8. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-18

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states. PMID:27035290

  9. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-01

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.

  10. Investigation of the molecular interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and low methoxyl pectin by multi-detection high performance size exclusion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combining milk proteins and polysaccharides may result in new food ingredients with enhanced properties, compared to the single protein or polysaccharide, that are especially useful for improving the nutritional value, textural properties and stability of foods. However, formulations of these ingre...

  11. Studies of molecular interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and sugar beet pectin at neutral pH by high performance size exclusion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foods that are rich in protein and other micronutrients such as bioactives and vitamins but low in sugar and fat may help mitigate the global obesity epidemic. Specialty ingredients can be fabricated to possess specific functions such as encapsulating bioactives through controlled assembly of protei...

  12. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim eSalih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  13. Method for genetic identification of unknown organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Hindson, Benjamin J.; Carter, Chance J.; Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-08-23

    A method of rapid, genome and proteome based identification of unknown pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms in a complex sample. The entire sample is analyzed by creating millions of emulsion encapsulated microdroplets, each containing a single pathogenic or non-pathogenic organism sized particle and appropriate reagents for amplification. Following amplification, the amplified product is analyzed.

  14. [Diagnostic approach to fever of unknown origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, fever of unknown origin (FUO) is generally defined as a fever higher than 38-3 degrees C lasting for a period of at least three weeks, in which no definitive diagnosis has been made after a number of obligatory tests. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed in which history taking, physical exa

  15. Multifocal chronic osteomyelitis of unknown etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cases of chronic, inflammatory, multifocal bone lesions of unknown etiology are reported. Although bone biopsy confirmed osteomyelitis in each case in none of them were organisms found inspite of an extensive work up. Different clinical course of the disease reflects different aetiology in respective cases. These cases present changing aspects of osteomyelitis emerging since introduction of antibiotics. (orig.)

  16. Multidimensional procurement auctions with unknown weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Thomas

    This paper studies the consequences of holding a procurement auction when the principal chooses not to show its preferences. My paper extends the procurement auction model of Che (1993) to a situation where both the principal and the agents have private information. Thus, unknown parameters of both...

  17. β-Lactoglobulin detected in human milk forms noncovalent complexes with maltooligosaccharides as revealed by chip-nanoelectrospray high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitan, Florina; Robu, Adrian C; Schiopu, Catalin; Ilie, Constantin; Chait, Brian T; Przybylski, Michael; Zamfir, Alina D

    2015-11-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy in exclusively breastfed infants, the main cause of food intolerance during the first 6 months of life, is triggered by the mother's diet. β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) present in cow's milk is one of the most potent allergens for newborns. Since no prophylactic treatment is available, finding ligands capable of binding BLG and reducing its allergenicity is currently the focus of research. In this work, an innovative methodology encompassing microfluidics based on fully automated chip-nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI), coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF MS) instrument was developed. This platform was employed for the assessment of the noncovalent interactions between maltohexaose (Glc6) and β-lactoglobulin extracted from human milk upon deliberate intake of cow's milk. The experiments were carried out in (+) ESI mode, using ammonium acetate (pH 6.0) as the buffer and also in pure water. In both cases, the MS analysis revealed the formation of BLG-Glc6 complex, which was characterized by top-down fragmentation in tandem MS (MS/MS) using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Our findings have a significant biomedical impact, indicating that Glc6 binds BLG under conditions mimicking the in vivo environment and therefore might represent a ligand, able to reduce its allergenicity.

  18. A novel ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for the rapid determination of β-lactoglobulin as heat load indicator in commercial milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitz, Lisa I; Fiechter, Gregor; Seifried, Reinhold K; Mayer, Helmut K

    2015-03-20

    The level of undenatured acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin can be used as an indicator to assess the heat load applied to liquid milk, thus further allowing the discrimination between milk originating from different thermal production processes. In this work, a new UHPLC method for the rapid determination of bovine β-lactoglobulin in 1.8min only (total runtime 3min) is presented using simple UV detection at 205nm. Separation selectivity for possibly co-eluting other major whey proteins (bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin G) was verified, and the method validated for the analysis of liquid milk samples regarding linearity (20-560μg/mL, R(2)>0.99), instrumentation precision (RSDsESL) milk, quite diverse levels were determined ranging from ∼100 up to 4000mg/L, thus clearly illustrating variable applied heat loads and impacts on the "nativeness" of milk essentially due to the fact that the production technologies used for ESL milk may differ significantly, and are currently not regulated in the EU.

  19. Pregnancy of unknown location (PUL: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setu Rathod

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While most pregnancies are obviously within the uterus, Pregnancy of Unknown Location (PUL is used to describe cases where, there is a positive pregnancy test but no sign of a pregnancy inside or outside the uterus, on transvaginal ultrasound or even at laparoscopy. We report a case of multigravida with history of disturbed tubal ectopic pregnancy in previous pregnancy presented with lower abdominal pain and spotting per vaginum following 6 weeks amenorrhoea. The patient was clinically stable with no evidence of intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy in transvaginal sonography with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG above descriminatory levels. Provisional diagnosis of Pregnancy of Unknown Location (PUL was made and serial beta-hCG levels shows increasing levels. Endometrial curettage done with histopathology report showed product of conception following which there was a fall in serum beta-hCG. She was finally diagnosed as a case of silent miscarriage. Expectant management has been shown to be safe and effective in reducing the need for surgical intervention but does require close surveillance of patients who present with PUL. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 808-811

  20. Noma: an "infectious" disease of unknown aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Pittet, Brigitte; Montandon, Denys; Bolivar, Ignacio; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Jaquinet, Alexandre; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier

    2003-07-01

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to severe tissue destruction in the face and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is seen almost exclusively in young children living in remote areas of less developed countries, particularly in Africa. The exact prevalence of the disease is unknown, but a conservative estimate is that 770000 people are currently affected by noma sequelae. The cause remains unknown, but a combination of several elements of a plausible aetiology has been identified: malnutrition, a compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene and a lesion of the gingival mucosal barrier, and an unidentified bacterial factor acting as a trigger for the disease. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatment of the acute phase and sequelae requiring reconstructive surgery. Noma may be preventable if recognised at an early stage. Further research is needed to identify more exactly the causative agents.

  1. Fever of Unknown Origin: An Unusual Case

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, R. A.; Hayman, G. R.; Bansal, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent episodic fever of unknown origin (FUO) arising from tumour of the gastrointestinal tract is rare. We report an otherwise healthy 62-year-old man with recurrent circumscribed bouts of fever and raised CRP for 3 years who has remained well and fever-free 2 years after the removal of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the colon. Occult colonic neoplasm should be considered and sought when routine investigations for FUO are negative.

  2. Taganrog's Clandestine Guerrilla Groups: Unknown Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy S. Chumachenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first publication of archival documents captured during the battle containing previously unknown information about the activities of one anti-fascist Taganrog’s guerrilla group, which operated during the occupation of the town by German troops in 1941–1943. It is a part of the investigative materials of the punitive operation against the guerrillas carried out by the Russian police, where traitors served, under the guidance of the German counterintelligence.

  3. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  4. TOURISM PROMOTION FOR UNKNOWN AREAS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Fotache Lacramioara; Micu Adrian; Bleoju Gianita

    2013-01-01

    The paper is an effort to unknown areas identity affirmation, through collaborative development of advertising mix, with an emphasis on virtual platforms as admissible solution for increasing visibility. Based upon comparative effective analysis of categories of communication particularities, it is suggested a positioning strategic solution, via virtual advertising platform as unique, integrated, complex and very attractive tourism product promotion, fitted for the internal and internationa...

  5. [Unknown primary tumour - diagnostic strategies and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anne Kirstine Hundahl; Gundgaard, M.G.; Petersen, Bodil Laub;

    2008-01-01

    Unknown primary tumour (UPT) is defined as a histologically confirmed metastatic malignancy for which no primary site has been detected. It accounts for approximately 3-5% of all malignant neoplasms. UPT represents a group of heterogeneous cancers with rapid progression and random, atypical metas...... metastases. This article describes the diagnostic strategies, treatment, prognosis and survival of patients with UPT Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/24...

  6. High-dimensional regression with unknown variance

    CERN Document Server

    Giraud, Christophe; Verzelen, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We review recent results for high-dimensional sparse linear regression in the practical case of unknown variance. Different sparsity settings are covered, including coordinate-sparsity, group-sparsity and variation-sparsity. The emphasize is put on non-asymptotic analyses and feasible procedures. In addition, a small numerical study compares the practical performance of three schemes for tuning the Lasso esti- mator and some references are collected for some more general models, including multivariate regression and nonparametric regression.

  7. Estimating Unknown Sparsity in Compressed Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Miles E

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of compressed sensing, many theoretical guarantees for signal reconstruction require that the number of linear measurements $n$ exceed the sparsity ||x||_0 of the unknown signal x\\in\\R^p. However, if the sparsity ||x||_0 is unknown, the choice of $n$ remains problematic. This paper considers the problem of estimating the unknown degree of sparsity of $x$ with only a small number of linear measurements. Although we show that estimation of ||x||_0 is generally intractable in this framework, we consider an alternative measure of sparsity s(x):=\\frac{\\|x\\|_1^2}{\\|x\\|_2^2}, which is a sharp lower bound on ||x||_0, and is more amenable to estimation. When $x$ is a non-negative vector, we propose a computationally efficient estimator \\hat{s}(x), and use non-asymptotic methods to bound the relative error of \\hat{s}(x) in terms of a finite number of measurements. Remarkably, the quality of estimation is \\emph{dimension-free}, which ensures that \\hat{s}(x) is well-suited to the high-dimensional reg...

  8. Levered and unlevered Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    We prove that in a world without leverage cost the relationship between the levered beta ( L) and the unlevered beta ( u) is the No-costs-of-leverage formula: L = u + ( u - d) D (1 - T) / E. We also analyze 6 alternative valuation theories proposed in the literature to estimate the relationship between the levered beta and the unlevered beta (Harris and Pringle (1985), Modigliani and Miller (1963), Damodaran (1994), Myers (1974), Miles and Ezzell (1980), and practitioners) and prove that all ...

  9. Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 protects beta cells against IL-1beta-mediated toxicity through inhibition of multiple nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated proapoptotic pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Allan Ertman; Heding, P E; Frobøse, H;

    2004-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta induces apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells via pathways dependent on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C. We recently showed suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 to be a natural negative feedback...... regulator of IL-1beta- and IFN-gamma-mediated signalling in rat islets and beta cell lines, preventing their deleterious effects. However, the mechanisms underlying SOCS-3 inhibition of IL-1beta signalling and prevention against apoptosis remain unknown....

  10. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...... of the conditional beta series during the financial crises....

  11. Neutrinoless double beta decay from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Amy; Chang, Chia Cheng; Clark, M A; Joo, Balint; Kurth, Thorsten; Rinaldi, Enrico; Tiburzi, Brian; Vranas, Pavlos; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2016-01-01

    While the discovery of non-zero neutrino masses is one of the most important accomplishments by physicists in the past century, it is still unknown how and in what form these masses arise. Lepton number-violating neutrinoless double beta decay is a natural consequence of Majorana neutrinos and many BSM theories, and many experimental efforts are involved in the search for these processes. Understanding how neutrinoless double beta decay would manifest in nuclear environments is key for understanding any observed signals. In these proceedings we present an overview of a set of one- and two-body matrix elements relevant for experimental searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, describe the role of lattice QCD calculations, and present preliminary lattice QCD results.

  12. An Unknown Poem of Tevfik Fikret

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRYÜREK, Meral

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an unknown poem of Tevfik Fikret, a revolutionary pen of Turkish literature, is presented. This poem was discovered in lrşad, a monthly review that was published between 1920-1922. As a review, Irşad has aimed to give conciousness to Cypriot Turks on scientific and economic issues. Mehmet Akif, Cenap Şehabettin, Ziya Gökalp, Mehmet Emin, Hüseyin Suat and Tevfik Fikret were the personalities whose poems were seen in Irşad. Tevfik Fikret's mentioned poem that was published in Irş...

  13. Fever of unknown origin in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizidou, A; Aoun, M; Klastersky, J

    2016-05-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains a challenging clinical problem, namely in patients with cancer. In cancer patients, FUO may be due to the cancer itself, as it is the case of hematological malignancies; digestive tumors (colon cancer, liver metastases) are significantly associated with FUO and infection can be demonstrated in some cases. Prevention with G-CSF and empirical antimicrobial therapy are essential approaches for the management of FUO in cancer patients. New diagnostic approaches, such as PET imaging, should be further evaluated in cancer patients with FUO. PMID:26995082

  14. TOURISM PROMOTION FOR UNKNOWN AREAS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotache Lacramioara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an effort to unknown areas identity affirmation, through collaborative development of advertising mix, with an emphasis on virtual platforms as admissible solution for increasing visibility. Based upon comparative effective analysis of categories of communication particularities, it is suggested a positioning strategic solution, via virtual advertising platform as unique, integrated, complex and very attractive tourism product promotion, fitted for the internal and international tourism circuit. The active promotion of the specified territorial identity will launch a brand with an impact among tourists by using marketing techniques and innovating technical means and prioritizing tourism as a principal vector of local and regional development.

  15. Direct water-phase synthesis of lead sulfide quantum dots encapsulated by β-lactoglobulin for in vivo second near infrared window imaging with reduced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Kong, Yifei; Wang, Wei; Fang, Hongwei; Wo, Yan; Zhou, Dejian; Wu, Ziying; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-03-14

    Compared to conventional fluorescence imaging in the visible (400-700 nm) and NIR-I regions (700-900 nm), optical fluorescence imaging in the second near infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1400 nm) offers reduced photon scattering, deeper tissue penetration and lower auto-fluorescence. Despite excellent imaging capabilities, current NIR-II probes have not yet reached their full potential due to weak quantum yield, low water solubility and suboptimal biocompatibility. To address these problems, we report herein a new NIR-II fluorescent PbS quantum dots (QDs) that are fabricated in water using β-lactoglobulin (LG) as a biological template. The LG-PbS QDs exhibit satisfactory dispersibility, relatively high quantum yield and favorable biocompatibility, and therefore are suitable for high-resolution in vivo imaging applications. PMID:26888668

  16. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Sana; Anwer, Farrukh; Beg, Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  17. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Favier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carcinomatous meningitis (CM occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

  18. Progress of radiation oncology: known and unknown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jing; Yu Jinming

    2014-01-01

    Objective To elaborate known and unknown aspects of radiation oncology.Data sources Data cited in this review were obtained mainly from PubMed and Medline in English from 1999 to 2013,with keywords "individualized medicine","personalized medicine","radiation dose","radiation target","molecular targeted therapy","molecular imaging" and "~nctional imaging".Study selection Articles regarding radiation target delineation,radiation doses,new technology and equipment,combination of radiotherapy and molecular targeted therapy as well as other aspects were identified,retrieved and reviewed.Results A larger radiation field and a higher radiation dose are not always better.New equipment and technology are also not always better than conventional equipment and technologies.Effectiveness of radiotherapy combined with molecular targeted therapy needs more data to verify.Conclusion Personalized radiotherapy is the direction for the future.

  19. Intelligent Virtual Agents Architecture in Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfan Feng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As the contemporary performing behavior in the reciprocity of virtual agents is glazed excessively and can't satisfy complex unknown environment, the research of Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA with active learning and local apperception must be accelerated. In this paper, we design and implement a new IVA system architecture, for which active learning and local apperceive interaction were approached. Active learning using knowledge acquisition and knowledge evolution improved the self-regulation of behavior mechanism significantly, while local apperceive interaction could sense disturbances of the simulated environment and interactively communicate with other simulated agents within perception dimension effectively. Ultimately, the experimental result provides effectiveness and practicability of the performance in our prototype IVA system.

  20. The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.

  1. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

  2. Management of unknown origin cerebral metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Gramada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study attempts todetermine the steps for obtaining theetiological diagnosis of brain metastaseswith unknown origin.Material and methods: A total of 190patients with brain metastases diagnosed inthe Department of Neurosurgery inEmergency Hospital ”N. Oblu” Iasibetween 2007-2010 were included in thisstudy. The clinical characteristics andpathological features were analyzed.Results: There were 102 males and 88females with a M:F ratio of 1.15:1. Themedian age of patients was 47.07 years(range 31-77 years. Females patients wereolder (mean age 57.21 years than malespatients (49.15 years. 154 patients (81.05%had single brain metastasis, and 36 patients(18.95% had more than two. The lesionswere supratentorial in 142 patients(74.73%, infratentorial in 18 (9.47%, andboth infratentorial and supratentorial in 30patients (15.78%. Surgical treatmentinvolved complete resection in 47.9% ofcases, subtotal resection in 26.8%, andbiopsy alone in the remainder (25.3%.Brain metastases originating in lung cancerrepresented the most common type(47.39%, followed by those from breastcancer (19.79%, then those from skin(melanoma (8.33%, genitourinarycarcinoma (6.30%, and gastrointestinalcarcinoma (2.62%. In 16.31% of cases, theprimary tumor remained unknown, despiteextensive investigation.Conclusion: The primary cancer leadingto brain metastases can be detected eitherby obtaining a sample of tumoral tissuethrough a neurosurgical operation on theintracerebral tumor (total ablation orstereotactic biopsy with histopathologicalexamination, or by additional tests of thewhole body. Taken into consideration theresults of our own study, the managementof the patients with brain metastases shouldinclude a thoracic CT scan oranteroposterior and lateral chest X-ray,clinical breast examination andmammography, abdominal ultrasoundexploration, and skin, kidney and prostateexamination. With the most sophisticatedmethods of diagnosis in approximately 16%of cases the

  3. Beta 2-Microglobulin clearance as measured by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Longley, M.A.; Cannon, D.C.

    1980-07-01

    We describe a radioimmunoassay for beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2 mu) in serum and urine. We incubated aliquots of diluted samples at room temperature for 1 h with /sup 125/I-labeled beta 2 mu and a rabbit antiserum monospecific for human beta 2 mu, and separated the phases by the double-antibody technique. The logit-log transformed dose-response curve was linear in the range 2 to 64 ng, equivalent to 0.5 to 16 mg/L of serum and 0.5 to 320 mg/L of urine. Assay sensitivity was 2.4 ng of beta 2 mu. Validation studies included tests of precision, accuracy, antibody specificity, and parallelism of the dose-response curves for standard and unknown. In a study of 25 normal individuals, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 mg/L and 40 to 360 micrograms/24 h; the clearance of beta 2 mu was 8 to 130 microL/min. In 21 renal allograft recipients tested one to five weeks after transplantation, serum and urine beta 2 mu ranged from 3.9 to 15.6 mg/L and 7.2 to 611 mg/24 h; beta 2 mu clearance was 0.60 to 33.3 mL/min. Values for both serum and urine correlated well with severity of allograft rejection.

  4. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U.......S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  5. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  6. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross......-section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics...

  7. Neural mechanisms of transient neocortical beta rhythms: Converging evidence from humans, computational modeling, monkeys, and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Maxwell A; Lee, Shane; Law, Robert; Haegens, Saskia; Thorn, Catherine A; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Moore, Christopher I; Jones, Stephanie R

    2016-08-16

    Human neocortical 15-29-Hz beta oscillations are strong predictors of perceptual and motor performance. However, the mechanistic origin of beta in vivo is unknown, hindering understanding of its functional role. Combining human magnetoencephalography (MEG), computational modeling, and laminar recordings in animals, we present a new theory that accounts for the origin of spontaneous neocortical beta. In our MEG data, spontaneous beta activity from somatosensory and frontal cortex emerged as noncontinuous beta events typically lasting 50 ms with a stereotypical waveform. Computational modeling uniquely designed to infer the electrical currents underlying these signals showed that beta events could emerge from the integration of nearly synchronous bursts of excitatory synaptic drive targeting proximal and distal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, where the defining feature of a beta event was a strong distal drive that lasted one beta period (∼50 ms). This beta mechanism rigorously accounted for the beta event profiles; several other mechanisms did not. The spatial location of synaptic drive in the model to supragranular and infragranular layers was critical to the emergence of beta events and led to the prediction that beta events should be associated with a specific laminar current profile. Laminar recordings in somatosensory neocortex from anesthetized mice and awake monkeys supported these predictions, suggesting this beta mechanism is conserved across species and recording modalities. These findings make several predictions about optimal states for perceptual and motor performance and guide causal interventions to modulate beta for optimal function. PMID:27469163

  8. Neural mechanisms of transient neocortical beta rhythms: Converging evidence from humans, computational modeling, monkeys, and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Maxwell A.; Lee, Shane; Law, Robert; Haegens, Saskia; Thorn, Catherine A.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Moore, Christopher I.; Jones, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Human neocortical 15–29-Hz beta oscillations are strong predictors of perceptual and motor performance. However, the mechanistic origin of beta in vivo is unknown, hindering understanding of its functional role. Combining human magnetoencephalography (MEG), computational modeling, and laminar recordings in animals, we present a new theory that accounts for the origin of spontaneous neocortical beta. In our MEG data, spontaneous beta activity from somatosensory and frontal cortex emerged as noncontinuous beta events typically lasting <150 ms with a stereotypical waveform. Computational modeling uniquely designed to infer the electrical currents underlying these signals showed that beta events could emerge from the integration of nearly synchronous bursts of excitatory synaptic drive targeting proximal and distal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, where the defining feature of a beta event was a strong distal drive that lasted one beta period (∼50 ms). This beta mechanism rigorously accounted for the beta event profiles; several other mechanisms did not. The spatial location of synaptic drive in the model to supragranular and infragranular layers was critical to the emergence of beta events and led to the prediction that beta events should be associated with a specific laminar current profile. Laminar recordings in somatosensory neocortex from anesthetized mice and awake monkeys supported these predictions, suggesting this beta mechanism is conserved across species and recording modalities. These findings make several predictions about optimal states for perceptual and motor performance and guide causal interventions to modulate beta for optimal function. PMID:27469163

  9. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Rüdiger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ``the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state ρ(N) of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for ρ(N). By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  10. Multigrain indexing of unknown multiphase materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2016-01-01

    A multigrain indexing algorithm for use with samples comprising an arbitrary number of known or unknown phases is presented. No a priori crystallographic knowledge is required. The algorithm applies to data acquired with a monochromatic beam and a conventional two-dimensional detector for diffraction. Initially, candidate grains are found by searching for crystallographic planes, using a Dirac comb convoluted with a box function as a filter. Next, candidate grains are validated and the unit cell is optimized. The algorithm is validated by simulations. Simulations of 500 cementite grains and ∼100 reflections per grain resulted in 99.2% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.5% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. Simulations with 200 grains associated with four mineral phases and 50–700 reflections per grain resulted in 99.9% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.9% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. The main limitation is in terms of overlap of diffraction spots and computing time. Potential areas of use include three-dimensional grain mapping, structural solution and refinement studies of complex samples, and studies of dilute phases. PMID:27047308

  11. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1997-01-01

    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposite...

  12. Effects of a beta-blocker on the cardiovascular response to MDMA (Ecstasy)

    OpenAIRE

    Hysek, C M; Vollenweider, F X; Liechti, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'Ecstasy') produces tachycardia and hypertension and is rarely associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. In clinical practice, beta-blockers are often withheld in patients with stimulant intoxication because they may increase hypertension and coronary artery vasospasm due to loss of beta(2)-mediated vasodilation and unopposed alpha-receptor activation. However, it is unknown whether beta-blockers affect the cardiovas...

  13. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Stuart A

    2009-11-01

    Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We aimed to determine the mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and indentify how 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity.

  14. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    -looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta...

  15. [The effect of CSN1 S2, CSN3 and beta-lg genes on milk performance in Xinong Saanen dairy goat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Lan, Xian-Yong; Li, Rui-Biao; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Sun, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Run-Feng; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Zhu, Bi-Cai

    2005-08-01

    PCR-RFLP technique was applied to analyze correlation between the polymorphisms of CSN1 S2 (alpha(s2) casein), CSN3 (kappa casein) and beta-lg (beta-lactoglobulin) genes and milk performance in 69 individuals of Xinong Saanen dairy goat. The results showed that there was significant correlation between different genotypes of CSN1 S2 locus and milk yield:average milk yield of individuals with genotype FF was less than that of genotype NN (P gene digested with endonuclease Hind III cleavage showed that no significant difference of milk yield between genotype DE and genotype EE was detected in first, second, third and fourth lactation milk yield and average milk yield (P > 0.05). The results of CSN3 gene with endonuclease Taq I cleavage showed that no significant difference of milk yield among individuals with genotype TT, TC and CC was detected (P > 0.05). No polymorphism was detected in PCR products of CSN3 gene digested with endonuclease Hae III. The analysis of beta-lg gene's 5' flanking region (710 bp) by PCR-RFLP in Xinong Saanen dairy goat showed that milk yield of individuals with genotype AA was higher than that with genotype AB in second, third lactation milk yield and average milk yield (P beta-lg gene's 5' flanking region is probably related to high milk yield.

  16. Estimation of Parameters of the Beta-Extreme Value Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper The Beta Extreme Value Type (III distribution which is developed by Zafar and Aleem (2007 is considered and parameters are estimated by using moments of the Beta-Extreme Value (Type III Distribution when the parameters ‘m’ & ‘n’ are real and moments of the Beta-Extreme Value (Type III Distribution when the parameters ‘m��� & ‘n’ are integers and then a Comparison between rth moments about origin when parameters are ‘m’ & ‘n’ are real and when parameters are ‘m’ & ‘n’ are integers. At the end second method, method of Maximum Likelihood is used to estimate the unknown parameters of the Beta Extreme Value Type (III distribution.

  17. Structure and diversity of the T cell antigen receptor beta-chain in a teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partula, S; de Guerra, A; Fellah, J S; Charlemagne, J

    1995-07-15

    Cell-mediated immunity (e.g., allograft rejection) is found in all vertebrates, and these reactions are known to depend on thymus-derived cells in amphibian, avian, and mammalian species. The participation of peripheral T cell-like lymphocytes subpopulations to fish immunity is now well documented, but the developmental origin, migration, and peripheral tissue distribution of these cells remain practically unknown. This is mainly due to the difficulty of efficiently thymectomizing fish at an early stage of development and to the lack of Ab strictly specific for thymocytes and T cell surface Ag. One strategy for analyzing T cell biology in fish would be to characterize the genes encoding polypeptides homologous to the TCR molecules. This report describes cDNA clones from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that have sequences very similar to amphibian, avian, and mammalian TCR beta-chains. Three complete trout V beta segments belonging to different families were analyzed; one of them had limited amino acid sequence similarity to the human V beta 20 family. The 10 trout beta-chain-joining segments all retain the invariant mammalian J beta residues, and comparison of 66 V beta-J beta junctions led to the identification of a D beta-like sequence (GGACAGGG) that is shorter than but very similar to the chicken D beta and mammalian D beta 1 sequences. There is considerable diversity at the V beta-D beta and D beta-J beta junctions, suggesting the presence of N-nucleotides. The trout C beta extracellular domain is shorter than mammalian C beta, and the hinge region has no cysteine residue. The transmembrane C beta domain contains a lysine residue that in mammals is thought to be involved in charged interactions with members of the CD3 complex. PMID:7608547

  18. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Zuber

    2012-10-01

    The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  19. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapy for a blood cancer called lymphoblastic leukemia. Mental performance. Some evidence suggests that taking beta-carotene ... One is water-based, and the other is oil-based. Studies show that the water-based version ...

  20. [High beta tokamak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 20 months of the present grant period can be divided into six areas: reconstruction and modeling of high beta equilibria in HBT; measurement and analysis of MHD instabilities observed in HBT; measurements of impurity transport; diagnostic development on HBT; numerical parameterization of the second stability regime; and conceptual design and assembly of HBT-EP. Each of these is described in some detail in the sections of this progress report

  1. Control design for the SISO system with the unknown order and the unknown relative degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai

    2014-07-01

    For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller.

  2. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  3. Facile synthesis of β-lactoglobulin-functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrode for electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Miao, Zhiying; Zhang, Di; Fang, Yuxin; Ma, Min; Chen, Qiang

    2014-12-15

    A facile approach was developed for the preparation of nanocomposite based on β-lactoglobulin (BLG)-functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for the first time. Owing to the amphipathic nature, BLG can be adopted onto the surface of MWCNTs to form BLG-MWCNTs with uniform dispersion in water. Taking advantage of sulfhydryl groups on BLG-MWCNTs, GNPs were decorated on the BLG-MWCNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by electrodeposition. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric method were used to evaluate the electrocatalytic ability of the nanocomposite. Furthermore, a glucose biosensor was developed based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase with cross-linking in the matrix of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the nanocomposite modified GCE. The resulting biosensor exhibited high sensitivity (3.98 μA mM(-1)), wider linear range (0.025-5.5 mM), low detection limit (1.1 μM at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3) and fast response time (within 7s) for glucose detection. PMID:24984286

  4. Binding affinity between dietary polyphenols and β-lactoglobulin negatively correlates with the protein susceptibility to digestion and total antioxidant activity of complexes formed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Marija; Radosavljevic, Jelena; Ognjenovic, Jana; Vesic, Jelena; Prodic, Ivana; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2013-02-15

    Non-covalent interactions between β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and polyphenol extracts of teas, coffee and cocoa were studied by fluorescence and CD spectroscopy at pH values of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The biological implications of non-covalent binding of polyphenols to BLG were investigated by in vitro pepsin and pancreatin digestibility assay and ABTS radical scavenging activity of complexes formed. The polyphenol-BLG systems were stable at pH values of the GIT. The most profound effect of pH on binding affinity was observed for polyphenol extracts rich in phenolic acids. Stronger non-covalent interactions delayed pepsin and pancreatin digestion of BLG and induced β-sheet to α-helix transition at neutral pH. All polyphenols tested protected protein secondary structure at an extremely acidic pH of 1.2. A positive correlation was found between the strength of protein-polyphenol interactions and (a) half time of protein decay in gastric conditions (R(2)=0.85), (b) masking of total antioxidant capacity of protein-polyphenol complexes (R(2)=0.95).

  5. Prediction of milk, fat and protein yields in first lactation from serum ß-lactoglobulin concentrations during gestation in Italian Brown heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Superchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Authors report the results of a study carried out on 23 pregnant Italian Brown heifers, with the aim to determine the relationships between blood serum ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG concentrations during first gestation and subsequent milk production and quality in first lactation, in order to obtain an improved selection method for replacement heifers. At weeks 20, 26 and 32 of gestation, ß-LG concentrations (±SE were 706±78, 753±66 and 772±63 ng/ml, respectively (P>0.05. High and significant (P≤0.05 correlation coefficients were observed only between ß-LG content at week 32 and total milk and protein yields in first lactation. Prediction equations of milk, fat and protein production in first lactation from log10 ß-LG content at week 32 of gestation, from parent average genetic indexes and from both were calculated by means of multiple regression analysis. When the contribution of both ß-LG content and predicted genetic indexes were considered, the regression equations gave generally a better estimate of the production parameters in first lactation (higher R2, lower SE of estimate than the above mentioned parameters alone. These results suggest that it is valuable to pre-estimate milk, fat and protein production in Italian Brown first lactating cows by means of the analysis of serum ß-LG content during gestation.

  6. Real-Time Monitoring of Heat-Induced Aggregation of β-Lactoglobulin in Aqueous Solutions Using High-Resolution Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochenduszko, Agnieszka; Buckin, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy was applied for real-time monitoring of the heat-induced denaturation and aggregation processes in aqueous solutions of β-lactoglobulin. The temperature profiles for the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in the frequency range from 4MHz to 16MHz were measured during heating and cooling cycles, 35°C to 120°C to 35°C, with different heating and cooling rates. Two processes were identified in the heating profiles: transition to the molten globular state followed by formation of protein aggregates. Both processes are accompanied by a decrease in the ultrasonic velocity and an increase in compressibility. The ultrasonic attenuation did not show a significant change during the transition to the molten globule but increased significantly during aggregation. The diameter of the aggregates (calculated from ultrasonic attenuation) was of the order of 100nm and depended on the pH and the heating rate. Variation of pH from 6.0 to 7.5 had a pronounced effect on the size of protein aggregates. Some effect of pH on the intrinsic properties of aggregates was also detected.

  7. Targeting insulin-producing beta cells for regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Adriana; Roscioni, Sara S; Lickert, Heiko

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic beta cells differ in terms of glucose responsiveness, insulin secretion and proliferative capacity; however, the molecular pathways that regulate this cellular heterogeneity are unknown. We have identified the Wnt-planar cell polarity (PCP) effector Flattop (FLTP) as a biomarker that identifies mature beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. Interestingly, three-dimensional architecture and Wnt-PCP ligands are sufficient to trigger mouse and human beta cell maturation. These results highlight the fact that novel biomarkers shed light on the long-standing mystery of beta cell heterogeneity and identify the Wnt-PCP pathway as triggering beta cell maturation. Understanding heterogeneity in the islets of Langerhans might allow targeting of beta cell subpopulations for regenerative therapy and provide building principles for stem cell-derived islets. This review summarises a presentation given at the 'Can we make a better beta cell?' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Amin Ardestani and Kathrin Maedler, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3892-9 , and by Harry Heimberg and colleagues, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3879-6 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Shanta Persaud (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3870-2 ). PMID:27412250

  8. Fever of unknown origin: A case report of brucellar discitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Febrile episodes of unknown origin lasting for two weeks require detailed investigation by various medical specialists. Fever of unknown origin is most commonly caused by infections, malignancy, colagenosis and in 5-10% of cases, despite detailed diagnostic assessment, the cause remains unknown. In cases of fever of unknown origin, the diagnostic procedures are difficult and complex. Case report This is a case report of brucellar discitis in a female patient treated at the Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin. Her laboratory findings revealed high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anemia and high gamma globulin fractions. The patient underwent radiology examination and a suspicion of infection was defined, which was later confirmed by additional tests. Conclusion Despite the fact that the diagnostic investigations of patients with fever of unknown origin are complex and time consuming, detection of the cause is of utmost importance and it is a prerequisite for successful therapy.

  9. Pruning False Unknown Words to Improve Chinese Word Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Chooi-Ling; 浅原, 正幸; 松本, 裕治

    2005-01-01

    During the process of unknown word detection in Chinese word segmentation, many detected word candidates are invalid. These false unknown word candidates deteriorate the overall segmentation accuracy, as it will affect the segmentation accuracy of known words. Therefore, we propose to eliminate as many invalid word candidates as possible by a pruning process. Our experiments show that by cutting down the invalid unknown word candidates, we improve the segmentation accuracy of known words and ...

  10. Multiple Adaptive Fading Schmidt-Kalman Filter for Unknown Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Shan Lou; Zhi-Hua Wang; Meng-Li Xiao; Hui-Min Fu

    2014-01-01

    Unknown biases in dynamic and measurement models of the dynamic systems can bring greatly negative effects to the state estimates when using a conventional Kalman filter algorithm. Schmidt introduces the “consider” analysis to account for errors in both the dynamic and measurement models due to the unknown biases. Although the Schmidt-Kalman filter “considers” the biases, the uncertain initial values and incorrect covariance matrices of the unknown biases still are not considered. To solve th...

  11. How to Deal with Unknown Words in EFL Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李夏雯

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge plays an important role in EFL reading,and learners need to employ different strategies to deal with unknown words. Research has shown that when facing the challenge of unknown words learners rely on dictionary too much while lexical inferencing should be recommended most to them. Therefore,this paper focuses on how to encourage learners to use various strategies to deal with unknown words in EFL reading.

  12. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  13. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R.W.L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van F.J.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,150-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1-/-) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our mai

  14. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  15. Double beta decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great sensitivity of double beta decay to neutrino mass and right handed currents has motivated many new and exciting attempts to observe this elusive nuclear phenomenon directly. Experiments in operation and other coming on line in the next one or two years are expected to result in order-of-magnitude improvements in detectable half lives for both the two-neutrino and no-neutrino modes. A brief history of double beta decay experiments is presented together with a discussion of current experimental efforts, including a gas filled time projection chamber being used to study selenium-82. (author)

  16. Probabilistic teleportation of unknown two-particle state via POVM

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Fengli; Ding, Hewei

    2005-01-01

    We propose a scheme for probabilistic teleportation of unknown two-particle state with partly entangled four-particle state via POVM. In this scheme the teleportation of unknown two-particle state can be realized with certain probability by performing two Bell state measurements, a proper POVM and a unitary transformation.

  17. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  18. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  19. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  20. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  1. Guessing the Meaning of Unknown Words While Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhao-rong; LU Lei

    2001-01-01

    The following paper discusses how to guess the meaning of unknown words during your reading. This skill can be developed by practising reading without a dictionary. The context and word analysis will help the reader guess the meaning of unknown words. In this way, you can become a better reader.

  2. A beta2-microglobulin cleavage variant fibrillates at near-physiological pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corlin, Dorthe B; Johnsen, Christina K; Nissen, Mogens H;

    2009-01-01

    several days. Here, we show that amyloid fibrils are generated in less than an hour when a cleavage variant of beta2m--found in the circulation of many dialysis patients--is exposed to pH levels (pH 6.6) occurring in joints during inflammation. Aggregation and fibrillation, including seeding effects......Beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) deposits as amyloid in dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA), predominantly in joints. The molecular mechanisms underlying the amyloidogenicity of beta2m are still largely unknown. In vitro, acidic conditions, pH ... with intact, native beta2m were studied by Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy, turbidimetry, capillary electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. We conclude that a biologically relevant variant of beta2m is amyloidogenic at slightly acidic pH. Also, only a very small amount of preformed fibrils...

  3. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for the determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields and the method has been used for the establishment of beta calibration fields. The paper describes important details of the method and presents results from the measurement...... of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E(max) values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high...... sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value of the...

  4. k-Casein, b-lactoglobulin and growth hormone allele frequencies and genetic distances in Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Augusta Kemenes

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The genotypes for k-casein (k-CN, b-lactoglobulin (b-LG and growth hormone (GH were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion in seven breeds of cattle (Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. k-Casein had two alleles with the A allele occurring at a higher frequency in Bos indicus breeds (0.93, 0.92 and 0.91% for Gyr, Guzerá and Nelore, respectively. The b-lactoglobulin locus had two alleles in all of the breeds. European breeds had a higher frequency of the b-LG A allele than Zebu breeds. The GH locus had two alleles (L and V in Bos taurus and was monomorphic (L allele only in all of the Bos indicus breeds evaluated. The highest frequency for the V allele was observed in Charolais cattle. The markers used revealed a considerable similarity among breeds, with two main groups being discernible. One group consisted of Zebu and Santa Gertrudis breeds and the other consisted of European and Canchim breeds.Os genótipos de k-caseína (k-CN, b-lactoglobulina (b-LG e hormônio de crescimento foram determinados por reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR e digestão com enzima de restrição em sete raças de bovinos (Nelore, Gir, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolesa, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. A k-caseína apresentou dois alelos e as freqüências mais elevadas para o alelo A foram observadas em Bos indicus (0,93, 0,92 e 0,91% para as raças Gir, Guzerá e Nelore, respectivamente. A b-lactoglobulina apresentou dois alelos em todas as raças estudadas, sendo a freqüência do alelo A mais elevada nas raças européias. O loco de hormônio de crescimento apresentou dois alelos em Bos taurus e foi monomórfico (alelo L em todas as raças zebuínas. A maior freqüência para o alelo V foi observado na raça Charolesa. Os marcadores investigados revelaram alta similaridade entre as raças, com a formação de dois grupos principais: um composto de raças zebuínas e a raça Santa Gertrudis e outro

  5. Evaluation of neutrino masses from $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values

    CERN Document Server

    Khrushchov, V V

    2008-01-01

    A neutrino mass matrix is considered under conditions of the CP invariance and the negligible reactor mixing $\\theta_{13}$ angle. Absolute mass values for three neutrinos are evaluated in normal and inverted hierarchy spectra on the ground of data for oscillation mixing neutrino parameters and effective neutrino mass entering into a probability of neutrinoless two beta decay $m_{\\beta\\beta}$ values.

  6. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  7. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  8. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We review the potential to probe new physics with neutrinoless double beta decay $(A,Z) \\to (A,Z+2) + 2 e^-$. Both the standard long-range light neutrino mechanism as well as short-range mechanisms mediated by heavy particles are discussed. We also stress aspects of the connection to lepton number violation at colliders and the implications for baryogenesis.

  9. Key role of cysteine residues and sulfenic acids in thermal- and H2O2-mediated modification of β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Anna C; Thulstrup, Peter W; Lund, Marianne N; Davies, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Oxidation results in protein deterioration in mammals, plants, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals, via changes in amino acid composition, fragmentation, aggregation, solubility, hydrophobicity, conformation, function and susceptibility to digestion. This study investigated whether and how individual or combined treatment with heat, a commonly encountered factor in industrial processing, and H2O2 alters the structure and composition of the major whey protein β-lactoglobulin. Thermal treatment induced reducible cross-links, with this being enhanced by low H2O2 concentrations, but decreased by high concentrations, where fragmentation was detected. Cross-linking was prevented when the single free Cys121 residue was blocked with iodoacetamide. Low concentrations of H2O2 added before heating depleted thiols, with H2O2 alone, or H2O2 added after heating, having lesser effects. A similar pattern was detected for methionine loss and methionine sulfoxide formation. Tryptophan loss was only detected with high levels of H2O2, and no other amino acid was affected, indicating that sulfur-centered amino acids are critical targets. No protection against aggregation was provided by high concentrations of the radical scavenger 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), consistent with molecular oxidation, rather than radical reactions, being the major process. Sulfenic acid formation was detected by Western blotting and LC-MS/MS peptide mass-mapping of dimedone-treated protein, consistent with these species being significant intermediates in heat-induced cross-linking, especially in the presence of H2O2. Studies using circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence indicate that H2O2 increases unfolding during heating. These mechanistic insights provide potential strategies for modulating the extent of modification of proteins exposed to thermal and oxidant treatment. PMID:27430598

  10. Tensiometry and dilational rheology of mixed β-lactoglobulin/ionic surfactant adsorption layers at water/air and water/hexane interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Abhijit; Gochev, Georgi; Miller, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    Oscillating drop tensiometry was applied to study adsorbed interfacial layers at water/air and water/hexane interfaces formed from mixed solutions of β-lactoglobulin (BLG, 1 μM in 10 mM buffer, pH 7 - negative net charge) and the anionic surfactant SDS or the cationic DoTAB. The interfacial pressure Π and the dilational viscoelasticity modulus |E| of the mixed layers were measured for mixtures of varying surfactant concentrations. The double capillary technique was employed which enables exchange of the protein solution in the drop bulk by surfactant solution (sequential adsorption) or by pure buffer (washing out). The first protocol allows probing the influence of the surfactant on a pre-adsorbed protein layer thus studying the protein/surfactant interactions at the interface. The second protocol gives access to the residual values of Π and |E| measured after the washing out procedure thus bringing information about the process of protein desorption. The DoTAB/BLG complexes exhibit higher surface activity and higher resistance to desorption in comparison with those for the SDS/BLG complexes due to hydrophobization via electrostatic binding of surfactant molecules. The neutral DoTAB/BLG complexes achieve maximum elastic response of the mixed layer. Mixed BLG/surfactant layers at the water/oil interface are found to reach higher surface pressure and lower maximum dilational elasticity than those at the water/air surface. The sequential adsorption mode experiments and the desorption study reveal that binding of DoTAB to pre-adsorbed BLG globules is somehow restricted at the water/air surface in comparison with the case of complex formation in the solution bulk and subsequently adsorbed at the water/air surface. Maximum elasticity is achieved with washed out layers obtained after simultaneous adsorption, i.e. isolation of the most surface active DoTAB/BLG complex. These specific effects are much less pronounced at the W/H interface.

  11. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Your Genes Your Health Disease InfoSearch: Beta Thalassemia Genomics Education Programme (UK) MalaCards: dominant beta-thalassemia Merck Manual ...

  13. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. AIM. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters...... on the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure....

  14. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  15. TGF-beta and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage is a major problem in osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have great potential in cartilage repair. In this review, we will focus on the potential therapeutic intervention in OA with TGF-beta, application of the growth facto

  16. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  17. Mechanisms of Beta Cell Dysfunction Associated With Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Antje; Solimena, Michele; Knoch, Klaus-Peter

    2015-10-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from genetic predisposition and environmental factors leading to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Recently, a rapid increase in the incidence of childhood T1D has been observed worldwide; this is too fast to be explained by genetic factors alone, pointing to the spreading of environmental factors linked to the disease. Enteroviruses (EVs) are perhaps the most investigated environmental agents in relationship to the pathogenesis of T1D. While several studies point to the likelihood of such correlation, epidemiological evidence in its support is inconclusive or in some instances even against it. Hence, it is still unknown if and how EVs are involved in the development of T1D. Here we review recent findings concerning the biology of EV in beta cells and the potential implications of this knowledge for the understanding of beta cell dysfunction and autoimmune destruction in T1D.

  18. The replication of beta cells in normal physiology, in disease and for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Peter C; Meier, Juris J; Butler, Alexandra E; Bhushan, Anil

    2007-11-01

    Replication of beta cells is an important source of beta-cell expansion in early childhood. The recent linkage of type 2 diabetes with several transcription factors involved in cell cycle regulation implies that growth of the beta-cell mass in early childhood might be an important determinant of risk for type 2 diabetes. Under some circumstances, including obesity and pregnancy, the beta-cell mass is adaptively increased in adult humans. The mechanisms by which this adaptive growth occurs and the relative contributions of beta-cell replication or of mechanisms independent of beta-cell replication are unknown. Also, although there is interest in the potential for beta-cell regeneration as a therapeutic approach in both type 1 and 2 diabetes, little is yet known about the potential sources of new beta cells in adult humans. In common with other cell types, replicating beta cells have an increased vulnerability to apoptosis, which is likely to limit the therapeutic value of inducing beta-cell replication in the proapoptotic environment of type 1 and 2 diabetes unless applied in conjunction with a strategy to suppress increased apoptosis.

  19. Cities, Towns and Villages, Published in unknown, Bayfield County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Bayfield County Coordinates ft. coordinate system; in a Lambert...

  20. Doctor Offices, Clinic Location, Published in unknown, Trempealeau County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Doctor Offices dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Clinic Location'. Data by this publisher...

  1. Forests and Forest Cover, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  2. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in unknown, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  3. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in unknown, Oconto County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  4. Fire Hydrants, Fire Hydrants Shapefile, Published in unknown, Cleveland County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire Hydrants dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Fire Hydrants Shapefile'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system;...

  5. Optimal programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown latitudinal states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunian, XiaoBing; Li, YuWei; Zhou, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Two unknown states can be unambiguously distinguished by a universal programmable discriminator, which has been widely discussed in previous works and the optimal solution has also been obtained. In this paper, we investigate the programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown "latitudinal" states, which lie in a subspace of the total state space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known average mixed states, the optimal solution for this problem is systematically derived, and the analytical success probabilities for the optimal unambiguous discrimination are obtained. It is beyond one's expectation that the optimal setting for the programmable unambiguous discrimination between two unknown "latitudinal" states is the same as that for the universal ones. The results in this work can be used for the realization of the programmable discriminator in laboratory.

  6. Cities, Towns and Villages, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Manatee County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Manatee County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  8. Watershed Boundaries, Published in unknown, Person County GIS/IT.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  9. Traffic Analysis Zones, Published in unknown, Forsyth County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Traffic Analysis Zones dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  10. Assisted Living Facilities, Published in unknown, Trempealeau County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Assisted Living Facilities dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Oconto County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building Permit...

  12. Cities, Towns and Villages, Published in unknown, Monroe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in NAD_1983_HARN_WISCRS_Monroe_County_Feet coordinate system; in a...

  13. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Davis County, UT. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  15. State Boundaries, Published in unknown, Madison County Council of Governments.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This State Boundaries dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Transverse Mercator projection; The...

  16. Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG, Published in unknown, DCP Midstream.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Pipelines, LP and LNG dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Weld County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Webster County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  19. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Madison County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, Published in unknown, CLAY COUNTY.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Parcels'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in...

  2. Male Pelvic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Chiec; Sadhna Verma; Ady Kendler; Nagla Abdel Karim

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelv...

  3. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhongda; NAKAYA, Naoshi; KOUI, Yuuji

    2009-01-01

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and k...

  4. Direction detector for distributed targets in unknown noise and interference

    OpenAIRE

    Bandiera, Francesco; Besson, Olivier; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive detection of distributed radar targets in homogeneous Gaussian noise plus subspace interference is addressed. It is assumed that the actual steering vectors lie along a fixed and unknown direction of a preassigned and known subspace, while interfering signals are supposed to belong to an unknown subspace, with directions possibly varying from one resolution cell to another. The resulting detection problem is formulated in the framework of statistical hypothesis testing and solved usi...

  5. Beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  6. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  7. Coroutine Sequencing in BETA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    In object-oriented programming, a program execution is viewed as a physical model of some real or imaginary part of the world. A language supporting object-oriented programming must therefore contain comprehensive facilities for modeling phenomena and concepts form the application domain. Many ap...... applications in the real world consist of objects carrying out sequential processes. Coroutines may be used for modeling objects that alternate between a number of sequential processes. The authors describe coroutines in BETA...

  8. Beta decay for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1962-01-01

    The ""pedestrian approach"" was developed to describe some essentially simple experimental results and their theoretical implications in plain language. In this graduate-level text, Harry J. Lipkin presents simply, but without oversimplification, the aspects of beta decay that can be understood without reference to the formal theory; that is, the reactions that follow directly from conservation laws and elementary quantum mechanics.The pedestrian treatment is neither a substitute for a complete treatment nor a watered-down version.

  9. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...... of language interoperability between Java and BETA is required. The first approach is to use the Java Native Interface and use C to bridge between Java and BETA. This results in a workable, but complicated solution. The second approach is to let the BETA compiler generate Java class files. With this approach...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  10. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  11. Beta cell adaptation in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a compensatory increase in beta cell mass. It is well established that somatolactogenic hormones contribute to the expansion both indirectly by their insulin antagonistic effects and directly by their mitogenic effects on the beta cells via receptors for prolactin...... and growth hormone expressed in rodent beta cells. However, the beta cell expansion in human pregnancy seems to occur by neogenesis of beta cells from putative progenitor cells rather than by proliferation of existing beta cells. Claes Hellerström has pioneered the research on beta cell growth for decades......, but the mechanisms involved are still not clarified. In this review the information obtained in previous studies is recapitulated together with some of the current attempts to resolve the controversy in the field: identification of the putative progenitor cells, identification of the factors involved...

  12. LHCb: $2\\beta_s$ measurement at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Conti, G

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of $2\\beta_s$, the phase of the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ oscillation amplitude with respect to that of the ${\\rm b} \\rightarrow {\\rm c^{+}}{\\rm W^{-}}$ tree decay amplitude, is one of the key goals of the LHCb experiment with first data. In the Standard Model (SM), $2\\beta_s$ is predicted to be $0.0360^{+0.0020}_{-0.0016} \\rm rad$. The current constraints from the Tevatron are: $2\\beta_{s}\\in[0.32 ; 2.82]$ at 68$\\%$CL from the CDF experiment and $2\\beta_{s}=0.57^{+0.24}_{-0.30}$ from the D$\\oslash$ experiment. Although the statistical uncertainties are large, these results hint at the possible contribution of New Physics in the $B_s-\\bar{B_s}$ box diagram. After one year of data taking at LHCb at an average luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}\\sim2\\cdot10^{32}\\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ (integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L}_{\\rm int}\\sim 2 \\rm fb^{-1}$), the expected statistical uncertainty on the measurement is $\\sigma(2\\beta_s)\\simeq 0.03$. This uncertainty is similar to the $2\\beta_s$ value predicted by the SM.

  13. Spectra Study on the Stability of β-lactoglobulin%β-乳球蛋白结构稳定性的光谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾慧; 王志清; 魏晶; 董又铭; 于志月; 李慧卿

    2016-01-01

    在pH=7的缓冲溶液及室温条件下,通过盐酸胍、尿素对β-乳球蛋白的结构稳定性进行了研究。β-乳球蛋白在盐酸胍溶液中的Cm为2.3 mol·L-1、结构稳定化能为14.051 kJ/( mol·L-1)。β-乳球蛋白可以结合与结合N-苯基-1-萘胺,结合该配体使蛋白在盐酸胍中的结构稳定化能提高到17.443 kJ/( mol·L-1)。在尿素溶液中结合N-苯基-1-萘胺后的β-乳球蛋白,其稳定化能也从14.250 kJ/( mol·L-1) 提高到17.736 kJ/( mol·L-1) , 与蛋白在盐酸胍溶液中的变化趋于一致。%The stability ofβ-lactoglobulin (β-LG) in guanidine hydrochloride ( GuHCl) acid or nrea solution was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy at room temperature in pH 7. 0 phosphate buffer. The denaturation transition midpoint of β-LG in GuHCl ( Cm) was 2. 3 mol·L-1 , the free energy of stabilization was 14. 051 kJ/( mol·L-1 ) . β-LG can binding N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine ( AN) . Thus, the free energy of stabilization was increased to 17. 443 kJ/( mol·L-1 ) , and it was consistent with the free energies of stabilization of theβ-LG (14. 250 kJ/( mol·L-1 ) ) andβ-LG-AN complex (17. 736 kJ/( mol·L-1 ) ) obtained from urea.

  14. Male Pelvic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Chiec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies.

  15. Male pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiec, Lauren; Verma, Sadhna; Kendler, Ady; Abdel Karim, Nagla

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25478265

  16. Metastases of unknown origin: Principles of diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available DEFINITION Cancer of unknown primary (CUP origin refers to patients who present with histologically confirmed metastatic cancer in whom a detailed medical history, complete physical examination, including pelvic and rectal examination, full blood count and biochemistry, urinalysis and stool occult blood testing, histopathological review of biopsy speimens with the use of immunohistochemistry, chest radiography, computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis, and in certain cases mammography, fail to identify the primary site. EPIDEMIOLOGY of CUP The cancer of unknown primary accounts for 3%-5% of all human cancers. DIAGNOSIS of CUP The standard diagnostic procedure for the majority of patients includes histopathologic review of biopsy specimens with the use of immunohistochemistry, full blood count, routine biochemistry, fecal occult blood testing, urine testing, chest radiography, and computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis. The four common histologic diagnoses are: adenocarcinoma (70%, poorly differentiated carcinoma (20%, squamous carcinoma (10%, and poorly differentiated neoplasms (5%. PROGNOSIS of CUP The prognosis for most patients with unknown primary tumors is poor, with survival often less than 6 months from diagnosis. THERAPY of CUP Based on clinical and pathologic features, approximately 40% of patients can be categorized within subsets for which specific treatment has been defined. Empiric therapy is an option for the remaining 60% of patients. CONCLUSION Metastatic tumors of unknown origin have a unique clinical presentation due to a specific biology. Insight into the molecular biology of unknown primary tumors will be essential for the development of more effective treatments.

  17. Erythropoietin Levels in Elderly Patients with Anemia of Unknown Etiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Gowanlock

    Full Text Available In many elderly patients with anemia, a specific cause cannot be identified. This study investigates whether erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in these cases of "anemia of unknown etiology" and whether this trend persists after accounting for confounders.This study includes all anemic patients over 60 years old who had erythropoietin measured between 2005 and 2013 at a single center. Three independent reviewers used defined criteria to assign each patient's anemia to one of ten etiologies: chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, chronic disease, confirmed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, suspected MDS, vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, anemia of unknown etiology, other etiology, or multifactorial etiology. Iron deficiency anemia served as the comparison group in all analyses. We used linear regression to model the relationship between erythropoietin and the presence of each etiology, sequentially adding terms to the model to account for the hemoglobin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and Charlson Comorbidity Index.A total of 570 patients met the inclusion criteria. Linear regression analysis showed that erythropoietin levels in chronic kidney disease, anemia of chronic disease and anemia of unknown etiology were lower by 48%, 46% and 27%, respectively, compared to iron deficiency anemia even after adjusting for hemoglobin, eGFR and comorbidities.We have shown that erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in anemia of unknown etiology, even after adjusting for confounders. This suggests that decreased erythropoietin production may play a key role in the pathogenesis of anemia of unknown etiology.

  18. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license. PMID:26950055

  19. β-乳球蛋白启动子控制生长激素基因在293细胞中的表达%The Expression of hGH Gene Driven byβ-lactoglobulin Promoter in 293 Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 杨冉; 万鹏; 姚雅楠; 杨国庆

    2015-01-01

    Human growth hormone(hGH)gene driven by bovine beta-lactoglobulin(BLG)promoter in vector pBLGH62 was highly expressed in mammary epithelial cells of transgenic mice. To explore the possibility that the production of hGH would be available in cultured cells,the plasmid pBLGH62 was transfected into embryonic kidney 293 cells for transient expression in the presence or absence of induction by insulin,dexamethasone and prolactin. The results showed that hGH was detected in supernatant,demonstrating that hGH gene expressed in 293 cells and the product secreted outside. However,the effect of hormone induction was compromised. In addition, alternative splicing was observed in the process of hGH gene expression in the cells.%牛β-乳球蛋白(β-lactoglobulin,BLG)启动子控制人生长激素(hGH)基因的表达载体pBLGH62可以在转基因小鼠的乳腺上皮细胞中高效表达。为了探索利用此表达载体在培养的细胞中生产人生长激素的可能性,将pBLGH62转染非乳腺细胞-人胚肾293细胞用胰岛素、地塞米松和催乳素进行诱导。结果显示,在细胞培养液中检测到人生长激素,说明pBLGH62能在293细胞中表达并能分泌到细胞外。但是,激素诱导对表达量的影响不明显。此外,人生长激素基因存在着可变剪接现象。

  20. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps. PMID:27596390

  1. Grasping Unknown Objects in an Early Cognitive Vision System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Mila

    2011-01-01

    presents a system for robotic grasping of unknown objects us- ing stereo vision. Grasps are defined based on contour and surface information provided by the Early Cognitive Vision System, that organizes visual informa- tion into a biologically motivated hierarchical representation. The contributions...... objects can also be used in the search-and-rescue scenarios, planetary exploration, or for the handling of the nuclear material. When a robotic system is perceived as a developing cognitive agent, attaining physical control over objects is a precondition for starting a bootstrapping process in which......Grasping of unknown objects presents an important and challenging part of robot manipulation. The growing area of service robotics depends upon the ability of robots to autonomously grasp and manipulate a wide range of objects in everyday environments. Simple, non task-specific grasps of unknown...

  2. Pax4 Expression does not Transduce Pancreatic Alpha Cells to Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The lack of available beta cells greatly limits the use of beta cell transplantation as a therapy for diabetes. Thus, generation of beta cells from other sources is substantially required. Pax4 has been shown to induce reprograming of alpha cells into beta cells during embryogenesis. Nevertheless, whether expression of Pax4 in adult alpha cells could trigger this alpha-to-beta cell reprogramming is unknown. Methods: Here we generated an adeno-associated virus carrying Pax4 and GFP under a CMV promoter (AAV-Pax4. We used AAV-Pax4 to transduce a mouse alpha cell line in vitro, and to transduce primary alpha cells in diabetic mice. Reprogramming was examined by double immunostaining and by changes in beta cell number. The effects on blood glucose were evaluated by fasting blood glucose and glucose response. Results: In vitro, Pax4 overexpression neither induced insulin expression, nor suppressed glucagon expression in alpha cells. In vivo, Pax4 overexpression failed to increase beta cell number, and did not alter hyperglycemia and glucose response in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Pax4 expression is not sufficient to transduce pancreatic alpha cells into beta cells. Overexpression of Pax4 in alpha cells may not increase functional beta cell number in diabetic patients.

  3. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  4. Xeroradiography in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Tamarozzi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Xeroradiographic investigations of the skull, hand, and elbow were performed on 27 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia. The results were compared with plain radiographic examinations. Xeroradiography, because of its technical properties (i.e. edge contrast enhancement and wide latitude), was shown to demonstrate cortical thinning of long bones, swelling of the diploic space in the skull, and reticulated patterns in the elbow better than standard radiography. Moreover, the use of 'positive' mode imaging was shown to have advantages in the study of the skull and extremities.

  5. Celiac Disease Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Cooney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a common autoimmune enteropathy that occurs, in affected individuals, with exposure to gluten in the diet and improves with removal of dietary gluten. Although CD is readily considered in patients with classical presentations of the disease, atypical manifestations may be the only presenting symptoms. We present a case of CD in a 16-year-old female presenting as fever of unknown origin, which has not been reported previously. The postulated mechanism for fever in CD and the importance of clinicians having a low threshold for considering CD in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and other enigmatic clinical presentations is discussed.

  6. Scheme for teleportation of unknown states of trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Mei-Feng; Ma Song-She

    2008-01-01

    A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped ion system.The scheme only requires a single laser beam.It allows the trap to be in any state with a few phonons,e.g.a thermal motion.Furthermore,it works in the regime,where the Rabi frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency.Thus,the teleportation speed is greatly increased,which is important for decreasing the decoherence effect.This idea can also be used to teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

  7. NOISY OBSERVATION BASED STABILIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION FOR UNKNOWN SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hanfu(Han-Fu Chen)

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses optimization of a performance function which either is optimized via stabilizing and controlling the underlying unknown system or is directly optimized on the basis of its noise-corrupted observations. For the first case the unknown system is identified and then the indirect adaptive control approach is applied to optimize the performance function. For the second case the stochastic approximation method is used to optimize the objective function, and it appears that a number of problems arising from applications may be reduced to the one solvable by this approach. The paper demonstrates some basic results in the area, but with no intention to give a complete survey.

  8. Relativistic pn-QRPA to the double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Claudio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental de Itapeva; Krmpotic, F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas; Carlson, Brett Vern [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In nature there are about 50 nuclear systems where the single beta-decay is energetically forbidden, and double- beta decay turns out to be only possible mode of disintegration. It is the nuclear pairing force which causes such an 'anomaly', by making the mass of the odd-odd isobar, (N - 1;Z + 1), to be greater than the masses of its even-even neighbors, (N;Z) and (N - 2;Z +2). The modes by which the double-beta decay can take place are connected with the neutrino and antineutrino distinction. In case the lepton number is strictly conserved the neutrino is a Dirac fermion and the two-neutrino mode is the only possible mode of disintegration. On the other hand, if this conservation is violated, the neutrino is a Majorana particle and neutrinoless double-beta decay also can occur. Both two-neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decay processes have attracted much attention, because a comparison between experiment and theory for the first, provides a measure of confidence one may have in the nuclear wave function employed for extracting the unknown parameters from neutrinoless lifetime measurements. The proton-neutron (pn) quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) has turned out be the most simple model for calculating the nuclear wave function involved in the double-beta decay transitions. In this work the transition matrix elements for 0{sup +} -> 0{sup +} double-beta decay are calculated for {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Te nuclei, using a relativistic pn-QRPA based on Hartree-Bogoliubov approximation to the single-particle motion. (author)

  9. Double beta decay: present status

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments (including the search for $2\\beta^{+}$, EC$\\beta^{+}$ and ECEC processes) are reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Average and recommended half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay are presented. Conservative upper limits on effective Majorana neutrino mass and the coupling constant of the Majoron to the neutrino are established as $ < 0.75$ eV and $ < 1.9 \\cdot 10^{-4}$, respectively. Proposals fo...

  10. Scintillator based beta batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  11. Beta section Beta: biogeographical patterns of variation and taxonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letschert, J.P.W.

    1993-01-01

    In Chapter 1 an account is given of the historical subdivision of the genus Beta and its sections, and the relations of the sections are discussed. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic treatment of wild section Beta by various authors. The Linnaean names B. vulgaris L. and B. maritima L. are lectotypi

  12. FDG-PET in fever of unknown origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, I.J.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is commonly defined as fever higher than 38.3 degrees C on several occasions during at least 3 weeks with uncertain diagnosis after a number of obligatory tests. FUO remains a clinical challenge as no diagnosis is reached in up to 50% of cases. In general, infection acc

  13. Teleportation of Unknown Atomic Entangled States Using GHZ Class States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose two physical schemes, which can teleport unknown atomic entangled states from user A (Alice) to user B (Bob) via GHZ class states as quantum channel. The two schemes are both based on cavity QED techniques. In the two schemes, teleportation and distillation procedures can be realized simultaneously. The second teleportation scheme is more advantageous than the first one.

  14. Bayesian Compressed Sensing with Unknown Measurement Noise Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Pedersen, Niels Lovmand;

    2013-01-01

    In sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) approximate Bayesian inference is applied to find sparse estimates from observations corrupted by additive noise. Current literature only vaguely considers the case where the noise level is unknown a priori. We show that for most state-of-the-art reconstruction a...

  15. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.; Mitchell, D.F.; Costich, V.R.; Vincent, S.; Thoeni, W.; Casparis, E.; Pfefferkorn, R.; Bartella, J.

    1985-08-15

    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating.

  16. Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Introductory students design and carry-out experimental procedures to determine the identity of three unknown gases from a list of eight possibilities: air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, methane, and hydrogen. Students are excited and motivated by the opportunity to come up with their own experimental approach to solving a…

  17. Pyrexia of Unknown Origin: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, James C., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin is one of the supreme diagnostic challenges in medicine. Most cases are caused by common problems presenting in unusual ways. Infections account for 40%, neoplasms 20% and collagen vascular diseases 15% of cases. Repeated clinical evaluation and individualization in planning investigative procedures are the keys to early diagnosis. Several possible causes of pyrexia are discussed.

  18. Cancer of unknown primitive metastatic. About two clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the two clinical cases about the unknown primitive metastatic cancer. The main techniques used for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of different s carcinomas are: Electronic microscope, molecular biology and genetics, especially histopathological study, topographic survey, ultrasound, radiography, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

  19. Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.

  20. Robust adaptive control of continuous system with unknown deadzone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents an adaptive controller for continuous systems with unknown deadzones and known linear part which consists of an adaptive deadzone inverse to cancel the effects of deadzone and a linear-like control law to track the system output. It concludes from simulation results that this control possesses good robustness and improves the tracking performance of the system.

  1. Territory: An Unknown Quantity in Debates on Territorial Cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2013-01-01

    There are complaints about territorial cohesion being a vague concept, but in relevant debates territory, too, figures as an unknown quantity. Thus, is it the fixed property of any state, region or local administrative unit, or is it a malleable social construct; rather than being filled with bounde

  2. Teleportation of Unknown Superpositions of Collective Atomic Coherent States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG ShiBiao

    2001-01-01

    We propose a scheme to teleport an unknown superposition of two atomic coherent states with different phases. Our scheme is based on resonant and dispersive atom-field interaction. Our scheme provides a possibility of teleporting macroscopic superposition states of many atoms first time.``

  3. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

  4. Vision-based autonomous grasping of unknown piled objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer vision techniques have been used to develop a vision-based grasping capability for autonomously picking and placing unknown piled objects. This work is currently being applied to the problem of hazardous waste sorting in support of the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Operations Program

  5. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  6. TGF-beta Inhibits Ang II-Induced MAPK p44/42 Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Ang II Type 1 Receptor Downregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, Bernadet D. M.; van der Wouden, Els A.; Pelgrom, Vincent; Henning, Robert H.; Sharma, Kumar; Deelman, Leo E.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular changes in diabetes are characterized by reduced vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Previously, we demonstrated that TGF-beta 1 impairs Ang II-induced contraction through reduced calcium mobilization. However, the effect of TGF-beta 1 on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling is unknown.

  7. TGF-beta inhibits Ang II-induced MAPK p44/42 signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells by Ang II type 1 receptor downregulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, B.D.; Wouden, E.A. van der; Pelgrom, V.; Henning, R.H.; Sharma, K.; Deelman, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular changes in diabetes are characterized by reduced vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Previously, we demonstrated that TGF-beta1 impairs Ang II-induced contraction through reduced calcium mobilization. However, the effect of TGF-beta1 on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling is unknown. T

  8. Re-expression of IGF-II is important for beta cell regeneration in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxian Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The key factors which support re-expansion of beta cell numbers after injury are largely unknown. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II plays a critical role in supporting cell division and differentiation during ontogeny but its role in the adult is not known. In this study we investigated the effect of IGF-II on beta cell regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed an in vivo model of 'switchable' c-Myc-induced beta cell ablation, pIns-c-MycER(TAM, in which 90% of beta cells are lost following 11 days of c-Myc (Myc activation in vivo. Importantly, such ablation is normally followed by beta cell regeneration once Myc is deactivated, enabling functional studies of beta cell regeneration in vivo. IGF-II was shown to be re-expressed in the adult pancreas of pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/+ (MIG mice, following beta cell injury. As expected in the presence of IGF-II beta cell mass and numbers recover rapidly after ablation. In contrast, in pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/- (MIGKO mice, which express no IGF-II, recovery of beta cell mass and numbers were delayed and impaired. Despite failure of beta cell number increase, MIGKO mice recovered from hyperglycaemia, although this was delayed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that beta cell regeneration in adult mice depends on re-expression of IGF-II, and supports the utility of using such ablation-recovery models for identifying other potential factors critical for underpinning successful beta cell regeneration in vivo. The potential therapeutic benefits of manipulating the IGF-II signaling systems merit further exploration.

  9. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous...

  10. The best-beta CAPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The issue of 'best-beta' arises as soon as potential errors in the Sharpe-Lintner-Black capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are acknowledged. By incorporating a target variable into the investor preferences, this study derives a best-beta CAPM (BCAPM) that maintains the CAPM's theoretical appeal and

  11. Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta Mediates Acute Illness-Induced Alterations in Central Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boelen; J. Kwakkel; O. Chassande; E. Fliers

    2009-01-01

    Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during lipopolysacchar

  12. CP-Violation in Neutrino Oscillations from EC/{beta}{sup +} decaying ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Catalina [Centre for Theoretical Particle Physics, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-08-15

    We discuss the separation of unknown neutrino properties by means of the energy dependence of the oscillation probability and we consider an hybrid setup which combines the electron capture and the {beta}{sup +} decay from the same radioactive proton-rich ion with the same boost. We conclude that the combination of the two decay channels, with different neutrino energies, achieves remarkable results.

  13. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  14. Beta systems error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  15. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  16. Stabilisation d’émulsions d’intérêt pharmaceutique par des protéines et des polysaccharides : exemples de la β-lactoglobuline, de la gomme arabique et de la gomme xanthane

    OpenAIRE

    Jouanny-Bouyer, Eléonore,

    2011-01-01

    L’objectif de cette étude a été de formuler et caractériser des émulsions simples huile/eau d’intérêt pharmaceutique stabilisées par de la β-lactoglobuline (β-lg), de la gomme arabique (GA), de la gomme xanthane (GX) et des mélanges β-lg:GA et β-lg:GX. Les concentrations massiques totales des dispersions de biopolymères étaient de 1 % et ont été augmentées à 2,5 % si les émulsions formulées n’étaient pas stables. Le mélange β-lg:GA a été réalisé à pH 4,2 afin de permettre la formation de comp...

  17. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  18. β-乳球蛋白-番茄红素自组装分子抗消化性的研究%Study on anti-digestion of self-assembly molecular of β-lactoglobulin-lycopene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔小字; 刘宁

    2012-01-01

    番茄红素是一种脂溶性类胡萝卜素,不溶于水,有显著的抗癌生物活性,但是人体利用率低,不易于被吸收。根据β-乳球蛋白能够结合脂溶性维生素的性质,制备β-乳球蛋白-番茄红素自组装分子,利于人体吸收。并且模拟人体胃肠道条件评价β-乳球蛋白-番茄红素自组装分子的抗消化性。研究表明在胃肠道条件下自组装分子有较强的抗消化性。%Lycopene is fat-soluble carotenoid,which doesn't dissolve in water and has a significant anti-cancer biological activity,but it is low utilization rate of the human body and not easy to be absorbed.Self-assembly molecular of β-lactoglobulin-lycopene was developed,which could be benefit of the body to absorbing lycopene.According to the characteristics of β-lactoglobulin,it was capable of combination with the fat-soluble vitamine,and simulate human gastrointestinal conditions to measure the anti-digestion of the self-assembly molecular.The study showed that the self-assembly molecular had strong anti-digestion under the conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Learning Unknown Structure in CRFs via Adaptive Gradient Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of fitting probabilistic graphical models to the given data when the structure is not known. More specifically, we focus on learning unknown structure in conditional random fields, especially learning both the structure and parameters of a conditional random field model simultaneously. To do this, we first formulate the learning problem as a convex minimization problem by adding an l_2-regularization to the node parameters and a group l_1-regularization to the edge parameters, and then a gradient-based projection method is proposed to solve it which combines an adaptive stepsize selection strategy with a nonmonotone line search. Extensive simulation experiments are presented to show the performance of our approach in solving unknown structure learning problems.

  20. Markov sequential pattern recognition : dependency and the unknown class.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Kevin Thomas; Haschke, Greg Benjamin; Koch, Mark William

    2004-10-01

    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) minimizes the expected number of observations to a decision and can solve problems in sequential pattern recognition. Some problems have dependencies between the observations, and Markov chains can model dependencies where the state occupancy probability is geometric. For a non-geometric process we show how to use the effective amount of independent information to modify the decision process, so that we can account for the remaining dependencies. Along with dependencies between observations, a successful system needs to handle the unknown class in unconstrained environments. For example, in an acoustic pattern recognition problem any sound source not belonging to the target set is in the unknown class. We show how to incorporate goodness of fit (GOF) classifiers into the Markov SPRT, and determine the worse case nontarget model. We also develop a multiclass Markov SPRT using the GOF concept.

  1. Dynamic Modeling from Flight Data with Unknown Time Skews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    A method for estimating dynamic model parameters from flight data with unknown time skews is described and demonstrated. The method combines data reconstruction, nonlinear optimization, and equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain to accurately estimate both dynamic model parameters and the relative time skews in the data. Data from a nonlinear F-16 aircraft simulation with realistic noise, instrumentation errors, and arbitrary time skews were used to demonstrate the approach. The approach was further evaluated using flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft, where the measured data were known to have relative time skews. Comparison of modeling results obtained from time-skewed and time-synchronized data showed that the method accurately estimates both dynamic model parameters and relative time skew parameters from flight data with unknown time skews.

  2. Situation assessment for aggregated vehicle merging at an unknown location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaria, Kanupriya; Das, Suman; Hinman, Michael; Salerno, John; Bai, Li

    2005-05-01

    This paper introduces the merge at a point (MAP) algorithm to detect the vehicles convoys whose destination locations are unknown. The algorithm will predict the merged vehicles identification numbers in an iterative manner. We applied this method using the simulated Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) data. The technique is similar to the dead reckoning and Kalman filtering algorithms. This algorithm consists of following procedures: 1) approximates the destination locations for each vehicle using its tracks, 2) validates what vehicles are going to merge at these predicted destination locations using the minimum error solution (MES), and 3) predicts the future destination locations where the vehicles will be merged at for the next iteration. This algorithm will be iteratively processed until predicted destination locations converge. We can use this algorithm to associate the vehicles that will merge to some unknown destination locations. It also has the potential to identify the convoy names and the threats associated with these vehicle groups.

  3. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Generalized Beta Closed Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta open mappings. We investigate some of their properties. We also introduce intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings as well as intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta open mappings. We provide the relation between intuitionistic fuzzy M-generalized beta closed mappings and intuitionistic fuzzy generalized beta closed mappings.

  4. Inventory control in case of unknown demand and control parameters.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with unknown demand and control parameters in inventory control. Inventory control involves decisions on what to order when and in what quantity. These decisions are based on information about the demand. Models are constructed using complete demand information; these models ensure that a certain service level is achieved. However, in real life the demand information is not known completely. Often, only some historical demand observations are available, and these are used to...

  5. Localized hepatic tuberculosis presenting as fever of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Abreu Ferrari

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Localized hepatic tuberculosis is a rare clinical form of tuberculosis infection; it has signs and symptoms related only to hepatic injury, with minimal or no extrahepatic involvement. It frequently presents as a non-specific syndrome, with systemic manifestations, which can sometimes result in a diagnostic dilemma. A high index of suspicion is required and a definitive diagnosis can be very difficult. We report a case of localized hepatic tuberculosis that presented as fever of unknown origin.

  6. Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location

    OpenAIRE

    Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.

    2013-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for...

  7. [Identification of an exhumed unknown infant through DNA analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp, Eilin; Püschel, Klaus; Warschke, Christian; Kaufmann, Richard; Krebs, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and subsequent DNA analysis of the skeletal remains of an unknown male newborn from 1988. Molecular biological methods confirmed the maternity of a woman who was already convicted of infanticide. Since homicide could not be clearly proven and manslaughter becomes barred by the statute of limitation after 20 years, the woman cannot be held accountable for the alleged killing of her first child. PMID:25004622

  8. Experimental creation of superposition of unknown photonic quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Hu, Meng-Jun; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Liu, Bi-Heng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most intriguing intrinsic properties of quantum world, quantum superposition provokes great interests in its own generation. Oszmaniec [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110403 (2016)] have proven that though a universal quantum machine that creates superposition of arbitrary two unknown states is physically impossible, a probabilistic protocol exists in the case of two input states have nonzero overlaps with the referential state. Here we report a heralded quantum machine realizing superpo...

  9. Territory: An Unknown Quantity in Debates on Territorial Cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Faludi

    2013-01-01

    There are complaints about territorial cohesion being a vague concept, but in relevant debates territory, too, figures as an unknown quantity. Thus, is it the fixed property of any state, region or local administrative unit, or is it a malleable social construct; rather than being filled with bounded territories, does space overall contain a dynamic network with fuzzy internal, as well as external boundaries, with implications for territorial cohesion? After all, if the former were to be true...

  10. An Iterative Method for Extracting Chinese Unknown Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shan; ZHU Jie

    2001-01-01

    An iterative method for extractingunknown words from a Chinese text corpus is pro-posed in this paper. Unlike traditional non-iterativesegmentation-detection approaches, which use onlyknown words for segmentation, the proposed methoditeratively extracts new words and adds them into thelexicon. Then the augmented dictionary, which in-cludes known words and potential unknown words, isused in the next iteration to re-segment the input cor-pus. Experiments show that both the precision andrecall rates of segmentation are improved.

  11. Reconstruction of unknown characteristics in a third-order system

    OpenAIRE

    Keesman, K.; V.I. Maksimov

    2013-01-01

    The article considers dynamic identification of unknown characteristics in a third-order system. A realtime algorithm is proposed for the solution of the problem. The algorithm relies on constructs from stable dynamical inversion theory, which combines methods of the theory of ill-posed problems and positional control theory. In the proposed procedure, the reconstruction algorithm is represented as a control algorithm for some artificial dynamical system - a model. The model control is adapte...

  12. Simulation Results for Manipulation of Unknown Objects in Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiang; Haschke, Robert; Ritter, Helge; Bolder, Bram

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors proposed a novel reactive strategy to solve a unknown object local manipulation problem with an multifingered robot hand. In this method, the micro manipulation assumption is proposed and the object can be manipulated within the robot hand workspace without the active and explicit controlling about the rolling and sliding of the fingertips on the object. A 6 D.O.F reactive controller based on the hybrid of the contact force and the contact posit...

  13. A robot fuzzy motion planning approach in unknown environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yi-li; JIN Bao; LI Han; WANG Shu-guo

    2006-01-01

    A fuzzy robot motion planning approach is proposed in unknown environments for three-degree industrial robots.The proposed planning system is composed of several separate fuzzy units,which control individually each manipulator joint.Each unit combines a repelling influence,which is related to the nearby obstacle,with the attracting influence produced by the final manipulator configuration,to generate actuating command for each link.Effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified through simulation.

  14. Controller Design for Unknown Multivariable Systems Using Monotone Modelling Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, D.H.; Chotai, A

    1981-01-01

    The problem of controller design for an unknown discrete or continuous multivariable system in the frequency domain based on open-loop step response data alone is considered. The approach is based upon the use of simple approximate plant models possessing the property that the resulting error in modelling the plant open-loop step response is both monotonic and sign definite as a function of time.

  15. Mixed Elastico-Plasticity Problems with Partially Unknown Boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study mixed elastico-plasticity problems in which part of the boundary is known, while the other part of the boundary is unknown and is a free boundary. Under certain conditions, this problem can be transformed into a Riemann-Hilbert boundary value problem for analytic functions and a mixed boundary value problem for complex equations. Using the theory of generalized analytic functions, the solvability of the problem is discussed.

  16. Adaptive Stabilization for Nonholonomic Systems with Unknown Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive control strategy for a class of nonholonomic systems in chained form with virtual control coefficients, nonlinear uncertainties, and unknown time delays. State scaling technique and backstepping recursive approach are applied to design a nonlinear state feedback controller, which can guarantee the stabilization of the closed-loop systems. The simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bahcall, Neta [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brinkmann, Jonathan [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Muna, Demitri [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pâris, Isabelle [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, Patrick [Université Paris 6 et CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Streblyanska, Alina [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: nishanta@andrew.cmu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study.

  18. Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

  19. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study

  20. Adaptive Robust Waveform Selection for Unknown Target Detection in Clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Lu Wang; Hong-Qiang Wang; Yu-Liang Qin; Yong-Qiang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    @@@A basic assumption of most recently proposed waveform design algorithms is that the target impulse response is a known deterministic function or a stochastic process with a known power spectral density (PSD). However, it is well-known that a target impulse response is neither easily nor accurately obtained; besides it changes sharply with attitude angles. Both of the aforementioned cases complicate the waveform design process. In this paper, an adaptive robust waveform selection method for unknown target detection in clutter is proposed. The target impulse response is considered to be unknown but belongs to a known uncertainty set. An adaptive waveform library is devised by using a signal-to-clutter-plus-noise ratio (SCNR)- based optimal waveform design method. By applying the minimax robust waveform selection method, the optimal robust waveform is selected to ensure the lowest performance bound of the unknown target detection in clutter. Results show that the adaptive waveform library outperforms the predefined linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveform library on the SCNR bound.

  1. Cholesterol enhances amyloid {beta} deposition in mouse retina by modulating the activities of A{beta}-regulating enzymes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiying [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko, E-mail: k.ohno.oph@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Morita, Ikuo [Section of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cholesterol-treated RPE produces more A{beta} than non-treated RPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neprilysin expression and activity decreased in cholesterol-treated RPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}-Secretase expression and activity decreased in cholesterol-treated RPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cholesterol-enriched diet induced subRPE deposits in aged mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} were present in cholesterol-enriched-diet-induced subRPE deposits in aged mice. -- Abstract: Subretinally-deposited amyloid {beta} (A{beta}) is a main contributor of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the mechanism causing A{beta} deposition in AMD eyes is unknown. Hypercholesterolemia is a significant risk for developing AMD. Thus, we investigated the effects of cholesterol on A{beta} production in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro and in the mouse retina in vivo. RPE cells isolated from senescent (12-month-old) C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 {mu}g/ml cholesterol for 48 h. A{beta} amounts in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Activity and expression of enzymes and proteins that regulate A{beta} production were examined by activity assay and real time PCR. The retina of mice fed cholesterol-enriched diet was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Cholesterol significantly increased A{beta} production in cultured RPE cells. Activities of A{beta} degradation enzyme; neprilysin (NEP) and anti-amyloidogenic secretase; {alpha}-secretase were significantly decreased in cell lysates of cholesterol-treated RPE cells compared to non-treated cells, but there was no change in the activities of {beta}- or {gamma}-secretase. mRNA levels of NEP and {alpha}-secretase (ADAM10 and ADAM17) were significantly lower in cholesterol-treated RPE cells than non-treated cells. Senescent (12-month-old) mice fed cholesterol-enriched chow developed subRPE deposits containing A{beta}, whereas

  2. Effect of beta blockade and beta stimulation on stage fright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantigan, C O; Brantigan, T A; Joseph, N

    1982-01-01

    Stage fright, physiologically the "fight or flight" reaction, is a disabling condition to the professional musician. Because it is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we have investigated the effects of beta blockade on musical performance with propranolol in a double blind fashion and the effects of beta stimulation using terbutaline. Stage fright symptoms were evaluated in two trials, which included a total of 29 subjects, by questionnaire and by the State Trai Anxiety Inventory. Quality of musical performance was evaluated by experienced music critics. Beta blockade eliminates the physical impediments to performance caused by stage fright and even eliminates the dry mouth so frequently encountered. The quality of musical performance as judged by experienced music critics is significantly improved. This effect is achieved without tranquilization. Beta stimulating drugs increase stage fright problems, and should be used in performing musicians only after consideration of the detrimental effects which they may have on musical performance. PMID:6120650

  3. Collective Effect Studies of a Beta Beam Decay Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The Beta Beam, the concept of generating a pure and intense (anti) neutrino beam by letting accelerated radioactive ions beta decay in a storage ring called the Decay Ring (DR), is the basis of one of the proposed next generation neutrino oscillation facilities, necessary for a complete study of the neutrino oscillation parameter space. Sensitivities of the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters depend on the DR's ion intensity and of its duty factor (the filled ratio of the ring). Different methods, including analytical calculations and multiparticle tracking simulations, were used to estimate the DR's potential to contain enough ions in as small a part of the ring as needed for the sensitivities. Studies of transverse blow up of the beams due to resonance wake fields show that a very challenging upper limit of the transverse broadband impedance is required to avoid instabilities and beam loss.

  4. MONDian dynamical modeling of NGC 288 with $\\beta \

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, X; Scarpa, R

    2016-01-01

    NGC 288 is a diffuse Galactic globular cluster, it is remarkable in that its low density results in internal accelerations being below the critical MOND $a_{0}$ acceleration throughout. This makes it an ideal testing ground for MONDian gravity, as the details of the largely unknown transition function between the Newtonian and modified regimes become unimportant. Further, exact analytical solutions exist for isothermal spherical equilibrium structures in MOND, allowing for arbitrary values of the anisotropy parameter, $\\beta$. In this paper we use observations of the velocity dispersion profile of NGC 288, which is in fact isothermal, as dynamical constraints on MONDian models for this cluster, where the remaining free parameters are adjusted to fit the observed surface brightness profile. We find the optimal fit requires $\\beta =0$, an isotropic solution with a total mass of $3.5 \\pm 1.1 \\times 10^{4} M_{\\odot}$.

  5. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  6. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  7. ADAM12 and alpha9beta1 integrin are instrumental in human myogenic cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafuste, Peggy; Sonnet, Corinne; Chazaud, Bénédicte;

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge on molecular systems involved in myogenic precursor cell (mpc) fusion into myotubes is fragmentary. Previous studies have implicated the a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family in most mammalian cell fusion processes. ADAM12 is likely involved in fusion of murine mpc and human...... rhabdomyosarcoma cells, but it requires yet unknown molecular partners to launch myogenic cell fusion. ADAM12 was shown able to mediate cell-to-cell attachment through binding alpha9beta1 integrin. We report that normal human mpc express both ADAM12 and alpha9beta1 integrin during their differentiation. Expression...... of alpha9 parallels that of ADAM12 and culminates at time of fusion. alpha9 and ADAM12 coimmunoprecipitate and participate to mpc adhesion. Inhibition of ADAM12/alpha9beta1 integrin interplay, by either ADAM12 antisense oligonucleotides or blocking antibody to alpha9beta1, inhibited overall mpc fusion...

  8. Maximum Likelihood Localization of Radiation Sources with unknown Source Intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Baidoo-Williams, Henry E

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a novel and robust maximum likelihood approach to localizing radiation sources with unknown statistics of the source signal strength. The result utilizes the smallest number of sensors required theoretically to localize the source. It is shown, that should the source lie in the open convex hull of the sensors, precisely $N+1$ are required in $\\mathbb{R}^N, ~N \\in \\{1,\\cdots,3\\}$. It is further shown that the region of interest, the open convex hull of the sensors, is entirely devoid of false stationary points. An augmented gradient ascent algorithm with random projections should an estimate escape the convex hull is presented.

  9. Adaptive generalized functional synchronization of Chaotic systems with unknown parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dong-Feng; Han Pu

    2008-01-01

    A universal adaptive generalized functional synchronization approach to any two different or identical chaotic systems with unknown parameters is proposed,based on a unified mathematical expression of a large class of chaotic system.Self-adaptive parameter law and control law are given in the form of a theorem.The synchronization between the three-dimensional R(o)ssler chaotic system and the four-dimensional Chen's hyper-chaotic system is studied as an example for illustration.The computer simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the method proposed.

  10. Control of Unknown Chaotic Systems Based on Neural Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDong-Mei; WANGZheng-Ou

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the predictive control into the control of chaotic system and propose a neural network control algorithm based on predictive control. The proposed control system stabilizes the chaotic motion in an unknown chaotic system onto the desired target trajectory. The proposed algorithm is simple and its convergence speed is much higher than existing similar algorithms. The control system can control hyperchaos. We analyze the stability of the control system and prove the convergence property of the neural controller. The theoretic derivation and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  11. Turbo Detection in Rayleigh flat fading channel with unknown statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fortier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The turbo detection of turbo coded symbols over correlated Rayleigh flat fading channels generatedaccording to Jakes’ model is considered in this paper. We propose a method to estimate the channelsignal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the maximum Doppler frequency. These statistics are required bythe linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE channel estimator. To improve the system convergence,we redefine the channel reliability factor by taking into account the channel estimationerror statistics. Simulation results for rate 1=3 turbo code and two different normalized fading ratesshow that the use of the new reliability factor greatly improves the performance. The improvementis more substantial when channel statistics are unknown.

  12. Epipolar image rectification through geometric algorithms with unknown parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Herráez Boquera, José; Denia Rios, José Luís; Navarro Esteve, Pablo José; RODRÍGUEZ PEREÑA, JAIME; MARTÍN SÁNCHEZ, MARÍA TERESA

    2013-01-01

    Herráez Boquera, J., Denia Rios, J.L., Navarro Esteve, P.J., Rodríguez Pereña, J., Martín Sánchez M.T."Epipolar image rectification through geometric algorithms with unknown parameters". JJ. Electron. Imaging. 22(4), 043021 (Dec 02, 2013). © (2013) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or mo...

  13. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly

  14. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms such as headaches, bone or muscle aches, fever, chills, and tiredness during your treatment with peginterferon beta- ... not go away: headache muscle or joint pain fever chills weakness Some side effects can be serious. If ...

  15. Synthesis of Beta Pyridyl Carbinol Tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Shukla

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available A process for the synthesis of Beta pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester starting from quinoline has been developed. Beta-pyridine carboxylic acid ethy1 ester on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride gave Beta-pyridy1 carbinol which on treatment tartaric acid yielded Beta-pyridy1 carbinol tartrate, a vaso dilator known in trade as "Ronicoltartrate".

  16. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  17. Value of panendoscopy in metastases of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neck metastases of unknown origin are metastatic solid tumors with primary undetactable by physical examination, chest x-ray, rutine blood and urine studies and histologic evaluation. Material and methods This study included 77 patients of both sexes, average age 57 years, undergoing a diagnostic procedure at ENT clinic, Clinical Center Novi Sad, in the period from 1992 to 2001. Results The primary tumor was detected in 51% of all cases by panendoscopy and bilateral tonsillectomy. In 14 of 26 patients (54%, in whom the site of the primary tumor was not detected, after telecobalt therapy and radical neck dissection, no relapses occurred. Pathohistological examination revealed planocellular carcinoma in 50 (65% cases, transitional cell carcinoma in 9 (11.7% cases and lymphoma in 7 (9.1% cases. Conclusion Cervical metastases with unknown primary tumor are the first sign of head and neck malignant disease. Panendoscopy with bilateral tonsillectomy and multiple mucosal biopsies are necessary procedures in detecting the primary tumor site. .

  18. CT features of intracranial metastases of unknown primaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial metastases of central nervous system are relatively common in patients with systemic cancer. Computed tomography (CT scans of 60 patients of intracranial metastatic disease of unknown primaries, at the time of surgery, were retrospectively analyzed. These patients primarily presented with neurological dysfunction. They were operated upon for various reasons and histopathological diagnosis was obtained. There were 39 male and 21 female patients, with age range of 18 to 74 years. The common clinical symptoms were raised intracranial pressure without lateralization, acute onset hemiplegia and seizures. Multiple cranial nerve palsies were observed in 4 patients. Histopathologically the intracranial lesions consisted of metastatic adenocarcinoma (32 cases or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (28 cases. Among cases of adenocarcinoma, CT revealed solitary lesions in 17 and multiple lesions in 13 cases. Two had extraaxial deposition in the region of petrous apex. Out of squamous cell carcinomas, 17 lesions were solitary, while 10 were multiple and one had extraaxial deposition in the region of petrous apex. This study is unique as it consisted of CT features of intracranial metastases of unknown primary malignant disease elsewhere in the body.

  19. Data series subtraction with unknown and unmodeled background noise

    CERN Document Server

    Vitale, Stefano; Dolesi, Rita; Ferroni, Valerio; Hueller, Mauro; Vetrugno, Daniele; Weber, William Joseph; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Hewitson, Martin; Korsakova, Natalia; Ferraioli, Luigi; Gibert, Ferran; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Nofrarias, Miquel; Inchauspe, Henri; Plagnol, Eric; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul W; Armano, Michele; Thorpe, James Ira; Wass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), ESA's precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory, will measure the degree to which two test-masses can be put into free-fall, aiming to demonstrate a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below 30 fm/s$^2$/Hz$^{1/2}$ around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the measured relative acceleration data series must be fit to other various measured time series data. This fitting is required in different experiments, from system identification of the test mass and satellite dynamics to the subtraction of noise contributions from measured known disturbances. In all cases, the background noise, described by the PSD of the fit residuals, is expected to be coloured, requiring that we perform such fits in the frequency domain. This PSD is unknown {\\it a priori}, and a high accuracy estimate of this residual acceleration noise is an essential output of our analysis. In this paper we present a fitting method based on Bayesian parameter estimation with an unknown frequ...

  20. Target cell lysis by natural killer cells is influenced by beta 2-microglobulin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllbacher, A; King, N J

    1989-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells form part of the vertebrate defence against viruses and tumours, but show only limited specificity. The molecule(s) recognized by NK cells on target cells are at present unknown. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen concentration on target cells is inversely correlated with NK cell lysis. Here we show that MHC class I-unassociated beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) expression is involved in NK cell-target cell interaction. Two human MHC class I negative cell lines, Daudi and K562, are differentially susceptible to NK cell lysis. Daudi cells are beta 2-m-negative and resistant to NK lysis, K562 are beta 2-m-positive and highly susceptible to lysis by NK cells. Interferon (IFN) treatment augments beta 2-m expression and NK lysis of K562, but not in Daudi cells. NK cell lysis of K562, but not YAC-1 cells, can be inhibited by monoclonal anti-human beta 2-m antibody. Furthermore, susceptibility of mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) to NK lysis can be increased by infection with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the human beta 2-m gene.

  1. Vasodilatory mechanisms of beta receptor blockade.

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Géraldine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Dessy, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Beta-blockers are widely prescribed for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Compared to traditional beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-blockers of the new generation exhibit ancillary properties such as vasodilation through different mechanisms. This translates into a more favorable hemodynamic profile. The relative affinities of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists towards the three beta-adrenoreceptor isotypes matter for predicting their functional impact on vasomotor contro...

  2. Tables of double beta decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyak, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Zdesenko, Y.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of experimental data on double beta decay is presented. The tables contain the most stringent known experimental limits or positive results of 2{beta} transitions of 69 natural nuclides to ground and excited states of daughter nuclei for different channels (2{beta}{sup -}; 2{beta}{sup +}; {epsilon}{beta}{sup +}; 2{epsilon}) and modes (0{nu}; 2{nu}; 0{nu}M) of decay. (authors). 189 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. The GERDA experiment on 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Kai [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The Gerda (Germanium Detector Array) collaboration searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge. The existence of this decay would give rise to the assumption that the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own antiparticle. A measured half-life could be used to determine the effective neutrino mass and hence resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy problem. Germanium diodes, isotopically enriched in {sup 76}Ge, are used as both source and detector. Due to the low rate of this decay (T{sub 1/2}>10{sup 25} y), the experimental background must be reduced to a level of 10{sup -2}counts/(kg y keV) or better in the region around Q{sub {beta}{beta}}. To minimize background from cosmogenically produced secondary particles, a low Z shielding is employed. Thus, the naked diodes are operated in a liquid argon cryostat, which is surrounded by a water tank acting as both passive shield and active muon Cherenkov veto. Gerda started the commissioning runs in 2010 and in November 2011, the first phase of data taking with enriched detectors has begun. In this talk, the first year of the experiment is summarized.

  4. PHYLOGENOMICS - GUIDED VALIDATION OF FUNCTION FOR CONSERVED UNKNOWN GENES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V, DE CRECY-LAGARD; D, HANSON A

    2012-01-03

    Identifying functions for all gene products in all sequenced organisms is a central challenge of the post-genomic era. However, at least 30-50% of the proteins encoded by any given genome are of unknown function, or wrongly or vaguely annotated. Many of these 'unknown' proteins are common to prokaryotes and plants. We accordingly set out to predict and experimentally test the functions of such proteins. Our approach to functional prediction is integrative, coupling the extensive post-genomic resources available for plants with comparative genomics based on hundreds of microbial genomes, and functional genomic datasets from model microorganisms. The early phase is computer-assisted; later phases incorporate intellectual input from expert plant and microbial biochemists. The approach thus bridges the gap between automated homology-based annotations and the classical gene discovery efforts of experimentalists, and is much more powerful than purely computational approaches to identifying gene-function associations. Among Arabidopsis genes, we focused on those (2,325 in total) that (i) are unique or belong to families with no more than three members, (ii) are conserved between plants and prokaryotes, and (iii) have unknown or poorly known functions. Computer-assisted selection of promising targets for deeper analysis was based on homology .. independent characteristics associated in the SEED database with the prokaryotic members of each family, specifically gene clustering and phyletic spread, as well as availability of functional genomics data, and publications that could link candidate families to general metabolic areas, or to specific functions. In-depth comparative genomic analysis was then performed for about 500 top candidate families, which connected ~55 of them to general areas of metabolism and led to specific functional predictions for a subset of ~25 more. Twenty predicted functions were experimentally tested in at least one prokaryotic organism

  5. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-07-26

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  6. Villitis of unknown aetiology: correlation of recurrence with clinical outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeley, L

    2010-01-01

    Villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Consequently, an ability to predict recurrence could be clinically relevant. We examined placentas where villitis was diagnosed in a previous pregnancy to establish the risk of recurrence and outcome. A total of 304 cases of VUA were diagnosed in our laboratory over a 4-year period. Subsequently, 19 of this cohort had a second placenta examined histologically. Recurrence and clinical outcome were recorded. Villitis recurred in 7 of 19 cases (37%). There was a high level of adverse pregnancy outcome in this cohort overall, characterised by small for gestational age infants and stillbirth, particularly in cases with high-grade villitis. We identified recurrent villitis more frequently than previously reported. Our findings confirm an association between high-grade villitis and poor outcome. Adequately powered prospective studies are required to determine if enhanced surveillance of subsequent pregnancies is indicated following a diagnosis of villitis.

  7. CROSS IDENTIFICATION OF STARS WITH UNKNOWN PROPER MOTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross identification of sources in separate catalogs is one of the most basic tasks in observational astronomy. It is, however, surprisingly difficult and generally ill defined. Recently, Budavari and Szalay formulated the problem in the realm of probability theory and laid down the statistical foundations of an extensible methodology. In this paper, we apply their Bayesian approach to stars with detectable proper motion and show how to associate their observations. We study models on a sample of stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which allow for an unknown proper motion per object, and demonstrate the improvements over the analytic static model. Our models and conclusions are directly applicable to upcoming surveys such as PanSTARRS, the Dark Energy Survey, Sky Mapper, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, whose data sets will contain hundreds of millions of stars observed multiple times over several years.

  8. Impact of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Sixty-three consecutive intensive care patients with suspicion of an abscess and negative or inconclusive previous radiological examinations were included. CT was performed using the helical technique. A total of 45 abdominal and 38 chest examinations were evaluated. Results: 5/38 examinations of the chest revealed the source of sepsis (pleural empyema 2, lung abscess 1, mediastinitis 1, retrosternal abscess 1). 7/45 abdominal CT examinations showed the source of sepsis (intraabdominal abscess 2, hepatic abscess 3, intestinal perforation 1, gangrenous colitis 1). Conclusion: CT is useful for the evaluation of patients with fever or sepsis without a known source. Due to the detection of a spetic focus by CT, 19% of the patients in our study could be immediately referred to causal therapy as percutaneous drainage or surgery. (orig.)

  9. Pyrexia of unknown origin: causes, investigation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, R W; Gosbell, I B

    2016-09-01

    Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) is a syndrome that has long tested the skills of physicians to achieve a diagnosis in affected patients. By definition, patients included in this syndrome will be more difficult to diagnose as they have already resisted classification during baseline investigations. Furthermore, investigation of PUO requires knowledge of many diseases across a range of clinical specialties, as well as knowledge of less commonly used investigative tools. As both society and medicine continue to change, the aetiology and epidemiology of the diseases that cause PUO also change. For these reasons, it is important for physicians to approach PUO in a logical manner, and for the causes and approach to PUO to be continuously reviewed. In this article, we review the aetiology of PUO and the diagnostic strategies that may be used to investigate it. PMID:27633467

  10. Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Undersea Vehicle in Unknown Unstructured Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.

  11. Fever of unknown origin - Hidden in the head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kishore Pandita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The original algorithmic approach, as outlined by de Kleijn and colleagues and practiced commonly, envisages performing computed tomography (CT of chest, abdomen, and pelvis in patients with classical fever of unknown origin (FUO, in whom no potentially diagnostic clue exists. It further envisages performing positron emission tomography (PET scan, if CT scan is unrevealing. Imaging of head and neck especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has not been included in this algorithm, that leaves these important regions unexplored in most settings where PET scan is unavailable. MRI is a safe modality for evaluating central nervous system lesions and its role in FUO has not been adequately evaluated. We present three patients of FUO in whom the diagnosis of tuberculoma of brain as a cause of prolonged pyrexia got delayed because the MRI of head was not done initially, to comply with the approach of minimum diagnostic evaluation.

  12. The RHMC algorithm for theories with unknown spectral bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kogut, J B

    2006-01-01

    The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm extends the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm for lattice QCD simulations to situations involving fractional powers of the determinant of the quadratic Dirac operator. This avoids the updating increment ($dt$) dependence of observables which plagues the Hybrid Molecular-dynamics (HMD) method. The RHMC algorithm uses rational approximations to fractional powers of the quadratic Dirac operator. Such approximations are only available when positive upper and lower bounds to the operator's spectrum are known. We apply the RHMC algorithm to simulations of 2 theories for which a positive lower spectral bound is unknown: lattice QCD with staggered quarks at finite isospin chemical potential and lattice QCD with massless staggered quarks and chiral 4-fermion interactions ($\\chi$QCD). A choice of lower bound is made in each case, and the properties of the RHMC simulations these define are studied. Justification of our choices of lower bounds is made by comparing measurements ...

  13. Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied. This is...... accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the actual force(s) applied to the structure. The white noise input(s) and the structures responses are then used to...... identify the compined system. Identification results are then sorted as either structural parameters or input force(s) characteristics....

  14. FPGA Implementation of NLMS Algorithm for Identification of unknown system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Rekha,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a VHDL implementation of a variable step size Least Mean Square (NLMS adaptive algorithm. The envisaged application is the identification of an unknown system. The good convergence of NLMS algorithm has made us to choose it. It also has good stability. Adaptive filtering constitutes one of the core technologies in digital signal processing and finds numerous application areas in science as well as in industry. Adaptive filtering techniques are used in a wide range of applications, including system identification, adaptive equalization, adaptive noise cancellation, wire less communication and echo cancellation. A HDL implementation is developed for a 4th order NLMS adaptive filter. As compared conventional LMS it has been proven that NLMS Algorithm has good behavior. ModelSim simulations results altogether with plots obtained in Matlab prove the same.

  15. Alternate Location Method of a Robot Team in Unknown Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-zhong; LIU Jing-jing

    2008-01-01

    The alternate location method of a robot team is proposed. Three of the robots are kept still as beacon robots, not always the same ones, while the others are regarded as mobile robots. The mobile robots alternatively measure the distance between one of them and three beacon robots with ultrasonic measurement module. The distance data are combined with its dead-reckoning information using iterated extended Kalman filter(IEKF) to realize the optimal estimate of its position. According to the condition the future beacon robots positions should be desired ones, the target function and the nonlinear constrain equations are set up which are used by nonlinear optimization algorithm to estimate the position of the future beacon robots. By alternately changing the robots roles as active beacon, the alternate location in unknown environment can be realized. Process and result of the simulation test are given and the position estimation error is within±10mm, which proves the validity of this method.

  16. Pole assignment for stochastic systems with unknown coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翰馥[1; 曹希仁[2

    2000-01-01

    This paper solves the exact pole assignment problem for the single-input stochastic systems with unknown coefficients under the controllability assumption which is necessary and sufficient for the arbitrary pole assignment for systems with known coefficients. The system noise is required to be mutually independent with zero mean and bounded second moment. Two approaches to solving the problem are proposed: One is the iterative learning approach which can be applied when the state at a fixed time can be repeatedly observed with different feedback gains; the other is the adaptive control approach which works when the trajectories satisfy a nondegeneracy condition. Both methods are essentially based on stochastic approximation, and the feedback gains are recursively given without invoking the certainty-equivalency-principle.

  17. The Difficulty of Sexing Skeletons from Unknown Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sierp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of sex from skeletal remains is performed using a number of methods developed by biological anthropology. They must be evaluated for consistency and for their performance in a forensic setting. Twenty skeletons of varied provenance had their sex determined by 15 existing methods of forensic anthropology (7 metric and 8 morphological. The methods were evaluated for their consistency in determination of sex. No single individual was identified as belonging to one sex exclusively. Ambiguous results were obtained by metric methods for fourteen individuals (70% and by morphological methods for only five individuals (25% (Chi-squared = 4.3, df = 1, P<0.05. Methods which use the size of bones as an indicator of sex perform poorly on skeletal remains of individuals of unknown provenance. Methods which combine morphologic and metric techniques, that is, geometric morphometric analysis, may result in greater levels of consistency.

  18. Analysing Trust Transitivity and The Effects of Unknown Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touhid Bhuiyan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trust can be used to improve online automated recommendation within a given domain. Trust transitivity is used to make it successful. But trust transitivity has different interpretations. Trust and trust transitivity; both are the human mental phenomenon and for this reason, there is no such thing as objective transitivity. Trust transitivity and trust fusion both are important elements in computational trust. This paper analyses the parameter dependence problem in trust transitivity and proposes some definitions considering the effects of base rate. In addition, it also proposes belief functions based on subjective logic to analyse trust transitivity of three specified cases with sensitive and insensitive based rate. Then it presents a quantitative analysis of the effects of unknown dependence problem in an interconnected network environment; such Internet.

  19. Impact of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhausen, J.; Stoeblen, F.; Mueller, R.D. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Dominguez-Fernandez, E. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of General Surgery; Henseke, P. [Nycomed-Amersham Arzneimittel GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Sixty-three consecutive intensive care patients with suspicion of an abscess and negative or inconclusive previous radiological examinations were included. CT was performed using the helical technique. A total of 45 abdominal and 38 chest examinations were evaluated. Results: 5/38 examinations of the chest revealed the source of sepsis (pleural empyema 2, lung abscess 1, mediastinitis 1, retrosternal abscess 1). 7/45 abdominal CT examinations showed the source of sepsis (intraabdominal abscess 2, hepatic abscess 3, intestinal perforation 1, gangrenous colitis 1). Conclusion: CT is useful for the evaluation of patients with fever or sepsis without a known source. Due to the detection of a spetic focus by CT, 19% of the patients in our study could be immediately referred to causal therapy as percutaneous drainage or surgery. (orig.)

  20. Phase shift estimation in interferograms with unknown phase step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, Oscar; Rivera, Mariano; Gonzalez, Adonai

    2016-08-01

    We first present two closed formulas for computing the phase shift in interferograms with unknown phase step. These formulas obtain theoretically the exact phase step in fringe pattern without noise and only require the information in two pixels of the image. The previous formulas allows us to define a functional that yields an estimate of the phase step in interferograms corrupted by noise. In the experiment we use the standard Least Square formulation which also yields a closed formula, although the general formulation admits a robust potential. We provide two possible implementations of our approach, one in which the sites can be randomly selected and the other in which we can scan the whole image. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm presents the best results compared with state of the art algorithms.

  1. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  2. A Brief Introduction on Mystery, the Unknown, Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this age of globalization, this age of so many ways to know—and so many ways to know things so quickly—it is both satisfying and deeply unnerving to come upon things and events that are really hard to understand, things and events so shocking or strange or mysterious, that they seem Unknown. Perhaps even unknowable. The first note of NANO Issue 2 focuses on an unsolved murder and reveals a mystery that is confounding, creepy, and yet oddly compelling. In “Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age,” Jeremy Biles and Brian Collins explore the edges of where cyber-crime threatens to turn real—and vice versa. In the second note, Jennifer Ballengee compares Oedipus at Colonus with Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.

  3. Cancer of unknown primary origin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa De Carlo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP accounts for 2-10% of all malignancies. The apparent absence of the primary tumour, the development of early, uncommon systemic metastases and the resistance to therapy and poor prognosis are hallmarks of this heterogeneous clinical entity and are a challenge for physicians. The diagnostic workup of patients with CUP includes a large amount of histopathological examination, as well as the use of imaging techniques that often fail to identify the primary tumour. Therefore, the optimal workup and treatment for these patients remains to be determined. Molecular diagnostic tools, such as DNA microarray analysis, could help in the search for "lost" CUP origin and guide the further treatment approach. We report the case of a 66-year-old man, with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis of carcinoma and neurological syndrome with diplopia and balance disorders, in which many exams have been performed without finding the primary tumour.

  4. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  5. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  6. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  7. Detection of Unknown Primary Tumors Using Whole Body FDG PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJun; LINXiangtong; GUANYihui; ZUOChuantao; HUAFengchun; SHENGXiaofang; WANGYang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in locating occult primary lesions. Methods: 50 patients with varying hetero-geneous metastases of unknown primary origin were referred for FDG PET. The locations of the known metastatic tumor manifestations were distributed as follows: cervical lymph nodes metastases (n=18),skeletal metastases (n=15), cerebral metastases (n=12), others (n=5). All patients underwent whole body 18F-FDG PET imaging. The images were interpreted by visual inspection and semi-quantitative analysis(standardized uptake value, SUV). The patients had undergone conventional imaging within 2 weeks of FDG PET. Surgical, clinical and histopathologic findings were used to assess the performance of FDG PET.Results: FDG PET was able to detect the location of the primary tumor in 32/50 patients (64%). The primary tumors were proved by histopathologic results, and located in the lungs (n=17), the nasopharynx(n=9), the breast (n=2), the ovary (n=l), the colon(n=l), the prostate(n=l),the thyroid (n=l). FDG PET were proved false positive in 2 patients (4%), and the suspicious primary tumors were in uterus and colon respectively. During the clinical follow-up of 2 to 26 months, the primary tumor was found in only 2 patients ( prostate cancer, gastric cancer). Conclusion: PET imaging allows identification of the primary site and metastatic lesions(including bone and soft tissue metastases) at a single examination.Whole body lSF-FDG PET allows effective localization of the unknown primary site of origin and can contribute substantially to patient care.

  8. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmfeldt, Karin [University of Arizona; Solonenko, Natalie [University of Arizona; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Corrier, Kristen L [ORNL; Riemann, Lasse [University of Copenhagen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  9. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing. PMID:23858439

  10. Altamira cave Paleolithic paintings harbor partly unknown bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2002-05-21

    Since it has been reported that microorganisms can affect painting pigments, Paleolithic painting microbiology deserves attention. The present study is the first report on the bacterial colonization of the valuable Paleolithic paintings in the famous Altamira cave (Spain). One sample taken from a painting area in the Polychromes Hall was analyzed culture-independently. This was the first time microbiologists were allowed to take sample material directly from Altamira paintings. Identification methods included PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The applied approach gave insight into a great bacterial taxonomic diversity, and allowed the detection of unexpected and unknown bacteria with potential effects on the conservation of the painting. Regarding the number of 29 visible DGGE bands in the community fingerprint, the numbers of analyzed clones described about 72% of the phylogenetic diversity present in the sample. Thirty-eight percent of the sequences analyzed were phylogenetically most closely related to cultivated bacteria, while the majority (62%) were most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones. Bacteria identified in Altamira were related with sequence similarities between 84.8 and 99.4% to members of the cosmopolitan Proteobacteria (52.3%), to members of the Acidobacterium division (23.8%), Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides phylum (9.5%), green non-sulfur bacteria (4.8%), Planctomycetales (4.8%) and Actinobacteria (4.8%). The high number of clones most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones showed the broad spectrum of unknown and yet to be cultivated bacteria in Altamira cave. PMID:12052543

  11. Beta-2-Microglobulin in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Goines

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m, a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16 but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 months. We found no statistically significant differences in plasma ß 2m levels between groups. Therefore, plasma levels of ß2m measured in early childhood in autism may not reflect changes in MHC class I in autism.

  12. Cerebral oxygenation decreases during exercise in humans with beta-adrenergic blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T.; Rasmussen, P.; Secher, Niels H.;

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Beta-blockers reduce exercise capacity by attenuated increase in cardiac output, but it remains unknown whether performance also relates to attenuated cerebral oxygenation. METHODS: Acting as their own controls, eight healthy subjects performed a continuous incremental cycle test to exhaustion...... with or without administration of the non-selective beta-blocker propranolol. Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity were measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound and those in cerebral oxygenation were evaluated using near-infrared spectroscopy and the calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen...

  13. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  14. Mechanism of inactivation of alanine racemase by beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alanine racemases are a group of PLP-dependent bacterial enzymes that catalyze the racemization of alanine, providing D-alanine for cell wall synthesis. Inactivation of the alanine racemases from the Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive organism Bacillus stearothermophilus with beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine has been studied. The inactivation occurs with the same rate constant as that for formation of a broad 460-490-nm chromophore. Loss of two fluoride ions per mole of inactivated enzyme and retention of [1-14C]trifluoroalanine label accompany inhibition, suggesting a monofluoro enzyme adduct. Partial denaturation (1 M guanidine) leads to rapid return of the initial 420-nm chromophore, followed by a slower (t1/2 approximately 30 min-1 h) loss of the fluoride ion and 14CO2 release. At this point, reduction by NaB3H4 and tryptic digestion yield a single radiolabeled peptide. Purification and sequencing of the peptide reveals that lysine-38 is covalently attached to the PLP cofactor. A mechanism for enzyme inactivation by trifluoroalanine is proposed and contrasted with earlier results on monohaloalanines, in which nucleophilic attack of released aminoacrylate on the PLP aldimine leads to enzyme inactivation. For trifluoroalanine inactivation, nucleophilic attack of lysine-38 on the electrophilic beta-difluoro-alpha, beta-unsaturated imine provides an alternative mode of inhibition for these enzymes

  15. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  16. Use of AWCC in evaluation of unknown fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important technological problem in the sphere of non-proliferation and safeguards is nondestructive analysis (NDA) methodology for qualitative and quantitative characterization of nuclear materials. Additionally, NDA tends to be labor and time intensive. Two NDA techniques used at KIPT included Gamma Spectroscopy (for qualitative analysis) and Neutron activation (for quantitative analysis). Gamma Spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of radionuclides within the samples, whereas an Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) in the active mode was used to quantitatively determine the 235U content in particular types of fissile materials at KIPT. This paper describes the usage of the AWCC at NSC KIPT for characterizing nuclear materials for IAEA safeguards. It was also an opportunity to estimate fissile materials of unknown composition. The equipment used was a model JCC-51 AWCC using a shift register model JSR-12 from Canberra and two neutron sources [AN-HP (241AmLi)]. A Compaq Presario computer using Windows version of NCC (Los Alamos software) was used to operate the AWCC. Materials studied in this project included highly enriched nuclear material in the form of powder, compacts (tablets, microspheres, rods), salt and scrap. The chemical composition of nuclear material included uranium metal, uranium dioxide, uranium nitride, uranium carbonitride, thorium dioxide, and mixtures of these compounds. New standards were used to recalibrate the AWCC using material obtained at KIPT with documented compositional values more similar to the materials to be measured, and in similar containers as well. During this study, the AWCC calibration curves were obtained for uranium metal and uranium dioxide with different enrichments up to 90 % for 235U. A broad spectrum of other fissile materials of unknown composition with differing enrichments has also been studied, and the items' isotopic and quantitative compositions have also been determined. Using the new calibration

  17. Clinicopathological study on TTV infection in hepatitis of unknown etiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Jie Hu; Zhen-Wei Lang; Yu-Sen Zhou; Hui-Ping Yan; De-Zhuang Huang; Wan-Rong Chen; Zhao-Xia Luo

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the state of infection, replication site,pathogenicity and clinical significance of transfusiontransmitted virus (TTV) in patients with hepatitis, especiallyin patients of unknown etiology.METHODS: Liver tissues taken from 136 cases of non-A non-G hepatitis were tested for Tr virus antigen and nucleic acidby in situ hybridization (ISH) and nested-polymerase chainreaction (PCR). Among them, TT virus genome and itscomplemental strand were also detected in 24 cases ofautopsy liver and extrahepatic tissues with ISH. Meanwhile,TTV DNA was detected in the sera of 187 hepatitis patientsby nested-PCR. The pathological and clinical data of thecases infected with nv only were analyzed.RESULTS: In liver, the total positive rate of rrv DNA was32.4 % and the positive signals were located in the nuclei ofhepatocytes. In serus, rrv DNA was detected in 21. 4 %cases of hepatitis A-G, 34.4 % of non-A non-G hepatitis and15 % of healthy donors. The correspondence rate of lrvDNA detection between liver tissue with ISH and sera withPCR was 63.2 % and 89.3 % in the same liver tissues by ISHand by PCR, respectively. Using double-strand probes andsingle-strand probes designed to detect TTV genome, thecorrespondence rate of Trv DNA detected in liver andextrahepatic tissues was 85. 7 %. Using single-strandprobes, TTV genome could he detected in liver andextrahepatic tissues by PCR, but its complemental strands(replication strands) could be observed only in livers. Theliver function of most cases infected with TTV alone wasabnormal and the liver tissues had different pathologicaldamage such es ballooning, acidophilia degeneration,formation of apoptosis bodies and focus of necrosis, but the inflammation in the Iobule and portal area was mild.CONCLUSION: The positive rate of TTV DNA among cases ofhepatitis was higher than that of donors, especially inpatients with nonA non-G hepatitis, but most of them werecoinfected with other hepatitis viruses. Lrv can infect notonly

  18. A combined beta-beam and electron capture neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Orme, C; Palomares-Ruiz, S; Pascoli, S

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of long baseline neutrino experiments will aim at determining the value of the unknown mixing angle, theta_{13}, the type of neutrino mass hierarchy and the presence of CP-violation in the lepton sector. Beta-beams and electron capture experiments have been studied as viable candidates for long baseline experiments. They use a very clean electron neutrino beam from the beta-decays or electron capture decays of boosted ions. In the present article we consider an hybrid setup which combines a beta-beam with an electron capture beam by using boosted Ytterbium ions. We study the sensitivity to the CP-violating phase delta and the theta_{13} angle, the CP-discovery potential and the reach to determine the type of neutrino mass hierarchy for this type of long baseline experiment. The analysis is performed for different neutrino beam energies and baselines. Finally, we also discuss how the results would change if a better knowledge of some of the assumed parameters was achieved by the time this e...

  19. Exploration for Agents with Different Personalities in Unknown Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    We present in this paper a personality-based architecture (PA) that combines elements from the subsumption architecture and reinforcement learning to find alternate solutions for problems facing artificial agents exploring unknown environments. The underlying PA algorithm is decomposed into layers according to the different (non-contiguous) stages that our agent passes in, which in turn are influenced by the sources of rewards present in the environment. The cumulative rewards collected by an agent, in addition to its internal composition serve as factors in shaping its personality. In missions where multiple agents are deployed, our solution-goal is to allow each of the agents develop its own distinct personality in order for the collective to reach a balanced society, which then can accumulate the largest possible amount of rewards for the agent and society as well. The architecture is tested in a simulated matrix world which embodies different types of positive rewards and negative rewards. Varying experiments are performed to compare the performance of our algorithm with other algorithms under the same environment conditions. The use of our architecture accelerates the overall adaptation of the agents to their environment and goals by allowing the emergence of an optimal society of agents with different personalities. We believe that our approach achieves much efficient results when compared to other more restrictive policy designs.

  20. Crowdsourcing the unknown: the satellite search for Genghis Khan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Y M Lin

    Full Text Available Massively parallel collaboration and emergent knowledge generation is described through a large scale survey for archaeological anomalies within ultra-high resolution earth-sensing satellite imagery. Over 10K online volunteers contributed 30K hours (3.4 years, examined 6,000 km², and generated 2.3 million feature categorizations. Motivated by the search for Genghis Khan's tomb, participants were tasked with finding an archaeological enigma that lacks any historical description of its potential visual appearance. Without a pre-existing reference for validation we turn towards consensus, defined by kernel density estimation, to pool human perception for "out of the ordinary" features across a vast landscape. This consensus served as the training mechanism within a self-evolving feedback loop between a participant and the crowd, essential driving a collective reasoning engine for anomaly detection. The resulting map led a National Geographic expedition to confirm 55 archaeological sites across a vast landscape. A increased ground-truthed accuracy was observed in those participants exposed to the peer feedback loop over those whom worked in isolation, suggesting collective reasoning can emerge within networked groups to outperform the aggregate independent ability of individuals to define the unknown.

  1. Information Dissemination in Unknown Radio networks with Large Labels

    CERN Document Server

    Vaya, Shailesh

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problems of deterministic broadcasting and gossiping in completely unknown ad-hoc radio networks. We assume that nothing is known to the nodes about the topology or even the size of the network, $n$, except that $n > 1$. Protocols for vanilla model, when $n$ is known, may be run for increasingly larger estimates $2^i$ on the size of the network, but one cannot determine when such a protocol should terminate. Thus, to carry this design paradigm, successful completion or in-completion of the process should be detected, and this knowledge circulated in the network. We consider the problem of deterministic Acknowledged Broadcasting and Gossiping when nodes can take polynomially large labels. For the above setting, we present the following results for strongly connected networks: (a) A deterministic protocol for acknowledged broadcasting which takes $NRG(n,n^c)$ rounds, where $NRG(n,n^c)$ is the round complexity of deterministic gossiping for vanilla model. (b) A deterministic protocol for acknowle...

  2. Crowdsourcing the unknown: the satellite search for Genghis Khan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, A Y M; Lin, Albert Yu-Min; Huynh, Andrew; Lanckriet, Gert; Barrington, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Massively parallel collaboration and emergent knowledge generation is described through a large scale survey for archaeological anomalies within ultra-high resolution earth-sensing satellite imagery. Over 10K online volunteers contributed 30K hours (3.4 years), examined 6,000 km², and generated 2.3 million feature categorizations. Motivated by the search for Genghis Khan's tomb, participants were tasked with finding an archaeological enigma that lacks any historical description of its potential visual appearance. Without a pre-existing reference for validation we turn towards consensus, defined by kernel density estimation, to pool human perception for "out of the ordinary" features across a vast landscape. This consensus served as the training mechanism within a self-evolving feedback loop between a participant and the crowd, essential driving a collective reasoning engine for anomaly detection. The resulting map led a National Geographic expedition to confirm 55 archaeological sites across a vast landscape. A increased ground-truthed accuracy was observed in those participants exposed to the peer feedback loop over those whom worked in isolation, suggesting collective reasoning can emerge within networked groups to outperform the aggregate independent ability of individuals to define the unknown. PMID:25549335

  3. Physics at 13 TeV: CMS - scanning the unknown

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    CMS is getting ready to use its accurate detector to scan the many ripples of the unknown physics that may lie beyond the Standard Model. Foremost in everyone’s mind is the search for signs of the production of dark matter at a man-made machine.   Interestingly, the observation of dark matter or new weakly interacting particles implies detecting that some energy has escaped, i.e. it’s missing from the upcoming proton collisions at the LHC. This is why measuring and understanding “missing energy” will be a very important step in that direction. “A large amount of missing energy is the signature for many processes of physics beyond the Standard Model. However, it’s not the only interesting signature that we will be able to exploit when the new collision energy is available,” explains Luca Malgeri, CMS Physics Coordinator. Among the interesting things not associated with missing energy are high-mass resonanc...

  4. Use of AWCC in evaluation of unknown fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important technological problem in the sphere of non-proliferation and safeguards is nondestructive analysis (NDA) methodology for qualitative and quantitative characterization of nuclear materials. Additionally, NDA tends to be labor and time intensive. Two NDA techniques used at KIPT included Gamma Spectroscopy (for qualitative analysis) and Neutron activation (for quantitative analysis). Gamma Spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of radionuclides within the samples, whereas an Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) in the active mode was used to quantitatively determine the 235U content in particular types of fissile materials at KIPT. This paper describes the usage of the AWCC at NSG KIPT for characterizing nuclear materials for IAEA safeguards. It was also an opportunity to estimate fissile materials of unknown composition. The equipment used was a model JCC-51 AWCC using a shift register model JSR-12 from Canberra and two neutron sources [AN-HP (241ArnLi)]. A Compaq Presario computer using Windows version of NCC (Los Alamos software) was used to operate the AWCC. Materials studied in this project included highly enriched nuclear material in the form of powder, compacts (tablets, microspheres, rods), salt and scrap. The chemical composition of nuclear material included uranium metal, uranium dioxide, uranium nitride, uranium carbonitride, thorium dioxide, and mixtures of these compounds. Scrap consisted of uranium and impurities of hydrocarbons, carbon, silicon, tungsten, etc

  5. Characterizing Villitis of Unknown Etiology and Inflammation in Stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derricott, Hayley; Jones, Rebecca L; Greenwood, Susan L; Batra, Gauri; Evans, Margaret J; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2016-04-01

    Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) is an enigmatic inflammatory condition of the placenta associated with fetal growth restriction and stillbirth. Greater understanding of this condition is essential to understand its contribution to adverse outcomes. Our aim was to identify and quantify the cells in VUE in cases of stillbirth and to characterize immune responses specific to this condition. Immunohistochemistry was performed on placentas from stillborn infants whose cause of death was recorded as VUE to identify CD45(+) leukocytes, CD163(+) macrophages, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Images were quantified with HistoQuest software. CD45(+) leukocytes comprised 25% of cells in VUE lesions: macrophages (12%) and CD4 T cells (11%) being predominant cell types; CD8 T cells were observed in all lesions. Leukocytes and macrophages were increased throughout the placenta in stillbirths; pan-placental CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells outside VUE lesions were increased in stillbirth with VUE. There was increased IL-2 and IL-12 and reduced IL-4 immunostaining in VUE lesions. Our results suggest VUE in stillbirth has a similar immune cell profile to live birth. Pan-placental macrophages, CD4 and CD8 T cells indicate a wider inflammatory response unrestricted to VUE lesions. The cytokine profile observed suggests a skew towards inappropriate Th1 immune responses. Full characterisation VUE lesion phenotype confirms its immunological origins and provides foundations to develop novel investigations. PMID:26851347

  6. Detection and Prevention of New and Unknown Malware using Honeypots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Kumar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Security has become ubiquitous in every domain today as newly emerging malware pose an ever-increasing perilous threat to systems. Consequently, honeypots are fast emerging as an indispensible forensic tool for the analysis of malicious network traffic. Honeypots can be considered to be traps for hackers and intruders and are generally deployed complimentary to Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS in a network. They help system administrators perform a rigorous analysis of external and internal attacks on their networks. They are also used by security firms and research labs to capture the latest variants of malware. However, honeypots would serve a slightly different purpose in our proposed system. We intend to use honeypots for generating and broadcasting instant cures for new and unknown malware in a network. The cures which will be in the form of on-the-fly anti-malware signatures would spread in a fashion that is similar to the way malware spreads across networks. The most striking advantage of implementing this technology is that an effective initial control can be exercised on malware. Proposed system would be capable of providing cures for new fatal viruses which have not yet been discovered by prime security firms of the world.

  7. Detection and Prevention of New and Unknown Malware using Honeypots

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shishir

    2009-01-01

    Security has become ubiquitous in every domain today as newly emerging malware pose an ever-increasing perilous threat to systems. Consequently, honeypots are fast emerging as an indispensible forensic tool for the analysis of malicious network traffic. Honeypots can be considered to be traps for hackers and intruders and are generally deployed complimentary to Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) in a network. They help system administrators perform a rigorous analysis of external and internal attacks on their networks. They are also used by security firms and research labs to capture the latest variants of malware. However, honeypots would serve a slightly different purpose in our proposed system. We intend to use honeypots for generating and broadcasting instant cures for new and unknown malware in a network. The cures which will be in the form of on-the-fly anti-malware signatures would spread in a fashion that is similar to the way malware spreads across networks. The ...

  8. George Augustus Linhart - as a "widely unknown" thermodynamicist

    CERN Document Server

    Starikov, E B

    2011-01-01

    The name of George Augustus Linhart is in fact "widely unknown". In effect, he was a Viennese-born USA-American physicist-chemist, partially associated with the Gilbert Newton Lewis' school of thermodynamics at the University of California in Berkeley. As a lone small boy, he had arrived (from Austria via Hamburg) at New York in 1896, but was officially USA-naturalized only in 1912. He was able to pick up English in the streets of New York and Philadelphia, when occasionally working as a waiter and/or as a tailor - just to somehow survive. But, nonetheless, he could successfully graduate a high school in about one year - and then went to the universities for his further education. After obtaining his BS from the University of Pennsylvania, he could manage getting both MA and then PhD from the Yale University, Kent Chemical Laboratory. George Augustus Linhart was afterwards definitely able to successfully work out the true foundations of thermodynamics and could thus outdistance many famous thermodynamicists o...

  9. Neutrino masses and mixings: Status of known and unknown $3\

    CERN Document Server

    Capozzi, F; Marrone, A; Montanino, D; Palazzo, A

    2016-01-01

    Within the standard 3nu mass-mixing framework, we present an up-to-date global analysis of neutrino oscillation data (as of January 2016), including the latest available results from experiments with atmospheric neutrinos (Super-Kamiokande and IceCube DeepCore), at accelerators (first T2K anti-nu and NOvA nu runs in both appearance and disappearance mode), and at short-baseline reactors (Daya Bay and RENO far/near spectral ratios), as well as a reanalysis of older KamLAND data in the light of the "bump" feature recently observed in reactor spectra. We discuss improved constraints on the five known oscillation parameters (delta m^2, |Delta m^2|, sin^2theta_12, sin^2theta_13, sin^2theta_23), and the status of the three remaining unknown parameters: the mass hierarchy, the theta_23 octant, and the possible CP-violating phase delta. With respect to previous global fits, we find that the reanalysis of KamLAND data induces a slight decrease of both delta m^2 and sin^2theta_12, while the latest accelerator and atmos...

  10. Fever in Children and Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Agarwal, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    Fever is the most common symptom in children and can be classified as fever with or without focus. Fever without focus can be less than 7 d and is subclassified as fever without localizing signs and fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO is defined as a temperature greater than 38.3 °C, for more than 3 wk or failure to reach a diagnosis after 1 wk of inpatient investigations. The most common causes of FUO in children are infections, connective tissue disorders and neoplasms. Infectious diseases most commonly implicated in children with FUO are salmonellosis, tuberculosis, malaria and rickettsial diseases. Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the connective tissue disease frequently associated with FUO. Malignancy is the third largest group responsible for FUO in children. Diagnostic approach of FUO includes detailed history and examination supported with investigations. Age, history of contact, exposure to wild animals and medications should be noted. Examination should include, apart from general appearance, presence of sweating, rashes, tonsillitis, sinusitis and lymph node enlargement. Other signs such as abdominal tenderness and hepatosplenomegly should be looked for. The muscles and bones should be carefully examined for connective tissue disorders. Complete blood count, blood smear examination and level of acute phase reactants should be part of initial investigations. Radiological imaging is useful aid in diagnosing FUO. Trials of antimicrobial agents should not be given as they can obscure the diagnosis of the disease in FUO. PMID:25724501

  11. DGGE-based detection method for Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, R J; Cushman, E; Moran, D M; Uhlinger, K R; Leavitt, D; Smolowitz, R

    2006-06-12

    Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) is a significant cause of hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria mortality along the northeast coast of the United States. It infects both wild and cultured clams, often annually in plots that are heavily farmed. Subclinically infected clams can be identified by histological examination of the mantle tissue, but there is currently no method available to monitor the presence of QPX in the environment. Here, we report on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method that will facilitate the detection of QPX in natural samples and seed clams. With our method, between 10 and 100 QPX cells can be detected in 1 l of water, 1 g of sediment and 100 mg of clam tissue. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is used to establish whether the PCR products are the same as those in the control QPX culture. We used the method to screen 100 seed clams of 15 mm, and found that 10 to 12% of the clams were positive for the presence of the QPX organism. This method represents a reliable and sensitive procedure for screening both environmental samples and potentially contaminated small clams. PMID:16875398

  12. Environmental distribution and persistence of Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Rebecca J; Moran, Dawn M; Audemard, Corinne; Lyons, M Maille; DeFavari, Jackie; Reece, Kimberly S; Leavitt, Dale; Smolowitz, Roxanna

    2008-09-24

    Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX) is the cause of mass mortality events of hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria from Virginia, USA, to New Brunswick, Canada. Aquaculture areas in Massachusetts, USA, have been particularly hard hit. The parasite has been shown to be a directly infective organism, but it is unclear whether it could exist or persist outside of its clam host. We used molecular methods to examine water, sediment, seaweeds, seagrass and various invertebrates for the presence of QPX. Sites in Virginia and Massachusetts were selected based upon the incidence of QPX-induced clam die-offs, and they were monitored seasonally. QPX was detectable in almost all of our different sample types from Massachusetts, indicating that the parasite was widely distributed in the environment. Significantly more samples from Massachusetts were positive than from Virginia, and there was a seasonal pattern to the types of samples positive from Massachusetts. The data suggest that, although it may be difficult to completely eradicate QPX from the environment, it may be possible to keep the incidence of disease under control through good plot husbandry and the removal of infected and dying clams. PMID:18998586

  13. Territory: An Unknown Quantity in Debates on Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are complaints about territorial cohesion being a vague concept, but in relevant debates territory, too, figures as an unknown quantity. Thus, is it the fixed property of any state, region or local administrative unit, or is it a malleable social construct; rather than being filled with bounded territories, does space overall contain a dynamic network with fuzzy internal, as well as external boundaries, with implications for territorial cohesion? After all, if the former were to be true, territorial cohesion would refer to qualities of what is inside bounded territories. If it were to be the latter, then the meaning of territorial cohesion would include qualities of the relations within a complex network of socially constructed, sometimes ephemeral constructs. There are implications for the ways subsidiarity and multi-level governance are invoked in EU discourse where there is a similar failure to question the underlying notion of territory. What is relevant here is the distinction between a ‘territorial’ and ‘relational’ geography. Considered opinion suggests that these alternatives can and, in view of the persistence of the principle of territorial representation, must be reconciled. However, though firmly entrenched, some constitutional theorists question the very principle. The debate is far from conclusive but at least it shows that discussion, even of this apparently fundamental principle is possible.

  14. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Rose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres.

  15. Metabolome profiling to understand the defense response to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG 2-2 IIIB, is an important disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular processes that mediate sugar beet resistance to R. solani are largely unknown and identifying the metabolites associated with R. solani infection ma...

  16. Detection of Rare Beta Globin Gene Mutations in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent molecular studies on Iranian β-thalassemia genes revealed the presence of eight common mutations associated with thalassemia. Although these mutations are frequent, there are other rare and unknown mutations that can create large problems in designing preventive programs. We detected and explained the common mutations in north-western Iran previously and detection of the rare and unknown mutations could be useful in diagnosis and design of future preventive programs. Methods: In this study, 5ml peripheral blood from 20 Azari- β-thalassemia patients whose mutation was not revealed in the previous study was collected and DNA extraction was done by isopropanol and proteinase k method. Initially, samples were examined for the rare mutations: Codon6, Codon16, Codon41/42, Codon36/37, -88 and Codon22 by ARMS – PCR techniques and then the unknown cases were directly sequenced. Results: According to our results, Codon15(TGG-TGA, Codon16(-C, Codon36/37(-T, IVSII-848(C-A, IVSII-745(C-G, -28(A-C( and Codon25/26(+T were recognized and added to the spectrom of beta globin gene mutations in Azerbaijan and Iran. Also, we detected four SNP sites: 5’UTR+20(C-T, Codon2 (CAC-CAT , IVSII-16(C-G and IVSII-666(T-C in β-thalassemia genes. Conclusion: Our results could be useful for developing molecular screening plans and help prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassemia in Azerbaijan , Iran and other neighboring countries.

  17. Novel anthracycline-spacer-beta-glucuronide, -beta-glucoside, and -beta-galactoside prodrugs for application in selective chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, RGG; Damen, EWP; Bijsterveld, EJA; Scheeren, HW; Houba, PHJ; van der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Boven, E; Haisma, HJ

    1999-01-01

    A series of anthracycline prodrugs containing an immolative spacer was synthesized for application in selective chemotherapy. The prodrugs having the general structure anthracycline-spacer-beta-glycoside were designed to be activated by beta-glucuronidase or beta-galactosidase. Prodrugs with -chloro

  18. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  19. Beta Cell Workshop 2013 Kyoto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R Scott; Madsen, Ole D; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2013-01-01

    The very modern Kyoto International Conference Center provided the site for the 8th workshop on Beta cells on April 23-26, 2013. The preceding workshops were held in Boston, USA (1991); Kyoto, Japan (1994); Helsingør, Denmark (1997); Helsinki, Finland (2003); El Perello, Spain (2006); Peebles...

  20. Magnetron-sputter epitaxy of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(220)/Si(111) and {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(431)/Si(001) thin films at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hongfei; Tan Chengcheh; Chi Dongzhi [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2012-07-15

    {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} thin films have been grown on Si(111) and Si(001) substrates by magnetron-sputter epitaxy at 700 Degree-Sign C. On Si(111), the growth is consistent with the commonly observed orientation of [001]{beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(220)//[1-10]Si(111) having three variants, in-plane rotated 120 Degree-Sign with respect to one another. However, on Si(001), under the same growth conditions, the growth is dominated by [-111]{beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(431)//[110]Si(001) with four variants, which is hitherto unknown for growing {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}. Photoelectron spectra reveal negligible differences in the valance-band and Fe2p core-level between {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} grown on Si(111) and Si(001) but an apparent increased Si-oxidization on the surface of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}/Si(001). This phenomenon is discussed and attributed to the Si-surface termination effect, which also suggests that the Si/Fe ratio on the surface of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(431)/Si(001) is larger than that on the surface of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(220)/Si(111).

  1. β-Lactotensin derived from bovine β-lactoglobulin exhibits anxiolytic-like activity as an agonist for neurotensin NTS(2) receptor via activation of dopamine D(1) receptor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, I-Ching; Suzuki, Chihiro; Kanegawa, Norimasa; Oda, Ayako; Yamada, Ayako; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Yamada, Daisuke; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2011-11-01

    β-Lactotensin (His-Ile-Arg-Leu) is a bioactive peptide derived from bovine milk β-lactoglobulin, acting as a natural agonist for neurotensin receptors. We found that β-lactotensin exhibited anxiolytic-like activity in an elevated plus-maze test after its intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice. β-Lactotensin was also orally active. The anxiolytic-like activity of β-lactotensin after i.p. administration was blocked by levocabastine, an antagonist for the neurotensin NTS(2) receptor. β-Lactotensin had anxiolytic-like activity in wild-type but not Ntsr2-knockout mice. β-Lactotensin increased intracellular Ca(2+) flux in glial cells derived from wild-type mice but not Ntsr2 knockout mice. These results suggest that β-lactotensin acts as an NTS(2) receptor agonist having anxiolytic-like activity. The anxiolytic-like activity of β-lactotensin was also blocked by SCH23390 and SKF83566, antagonists for dopamine D(1) receptor, but not by raclopride, an antagonist for D(2) receptor. Taken together, β-lactotensin may exhibit anxiolytic-like activity via NTS(2) receptor followed by D(1) receptor.

  2. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger;

    1983-01-01

    The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...... a]. The application area of BETA is programming of embedded as well as distributed computing systems. For this reason a major goal has been to develop constructs that may be efficiently implemented. Furthermore the BETA language is intended to have a few number of basic but general constructs....... It is then necessary that the abstraction mechanisms are powerful in order to define more specialized constructs. BETA is an object oriented language like SIMULA 67 ([SIMULA]) and SMALLTALK ([SMALLTALK]). By this is meant that a construct like the SIMULA class/subclass mechanism is fundamental in BETA. In contrast...

  3. Neutron Beta Decay Studies with Nab

    CERN Document Server

    Baeßler, S; Alonzi, L P; Balascuta, S; Barrón-Palos, L; Bowman, J D; Bychkov, M A; Byrne, J; Calarco, J R; Chupp, T; Vianciolo, T V; Crawford, C; Frlež, E; Gericke, M T; Glück, F; Greene, G L; Grzywacz, R K; Gudkov, V; Harrison, D; Hersman, F W; Ito, T; Makela, M; Martin, J; McGaughey, P L; McGovern, S; Page, S; Penttilä, S I; Počanić, D; Rykaczewski, K P; Salas-Bacci, A; Tompkins, Z; Wagner, D; Wilburn, W S; Young, A R

    2012-01-01

    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  4. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 5,2015 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  5. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alladi Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, a benign self-limited lymphadenopathy is an uncommon cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO. Methods: We retrospectively studied the case-records of 13 patients presenting with PUO who were diagnosed to have Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease on peripheral lymph node excision biopsy and report the salient clinical manifestations and histopathological findings in them. All of them received symptomatic treatment. Results: Their median age was 28 [interquartile range (IQR 18.5-38.0] years. Women (11/13, 84.6% were more frequently affected. All of them were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seronegative. Prior to presenting to us, two were being treated for lymph node tuberculosis with DOTS. Cervical lymph nodes were predominantly involved, the distribution being: right cervical (n=10, 76.9%; left cervical (n=4; and bilateral cervical (n=2. Axillary and generalized lymphadenopathy were rare being seen in 2 and 1 patient respectively. The median (IQR erythrocyte sedimentation rate (n=11 was 53 (35-89 mm at the end of first hour. Salient histopathological features were paracortical patchy zones of eosinophilic fibrinoid necrosis with karyorrhectic debris, large numbers of histiocytes, including histiocytes with peripherally placed “crescentic” nuclei. Spontaneous regression of fever and lymphadenopathy was observed over a median (IQR period of 8 (6.75-10.25 months in all of them. Conclusions: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a rare but important cause of PUO presenting with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Women are most often affected and cervical lymph nodes are the most frequently involved site. Clinical suspicion and thoughtful collaboration between clinicians and pathologists are essential for accurate diagnosis, and to minimize unnecessary investigations and inappropriate aggressive treatment.

  6. Data Series Subtraction with Unknown and Unmodeled Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Stefano; Congedo, Giuseppe; Dolesi, Rita; Ferroni, Valerio; Hueller, Mauro; Vetrugno, Daniele; Weber, William Joseph; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, Ingo; Hewitson, Martin; Korsakova, Natalia; Ferraioli, Luigi; Gibert, Ferran; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Nofrarias, Miquel; Inchauspe, Henri; Plagnol, Eric; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul W.; Armano, Michele; Thorpe, James Ira; Wass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the precursor mission to a gravitational wave observatory of the European Space Agency, will measure the degree to which two test masses can be put into free fall, aiming to demonstrate a suppression of disturbance forces corresponding to a residual relative acceleration with a power spectral density (PSD) below (30 fm/sq s/Hz)(sup 2) around 1 mHz. In LPF data analysis, the disturbance forces are obtained as the difference between the acceleration data and a linear combination of other measured data series. In many circumstances, the coefficients for this linear combination are obtained by fitting these data series to the acceleration, and the disturbance forces appear then as the data series of the residuals of the fit. Thus the background noise or, more precisely, its PSD, whose knowledge is needed to build up the likelihood function in ordinary maximum likelihood fitting, is here unknown, and its estimate constitutes instead one of the goals of the fit. In this paper we present a fitting method that does not require the knowledge of the PSD of the background noise. The method is based on the analytical marginalization of the posterior parameter probability density with respect to the background noise PSD, and returns an estimate both for the fitting parameters and for the PSD. We show that both these estimates are unbiased, and that, when using averaged Welchs periodograms for the residuals, the estimate of the PSD is consistent, as its error tends to zero with the inverse square root of the number of averaged periodograms. Additionally, we find that the method is equivalent to some implementations of iteratively reweighted least-squares fitting. We have tested the method both on simulated data of known PSD and on data from several experiments performed with the LISA Pathfinder end-to-end mission simulator.

  7. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  8. Popular Music in Jia Zhangke’s Unknown Pleasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With his documentary-style films reflecting upon China’s unprecedented transformation from a state-controlled to a market-driven economy, Jia Zhangke has risen from within the movement of independent Chinese cinema that began to flourish in the late 1990s to become one of the most recognized filmmakers of contemporary China. Born in 1970 and raised in the underdeveloped Shanxi Province, Jia studied film theory at Beijing Film Academy and was first noticed for his controversial “Hometown Trilogy”—'Pickpocket '('Xiao Wu', 1997, 'Platform '('Zhantai', 1999, and 'Unknown Pleasures '('Ren xiao yao', 2002. These three films, shot with handheld video camera on the streets of his hometown province, focus on the reckless changes that China’s aggressive economic growth and globalization have brought to socially marginalized groups. Like other independently made films—films that are produced with capital from outside the state-sponsored avenues and without the approval of film censorship, and that are not allowed to be shown in China’s public theaters—Jia’s first three films reach domestic audiences only through unofficial DVD copies and small-scaled screenings at universities, film bars, and art salons. His limited domestic influence sharply contrasts with the critical acclaim that he receives from international film festival audiences, who are searching for alternative film culture from China after the Fifth Generation directors. By the late 1990s, Jia had become a spokesperson for an ever-increasing group of aspiring Chinese independent filmmakers, particularly through writings and interviews that theorize independent Chinese cinema’s practice.

  9. Hyperprolactinemia after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An unknown phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omrani Gholamhossein R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ovarian drilling on the serum levels of gonadotropins and androgens have been studied previously. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ovarian drilling on the serum prolactin levels and its relation to ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods This is a prospective controlled study. Thirty-six women with PCOS underwent ovarian electrocauterization in university hospitals. Control group consisted of 35 ovulatory women with unexplained infertility. Hormonal assessment performed in early follicular phase of spontaneous or induced cycle before operation in the two groups and repeated one week after operation. Hormonal assay was also performed in the early follicular phase of the first post-operative menstruation, folliculometry and progesterone assay were also performed in the same cycle. Data were analyzed by "repeated measurement design, discriminant analysis, correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact test". Results Six to ten weeks after operation the serum mean +/- SD prolactin levels increased from 284.41 +/- 114.32 mIU/ml to 354.06 +/- 204.42 mIU/ml (P = 0.011. The same values for the control group were 277.73 +/- 114.65 to 277.4 +/- 111.4 (P = 0.981 respectively. Approximately 45% of subjects in PCOS group remained anovulatory in spite of decreased level of LH and testosterone. Prolactin level remained elevated in 73.2% of women who did not ovulate 6–10 weeks after the procedure. Conclusion Hyperprolactinemia after ovarian cauterization may be considered as a possible cause of anovulation in women with polycystic ovaries and improved gonadotropin and androgen levels. The cause of hyperprolactinemia is unknown. Hormonal assay particularly PRL in anovulatory patients after ovarian cauterization is recommended.

  10. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I;

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  11. Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

  12. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that 234Th- /sup 234m/Pa, 231Th, 137Cs, and 90Sr/90Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and 60Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs

  13. Production of Poly &beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid (PHB) by Rhizobium elti and Pseudomonas stutzeri

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    The amount of chemosynthetic plastic waste increases every year and exact time for its degradation is unknown. Two poly &beta-Hydroxybutyric producing bacteria from different microbial sources were isolated and characterized for their morphological, biochemical properties. Based on their 16S rDNA, they were identified as Rhizobium elti E1 and Pseudomonas stutzeri E114. The bacterial strains were screened for PHB production and compared for the intensity of fluorescence using Nile red staining...

  14. Hepatic Hypertransaminasaemia of unknown Etiology Aclinico-pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed El-Meghawry El Sayed*, Hany Abu Zeid*, Salah Mohamed

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic aminotransferases are sensitive indicators of liver cell injury. In some patients with persistent elevation of such enzymes; routine clinical, laboratory and serological data cannot establish the underlying causes. This study was designed to evaluate such patients both clinically and pathologically as a trial to reach the underlying etiology. Thirty patients with hepatic hypertransaminasaemia of unknown cause (18 females & 12 males, aged 18-50 years (mean age 37.7 4.6 years, together with ten controls (5 males & 5 females [matched in age and body mass index with patients]; were included in this study. Both patients and controls were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, estimation of blood glucose and lipid profile, liver function tests, serum iron & ferrtin estimation, hepatitis viral markers (HBs Ag HCV-Ab, anti Epstien Barr (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV antibodies, abdominal ultrasonography (U/Sand needle liver biopsy (done only for 15 patients who approved undergoing it. The study revealed that 18 patients had non alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD (bright liver on U/S, eleven patients out of them underwent liver biopsy that showed simple hepatic steatosis in four of them and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH in the other seven patients. Most of the eighteen patients with NAFLD were obese, diabetic and hypertensive. Four patients had positive serology for autoimmune hepatitis and two patients had positive serology for cytomegalovirus infection. All patients had normally ranged serum iron & ferritin. The remaining six patients had normal hepatic U/S and negative serology for different hepatic viruses; four of them underwent liver biopsy that revealed simple hepatic steatosis in two of them and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH in the other two patients. Conclusion & recommendation: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD was found to be the commonest cause of unexplained hepatic hypertransamina-saemia. However

  15. Measurement of the beta asymmetry in neutron beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron beta decay is the simplest semi-leptonic weak decay and described accurately by the standard model using the first CKM-matrix element and the ratio of vector and axial vector couplings, λ. With more than a dozen observables it is a sensitive probe for investigating the nature of weak interaction and to search for physics beyond the standard model. In the past, measuring the beta asymmetry A in polarized neutron decay has been the most precise way of determining λ and nowadays it allows - together with other observables - to derive limits on non-standard model interactions, such as scalar and tensor couplings. The neutron decay spectrometer Perkeo III was installed at the PF1B cold neutron beam site at the Institut Laue-Langevin to measure the beta asymmetry. By using a pulsed beam combined with an improved detector design a significant reduction of several systematic uncertainties has been achieved compared to the predecessor, Perkeo II. In this talk recent results of the measurements with Perkeo III will be presented. In particular, we show the energy distribution of the electrons together with the calibration tools for the detectors.

  16. Beta-Amyloid Deposition and Alzheimer's Type Changes Induced by Borrelia Spirochetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miklossy,J.; Kis, A.; Radenovic, A.; Miller, L.; Forro, L.; Martins, R.; Reiss, K.; Darbinian, N.; Darekar, P.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) consist of {beta}-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in affected brain areas. The processes, which drive this host reaction are unknown. To determine whether an analogous host reaction to that occurring in AD could be induced by infectious agents, we exposed mammalian glial and neuronal cells in vitro to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes and to the inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Morphological changes analogous to the amyloid deposits of AD brain were observed following 2-8 weeks of exposure to the spirochetes. Increased levels of {beta}-amyloid presursor protein (A{beta}PP) and hyperphosphorylated tau were also detected by Western blots of extracts of cultured cells that had been treated with spirochetes or LPS. These observations indicate that, by exposure to bacteria or to their toxic products, host responses similar in nature to those observed in AD may be induced.

  17. Hypersynchrony despite pathologically reduced beta oscillations in patients with Parkinson's disease: a pharmaco-magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Kurz, Max J; Becker, Katherine M; Santamaria, Pamela M; Gendelman, Howard E; Wilson, Tony W

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive debilitating neurodegenerative disorder clinically manifest by motor, posture and gait abnormalities. Human neurophysiological studies recording local field potentials within the subthalamic nucleus and scalp-based electroencephalography have shown pathological beta synchrony throughout the basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical motor network in PD. Notably, suppression of this pathological beta synchrony by dopamine replacement therapy or deep-brain stimulation has been associated with improved motor function. However, due to the invasive nature of these studies, it remains unknown whether this "pathological beta" is actually stronger than that observed in healthy demographically matched controls. We used magnetoencephalography to investigate neuronal synchrony and oscillatory amplitude in the beta range and lower frequencies during the resting state in patients with PD and a matched group of patients without neurological disease. Patients with PD were studied both in the practically defined drug "OFF" state, and after administration of dopamine replacements. We found that beta oscillatory amplitude was reduced bilaterally in the primary motor regions of unmedicated patients with PD compared with controls. Administration of dopaminergic medications significantly increased beta oscillatory activity, thus having a normalizing effect. Interestingly, we also found significantly stronger beta synchrony (i.e., hypersynchrony) between the primary motor regions in unmedicated patients with PD compared with controls, and that medication reduced this coupling which is in agreement with the intraoperative studies. These results are consistent with the known functionality of the basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical motor circuit and the likely consequences of beta hypersynchrony in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with PD.

  18. File list: InP.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX38...1248,SRX390619,SRX390617 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 TFs and others Yeast strain Unknown SRX695965,SRX6...98,SRX381289 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 All antigens Yeast strain Unknown SRX695965,SRX695...SRX381297,SRX423150,SRX386372,SRX381305,SRX381298,SRX390619,SRX390617 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/ALL.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 TFs and others Yeast strain Unknown SRX105548,SRX6...00,SRX381289,SRX381298 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.05.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX38...1248,SRX390617,SRX390619 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 All antigens Yeast strain Unknown SRX695965,SRX695...SRX386340,SRX423150,SRX390617,SRX381288,SRX381305,SRX381248,SRX381298,SRX390619,SRX381289 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/ALL.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 TFs and others Yeast strain Unknown SRX695967,SRX6...98,SRX381289,SRX381235 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.10.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX39...0617,SRX381248,SRX390619 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.YSt.20.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown sacCer3 Input control Yeast strain Unknown SRX423150,SRX39...0619,SRX390617 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/InP.YSt.50.AllAg.Unknown.bed ...

  7. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots.

    OpenAIRE

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; A. Figus; Loi, A; Pirastu, M.; Cao, A

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation ...

  8. Failure of Clindamycin To Eradicate Infection with Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci Inducibly Resistant to Clindamycin in an Animal Model and in Human Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, James S.; Lepak, Alex J.; Thompson, George R.; Craig, William A.; Andes, David R.; Sabol-Dzintars, Kathryn E.; Jorgensen, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Inducible clindamycin resistance in beta-hemolytic streptococci remains an underrecognized phenomenon of unknown clinical significance. We performed an evaluation of inducible clindamycin resistance using an animal model as well as retrospectively reviewing the charts of patients treated with clindamycin monotherapy who were infected with beta-hemolytic streptococci inducibly resistant to clindamycin. The neutropenic mouse thigh model of infection was used to evaluate the in vivo activity of ...

  9. Plan beta: Core or Cusp?

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Thomas; Lehnert, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The inner profile of Dark Matter (DM) halos remains one of the central problems in small-scale cosmology. At present, the problem can not be resolved in dwarf spheroidal galaxies due to a degeneracy between the DM profile and the velocity anisotropy beta of the stellar population. We discuss a method which can break the degeneracy by exploiting 3D positions and 1D line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. With the full 3D spatial information, we can determine precisely what fraction of each stars LOS motion is in the radial and tangential direction. This enables us to infer the anisotropy parameter beta directly from the data. The method is particularly effective if the galaxy is highly anisotropic. Finally, we argue that such a test could be applied to Sagittarius and potentially other dwarfs with RR Lyrae providing the necessary depth information.

  10. Beta spectrum of 185W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the shape of the first forbidden beta transition of 185W is interesting from the point of view of the fact that this nucleus belongs to the deformed region 150185W is carried out employing an optimized Siegbahn-Slatis beta ray spectrometer and the result is compared with the theoretical shape factor incorporating Nilsson's wavefunctions using Simms formalism. The experimental shape factor is fitted to the correction factor C(W)=k(1+aW) with α=0.0026+-0.0432. The theoretical shape factor computed following the matrix elements due to Nilsson model is in good agreement with the present experimental shape factor. The value Λ(2.358) computed in the present measurement in the light of Nilsson model matrix elements of 185W is in agreement with the predicted value (2.4) of J.J. Fujita. (author)

  11. Review of double beta experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Sarazin, X.

    2012-01-01

    C13-10-22.1 International audience This paper gives a review of the double beta experimental techniques and projects, in the search for the Majorana neutrino. The purpose of this review is to detail, for each technique, the different origins of background, how they can be identified, and how they can be reduced. Advantages and limitations of the different techniques are discussed. 1. Introduction The neutrino is one of the most puzzling elementary particle with very unique properties. I...

  12. Myokardinfarkt und Beta-Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stühlinger H-G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen eines akuten koronaren Syndroms (akuter Herzinfarkt, Angina pectoris kommt es, aufgrund eines Ungleichgewichtes zwischen Angebot und Bedarf, zu einem akuten Mangel an Sauerstoff im Herzmuskel. Ursache ist eine reduzierte Sauerstoffzufuhr durch verengte bzw. verschlossene Gefäße. Bis zur Behebung der Ursache vergehen oft mehrere Stunden. In dieser Phase muß - durch Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs im Herzmuskel - eine Verlangsamung der Nekroseentwicklung erreicht werden. Das Ausmaß der Nekrose wird reduziert, somit die für die Langzeitprognose wichtige Linksventrikelfunktion verbessert. Eine Verminderung des Sauerstoffbedarfs erreicht man durch kontrollierte Frequenzsenkung mittels intravenöser Beta-Blockade. In optimaler Weise wird diese Methode durch die Anwendung eines kardioselektiven Beta-Blockers mit kurzer Halbwertszeit durchgeführt. Beta-Blocker haben nicht nur auf die Nekroseentwicklung, sondern auch auf die Inzidenz von Rhythmusstörungen - besonders in der Akutphase - Auswirkungen. Vor allem die mit dieser therapeutischen Maßnahme verbundene Reduktion von Kammerflimmern ist von großer Bedeutung.

  13. Robust adaptive controller design for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown high frequency gains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this note, a robust adaptive control scheme is proposed for a class of nonlinear systems that have unknown multiplicative terms. Unlike previous results, except for the unknown control directions, we do not require a priori bounds on the unknown parameters. We also allow the unknown parameters to be time-varying provided that they are bounded. Our proposed robust adaptive controller is designed to identify on-line the unknown control directions and is a switching type controller, in which the controller parameters are tuned in a switching manner via a switching logic. Global stability of the closed-loop systems have been proved.

  14. DMPD: Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17913496 Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. Jakus Z, Fod...) Show Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta 2 and beta 3 integrins. PubmedID 17913496 Title Immunoreceptor-like signaling by beta... 2 and beta 3 integrins. Authors Jakus Z, Fodor S, Abram CL

  15. Beta-dosimetry studies at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes three beta-dosimetry studies made recently at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first study was to determine the beta-gamma exposure rates at the Los Alamos Godiva IV Critical Assembly. The beta spectra from the assembly were evaluated using absorption curves and the beta-gamma dose-rate ratios were determined at various distances from the assembly. A comparison was made of the doses determined using two types of TLD personnel dosimeters and a film badge. The readings of an Eberline RO-7 instrument and the dose rates determined by TLDs were compared. Shielding provided by various metals, gloves, and clothing were measured. The second study was to determine the beta energy response of the Eberline RO-7 instrument based on measurements made with the PTB beta sources. This study required additional calibration points for the PTB sources which were made using extrapolation chamber measurements. The third study resulted in two techniques to determine the beta energy (E/sub max/) from the readings of this-window portable survey instruments. Both techniques are based on the readings obtained using aluminium filters. One technique is for field application, requires one filter, and provides a quick estimate of the beta energy in three energy groups: 1.5 MeV. The second technique is more complex requiring measurements with two or three filters, but gives the beta energy and the approximate shape of the beta spectrum. 9 references, 6 figures

  16. Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter covers the use of wild beets in sugar beet improvement, including the basic botany of the species, its distribution; geographical locations of genetic diversity; morphology; cytology and karyotype; genome size; taxonomic position; agricultural status (model plant/weeds/invasive species/...

  17. Binding of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) to pregnancy zone protein (PZP). Comparison to the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A; Bostedt, L; Stigbrand, T; O'Connor-McCourt, M D

    1994-04-15

    Pregnancy zone protein (PZP) is quantitatively the most important pregnancy-associated plasma protein and it has strong similarity to alpha 2-macroglobulin. Since alpha 2-macroglobulin is a binding protein for transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta), it was of interest to test whether the related protein, PZP, also binds to these growth-regulatory proteins. Using affinity-labelling methods, we demonstrate that PZP binds both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 and that the binding characteristics are similar to those of the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction. TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 1 bind to PZP in a predominantly noncovalent manner in vitro. TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 bind to both the dimeric and tetrameric forms of PZP. Our studies also indicate that PZP binds TGF-beta 2 with higher affinity than TGF-beta 1. Finally, we demonstrate that PZP inhibits the binding of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 to their cell surface receptors. The increased level of PZP during pregnancy may affect the action of TGF-beta by regulating the distribution, clearance and/or general availability of TGF-beta. The preferential binding of TGF-beta 2 over TGF-beta 1 by PZP implies that PZP may differentially regulate the action of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2.

  18. On gaps in Rényi $\\beta$-expansions of unity for $\\beta > 1$ an algebraic number.

    OpenAIRE

    Verger-Gaugry, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\beta> 1$ be an algebraic number. We study the strings of zeros (“gaps”) in the Rényi $\\beta$ -expansion $d_{\\beta}(1)$ of unity which controls the set $\\mathbb{Z}_{\\beta}$ of $\\beta$-integers. Using a version of Liouville's inequality which extends Mahler's and Güting's approximation theorems, the strings of zeros in $d_{\\beta}(1)$ are shown to exhibit a “gappiness” asymptotically bounded above by $log(M(\\beta ))/ log(\\beta)$, where $M(\\beta)$ is the Mahler measure of $\\beta$ . The proo...

  19. Prenatal expression of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 in the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, J A; Carretero, J; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Gato, A; Mano, A de la

    2008-12-01

    It is known that interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are expressed post-natally in normal and tumoral cells in the anterior pituitary, and that they play a role in both the liberation of different hormones and in the growth, proliferation and tumor formation of the pituitary gland. However, their expression and role during embryonic and fetal development remain unknown. We have performed an immunocytochemistry study of prenatal expression and distribution of IL-1beta and IL-6 in isolated embryonic rat Rathke's pouch prior to birth, more specifically between 13.5 and 19.5 days p.c. Western-blot analysis carried out on 19.5-day p.c. embryos showed positive immunolabelling for IL-1beta and IL-6. These interleukins were initially expressed simultaneously in the rostral and ventral portions of Rathke's pouch in 15.5-day p.c. embryos, and this expression progressed caudodorsally in later developmental stages, extending to most of the hypophysis before birth. The number of cells expressing these interleukins increased throughout this period: 48.22% of anterior pituitary cells expressed IL-6 in 19.5-day embryos, whilst IL-1beta was positive in 39.8% of the cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that some adenohypophyseal cells co-express both interleukins. Such findings represent the first step towards an understanding of the physiological role of these interleukins in anterior pituitary development. PMID:19041259

  20. Calcium has a permissive role in interleukin-1beta-induced c-jun N-terminal kinase activation in insulin-secreting cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Zaitsev, Sergei V; Kapelioukh, Iouri L;

    2005-01-01

    -acetoxymethyl], an inhibitor of calmodulin (W7), and inhibitors of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase (KN62 and KN93) partially reduced IL-1beta-stimulated c-jun phosphorylation in INS-1 or betaTC3 cells. Our data suggest that Ca(2+) plays a permissive role in IL-1beta activation of the JNK signaling pathway in insulin......-cells are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Ca(2+) plays a role for IL-1beta-induced JNK activation. In insulin-secreting rat INS-1 cells cultured in the presence of 11 mm glucose, combined pharmacological blockade of L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels suppressed IL-1beta-induced in vitro...

  1. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  2. GSK3beta is involved in JNK2-mediated beta-catenin inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK JNK1 downregulates beta-catenin signaling and plays a critical role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and in suppressing tumor formation. This study was designed to determine whether JNK2, another MAPK, has similar and/or different functions in the regulation of beta-catenin signaling. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an in vitro system with manipulation of JNK2 and beta-catenin expression and found that activated JNK2 increased GSK3beta activity and inhibited beta-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. However, JNK2-mediated downregulation of beta-catenin was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and GSK3beta inhibitor lithium chloride. Moreover, targeted mutations at GSK3beta phosphorylation sites (Ser33 and Ser37 of beta-catenin abrogated JNK2-mediated suppression of beta-catenin. In vivo studies further revealed that JNK2 deficiency led to upregulation of beta-catenin and increase of GSK3-beta phosphorylation in JNK2-/- mouse intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, physical interaction and co-localization among JNK2, beta-catenin and GSK3beta were observed by immunoprecipitation, mammalian two-hybridization assay and confocal microscopy, respectively. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: In general, our data suggested that JNK2, like JNK1, interacts with and suppresses beta-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo, in which GSK3beta plays a key role, although previous studies have shown distinct functions of JNK1 and JNK2. Our study also provides a novel insight into the crosstalk between Wnt/beta-catenin and MAPK JNKs signaling.

  3. Hyper-beta-alaninemia associated with beta-aminoaciduria and gamma-aminobutyricaciduaia, somnolence and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriver, C R; Pueschel, S; Davies, E

    1966-03-24

    Hyper-beta-alaninemia was found in a somnolent, convulsing infant. Hyper-beta-aminoaciduria (beta-ala, betaAIB and taurine) was also observed, varying directly with plasma beta-alanine concentration. The beta-aminoaciduria is explained by the interaction between beta-alanine and a specific cellular-transport system with preference for beta-amino compounds. Gamma-aminobutyricaciduria was also observed, its excretion being independent of beta-alanine levels. Dietary modifications, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and antibiotic therapy were not beneficial. Post-mortem tissues had elevated levels of beta-alanine and carnosine; GABA levels in brain were probably elevated for the age of the patient. A proposed block in beta-alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase would expand the free beta-alanine pool, thus increasing tissue carnosine. beta-Alanine is a central-nervous-system depressant. Associated inhibition of GABA transaminase and displacement of GABA from central-nervous-system binding sites would produce GABAuria and convulsions. PMID:17926374

  4. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    Beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) is a low-molecular protein which is filtered freely over the glomeruli. Under normal circumstances, more than 99.9% is resorbed in the proximal tubuli of the kidneys and is metabolized there. In renal disease with damage to this segment of the nephron, eg acute tubulo......-interstitial nephropathy, increased quantities of beta 2M are excreted in the urine. If the rate of glomerular filtration is reduced, serum-beta 2M is increased and this is also the case in persons with increased cell division despite normal renal function. Serum-beta 2M is, therefore, raised in numerous malignant...... diseases and reflects the size of the tumour mass. During cytostatic treatment of myelomatosis and chronic lymphatic leukaemia, the serum-beta 2M levels decrease on remission and increase on relapse. In acute leukaemia and malignant lymphoma with infiltration of the CNS, similar conditions prevail for CSF...

  5. Hypersomnolence with beta-adrenergic blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachil, J; Zeller, J R; Kochar, M S

    1987-11-01

    An elderly, mildly demented, hypertensive male patient developed hypersomnolence on administration of propranolol for treatment of hypertension; no other cause for hypersomnolence was detected. Upon replacement of propranolol with atenolol, he felt better but continued to be quite somnolent. When atenolol was discontinued, he reported to have lack of sleep. On readministration of subtherapeutic doses of the same beta-adrenergic blocking agents, he once again experienced excessive sleepiness. By discontinuing beta-blocking agents and introducing captopril, he felt much better, became pleasant and talkative, and blood pressure was well controlled. Beta antagonists are important drugs in the management of many cardiovascular problems. Propranolol, a lipophilic beta-blocking agent, and atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, are two of the major agents currently used clinically in the United States. Numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects of the beta-adrenergic blocking drugs have been reported, but hypersomnolence is not readily recognized as one of them. PMID:3665616

  6. Disposition of {sup 14}C-{beta}-carotene following delivery with autologous triacylglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueker, Stephen R. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616 (United States) and Vitalea Science, Inc. 1233 East Beamer, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States)]. E-mail: srdueker@vitaleascience.com; Le Thuy Vuong [Vitalea Science, Inc. 1233 East Beamer, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Faulkner, Brian [Vitalea Science, Inc. 1233 East Beamer, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A. [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Vogel, John S. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616 (United States); Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Following ingestion, a fraction of {beta}-carotene is cleaved into vitamin A in the intestine, while another is absorbed intact and distributed among tissues and organs. The extent to which this absorbed {beta}-carotene serves as a source of vitamin A is unknown in vivo. In the present study we use the attomole sensitivity of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for {sup 14}C to quantify the disposition of {sup 14}C-{beta}-carotene (930 ng; 60.4 nCi of activity) after intravenous injection with an autologous triacylglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction in a single volunteer. Total {sup 14}C was quantified in serial plasma samples and also in triglyceride-rich, and low density lipoprotein, subfractions. The appearance of {sup 14}C-retinol, the circulating form of vitamin A in plasma, was determined by chromatographic separation of plasma retinol extracts prior to AMS analysis. The data showed that {sup 14}C concentrations rapidly decayed within the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions after injection, whereas low density lipoprotein {sup 14}C began a significant rise in {sup 14}C 5 h post dose. Plasma {sup 14}C-retinol also appeared at 5 h post dose and its concentrations were maintained above baseline for >88 days. Based upon comparisons of {sup 14}C-retinol concentrations following an earlier study with orally dosed {sup 14}C-{beta}-carotene, a molar vitamin A value of the absorbed {beta}-carotene of 0.19 was derived, meaning that 1 mole of absorbed {beta}-carotene provides 0.19 moles of vitamin A. This is the first study to show that infused {beta}-carotene contributes to the vitamin A economy in humans in vivo.

  7. MiR-214 inhibits cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through suppression of {beta}-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Ji [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Li, Feng [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Lin, Yanting [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhongwei [Department of Interventional Therapy, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Jiaji, E-mail: jiang_jjcn@yahoo.com.cn [Liver Diseases Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 is frequently downregulated in human HCC cell lines and tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 overexpression inhibits HCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 directly targets {beta}-catenin 3 Prime -UTR in HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 regulates {beta}-catenin downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: Mounting evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in carcinogenesis and can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Recent profile studies of miRNA expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-214) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its potential functions and underlying mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that miR-214 is significantly downregulated in HCC cells and specimens. Ectopic overexpression of miR-214 inhibited proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Further studies revealed that miR-214 could directly target the 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) of {beta}-catenin mRNA and suppress its protein expression. Similar to the restoring miR-214 expression, {beta}-catenin downregulation inhibited cell growth, whereas restoring the {beta}-catenin expression abolished the function of miR-214. Moreover, miR-214-mediated reduction of {beta}-catenin resulted in suppression of several downstream genes including c-Myc, cyclinD1, TCF-1, and LEF-1. These findings indicate that miR-214 serves as tumor suppressor and plays substantial roles in inhibiting the tumorigenesis of HCC through suppression of {beta}-catenin. Given these, miR-214 may serve as a useful prognostic or therapeutic target for treatment of HCC.

  8. Beta blockers: A new role in chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja, Archana S; Sadaoui, Nouara C.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Sood, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    Beta-blockers are a class of drugs widely used to treat cardiac, respiratory and other ailments. They act by blocking beta-adrenergic receptor–mediated signalling. Studies in various cancers have shown that patients taking a beta-blocker have higher survival and lower recurrence and metastasis rates. This is supported by several preclinical and in vitro studies showing that adrenergic activation modulates apoptosis, promotes angiogenesis and other cancer hallmarks, and these effects can be ab...

  9. The pancreatic beta cell surface proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Stützer, I.; Esterházy, D.; Stoffel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell is responsible for maintaining normoglycaemia by secreting an appropriate amount of insulin according to blood glucose levels. The accurate sensing of the beta cell extracellular environment is therefore crucial to this endocrine function and is transmitted via its cell surface proteome. Various surface proteins that mediate or affect beta cell endocrine function have been identified, including growth factor and cytokine receptors, transporters, ion channels and prote...

  10. Constructions for a bivariate beta distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Olkin, Ingram; Trikalinos, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    The beta distribution is a basic distribution serving several purposes. It is used to model data, and also, as a more flexible version of the uniform distribution, it serves as a prior distribution for a binomial probability. The bivariate beta distribution plays a similar role for two probabilities that have a bivariate binomial distribution. We provide a new multivariate distribution with beta marginal distributions, positive probability over the unit square, and correlations over the full ...

  11. Off-Policy Actor-Critic Structure for Optimal Control of Unknown Systems With Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank L; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Huaguang

    2016-05-01

    An optimal control method is developed for unknown continuous-time systems with unknown disturbances in this paper. The integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm is presented to obtain the iterative control. Off-policy learning is used to allow the dynamics to be completely unknown. Neural networks are used to construct critic and action networks. It is shown that if there are unknown disturbances, off-policy IRL may not converge or may be biased. For reducing the influence of unknown disturbances, a disturbances compensation controller is added. It is proven that the weight errors are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov techniques. Convergence of the Hamiltonian function is also proven. The simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control method for unknown systems with disturbances. PMID:25935054

  12. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    OpenAIRE

    Sebely Pal; Keith Woodford; Sonja Kukuljan; Suleen Ho

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-...

  13. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  14. NMR Spectroscopic Analysis on the Chiral Recognition of Noradrenaline by {beta}-Cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and Carboxymethyl- {beta}-cyclodextrin (CM- {beta}-CD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoo; Yi, Dong Heui; Jung, Seun Ho [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    {beta}-CD and CM-{beta}-CD as chiral NMR shift agents were used to resolve the enantiomers of noradrenaline (NA). The stoichiometry of each complex formed between the CDs and the enantiomers of NA was found to be 1 : 1 through the continuous variation plots. The binding constants (K) of the complexes were determined from 1H NMR titration curves. This result indicated that both {beta}-CD and CM-{beta}-CD formed the complexes with the S (+)-NA more preferentially than its R(.)-enantiomer. The K values for the complexes with {beta}-CD (KS(+) = 537 M{sup -1} and K{sub R}({sub -}) = 516 M{sup -1}) was larger than those with CM-{beta}-CD (K{sub S}({sub +}) = 435 M{sup -1} and K{sub R}({sub -}) = 313 M{sup -1}), however, enantioselectivity ({alpha}) of S({sub +})- and R(-)-NA to CM-{beta}-CD ({alpha} = 1.38) was larger than that to {beta}-CD ({alpha} = 1.04), indicating that CM-{beta}-CD was the better chiral NMR solvating agents for the recognition of the enantiomers of NA. Two dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY) experiments were also performed to explain the binding properties in terms of spatial fitting of the NA molecule into the macrocyclic cavities

  15. Review of double beta experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sarazin, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first part of the manuscript written in April 2012 for my academic Accreditation to supervise research. It offers a review of the double beta experimental techniques. My purpose is to detail, for each technique, the different origins of background, how they can be identified, and how they can be reduced. Advantages and limitations are discussed. This review is organized as follows. First, the question of the possible Majorana nature for the neutrino is presented and the physic of neutrinoless double beta decay is summarized. Then I begin by presenting the tracko-calo NEMO-3 and SuperNEMO experiments. I've worked on these two experiments since 15 years. So it was natural to start with them with a relatively more exhaustive description. I will then present the germanium technique. I will then review the bolometer technique. I will describe in detail the recent progress in scintillating bolometers because I think that it is one of the most promising techniques. Finally I will review the large l...

  16. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.

  17. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  18. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    biodiversity and well-being; and the links of biodiversity to the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty alleviation. References [1] Schuiteman A et al 2011 Nocturne for an unknown pollinator: first description of a night-flowering orchid (Bulbophyllum nocturnum) Bot. J. Linean Soc. 167 344-50 [2] Kinver M and Gill V 2011 Botanists discover 'remarkable' night-flowering orchid BBC News Science and Environment (www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15818662) [3] Rudd M A 2011 Scientists' opinions on the global status and management of biological diversity Conserv. Biol. 25 1165-75 [4] Bottrill M C et al 2008 Is conservation triage just smart decision making? Trends Ecol. Evol. 23 649-54 [5] Parr M J et al 2009 Why we should aim for zero extinction Trends Ecol. Evol. 24 181 Bottrill M C et al 2009 Finite conservation funds mean triage is unavoidable Trends Ecol. Evol. 24 183-4 [6] Pushpangadan P and Behl H M 2005 Environment & Biodiversity: Agenda for Future (Lucknow: International Society of Environmental Botanists) (http://isebindia.com/icpep-3/icpep3-s-2.html) [7] Alves R and Rosa I 2007 Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet? J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 3 14 [8] Center for Biodiversity and Conservation 1997 Biodiversity and Human Health: A Guide for Policymakers (New York: American Museum of Natural History) [9] Chivian E 1997 Global environmental degradation and biodiversity loss: implications for human health Biodiversity and Human Health ed F Grifo and J Rosenthal (Washington, DC: Island) pp 7-38 [10] UNEP-WCMC 2011 Health and Well Being of Communities Directly Dependent on Ecosystem Goods and Services: An Indicator for the Convention on Biological Diversity (Cambridge: UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre) [11] Nettleton C, Stephens C and Bristow F 2007 Utz Wachil: a study of indigenous perceptions of health and environment in five countries Ecohealth 4 461-772 [12] Jones G P et al 2004 Coral decline

  19. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 −/−) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our main observation was that the genes were regulated in an opposite direction in male and female Bcmo1 −/− mice by BC. The steroid biosynthetic pathway was overrepresented in BC-supplemented male Bcmo1...

  20. Association of heterocellular HPFH, beta(+)-thalassaemia, and delta beta(0)-thalassaemia: haematological and molecular aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Cianetti, L; Care, A; Sposi, N M; Giampaolo, A; Calandrini, M; Petrini, M.; Massa, A.; Marinucci, M.; Mavilio, F; Ceccanti, M.

    1984-01-01

    An Italian family in which heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) interacts with both beta(+)- and delta beta-thalassaemia is described. The index case was an 8 year old girl who was presumed to inherit both heterocellular HPFH and beta (+)-thalassaemia from her mother and delta beta-thalassaemia from her father. She was healthy and never needed blood transfusions. The possible contribution of heterocellular HPFH to the less severe expression of the compound delta b...

  1. The impact of beta-elemene on beta-tubulin of human hepatoma hepg2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiu Mao; Liying Ban; Jielin Zhang; Li Hou; Xiaonan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of beta-elemene injection on the growth and beta-tubulin of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods:cellproliferation was assessed by MTT assay. cellcycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The mRNA expression of beta-tubulin was measured by RT-PCR. West-ern blot analysis was used to determine protein expression of beta-tubulin and the polymerization of beta-tubulin. Results:Beta-elemene injection inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner;FCM analysis indicated beta-elemene injection induced cellcycle arrested at S phase. RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that beta-elemene injection down-regulated beta-tubulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels, presenting a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, beta-elemene injection reduced the polymerization of microtubules in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:Beta-elemene injection can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells, the mechanism might be partly related to the down-regulation of beta-tubulin and inhibition of microtubular polymerization.

  2. Expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-Catenin and PPAR-Gamma in Medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhang; Lu Si; Yu Li; Can Mi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma, and their relationship in medulloblastoma, and to explore their value in clinic application.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining with SP method was conducted to determine the expressions of GSK-3beta, Beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in 48 cases of medulloblastoma and 10 normal cerebellar tissues.Results: The rate of abnormal expressions of beta-catenin and PPAR-gamma in MB was higher than that in normal. Conversely, GSK-3beta in MB was lower than that in the normal (P<0.05). Furthermore, in medulloblastoma, beta-catenin and GSK-3beta showed a negative correlation, PPAR-gamma and beta-catenin had a positive correlation.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin plays a crucial role in the development of medulloblastoma. Meanwhile, PPAR-gamma and GSK-3beta which are tightly related with beta-catenin are both involved in the genesis and development of medulloblastoma.

  3. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H W; Visser, J; Hefting, N R; Oosting, R; Meijer, D K; Lerk, C F

    1990-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was analyzed by HPLC using postcolumn complexation with phenolphthalein and negative colorimetric detection, with a detection limit of 20 micrograms/ml. The pharmacokinetics of beta-cyclodextrin and of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin were studied after intravenous adm

  4. Radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(+)-pinene and synthesis of optically active {beta}(+)/{beta}(-)pinene polymers and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cataldo@fastwebnet.i [Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lilla, Edo; Ursini, Ornella [Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR, Via Salaria Km. 29300, Monterotondo Stazione 00016, Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Poly-{beta}(+)-pinene (pB(+)p) was synthesized with {gamma} irradiation of the monomer {beta}(+)-pinene in bulk under vacuum at 1181 kGy. Also scalemic mixtures of {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene were irradiated at 1181 kGy to obtain synthetic copolymers of pB(+)/B(-)p. For comparison also {beta}(-)-pinene was converted into poly-{beta}(-)-pinene (pB(-)p) under the identical conditions adopted for its enantiomer. Furthermore pB(+)p and pB(-)p were also synthesized by thermal processing under the action of a chemical free radical initiator. The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) of all pBp resins synthesized were accurately studied in the spectral range comprised between 375 and 625 nm and a curious asymmetry in the ORD of pB(+)p versus the ORD of pB(-)p is reported. Furthermore, it is shown that (+)-p-menth-1-ene and (-)-p-menth-1-ene are useful as a model compounds for the pBp resins and for the explanation of the amplification of the optical activity of the {beta}(+)-pinene and {beta}(-)-pinene after their ring-opening polymerization to pB(+)p and pB(-)p. The pBp resins were studied also by FT-IR spectroscopy and by thermal analysis (TGA and DTG).

  5. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  6. 不同糖与乳清蛋白的美拉德反应对β-乳球蛋白致敏性的影响%Effect of Maillard Reaction between Whey Protein and Different Sugars on the Allergenicity of β-Lactoglobulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹寒馨; 汪何雅; 钱和

    2012-01-01

    In our current study, SDS-PAGE and indirect ELISA were both used to investigate the effect of Maillard reaction between whey protein and different sugars on the allergenicity of β-lactoglobulin. It was indicated that better results were achieved when pentose instead of hexose, a monosaccharide instead of a polysaccharide or a thermo-instable polysaccharide instead of a thermostable one was used to react with whey protein. Xyololigosaccharide had less effect on the flavor of Maillard reaction products, resulted in a lower browning rate, and was more effective in reducing the allergenicity of β -lactoglobulin.%通过十二烷基磺酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳与间接竞争酶联免疫吸附法研究不同种类糖与乳清蛋白发生美拉德反应后对β-乳球蛋白致敏性的影响。结果显示:五碳糖效果好于六碳糖,单糖效果好于多糖,加热后热降解的多糖效果好于热稳定的多糖;综合褐变率与抑制率,低聚木糖对风味的影响较小,褐变率显示低聚木糖对感官影响较小,且降低致敏性效果较好。

  7. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander

    2016-09-20

    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  8. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy {beta} radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were {beta} spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy {beta} radiation field a moderated spectrum from a {sup 14}C source (E{sub {beta}},{sub max} =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 {mu}m in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for {sup 147}Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for {beta} radiation from {sup 14}C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to {beta} radiation for radiation fields with maximum {beta} energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum {beta} energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a {beta} dose higher than about 10 {mu}Gy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the {beta}energy for E{sub {beta}},{sub max} values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs.

  9. Dystrophin Dp71f associates with the beta1-integrin adhesion complex to modulate PC12 cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna, Joel; Cerecedo, Doris; Ortega, Arturo; García-Sierra, Francisco; Centeno, Federico; Garrido, Efrain; Mornet, Dominique; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2006-10-01

    Dystrophin Dp71 is the main product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene in the brain; however, its function is unknown. To study the role of Dp71 in neuronal cells, we previously generated by antisense treatment PC12 neuronal cell clones with decreased Dp71 expression (antisense-Dp71 cells). PC12 cells express two different splicing isoforms of Dp71, a cytoplasmic variant called Dp71f and a nuclear isoform called Dp71d. We previously reported that antisense-Dp71 cells display deficient adhesion to substrate and reduced immunostaining of beta1-integrin in the cell area contacting the substrate. In this study, we isolated additional antisense-Dp71 clones to analyze in detail the potential involvement of Dp71f isoform with the beta1-integrin adhesion system of PC12 cells. Immunofluorescence analyses as well as immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the PC12 cell beta1-integrin adhesion complex is composed of beta1-integrin, talin, paxillin, alpha-actinin, FAK and actin. In addition, our results showed that Dp71f associates with most of the beta1-integrin complex components (beta1-integrin, FAK, alpha-actinin, talin and actin). In the antisense-Dp71 cells, the deficiency of Dp71 provokes a significant reduction of the beta1-integrin adhesion complex and, consequently, the deficient adhesion of these cells to laminin. In vitro binding experiments confirmed the interaction of Dp71f with FAK and beta1-integrin. Our data indicate that Dp71f is a structural component of the beta1-integrin adhesion complex of PC12 cells that modulates PC12 cell adhesion by conferring proper complex assembly and/or maintenance.

  10. Search for beta sup - and beta sup -beta sup - decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalyarov, A; Barabash, A; Briançon, C; Brudanin, V; Egorov, V; Hubert, F; Hubert, P; Kovalik, A; Lebedev, V I; Rukhadze, N I; Stekl, I; Umatov, V; Vylov, T D

    2002-01-01

    A sup 4 sup 8 CaCO sub 3 powder sample containing 20.18 g of sup 4 sup 8 Ca was measured for 797 h with a 400 cm sup 3 low-background HPGe detector. New limits on decays of sup 4 sup 8 Ca were obtained. For single beta transitions to sup 4 sup 8 Sc the limits are equal to 0.71x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.82x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the ground state, excited 5 sup + and 4 sup + states, respectively. The new limits on double beta decay to excited states of sup 4 sup 8 Ti are equal to 0.47x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, 1.1x10 sup 2 sup 0 y, and 0.90x10 sup 2 sup 0 y for transitions to the first 2 sup + , second 2 sup + and first 0 sup + excited states, respectively. All limits are given at the 90% CL.

  11. [Hemoglobin C -- beta-thalassemia disease and homozygous beta-thalassemia in a black African family (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, P; Fall, M; Oudart, J L

    1975-01-01

    The study of a Malian family has allowed to prove existence of two types of beta-thalassemia genes: the beta0 gene which suppresses the synthesis of the beta chain into cis position and the beta+ gene which slows down only partially this synthesis. The difference between this two genes has been possible owing to the hemoglobin C found in this family and induced by the betaC mutated gene. The segregation of the four genes betaA, betaC, beta0 thal, and beta+ thal. has allowed to compare all the possible phenotypes deriving from the combinations by two of these allelic genes. PMID:128735

  12. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  13. A proportional-scintillation counter beta spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a proportional counter for coincidence gating of events in a plastic scintillator provides selective registration of beta interactions in the scintillator. This technique has been used to construct a field instrument that can selectively collect beta spectra (coincidence gating) or gamma spectra (anticoincidence gating). Associated dose rates are calculated from the spectra

  14. Localization of thymosin beta-4 in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L. -I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of thymosin beta-4 has been linked to malignant progression but the localization of this polypeptide within tumors is incompletely known. We therefore examined breast cancers for thymosin beta-4 using immunofluorescence. Reactive cells were identified with monoclonal cell marker...... in the tumor microenvironment may modulate tumor behavior....

  15. Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order matching is a special case of unification of simply-typed lambda-terms: in a matching equation, one of the two sides contains no unification variables. Loader has recently shown that higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is undecidable, but decidability of higher-order matching...... up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....

  16. Adaptive changes in pancreatic beta cell fractional area and beta cell turnover in human pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, A. E.; Cao-Minh, L.; Galasso, R; Rizza, R. A.; Corradin, A.; Cobelli, C; Butler, P C

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We sought to establish the extent and basis for adaptive changes in beta cell numbers in human pregnancy. Methods Pancreas was obtained at autopsy from women who had died while pregnant (n = 18), post-partum (n = 6) or were not pregnant at or shortly before death (controls; n = 20). Pancreases were evaluated for fractional pancreatic beta cell area, islet size and islet fraction of beta cells, beta cell replication (Ki67) and apoptosis (TUNEL), and indirect markers of beta cel...

  17. Aspergillus niger protein estA defines a new class of fungal esterases within the alfa/beta hydrolase fold superfamily of proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourne, Y.; Hasper, A.A.; Chahinian, H.; Juin, M.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2004-01-01

    From the fungus Aspergillus niger, we identified a new gene encoding protein EstA, a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily but of unknown substrate specificity. EstA was overexpressed and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement using a lipaseacetylcholinesterase chime

  18. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J;

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  19. A note on superposition of two unknown states using Deutsch CTC model

    CERN Document Server

    Sami, Sasha

    2016-01-01

    In a recent work, authors prove a yet another no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. In this short note, we show that in the presence of closed time like curves, one can indeed create superposition of unknown quantum states and evade the no-go result.

  20. Numerical method of identification of an unknown source term in a heat equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatullayev Afet Golayo?lu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical procedure for an inverse problem of identification of an unknown source in a heat equation is presented. Approach of proposed method is to approximate unknown function by polygons linear pieces which are determined consecutively from the solution of minimization problem based on the overspecified data. Numerical examples are presented.

  1. Beta-conjugates of real algebraic numbers as Puiseux expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Verger-Gaugry, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    The beta-conjugates of a base of numeration $\\beta > 1$, $\\beta$ being a Parry number, were introduced by Boyd, in the context of the R\\'enyi-Parry dynamics of numeration system and the beta-transformation. These beta-conjugates are canonically associated with $\\beta$. Let $\\beta > 1$ be a real algebraic number. A more general definition of the beta-conjugates of $\\beta$ is introduced in terms of the Parry Upper function $f_{\\beta}(z)$ of the beta-transformation. We introduce the concept of a germ of curve at $(0,1/\\beta) \\in \\mathbb{C}^{2}$ associated with $f_{\\beta}(z)$ and the reciprocal of the minimal polynomial of $\\beta$. This germ is decomposed into irreducible elements according to the theory of Puiseux, gathered into conjugacy classes. The beta-conjugates of $\\beta$, in terms of the Puiseux expansions, are given a new equivalent definition in this new context. If $\\beta$ is a Parry number the (Artin-Mazur) dynamical zeta function $\\zeta_{\\beta}(z)$ of the beta-transformation, simply related to $f_{\\b...

  2. Ranking Beta Sheet Topologies of Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids.  To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein.  We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  3. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette;

    1999-01-01

    Formation of new beta cells can take place by two pathways: replication of already differentiated beta cells or neogenesis from putative islet stem cells. Under physiological conditions both processes are most pronounced during the fetal and neonatal development of the pancreas. In adulthood little...... cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved...... increase in the beta cell number seems to occur. In pregnancy, however, a marked hyperplasia of the beta cells is observed both in rodents and man. Increased mitotic activity has been seen both in vivo and in vitro in islets exposed to placental lactogen (PL), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH...

  4. Simultaneous beta/gamma digital spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.

    A state-of-the-art radiation detection system for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta-particles and gamma-rays has been developed. The system utilizes a triple-layer phoswich detector and a customized Digital Pulse Processor (DPP) built in our laboratory. The DPP board was designed to digitally capture the analog signal pulses and, following several digital preprocessing steps, transfer valid pulses to the host computer for further digital processing. A MATLAB algorithm was developed to digitally discriminate beta and gamma events and reconstruct separate beta and gamma-ray energy spectra with minimum crosstalk. The spectrometer proved to be an effective tool for recording separate beta and gamma-ray spectra from mixed radiation fields. The system as a beta-gamma spectrometer will have broad-ranging applications in nuclear non-proliferation, radioactive waste management, worker safety, systems reliability, dose assessment, and risk analysis.

  5. Peripheral beta-endorphin and pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, A C

    1991-01-01

    Beta-endorphin is a peptide with morphine-like effects produced primarily in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. After its cleavage from the parent molecule, proopiomelanocortin, beta-endorphin is circulated via the blood stream to interact with specific opioid receptors located throughout the body. The peptide produces analgesia by inhibiting the firing of peripheral somatosensory fibers. It also affects other senses, such as vision, hearing, and smell. Whereas the ability to increase beta-endorphin secretion during times of surgical stress is positively correlated with amelioration of pain, the administration of exogenous opioids, such as fentanyl, reduces plasma beta-endorphin. Decreased beta-endorphin concentrations may play a role in trigeminal neuralgia, migraine headache, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:1814247

  6. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  7. Complement activation by the amyloid proteins A beta peptide and beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, E H; Svehag, S E

    1999-01-01

    Complement activation (CA) has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether CA may contribute to amyloidogenesis in general, the CA potential of different amyloid fibril proteins was tested. CA induced by A beta preparations containing soluble...... protein, protofilaments and some fibrils or only fibrils in a solid phase system (ELISA) was modest with a slow kinetics compared to the positive delta IgG control. Soluble A beta induced no detectable CA in a liquid phase system (complement consumption assay) while fibrillar A beta caused CA at 200 mg....../ml and higher concentrations. Soluble beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) purified from peritoneal dialysates was found to be as potent a complement activator as A beta in both solid and liquid phase systems while beta 2M purified from urine exhibited lower activity, a difference which may be explained...

  8. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H;

    2011-01-01

    of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser......The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... capture microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  9. Calculating the vertex unknowns of nine point scheme on quadrilateral meshes for diffusion equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the construction of nine point scheme,both vertex unknowns and cell-centered unknowns are introduced,and the vertex unknowns are usually eliminated by using the interpolation of neighboring cell-centered unknowns,which often leads to lose accuracy.Instead of using interpolation,here we propose a different method of calculating the vertex unknowns of nine point scheme,which are solved independently on a new generated mesh.This new mesh is a Vorono¨i mesh based on the vertexes of primary mesh and some additional points on the interface.The advantage of this method is that it is particularly suitable for solving diffusion problems with discontinuous coeffcients on highly distorted meshes,and it leads to a symmetric positive definite matrix.We prove that the method has first-order convergence on distorted meshes.Numerical experiments show that the method obtains nearly second-order accuracy on distorted meshes.

  10. Longitudinal data analysis of polymorphisms in the κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genes shows differential effects along the trajectory of the lactation curve in tropical dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Samir Julián Calvo; Cadavid, Henry Cardona; Corrales, Juan David; Munilla, Sebastián; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    The κ-casein (CSN-3) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) genes are extensively polymorphic in ruminants. Several association studies have estimated the effects of polymorphisms in these genes on milk yield, milk composition, and cheese-manufacturing properties. Usually, these results are based on production integrated over the lactation curve or on cross-sectional studies at specific days in milk (DIM). However, as differential expression of milk protein genes occurs over lactation, the effect of the polymorphisms may change over time. In this study, we fitted a mixed-effects regression model to test-day records of milk yield and milk quality traits (fat, protein, and total solids yields) from Colombian tropical dairy goats. We used the well-characterized A/B polymorphisms in the CSN-3 and BLG genes. We argued that this approach provided more efficient estimators than cross-sectional designs, given the same number and pattern of observations, and allowed exclusion of between-subject variation from model error. The BLG genotype AA showed a greater performance than the BB genotype for all traits along the whole lactation curve, whereas the heterozygote showed an intermediate performance. We observed no such constant pattern for the CSN-3 gene between the AA homozygote and the heterozygote (the BB genotype was absent from the sample). The differences among the genotypic effects of the BLG and the CSN-3 polymorphisms were statistically significant during peak and mid lactation (around 40-160 DIM) for the BLG gene and only for mid lactation (80-145 DIM) for the CSN-3 gene. We also estimated the additive and dominant effects of the BLG locus. The locus showed a statistically significant additive behavior along the whole lactation trajectory for all quality traits, whereas for milk yield the effect was not significant at later stages. In turn, we detected a statistically significant dominance effect only for fat yield in the early and peak stages of lactation (at about 1-45 DIM

  11. TGF-beta and IL-6 signals modulate chromatin binding and promoter occupancy by acetylated FOXP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Arabinda; Li, Bin; Song, Xiaomin; Bembas, Kathryn; Zhang, Geng; Katsumata, Makoto; Saouaf, Sandra J; Wang, Qiang; Hancock, Wayne W; Shen, Yuan; Greene, Mark I

    2008-09-16

    Expression of FOXP3, a potent gene-specific transcriptional repressor, in regulatory T cells is required to suppress autoreactive and alloreactive effector T cell function. Recent studies have shown that FOXP3 is an acetylated protein in a large nuclear complex and FOXP3 actively represses transcription by recruiting enzymatic corepressors, including histone modification enzymes. The mechanism by which extracellular stimuli regulate the FOXP3 complex ensemble is currently unknown. Although TGF-beta is known to induce murine FOXP3(+) Treg cells, TGF-beta in combination with IL-6 attenuates the induction of FOXP3 functional activities. Here we show that TCR stimuli and TGF-beta signals modulate the disposition of FOXP3 into different subnuclear compartments, leading to enhanced chromatin binding in human CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. TGF-beta treatment increases the level of acetylated FOXP3 on chromatin and site-specific recruitment of FOXP3 on the human IL-2 promoter. However, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 down-regulates FOXP3 binding to chromatin in the presence of TGF-beta. Moreover, histone deacetylation inhibitor (HDACi) treatment abrogates the down-regulating effects of IL-6 and TGF-beta. These studies indicate that HDACi can enhance regulatory T cell function via promoting FOXP3 binding to chromatin even in a proinflammatory cellular microenvironment. Collectively, our data provide a framework of how different signals affect intranuclear redistribution, posttranslational modifications, and chromatin binding patterns of FOXP3. PMID:18779564

  12. Signal transduction in human pancreatic cancer: roles of transforming growth factor beta, somatostatin receptors, and other signal intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Becnel, Lauren S; Li, Wei; Fisher, William E; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi

    2005-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease because of the lack of early detection markers and effective treatments. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in western countries, including the United States. The mechanisms of pancreatic cancer progression remain unknown. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a multifunctional cytokine, regulates cell growth and differentiation in healthy tissues, yet fails to do so in pancreatic cancer. Alterations of the TGF-beta and TGF-beta receptor/Smad signal transduction pathway have been implicated in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, both the TGF-beta receptor and Smad proteins interact with a variety of cellular signal pathways, such as the somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), ERK1/2, and Wnt signal transduction cascades. This suggests that pancreatic cancer is a multi-gene-controlled malignancy and that effective treatments for pancreatic cancer should be aimed at multiple targets. In this review, we summarized the major signal intermediates involved in pancreatic cancer signal transduction pathways and specifically discussed how alterations in the regulatory functions of TGF-beta and Smad proteins allow for pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:16314822

  13. Global adaptive stabilisation for nonlinear systems with unknown control directions and input disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yongchao; Liu, Yungang

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses the global adaptive stabilisation via switching and learning strategies for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. Remarkably, the systems in question simultaneously have unknown control directions, unknown input disturbance and unknown growth rate, which makes the problem in question challenging to solve and essentially different from those in the existing literature. To solve the problem, an adaptive scheme via switching and learning is proposed by skilfully integrating the techniques of backstepping design, adaptive learning and adaptive switching. One key point in the design scheme is the introduction of the learning mechanism, in order to compensate the unknown input disturbance, and the other one is the design of the switching mechanism, through tuning the design parameters online to deal with the unknown control directions, unknown bound and period of input disturbance and unknown growth rate. The designed controller guarantees that all the signals of the resulting closed-loop systems are bounded, and furthermore, the closed-loop system states globally converge to zero.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dibutyl phthalate disrupt dorsal-ventral axis determination via the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, Elise A., E-mail: efairbairn@ucdavis.edu [University of California Davis, Bodega Marine Laboratory, P.O. Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Bonthius, Jessica, E-mail: jessica.bonthius@gmail.com [University of California Davis, Bodega Marine Laboratory, P.O. Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Cherr, Gary N., E-mail: gncherr@ucdavis.edu [University of California Davis, Bodega Marine Laboratory, P.O. Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    chemicals to affect enzymatic inhibitory phosphorylation at serine 9 on GSK-3{beta} was examined, but no change in the serine phosphorylation state of GSK-3{beta} was detected in exposed embryos. Furthermore, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dibutyl phthalate had no direct effect on the in vitro kinase activity of GSK-3{beta}. While developmental abnormalities resulting from these axis-disrupting contaminants were linked to {beta}-catenin accumulation in nuclei, the details of the disruption of this signaling pathway remain unknown. Since phenanthrene and fluorene as well as other hydrocarbons have been shown to disrupt axial development in sea urchin embryos, and since axis determination and the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway are highly conserved, we propose that these environmental contaminants may impact embryo development through a similar mechanism across phyla.

  15. Padé-Summation Approach to QCD $\\Beta$-Function Infrared Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Chishtie, F A; Miransky, V A; Steele, T G

    2000-01-01

    We address whether Padé-summations of the $\\bar{MS}$ QCD $\\beta$-function for a given number of flavours exhibit an infrared-stable fixed point, or alternatively, an infrared attractor of a double valued couplant as noted by Kogan and Shifman for the case of supersymmetric gluodynamics. Below an approximant-dependent flavour threshold $(6 \\leq n_f \\leq 8)$, we find that Padé-summation $\\beta$-functions incorporating $[2|1], [1|2], [2|2], [1|3]$, and $[3|1]$ approximants always exhibit a positive pole prior to the occurrence of their first positive zero, precluding any identification of this first positive zero as an infrared-stable fixed point of the $\\beta$- function. This result is shown to be true regardless of the magnitude of the presently-unknown five-loop $\\beta$-function contribution. Moreover, the pole in question suggests the occurrence of dynamics in which both a strong and an asymptotically-free phase share a common infrared attractor. We briefly discuss the possible relevance of infrared-attrac...

  16. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  17. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.; (IIT); (NIH); (UC)

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  18. Tumors initiated by constitutive Cdk2 activation exhibit transforming growth factor beta resistance and acquire paracrine mitogenic stimulation during progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsino, P.; Davis, B.; Law, M.;

    2007-01-01

    mediate some of the transforming effects that result from cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast cancers. MMTV-DIK2 cancer cells express the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, c-Met. MMTV-D1K2 cancer cells also secrete transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), but are relatively resistant to TGF......Cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complexes are present at high frequency in human breast cancer cell lines, but the significance of this observation is unknown. This report shows that expression of a cyclin D1-Cdk2 fusion protein under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMITV...... beta antiproliferative effects. Fibroblasts derived from MMTV-DIK2 tumors secrete factors that stimulate the proliferation of MMTV-D1K2 cancer cells, stimulate c-Met tyrosine phosphorylation, and stimulate the phosphorylation of the downstream signaling intermediates p70(s6k) and Akt on activating...

  19. Scheme for Teleportation of Unknown Entangled Atomic States via Cavity Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a physical scheme to teleport an unknown atomic entangled state via cavity decay. In the teleportation process, four-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is used as quantum channel, and two unknown entangled atoms and two of four atoms in the four-particle GHZ state are trapped in four leaky cavities, respectively. Based on the joint detection of the photons leak out from the four cavities, we can teleport an unknown entangled state to two other remote atoms with certain probability and high fidelity.

  20. Row Reduced Echelon Form for Solving Fully Fuzzy System with Unknown Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Malkawi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method for finding a feasible fuzzy solution in positive Fully Fuzzy Linear System (FFLS, where the coefficients are unknown. The fully fuzzy system is transferred to linear system in order to obtain the solution using row reduced echelon form, thereafter; the crisp solution is restricted in obtaining the positive fuzzy solution. The fuzzy solution of FFLS is included crisp intervals, to assign alternative values of unknown entries of fuzzy numbers. To illustrate the proposed method, numerical examples are solved, where the entries of coefficients are unknown in right or left hand side, to demonstrate the contributions in this study.