Sample records for besugo pagrus pagrus

  1. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M.; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.


    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related h

  2. Larvas de Anisakidae na musculatura do pargo, Pagrus pagrus, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Larval Anisakidae in musculature of Pagrus pagrus from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Caroline D. R. Saad


    Full Text Available A musculatura de 36 espécimes de Pagrus pagrus, provenientes do litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foi examinada à procura de larvas de nematoides anisaquídeos entre janeiro e maio de 2008. Foi coletado um total de 24 larvas de Anisakis sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp. e Raphidascaris sp. infectando sete peixes (19,4%. Larvas de Hysterothylacium sp. e Contracaecum sp. mostraram a prevalência mais alta; e Hysterothylacium sp. o maior valor de abundância parasitária. Esse é o primeiro registro de larvas de anisaquídeos na musculatura somática de P. pagrus.Musculature of 36 specimens of Pagrus pagrus from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro were examined to study larval of anisakid nematodes between January and May 2008. A total of 24 larval of Anisakis sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp. and Raphidascaris sp. were collected infecting seven fishes (19.4%. Larval Hysterothylacium sp. and Contracaecum sp. showed highest prevalence and Hysterothylacium sp. highest parasite abundance. This is the first record of larval anisakids in the somatic musculature of P. pagrus.

  3. The use of morphological and histological features as nutritional condition indices of Pagrus pagrus larvae

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    Marina Vera Diaz

    Full Text Available Morphometrical and histological techniques were employed to characterize Pagrus pagrus larvae nutritional condition. Larvae were reared in laboratory under controlled conditions with the main objective of testing whether these methodologies allowed finding differences between larvae from different feeding treatments. Once yolk was consumed (three days after hatching larvae were assigned to a feeding treatment: starved during the whole experiment; delayed feeding, starved during three days; fed during the entire experiment. Algae (Nannochloropsis oculata and rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis were provided to larvae for feed treatments. Larvae were fixed daily; for morphometrical purposes in 5% formaldehyde solution, and in Bouin for histological sections. Results herein obtained showed that both methodologies are sensitive enough to distinguish larvae characterized by different nutritional condition states obtained from the feeding treatments. Consequently, these methodologies could be employed in wild red porgy larvae in order to asses their nutritional condition. These techniques could also be employed to check larval quality obtained with aquaculture purposes to estimate the effects of changes in rearing protocols or kind of food supply and thus, to guaranty a higher survival of early developmental stages of reared larvae.

  4. Live prey enrichment and artificial microdiets for larviculture of Atlantic red porgy Pagrus pagrus

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    Wade O. Watanabe


    Full Text Available In the first experiment the effects of rotifer enrichment and feeding frequency on larval performance of red porgy Pagrus pagrus were studied. Larvae (2 days post-hatching = 2 dph were fed s-type rotifers (∼20 rotifers/mL enriched with one of the four different treatment media: Rotifer Diet (microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis chuii, DHA Protein Selco, Algamac 3000 (Schizochytrium sp. and Algamac + ARA (arachidonic acid. Larvae were fed daily at full ration or twice daily at half ration. Larval growth and survival (mean = 22.8% were satisfactory through 16 dph under all treatments; however, resistance to hyposaline challenge (Survival Activity Index = SAI was positively correlated (P < 0.01 with DHA concentration of rotifers, and SAI appeared highest in the Algamac + ARA treatment. In the second experiment the effects of Artemia enrichment on larval performance were compared from 18 dph through pre-metamorphosis (33 dph. Larvae were fed Artemia (0.5–3.0/mL enriched with two different media Algamac 3000 and DC DHA Selco, or unenriched Artemia (control. Both media improved DHA levels in Artemia and growth and survival (36.7–54.6% of larvae, while larvae fed unenriched Artemia showed poor growth and survival (5.2%. In the third experiment a University of North Carolina Wilmington microbound diet (MBD and two commercial microdiets (Gemma Micro and Otohime were evaluated. The MBD contained different protein sources (i.e., menhaden, squid and krill meal, soy protein concentrate and attractants. Beginning 16 dph, live feeds and microdiets were co-fed to three treatment groups of larvae: (1 Gemma, (2 MBD, and (3 Otohime. Larval performance on the UNCW-MBD was comparable to the commercial microdiets, with no significant differences in larval survival, DHA, or total n-3 PUFA content through 32 dph. Results delineate more effective rearing protocols for larviculture of Atlantic red porgy juveniles.

  5. Population genetic structure and body shape assessment of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Perciformes: Sparidae from the Buenos Aires coast of the Argentine Sea

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    Leonardo P. Porrini

    Full Text Available This study highlights the analysis of the morphological and genetic variation of the common sea bream Pagrus pagrus, and compares its two main areas of concentration: the northern (35ºS - 38ºS and the southern areas (39ºS - 41ºS of the Buenos Aires coast of the Argentine Sea. Body shape characterization presented two significantly different morphotypes (Wilks' Lambda=0.224, P<0.001. Northern individuals displayed a higher middle area while southern ones were smaller and their caudal peduncle was shorter. The northern and southern areas did not yield significant genetic differences either with the control region or the microsatellite loci, revealing that P. pagrus is not genetically structured. However, individuals from these areas should not be managed as a single group since they display distinct life history traits, responsible for morphological differentiation. The presence of two spawning areas with distinctive characteristics would define two stocks of P. pagrus from the Buenos Aires coast.

  6. Hypoxia impairs visual acuity in snapper (Pagrus auratus). (United States)

    Robinson, Esme; Jerrett, Alistair; Black, Suzanne; Davison, William


    We investigated the effect of environmental hypoxia on vision in snapper (Pagrus auratus). Juvenile snapper inhabit estuarine environments where oxygen conditions fluctuate on a seasonal basis. Optomotor experiments demonstrated that visual acuity is impaired by environmental hypoxia, but not until levels approach the critical oxygen tension (P crit) of this species (around 25% air-saturated seawater). In 100, 80, and 60% air-saturated seawater, a positive optomotor response was present at a minimum separable angle (M SA) of 1°. In 40% air-saturated seawater, vision was partially impaired with positive responses at M SAs of 2° and above. However, in 25% air-saturated seawater, visual acuity was seriously impaired, with positive responses only present at M SAs of 6° and above. Snapper were found to possess a choroid rete, facilitating the maintenance of high ocular oxygen partial pressures (PO2) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia (PO2, between 269 and 290 mmHg). However, at 40 and 25% water oxygen saturation, ocular PO2 was reduced to below 175 mmHg, which is perhaps linked to impairment of visual acuity in these conditions. The ability to preserve visual function during moderate hypoxia is beneficial for the maintenance of a visual lifestyle in the fluctuating oxygen environments of estuaries.

  7. On the record of pug-headedness in snapper, Pagrus auratus (Forster, 1801 (Perciformes, Sparidae from New Zealand

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    Laith JAWAD


    Full Text Available Pug-headedness in the snapper Pagrus auratus is reported for the first time from New Zealand, based on a specimen (aged 2+ collected from Whangarei Harbour. Severe damage to the underlying bones of the mouth and snout regions was noted. The mouth of the specimen was virtually closed. Several factors were attributed to the cause of these anomalies among which are genetic and epigenetic causes.

  8. Assessment of snapper (Pagrus auratus) natural IgM binding to bromelain treated sheep erythrocytes. (United States)

    Morrison, Richard N; Bruce Lyons, A; Nowak, Barbara F; Hayball, John D


    Normal snapper (Pagrus auratus Bloch and Schneider) serum was examined for natural IgM that binds to protease (bromelain) treated sheep erythrocytes (BrSRBC) in a model assay system that has been used to appraise natural IgM of various mammals. Normal snapper serum lysed BrSRBC while haemolysis was abrogated by heat inactivation of serum and in divalent cation-deficient conditions, indicative of classical complement mediated lysis. In addition, heat inactivated normal snapper serum agglutinated BrSRBC while phosphatidylcholine (PtC) liposomes partially inhibited both haemolysis and agglutination. Inhibition of haemolysis and agglutination may have been mediated by an interaction between immunoglobulin (Ig) and PtC as protein A purified snapper Ig bound to PtC liposomes. However it is not known if this binding was PtC specific nor if the binding was initiated by either the Fab and/or Fc domains of snapper Ig. BrSRBC plaque forming cells (PFC) were detected in the peritoneal cavity, spleen, head kidney and peripheral blood of normal snapper. The greatest proportion of BrSRBC PFC per B cell was within the peritoneal cavity followed by the spleen, peripheral blood and head kidney. Together, these data suggest that normal snapper serum may contain natural Ig that binds BrSRBC, activating the classical complement cascade.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of interleukin 1beta (IL-1β) from red seabream (Pagrus major)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zhonghua; SONG Linsheng; GAO Chunping; WU Longtao; QIU Lihua


    The interleukin 1β (IL-1β) Cdna was cloned from the red seabream (Pagrus major) by homology cloning strategy.A Cdna fragment was amplified by PCR using two degenerated primers,which were designed according to the conserved regions of other known IL-1β sequences,and elongated by 3′ ends and 5′ ends RACE PCR to get the full length coding sequence of red seabream IL-1β (RS IL-1β).The sequence contained 1252 nucleotides that included a 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of 84 bp,a 3′ UTR of 410 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 759 nucleotides which could be translated into a putative peptide of 253 amino acids with molecular weight of 28.6 Kd and putative isoelectric point Pi of 5.29.The deduced peptide contained two potential N-glycosylation sites and an identifiable IL1 family signature,but lacked the signal peptide and the clear ICE cut site,which were common in other nonmammalian IL-1β genes.The RS IL-1β had the highest homology with piscine IL-1β according to phylogenetic tree analysis.The transcript expression was detected in blood,brain,gill,heart,head kidney,kidney,liver,muscle and spleen in the pathogen challenged and healthy red seabream by RT-PCR.Results showed that the RS IL-1β Mrna was constitutively expressed in most of the tissues both in stimulated and un-stimulated fish,and the expression could be enhanced by pathogen challenging.

  10. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). (United States)

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M


    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  11. Low O2 avoidance is associated with physiological perturbation but not exhaustion in the snapper (Pagrus auratus: Sparidae). (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Herbert, Neill A


    It is already known that the New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus, Sparidae) does not avoid hypoxia until reaching an oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) of 3.1±1.2 kPa at 18 °C. Avoidance at this level of PO(2) and temperature is below the critical oxygen partial pressure of the species (P(crit)=5.8±0.6 kPa, 43.5±4.5 mmHg) and is therefore expected to result in major physiological stress. Results from the current study showed that avoidance was associated with numerous physiological perturbations, including a significant endocrine response, haematological changes, osmoregulatory disturbance and metabolic adjustments in the heart, liver and muscle. Snapper clearly experienced physiological stress at the point of avoidance but they were not however in a state of physiological exhaustion since some fuel reserves were still available. In addition to avoidance, snapper also showed a subtle reduction in swimming speed - this energy-saving response may have helped snapper minimise the physiological challenge of low O(2) residence. It is therefore concluded that snapper can reside in water below their P(crit) threshold for brief periods of time and, without any evidence of physiological exhaustion at the point of avoidance, fish should recover quickly once normoxia is selected. Lastly, with signs of anaerobic metabolism in cardiac tissue at the point of avoidance, we tentatively suggest that snapper may leave hypoxia to protect heart function.

  12. Anaemia adjusts the aerobic physiology of snapper (Pagrus auratus) and modulates hypoxia avoidance behaviour during oxygen choice presentations. (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Wells, Rufus M G; Herbert, Neill A


    The effect of altered oxygen transport potential on behavioural responses to environmental hypoxia was tested experimentally in snapper, Pagrus auratus, treated with a haemolytic agent (phenylhydrazine) or a sham protocol. Standard metabolic rate was not different between anaemic and normocythaemic snapper (Hct=6.7 and 25.7 g dl(-1), respectively), whereas maximum metabolic rate, and hence aerobic scope (AS), was consistently reduced in anaemic groups at all levels of water P(O(2)) investigated (Pspeed. Despite differences in physiological and behavioural parameters, both groups avoided low P(O(2)) just below their P(crit), indicating that avoidance was triggered consistently when AS limits were reached and anaerobic metabolism was unavoidable. This was confirmed by high levels of plasma lactate in both treatments at the point of avoidance. This is the first experimental demonstration of avoidance behaviour being modulated by internal physiological state. From an ecological perspective, fish with disturbed oxygen delivery potential arising from anaemia, pollution or stress are likely to avoid environmental hypoxia at a higher P(O(2)) than normal fish.

  13. A new record of blue-spotted seabream Pagrus caeruleostictus from Chinese coastal waters documented from morphology and DNA barcoding (United States)

    Chen, Yongxia; Liu, Jing; Wu, Renxie


    A new record of Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes, 1830), collected from the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea in April 2013, was documented based on morphology and cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene barcoding analyses. It can be distinguished by a combination of the following characteristics: head scaled to above eyes; cheeks with 5 or 6 rows of scales; lateral line scales 51-52; 5 rows of scales above the lateral line; 4 and 6 cuspidate teeth in front of upper and lower jaws, respectively, followed by 2 rows of blunter teeth posteriorly; gill rakers on first arch 12 to 15; D XI-XII +9-11; A III +8-9; the first two dorsal spines very short, the third to fifth extended, filamentous in the young; the first pelvic ray filamentous; silvery pink with dark blue spots on back and sides; caudal fin pinkish; other fins bluish or pinkish; the blue spots generally disappear in large specimens. The present report of P. caeruleostictus suggests that its distribution in Chinese coastal waters may be attributed to human effort, since this species is unlikely to have expanded naturally from the eastern Atlantic to the South China Sea, with no other records from the Indian or Pacific Oceans. We recommend that a precautionary approach should be adopted for the management of P. caeruleostictus.

  14. Probiotics as an environment-friendly approach to enhance red sea bream, Pagrus major growth, immune response and oxidative status. (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Esteban, M Angeles; Zaineldin, Amr I


    A usual strategy in modern aquaculture to combat production bottlenecks associated with intensification is preventive health care through the use of consumer and environment-friendly alternatives including probiotics. The current study evaluates the influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), a lyophilized probiotic bacterium, on health status and performance of red sea bream (Pagrus major). Probiotics were incorporated in the diets at four different concentrations: 0 (control diet, LR0), 10(2) (LR1), 10(4) (LR2) and 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1) and diets were administered to the fish for a period of 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, final body weight, body weight gain, specific growth rate, protease activity, protein digestibility, Lactobacillus sp. intestinal count, and superoxide dismutase were significantly higher in all probiotic-fed groups (P probiotic supplementations being the effects dose-dependent. All growth, feed utilization, immune and oxidative parameters were significantly improved following probiotic administration. Present results revealed that L. rhamnosus is a promising probiotic candidate employed to help red sea bream protect themselves, thus promoting safe farming that would be less dependent on chemotherapy against infectious diseases.

  15. Toxicity of short-term copper exposure to early life stages of red sea bream, Pagrus major. (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Jinhu; Ye, Zhenjiang; Dou, Shuozeng


    Acute (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg Cu/L) and chronic (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12 mg Cu/L) toxicity tests of Cu with embryonic and larval red sea bream, Pagrus major, were carried out to investigate their biological responses to Cu exposure in static water at 18 +/- 1 degrees C (dissolved organic carbon, 1.8 +/- 0.65 mg C/L; hardness, 6,183 +/- 360 mg CaCO3/L; salinity, 33 +/- 1 per thousand). The 24- and 48-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) values of Cu for embryos were 0.23 and 0.15 mg/L, whereas the 48-, 72-, and 96-h LC50 values for larvae were 0.52, 0.19, and 0.13 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that embryos were more sensitive to Cu toxicity than larvae. Copper exposures at > or =0.06 mg concentrations caused low hatching success, a delay in the time to hatching of embryos, and reductions in the growth and yolk absorption of the larvae, whereas high mortality and morphological malformations occurred in the embryos and larvae at > or =0.08 mg/L concentrations. Copper concentration did not significantly affect the heart rate of the embryos, but it significantly decreased the heart rate of the newly hatched larvae when the Cu concentration was > or =0.08 mg/L, suggesting that Cu at high concentrations could induce heartbeat disturbances in red sea bream more easily at the larval stage than at the embryonic stage. Hatching success, time to hatching, growth rate, morphological abnormality, yolk absorption, and heart rate were Cu concentration-dependent and could be effective endpoints for evaluating Cu toxicity to the early life stages of red sea bream in nature.

  16. Effect of seasonal variation in seawater dissolved mercury concentrations on mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream (Pagrus major) held in Minamata Bay, Japan. (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akito; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Kindaichi, Michiaki; Sonoda, Ikuko; Koyama, Jiro


    Japanese stingfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) and Bambooleaf wrasse (Pseudolabrus japonicas) are monitored annually for mercury pollution in Minamata Bay, Japan. The average total mercury concentration in the muscle of these two species in Minamata Bay was 0.36 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.20 kg(-1) wet weigh, respectively, between 2008 and 2010. This is higher than levels elsewhere in Japan (0.125 mg kg(-1) wet weight and 0.038 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively). The FDA (2001) and EPA (2004) suggested that a proportion of mercury accumulated in fish is derived from seawater. We reared young red sea bream (Pagrus major) over a 2-year period in Minamata Bay and Nagashima (control) to evaluate the uptake of mercury from seawater and dietary sources. Fish were fed a synthesized diet that did not contain mercury. There was no difference in mercury accumulation in the muscle of red sea bream between Minamata Bay and Nagashima. Thus, our results suggest that the majority of mercury accumulated in fish muscle is not from seawater.

  17. Comparison of Growth Performance and Whole-body Amino Acid Composition in Red Seabream (Pagrus major) Fed Free or Dipeptide Form of Phenylalanine. (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Sam; Rahimnejad, Samad; Song, Jin-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Jun


    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the dipeptide form of phenylalanine as a new source of amino acid in terms of growth performance and whole-body amino acid composition in comparison to the free form for red seabream (Pagrus major). Fish (1.46±0.001 g) were fed four isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets containing 0.7 or 1.4% phenylalanine either in free or dipeptide form. A feeding trial was carried out in three replicates and the fish were fed to apparent satiation for six weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, feed intake of fish was influenced by both phenylalanine form and level and significantly higher values were obtained at an inclusion level of 0.7% and by the use of dipeptide form. However, the other growth parameters did not significantly differ among treatments. Whole-body amino acid compositions revealed no significant changes in concentrations of both essential and non-essential amino acids regardless of the increase in phenylalanine levels or the use of its different forms. The finding in this study indicates that juvenile red seabream can utilize dipeptide phenylalanine as efficiently as free form without any undesirable effects on growth performance or whole-body amino acid composition.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major. (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Nhu, Truong H; Dossou, Serge; Moss, Amina S


    Pagrus major fingerlings (3·29 ± 0·02 g) were fed with basal diet (control) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactococcus lactis (LL), and L. rhamnosus + L. lactis (LR + LL) at 10(6) cell g(-1) feed for 56 days. Feeding a mixture of LR and LL significantly increased feed utilization (FER and PER), intestine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, plasma total protein, alternative complement pathway (ACP), peroxidase, and mucus secretion compared with the other groups (P growth performance (Fn wt, WG, and SGR) and protein digestibility than the groups fed an individual LR or the control diet. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in LR and LR + LL groups when compared with the other groups. Moreover, the fish fed LR or LL had better improvement (P growth, feed utilization, body protein and lipid contents, digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein, and lipid), protease activity, total intestine and LAB counts, hematocrit, total plasma protein, biological antioxidant potential, ACP, serum and mucus LZY and bactericidal activities, peroxidase, SOD, and mucus secretion than the control group. Interestingly, fish fed diets with LR + LL showed significantly lower total cholesterol and triglycerides when compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). These data strongly suggest that a mixture of LR and LL probiotics may serve as a healthy immunostimulating feed additive in red sea bream aquaculture.

  19. Low-O₂ acclimation shifts the hypoxia avoidance behaviour of snapper (Pagrus auratus) with only subtle changes in aerobic and anaerobic function. (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Iftikar, Fathima I; Baker, Daniel W; Hickey, Anthony J R; Herbert, Neill A


    It was hypothesised that chronic hypoxia acclimation (preconditioning) would alter the behavioural low-O(2) avoidance strategy of fish as a result of both aerobic and anaerobic physiological adaptations. Avoidance and physiological responses of juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus) were therefore investigated following a 6 week period of moderate hypoxia exposure (10.2-12.1 kPa P(O(2)), 21 ± 1 °C) and compared with those of normoxic controls (P(O(2))=20-21 kPa, 21 ± 1 °C). The critical oxygen pressure (P(crit)) limit of both groups was unchanged at ~7 kPa, as were standard, routine and maximum metabolic rates. However, hypoxia-acclimated fish showed increased tolerances to hypoxia in behavioural choice chambers by avoiding lower P(O(2)) levels (3.3 ± 0.7 vs 5.3 ± 1.1 kPa) without displaying greater perturbations of lactate or glucose. This behavioural change was associated with unexpected physiological adjustments. For example, a decrease in blood O(2) carrying capacity was observed after hypoxia acclimation. Also unexpected was an increase in whole-blood P(50) following acclimation to low O(2), perhaps facilitating Hb-O(2) off-loading to tissues. In addition, cardiac mitochondria measured in situ using permeabilised fibres showed improved O(2) uptake efficiencies. The proportion of the anaerobic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, at least relative to the aerobic marker enzyme citrate synthase, also increased in heart and skeletal red muscle, indicating enhanced anaerobic potential, or in situ lactate metabolism, in these tissues. Overall, these data suggest that a prioritization of O(2) delivery and O(2) utilisation over O(2) uptake during long-term hypoxia may convey a significant survival benefit to snapper in terms of behavioural low-O(2) tolerance.

  20. Physiological response, blood chemistry profile and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus under low salinity stress. (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Wang, Wei-Long; Yukun, Zhang; Olivier, Adissin


    Environmental stressors caused by inadequate aquaculture management strategies suppress the immune response of fish and make them more susceptible to diseases. Therefore, efforts have been made to relieve stress in fish by using various functional feed additives in the diet, including probiotics. The present work evaluates the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) on physiological stress response, blood chemistry and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) under low salinity stress. Fish were fed four diets supplemented with LR at [0 (LR0), 1 × 10(2) (LR1), 1 × 10(4) (LR2) and 1 × 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1)] for 56 days. Before stress, blood cortisol, urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), whereas plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG) of fish-fed LR2 and LR3 diets were significantly lower (P salinity stress test, plasma cortisol, glucose, T-CHO and TG contents in all groups showed an increased trend significantly (P salinity stress (P > 0.05). In addition, the fish that received LR-supplemented diets showed significantly higher tolerance against low salinity stress than the fish-fed LR-free diet (P < 0.05). The physiological status and the detected immune responses, including total plasma protein and mucus myeloperoxidase activity in red sea bream, will provide a more comprehensive outlook of the effects of probiotics to relieve stress in fish.

  1. Different effects of growth hormone and fasting on the induction patterns of two hormone-sensitive lipase genes in red seabream Pagrus major. (United States)

    Khieokhajonkhet, Anurak; Kaneko, Gen; Hirano, Yuki; Wang, Lu; Ushio, Hideki


    Growth hormone (GH) increases phosphorylation and mRNA levels of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in the livers of some marine teleosts. The hepatic GH-HSL axis appears to play important roles in fasting-induced lipolysis. However, it is not known whether GH exerts similar effects on HSL in fish adipose tissues. Functional differentiation of two fish-specific HSL isoforms (HSL1 and HSL2) also remains unclear. The present study seeks to address two unanswered questions about fish lipolysis using red seabream (Pagrus major): (1) Does GH increase phosphorylation and mRNA levels of HSL in adipose tissue? (2) How do GH and fasting affect mRNA levels of two HSL isoform genes in the liver and adipose tissue? To this end, we first cloned HSL1 and HSL2 cDNAs and investigated their tissue distribution. Transcripts of both HSLs and HSL1 proteins were abundant in the visceral adipose tissue, gonads, and liver, suggesting the important role of HSL in adipose tissue lipolysis. HSL2 transcript levels were 20-65% those of HSL1 except in the skin, and HSL2 proteins were not detected by our in-house antisera. Ex vivo administration of GH increased HSL1 phosphorylation, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) release, and levels of HSL1 and HSL2 mRNA in both the liver and visceral adipose tissue. Hepatic HSL2 mRNA was particularly sensitive to GH administration and sometimes exceeded HSL1 mRNA levels with up to 13-fold induction. In contrast, fasting for 4 and 7d increased HSL1 mRNA levels, but had only marginal effects on HSL2 mRNA levels in both adipose tissue or liver. We concluded that GH would increase HSL mRNAs during adipose tissue lipolysis in red seabream; however, GH and fasting result in different induction ratio of two HSL isoform genes, suggesting that other hormone(s) also contributes to fasting-induced lipolysis.

  2. Toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on the peripheral nervous system of developing red seabream (Pagrus major). (United States)

    Iida, Midori; Kim, Eun-Young; Murakami, Yasunori; Shima, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Hisato


    We investigated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced effects on the morphology of peripheral nervous system (PNS) in the developing red seabream (Pagrus major) embryos. The embryos at 10h post-fertilization (hpf) were treated with 0, 0.1, 0.4 or 1.7 μg/L of TCDD in seawater for 80 min. The morphology of PNS was microscopically observed with florescence staining using an anti-acetylated tubulin antibody at 48, 78, 120 and 136 hpf. Axon length of facial nerve (VII) was found to be shortened by TCDD exposure. Axon guidance in the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) and vagus nerve (X) was altered at 120 and 136 hpf in a TCDD dose-dependent manner. Lowest observable effect level of TCDD (0.1 μg/L) that induced the morphological alteration of PNS was lower than those of other endpoints on morphological deformities so far reported. Given that the growth cone at the tip of growing nerve axons advances under the influence of its surrounding tissues, we hypothesized that TCDD exposure would affect (1) the nerve cell proliferation/differentiation, (2) the structure of muscle as an axon target and (3) the nerve guidance factor in the embryos. By the immunostaining of embryos with an antibody against the neuronal specific RNA-binding protein, HuD, and an antibody against the sarcomeric myosin, no morphological effects were observed on the neural proliferation/differentiation and the structure of facial muscles of TCDD-treated embryos. In contrast, whole mount in situ hybridization of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a secretory axon repulsion factor, revealed the altered expression pattern of its transcripts in TCDD-treated embryos. Our findings suggest that TCDD treatment affects the projection of PNS in the developing red seabream embryos through the effects on the axonal growth cone guidance molecule such as Sema3A, but not on the neuronal differentiation/proliferation and axon target. The PNS in developing embryos may be one of the most sensitive biomarkers to the exposure

  3. Toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on the peripheral nervous system of developing red seabream (Pagrus major)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Midori [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kim, Eun-Young [Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Science and Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Murakami, Yasunori [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Shima, Yasuhiro [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Fisheries Research Agency, Imabari 794-2305 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato, E-mail: [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)


    We investigated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced effects on the morphology of peripheral nervous system (PNS) in the developing red seabream (Pagrus major) embryos. The embryos at 10 h post-fertilization (hpf) were treated with 0, 0.1, 0.4 or 1.7 μg/L of TCDD in seawater for 80 min. The morphology of PNS was microscopically observed with florescence staining using an anti-acetylated tubulin antibody at 48, 78, 120 and 136 hpf. Axon length of facial nerve (VII) was found to be shortened by TCDD exposure. Axon guidance in the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) and vagus nerve (X) was altered at 120 and 136 hpf in a TCDD dose-dependent manner. Lowest observable effect level of TCDD (0.1 μg/L) that induced the morphological alteration of PNS was lower than those of other endpoints on morphological deformities so far reported. Given that the growth cone at the tip of growing nerve axons advances under the influence of its surrounding tissues, we hypothesized that TCDD exposure would affect (1) the nerve cell proliferation/differentiation, (2) the structure of muscle as an axon target and (3) the nerve guidance factor in the embryos. By the immunostaining of embryos with an antibody against the neuronal specific RNA-binding protein, HuD, and an antibody against the sarcomeric myosin, no morphological effects were observed on the neural proliferation/differentiation and the structure of facial muscles of TCDD-treated embryos. In contrast, whole mount in situ hybridization of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a secretory axon repulsion factor, revealed the altered expression pattern of its transcripts in TCDD-treated embryos. Our findings suggest that TCDD treatment affects the projection of PNS in the developing red seabream embryos through the effects on the axonal growth cone guidance molecule such as Sema3A, but not on the neuronal differentiation/proliferation and axon target. The PNS in developing embryos may be one of the most sensitive biomarkers to the exposure

  4. 苯并(a)芘对真鲷胚胎EROD活性影响的测定%Response of EROD Activity of the Pagrus major During Embryonic Development Exposed to Benzo(a)pyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛伟; 王新红


    为测定真鲷(Pagrus major)胚胎CYP1A活性(ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase,EROD)对于BaP暴露的响应,将受精两天后的真鲷胚胎暴露于不同浓度的BaP(0.5,0.8,1.2,1.8 μg/L),采用一种对胚胎个体无损伤的方法测定胚胎EROD活性.结果表明真鲷胚胎EROD活性在BaP浓度为0.8 μg/L时已经开始被诱导,活性最大值出现在最高浓度组1.8 μg/L最高浓度组EROD活性值是对照组的4倍.从EROD活性对不同浓度BaP暴露的响应来看,真鲷胚胎EROD活性与BaP浓度有着明显的剂量效应关系,随着BaP浓度的升高EROD活性呈正相关上升,证实胚胎EROD活性可以做为BaP暴露的敏感生物标志物.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林帆; 刘清华; 李军; 隋娟; 肖志忠; 徐世宏; 马道远; 肖永双


    采用染色体步移(Genome walking)的方法克隆了真鲷vasa基因5′侧翼序列,采用生物信息学方法分析潜在的顺式作用元件,并与斑马鱼核心启动子进行比对,在此基础上构建了绿色荧光蛋白表达载体。序列分析结果显示:克隆得到的真鲷vasa基因5′侧翼序列序列长度为2762bp,其中包括TATA-box、CAAT-box、SP-1、GAGA-1、OCT-1、v-Myb、Sox-5、SRY、HNF等可能对vasa基因转录调控起重要作用的顺式作用元件。潜在的核心启动子区与斑马鱼核心启动子具有同源性(61.1%)%Red seabream (Pagrus major) is a commercially important marine species in China. With the rapid development of marine aquaculture industry, resource conservation and identification of red seabream is increasingly important. Although sperm cryopreservation of the red seabream is relatively successful, little progress has made on embryo cryopreservation. Primordial germ cell (PGC) is the progenitor of the germ cell lineage, giving rise to either egg or sperm, with the potential to create complete individual organisms after fertilization. Cryopreservation of PGCs provides a new way for resource conservation. Vasa, a member of DEAD-box gene family, is strictly expressed in germ cell lineage. It is widely used as a molecular marker to study origin, migration and differentiation of PGCs. The objective of this study is to inves- tigate potential cis-acting elements that involve in the transcription regulation of vasa gene in red seabream and set up a basis for further research on promoter efficiency and isolation of PGCs with GFP special expression. As the vasa 5'UTR reported (GenBank: AB378581) is not long enough to design three nested primers, we first amplified the first intron to get enough information. Next, 5' flanking region of red seabream vasa was amplified from genomic DNA by Genome Walking. Potential transcript factor binding sites were analyzed by bioinformatics

  6. A dot immunobinding assay (DIA) to detect the exotoxin produced by the pathogenic bacteria of the vibriosis in marine cage-cultured Pagrus major%海水养殖真鲷弧菌病病原菌外毒素的点酶法检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴后波; 潘金培


    Vibriosis, caused by Vibrio mimicus, became a major cause of serious economic losses in the farming of red sea bream along the coast of southern China. It has been demonstrated that the pathogenicity of V. mimicus for red sea bream is due to the production of a heat-labile exotoxin. In the present paper, a dot immunobinding assay (DIA) to detect the toxin produced by V. mimicus was developed. The lowest concentration of the toxin the DIA could detect was 0. 025/μg·mL-1 The DIA could detect the toxin in the supernatant of liver and spleen of the diseased red sea bream Pagrus major, even if the supernatant was diluted by 1000 times. It was concluded that the DIA would be useful for rapid and effective detection of the toxin in large samples.

  7. Transient and Stable GFP Expression in Germ Cells by the vasa Regulatory Sequences from the Red Seabream (Pagrus major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Lin, Qinghua Liu, Mingyou Li, Zhendong Li, Ni Hong, Jun Li, Yunhan Hong


    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs are the precursors of gametes responsible for genetic transmission to the next generation. They provide an ideal system for cryopreservation and restoration of biodiversity. Recently, considerable attention has been raised to visualize, isolate and transplant PGCs within and between species. In fish, stable PGC visualization in live embryo and individual has been limited to laboratory fish models such as medaka and zebrafish. One exception is the rainbow trout, which represents the only species with aquaculture importance and has GFP-labeled germ cells throughout development. PGCs can be transiently labeled by embryonic injection of mRNA containing green fluorescence protein gene (GFP and 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR of a maternal germ gene such as vasa, nos1, etc. Stable PGC labeling can be achieved through production of transgenic animals by some transcriptional regulatory sequences from germ genes, such as the vasa promoter and 3'-UTR. In this study, we reported the functional analyses of the red seabream vasa (Pmvas regulatory sequences, using medaka as a model system. It was showed that injection of GFP-Pmvas3'UTR mRNA was able to label medaka PGCs during embryogenesis. Besides, we have constructed pPmvasGFP transgenic vector, and established a stable transgenic medaka line exhibiting GFP expression in germ cells including PGCs, mitotic and meiotic germ cells of both sexes, under control of the Pmvas transcriptional regulatory sequences. It is concluded that the Pmvas regulatory sequences examined in this study are sufficient for germ cell expression and labeling.

  8. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2) in red sea bream Pagrus major. (United States)

    Yoshida, Asami; Wang, Yajun; Bae, Inwoo; Cao, Min-Jie; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji


    Previously we have isolated a novel gelatinolytic serine proteinase, named G1, from the muscle and the plasma of red sea bream. In order to clarify the structure and function of G1, we cloned the full-length cDNA of G1 from the hepatopancreas of red sea bream. G1 cDNA encoded 633 amino acids with a secretory signal sequence at N-terminus, three epidermal growth factor-like domains, a kringle domain, and a trypsin-like serine protease domain. The active site residues of a serine proteinase were conserved in the serine protease domain of G1. The tissue distributions of the mRNA and gelatinolytic activity of G1 were investigated using RT-PCR and gelatin zymography, respectively. Its activity was detected in various tissues while the mRNA of it was strongly expressed in the hepatopancreas. These results suggest that G1 is synthesized in hepatopancreas and carried to the muscle, kidney, heart and ovary via the bloodstream in the red sea bream. The enzyme has a similar domain structure and tissue distribution to those of human hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2) engaged in the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. Thus, it is suggested that G1 is identified as HABP2 and is possibly involved in ECM proteolysis of red sea bream.

  9. Color change of the snapper (Pagrus auratus) and Gurnard (Chelidonichthys kumu) skin and eyes during storage: effect of light polarization and contact with ice. (United States)

    Balaban, Murat O; Stewart, Kelsie; Fletcher, Graham C; Alçiçek, Zayde


    Ten gurnard and 10 snapper were stored on ice. One side always contacted the ice; the other side was always exposed to air. At different intervals for up to 12 d, the fish were placed in a light box, and the images of both sides were taken using polarized and nonpolarized illumination. Image analysis resulted in average L*, a*, and b* values of skin, and average L* values of the eyes. The skin L* value of gurnard changed significantly over time while that of snapper was substantially constant. The a* and b* values of both fish decreased over time. The L* values of eyes were significantly lower for polarized images, and significantly lower for the side of fish exposed to air only. This may be a concern in quality evaluation methods such as QIM. The difference of colors between the polarized and nonpolarized images was calculated to quantify the reflection off the surface of fish. For accurate measurement of surface color and eye color, use of polarized light is recommended.

  10. Effects of dietary tert-butylhydroquinone on domoic acid metabolism and transcription of detoxification-related liver genes in red sea bream Pagrus major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shan; LIANG XuFang; SHEN Dan; ZHANG WenBing; MAI KangSen


    Domoic acid (DA) is a neuroexcitatory amino acid that is produced by Pseudo-nitzschia during harmful algal blooms (HAB).Accumulation of DA can be transferred through food chain and cause neuronal damage in marine animal and in human.Like other algal toxins,DA was suggested to increase the oxidative stress and increase the detoxification-related gene expression in fish.The widely used food antioxidant,tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ),was known to induce a wide range of antioxidative potentials such as elevation of the glutathione levels and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs),via the activation of antioxidant response elements (AREs).In this study,the influences of dietary tBHQ on domoic acid (DA) metabolism and detoxification-related gene transcription were investigated both in vivo and in vitro.Oral administration of tBHQ resulted in significant decreases of DA accumulation of liver tissues in which red sea bream were fed with a single dose of 10 mg DA and 100 mg tBHQ per kg body weight per fish.Real-time PCR further revealed that the mRNA levels of AHR/ARNT/CYP1A1/GSTA1/GSTR were up-regulated in the above liver tissues at 72 h post tBHQ treatment.In consistence,tBHQ exposure also resulted in increased mRNA transcription of GSTA1,GSTA2 and GSTR in cultured red sea bream hepatocytes.Collectively,our findings in this research suggested that the dietary intake of tBHQ accelerated DA metabolism in fish,through mechanisms involving altered transcription of detoxificationrelated liver genes.

  11. Dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major. (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin


    Our study explored the dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (AMP-0.1), 0.2% (AMP-0.2), 0.4% (AMP-0.4) and 0.8% (AMP-0.8) purified AMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The results indicated that dietary AMP supplements tended to improve growth performances. One of the best ones was found in diet group AMP-0.2, followed by diet groups AMP-0.1, AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by AMP supplementation and the significantly highest dry matter digestibility was observed in diet group AMP-0.2. Fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 had significantly higher peroxidase and bactericidal activities than fish fed the control diet. Nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT) activity was found to be significantly (P AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. Total serum protein, lysozyme activity and agglutination antibody titer were also increased (P > 0.05) by dietary supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with AMP supplementation. Moreover, the fish fed AMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 showed the least oxidative stress condition. Finally it is concluded that, dietary AMP supplementation enhanced the growth, digestibility, immune response and stress resistance of red sea bream. The regression analysis revealed that a dietary AMP supplementation between 0.2 and 0.4% supported weight gain and lysozyme activity as a marker of immune functions for red sea bream, which is also inline with the most of the growth and health performance parameters of fish under present experimental conditions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁旭方; 白俊杰; 劳海华; 李贵生; 周天鸿; Hiroshi Y. Ogata



  13. Dicty_cDB: CFJ439 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available equence. 42 4e-05 3 BG711333 | ( S74728 ) antiquitin=26g turgor protein homolog [...pagrus schlegelii antiquiti... 223 1e-56 AY883858_1( AY883858 |pid:none) Sterkiella histriomuscorum turgor

  14. Dicty_cDB: CFG871 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ce. 42 3e-05 3 BG711333 | ( S74728 ) antiquitin=26g turgor protein homolog [human, kidney, Peptide, 511 aa] ...pagrus schlegelii antiquiti... 229 9e-59 AY883858_1( AY883858 |pid:none) Sterkiella histriomuscorum turgor

  15. The 5S rDNA high dynamism in Diplodus sargus is a transposon-mediated mechanism. Comparison with other multigene families and Sparidae species. (United States)

    Merlo, Manuel A; Cross, Ismael; Manchado, Manuel; Cárdenas, Salvador; Rebordinos, Laureana


    There has been considerable discussion in recent years on the evolution of the tandemly repeated multigene families, since some organisms show a concerted model whereas others show a birth-and-death model. This controversial subject extends to several species of fish. In this study, three species of the Sparidae family (Pagrus pagrus, P. auriga and Diplodus sargus) and an interspecific hybrid (P. pagrus (♀) × P. auriga (♂)) have been studied at both molecular and cytogenetic level, taking three different multigene families (5S rDNA, 45S rDNA and U2 snDNA). Results obtained with the 5S rDNA in P. pagrus and P. auriga are characterized by a considerable degree of conservation at the two levels; however, an extraordinary variation was observed in D. sargus at the two levels, which has never been found in other fishes studied to date. As a consequence of this, the evolutionary model of the multigene families is discussed considering the results obtained and others from the bibliography. The result obtained in the hybrid allowed the recombination frequency in each multigene family to be estimated.

  16. Fish remains from Miocene beds of Višnja vas near Vojnik, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Šoster


    Full Text Available This paper discusses fossil teeth of sharks (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii and porgies (Teleostei, Sparidae fromthe Miocene glauconite sandstones of Vi{nja vas near Vojnik. The remains of fish teeth, mostly tooth crowns, belongto cartilaginous fishes of the genera Notorynchus, Carcharias, Carcharoides, Isurus and Cosmopolitodus and to abony fish genus Pagrus.

  17. AcEST: DK953904 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available attus norvegicus GN=... 365 e-101 sp|Q5JAK2|ACTG_RANLE Actin, cytoplasmic 2 OS=Rana lesson...QS8_PAGMA Beta cytoplasmic actin OS=Pagrus major PE... 365 e-99 tr|Q5JAK3|Q5JAK3_RANLE Cytoplasmic actin type 4 OS=Rana lesson

  18. [Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) parasite from the gills of Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae) in Mediterranean Sea]. (United States)

    Amine, F; Neifar, L; Euzet, L


    Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. takes place, among the other species of Lamellodiscus, in the "ergensi" sub-group (Amine et Euzet, 2005) characterized by the morphology of the dorsal lateral bars of the haptor. This sub-group comprises, in the Mediterranean, L. ergensi Euzet and Oliver, 1966, L. kechemirae Amine and Euzet, 2005, L. tomentosus Amine and Euzet, 2005, all parasite of Diplodus sargus, and L. baeri Oliver, 1974 parasite of Pagrus pagrus. L. sanfilippoi can be distinguished from the previous species by the morphology and size of the dorsal lateral bars. The new species is close to Lamellodiscus furcillatus Kritsky, Jiménez-Ruiz and Sey, 2000, a parasite of Diplodus noct in the Persian Gulf, but differs by the size of the haptoral sclerotised pieces and the morphology of the male copulatory apparatus. Lamellodiscus gussevi Sanfilippo (1978) et Lamellodiscus abbreviatus Sanfilippo (1978) are considered as nomina nuda.

  19. Success and failure assessing gonad maturity in sequentially hermaphroditic fishes: comparisons between macroscopic and microscopic methods. (United States)

    Klibansky, N; Scharf, F S


    For two protogynous hermaphrodite fish species, the performance of visual gonad analysis techniques was evaluated to determine when the use of macroscopic methods was sufficient and when microscopic techniques were necessary. Simple macroscopic gonad analysis was found to be a powerful tool for distinguishing sex and whether or not females were spawning capable or ripe for black sea bass Centropristis striata (n = 1443) and red porgy Pagrus pagrus (n = 980), often producing results that were in close agreement with more complex and expensive microscopic techniques. Estimates of key reproductive variables, such as size-dependent sex-change ogives, spawning season duration, spawning fraction and batch number, were also very similar or equal between methods. Apparent seasonal spawning activity was also predicted similarly by each method and the patterns were highly correlated with seasonal patterns in gonado-somatic indices. In contrast, distinguishing between immature females and those that were mature, but inactive, proved difficult when using macroscopic methods and, in these cases, predictions often differed from those produced microscopically. In turn, maturity ogives differed significantly between methods for C. striata (maturity ogives could not be generated for P. pagrus as nearly all fish encountered were mature). Agreement rates among male phases were also very low. Macroscopic methods were able to identify signs of sex transition in very advanced specimens, but early signs were only evident microscopically. While much more detail is visible microscopically, here several population-scale parameters important for fisheries management were estimated equally well with the unaided eye for C. striata and P. pagrus. For comprehensive, fishery-independent surveys and long-term research programmes in particular, determining when microscopic techniques are and are not necessary can greatly improve efficiency and reduce costs without compromising data quality.

  20. Cloning and sequencing of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus, Coryphaenidae) growth hormone-encoding cDNA. (United States)

    Peduel, A D; Elizur, A; Knibb, W


    The cDNA encoding the preprotein growth hormone from the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) has been cloned and sequenced. The cDNA was derived by reverse transcription of RNA from the pituitary of a young fish using the method known as Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). An oligonucleotide primer corresponding to the 5' region of Pagrus major and the universal RACE primer enabled amplification using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The dolphinfish and yellow-tail, Seriola quineqeradiata, are both members of the sub-order Percoidei (Perciforme) and their GH sequences show a high level of homology.

  1. [In progress citation]. (United States)

    Amine, F; Euzet, L


    During a study of the gill parasites (Monogenea) of two species of Diplodus Rafinesque (Sparidae), D. sargus (Linnaeus) and D. vulgaris (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) from off the Algerian coast, several species of the family Diplectanidae Bychowsky, 1957 and genus Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 were collected. We present a redescription of L. ergensi Euzet & Oliver, 1966 and describe two new species, L. kechemirae n. sp. and L. tomentosus n. sp. These new species are close to L. ergensi but differ in the morphology and size of both the haptoral sclerites and the male genital system. On the basis of the dorsal lateral bars of the haptor, we suggest the recognition within the group 'ignoratus' of Oliver (1987) of two subgroups, 'ignoratus' (sensu stricto), with simple dorsal bars, and 'ergensi', with complex bars which are more or less divided in two parts. We also present a redescription of L. baeri Oliver, 1974, collected from the sparid Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) (the type-host) and allocate it to the 'ergensi' subgroup. All of these species of Lamellodiscus are reported from sparids off the Algerian coasts for the first time.

  2. Metal contents in common edible ifsh species and evaluation of potential health risks to consumers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naglaa Farag Soliman; Samir Mahmoud Nasr


    Objective:To conduct a health risk assessment of some heavy metals attributed to consumption of common edible fish species available for consumers. Methods: Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in muscles, gills, livers, bones and skins of six common edible fish species, namelyOreochromis niloticus, Mugil cephalus, Sardinella aurita, Mullus barbatus, Boops boops, Pagrus pagrus. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and expressed asµg/g of wet tissue. Results:Results showed that iron and zinc were the most abundant among all fish tissues under investigation. The data obtained in the present work were compared well with the counterpart data reported internationally. The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the permissible limits. Moreover, the potential health risks of metals to human via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimating daily intake and target heath quotient. Generally, risk values for the measured metals do not pose unacceptable risks at mean ingestion rate for muscles. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the investigated metals in edible parts of the examined species have no health problems for consumers.

  3. Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae parasite branchial de Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae en Méditerranée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine F.


    Full Text Available Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. entre, parmi les Lamellodiscus, dans le sous-groupe “ergensi” (Amine et Euzet, 2005, caractérisé par la morphologie des barres latérales dorsales du hapteur. Ce sous-groupe comprend, en Méditerranée, L. ergensi Euzet et Oliver, 1966, L. kechemirae Amine et Euzet, 2005 et L. tomentosus Amine et Euzet, 2005 parasites de Diplodus sargus, ainsi que L. baeri Oliver, 1974 parasite de Pagrus pagrus. L. sanfilippoi se distingue de ces espèces par la morphologie et la taille des barres latérales dorsales du hapteur. L’espèce se rapproche de Lamellodiscus furcillatus Kritsky, Jiménez-Ruíz et Sey, 2000, parasite de Diplodus noct du golfe Persique, mais s’en distingue par l’épaisseur des pièces du hapteur et la morphologie de l’appareil copulateur mâle. Lamellodiscus gussevi Sanfilippo (1978 et Lamellodiscus abbreviatus Sanfilippo (1978 sont considérés comme des nomina nuda.

  4. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea. (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho


    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations.

  5. Feeding habits of the atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis, in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xênia Moreira Lopes


    Full Text Available This study presents new information on the feeding habits of the Atlantic spotted dolphins, Stenella frontalis, in the Western South Atlantic. Nine stomach contents of S. frontalis incidentally caught in fishing operations conducted by the gillnet fleet based on main harbour of Cananéia (25°00'S; 47°55'W, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed. These specimens were captured between 2005 and 2007. A total of 1 422 cephalopod beaks, 147 otoliths and three crustaceans were recovered from the stomach contents. The dolphins assessed preyed on at least eight different fish species of the families Trichiuridae, Carangidae, Sparidae, Merluccidae, Engraulidae, Sciaenidae, Congridae and Scombridae, five cephalopod species of the families Loliginidae, Sepiolidae, Tremoctopodidae and Thysanoteuthidae, and one shrimp species of the Penaeidae family. Based on the analysis of the Index of Relative Importance (IRI, the Atlantic cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, was the most important fish species represented. Of the cephalopods, the squid Doryteuthis plei was by far the most representative species. Several items were reported for the first time as prey of the S. frontalis: Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, Tremoctopus violaceus, Semirossia tenera, Merluccius hubbsi, Pagrus pagrus and Paralonchurus brasiliensis. S. frontalis presented teuthophagous and ichthyofagous feeding habits, with apparent predominance of the first, and preyed mainly on pelagic and demersal items.O presente estudo apresenta novas informações sobre os hábitos alimentares de golfinhos-pintados-do-Atlântico, Stenella frontalis, no Atlântico Sudoeste. Foram analisados nove conteúdos estomacais de S. frontalis acidentalmente capturados em operações de pesca entre 2005 e 2007 pela frota pesqueira do município de Cananéia (25°00'S; 47°55'W, sudeste do Brasil. Foram recuperados dos conteúdos estomacais 1 422 bicos de cefalópodes, 147 otólitos e três camarões. Dos itens analisados, foram

  6. A survey of nematodes of the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Nematoda, Seuratoidea) parasitic in marine fishes off Brazil, including description of three new species. (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Pereira, Felipe B; Pantoja, Camila; Soares, Iris A; Pereira, Aldenice N; Timi, Juan T; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L


    A taxonomic survey of six nematode species (including three new taxa) from the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777, parasites of marine fishes off the Brazilian coast, is provided. Nematodes were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cucullanus gastrophysi n. sp. parasitic in Lophius gastrophysus Miranda Ribeiro differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: shape and number of sclerotized structures in the oesophastome (a pair of lateral elongate structures and a single small reniform one), position of deirids and excretory pore (both anterior to oesophagus base), spicule length and spicule/body length ratio (0.97-1.29 mm and 6.5-10.5%, respectively), morphology and length of gubernaculum (V-shaped, 107-135 µm long). Cucullanus protrudens n. sp. from Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) has the cloacal lips broadly protruded, which differentiates it from several species of Cucullanus; other features, e.g., the length of spicules and gubernaculum (400-415 µm and 91-103 µm, respectively), arrangement of caudal papillae and position of excretory pore (slightly posterior to oesophagus-intestine junction) also characterize this species. Cucullanus pseudopercis n. sp. from Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) has deirids and excretory pore posterior to the oesophagus-intestine junction, which distinguishes the species from most of the congeners; furthermore, the arrangement of caudal papillae in combination with the length of spicules and gubernaculum (1.0-1.5 mm and 178-196 µm, respectively) separate this species from other taxa. Newly collected specimens of C. cirratus Müller, 1777 (type species of the genus) from Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup), C. pedroi from Conger orbignianus Valenciennes (type host of the species) and C. genypteri Sardella, Navone & Timi, 1997 from Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, were studied as well. Comparisons between newly collected samples and the taxonomic data available for each respective species revealed

  7. 苯并(a)芘对真鲷胚胎EROD活性影响的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛伟; 王新红


    为测定真鲷(Pagrus major)胚胎CYP1A活性(ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase,EROD)对于BaP暴露的响应,将受精两天后的真鲷胚胎暴露于不同浓度的BaP(0.5,0.8,1.2,1.8μg/L),采用一种对胚胎个体无损伤的方法测定胚胎EROD活性.结果表明真鲷胚胎EROD活性在BaP浓度为0.8μg/L时已经开始被诱导,活性最大值出现在最高浓度组1.8μg/L最高浓度组EROD活性值是对照组的4倍.从EROD活性对不同浓度BaP暴露的响应来看,真鲷胚胎EROD活性与BaP浓度有着明显的剂量效应关系,随着BaP浓度的升高EROD活性呈正相关上升,证实胚胎EROD活性可以做为BaP暴露的敏感生物标志物.

  8. Shift in trophic level of Mediterranean mariculture species. (United States)

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Stergiou, Konstantinos I; Adamopoulos, Nikolaos; Pauly, Daniel; Mente, Eleni


    The mean trophic level of the farmed fish species in the Mediterranean has been increasing. We examined the farming-up hypothesis (i.e., the increase in the production of high-trophic-level species) in the Mediterranean by determining the trophic level of the aquafeeds (i.e., what the fish are fed) of 5 species of farmed marine fishes: common dentex (Dentex dentex), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and red porgy (Pagrus sp.). The mean trophic level of aquafeed used in mariculture from 1950 to 2011 was higher (3.93) than the prey farmed fish consume in the wild (3.72) and increased at a faster rate (0.48/decade) compared with that based on their diets in the wild (0.43/decade). Future expected replacement of the fishmeal and oil in aquafeeds by plant materials may reverse the farming-up trend, although there are a number of concerns regarding operational, nutritional, environmental, and economic issues. The farming-up reversal can be achieved in an ecologically friendly manner by facilitating the mariculture of low-trophic-level fishes and by promoting high efficiency in the use of living marine resources in aquafeeds.

  9. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of α- and β-Globin Gene of Hunphead Snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus)%红笛鲷α-珠蛋白和β-珠蛋白基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新中; 鲁义善; 吴灶和; 简纪常


    应用已知的标签序列通过RACE-PCR和RT-PCR方法成功克隆红笛鲷(Lutjanus sanguineus)α-珠蛋白和β-珠蛋白基因的全长cDNA序列.α-珠蛋白和β-珠蛋白基因的cDNA全长分别为560和563 bp,开放阅读框分别为429和444 bp,各编码143和148个氨基酸,理论相对分子质量分别为15690和16400,理论等电点为7.79和6.61.氨基酸序列BLAST结果表明,红笛鲷α-珠蛋白基因和β-珠蛋白基因编码的氨基酸序列与其他鱼类的相似性分别在59%~ 79%和55%~80%之间.用邻接法(Neighbor-Joining)构建的α -珠蛋白基因和β-珠蛋白基因的系统发育树表明,红笛鲷与真鲷(Pagrus major)、金头鲷(Sparus aurata)和鰤(Seriola quinqueradiata)等亲缘关系较近.

  10. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo


    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  11. Seasonal variation in species composition and abundance of demersal fish and invertebrates in a Seagrass Natural Reserve on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Peidong; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Wentao; Wu, Zhongxin


    Seagrass habitats are structurally complex ecosystems, which support high productivity and biodiversity. In temperate systems the density of seagrass may change seasonally, and this may influence the associated fish and invertebrate community. Little is known about the role of seagrass beds as possible nursery areas for fish and invertebrates in China. To study the functioning of a seagrass habitat in northern China, demersal fish and invertebrates were collected monthly using traps, from February 2009 to January 2010. The density, leaf length and biomass of the dominant seagrass Zostera marina and water temperature were also measured. The study was conducted in a Seagrass Natural Reserve (SNR) on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China. A total of 22 fish species and five invertebrate species were recorded over the year. The dominant fish species were Synechogobius ommaturus, Sebastes schlegelii, Pholis fangi, Pagrus major and Hexagrammos otakii and these species accounted for 87% of the total number of fish. The dominant invertebrate species were Charybdis japonica and Octopus variabilis and these accounted for 98% of the total abundance of invertebrates. There was high temporal variation in species composition and abundance. The peak number of fish species occurred in August-October 2009, while the number of individual fish and biomass was highest during November 2009. Invertebrate numbers and biomass was highest in March, April, July and September 2009. Temporal changes in species abundance of fishes and invertebrates corresponded with changes in the shoot density and leaf length of the seagrass, Zostera marina.

  12. Induction of fish biomarkers by synthetic-based drilling muds. (United States)

    Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida


    The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs.

  13. Marine reserves demonstrate trophic interactions across habitats. (United States)

    Langlois, Timothy J; Anderson, Marti J; Babcock, Russell C; Kato, Shin


    Several infaunal bivalve taxa show patterns of decreased biomass in areas with higher densities of adjacent reef-associated predators (the snapper, Pagrus auratus and rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii). A caging experiment was used to test the hypothesis that patterns observed were caused by predation, using plots seeded with a known initial density of the bivalve Dosinia subrosea to estimate survivorship. The caging experiment was replicated at several sites inside and outside two highly protected marine reserves: predators are significantly more abundant inside these reserves. Survivorship in fully caged, partially caged and open plots were then compared at sites having either low (non reserve) or high (reserve) predator density. The highest rates of survivorship of the bivalve were found in caged plots inside reserves and in all treatments outside reserves. However, inside reserves, open and partially caged treatments exhibited low survivorship. It was possible to specifically attribute much of this mortality to predation by large rock lobsters, due to distinctive marks on the valves of dead D. subrosea. This suggests that predation by large rock lobster could indeed account for the distributional patterns previously documented for certain bivalve populations. Our results illustrate that protection afforded by marine reserves is necessary to investigate how depletion through fishing pressure can change the role of upper-level predators and trophic processes between habitats.

  14. Induction of fish biomarkers by synthetic-based drilling muds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe Monique Gagnon

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster, to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs. Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs: an ester (E, an isomerized olefin (IO and linear alpha olefin (LAO. Condition factor (CF, liver somatic index (LSI, hepatic detoxification (EROD activity, biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70 were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs.

  15. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea. (United States)

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G


    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (♀) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (♀, ♂) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (♀) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (♀) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided.

  16. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming. (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti


    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed.

  17. Method to measure the force to pull and to break pin bones of fish. (United States)

    Balaban, Murat O; Jie, Hubert; Yin Yee, Yin; Alçiçek, Zayde


    A texture measurement device was modified to measure the force required to pull pin bones from King salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), snapper (Pagrus auratus), and kahawai (Arripis trutta). Pulled bones were also subjected to tension to measure the breaking force. For all fish, the pulling force depended on the size of the fish, and on the length of the pin bone (P bones. For example, fresh small salmon (about 1500 g whole) required 600 g on average to pull pin bones, and large fish (about 3700 g whole) required 850 g. Longer bones required greater pulling force. The breaking force followed the same trend. In general, the breaking force was greater than the pulling force. This allows the removal of the bones without breaking them. There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference between the forces (both pulling and breaking) from fresh and frozen/thawed samples, although in general frozen/thawed samples required less force to pull. With the quantification of pulling and breaking forces for pin bones, it is possible to design and build better, "more intelligent" pin bone removal equipment.

  18. Speciation of Gram-positive bacteria in fresh and ambient-stored sub-tropical marine fish. (United States)

    Al Bulushi, Ismail M; Poole, Susan E; Barlow, Robert; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A


    This study identified Gram-positive bacteria in three sub-tropical marine fish species; Pseudocaranx dentex (silver trevally), Pagrus auratus (snapper) and Mugil cephalus (sea mullet). It further elucidated the role played by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage on the composition of the Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 266 isolates of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by conventional biochemical methods, VITEK, PCR using genus- and species-specific primers and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolates were found to fall into 13 genera and 30 species. In fresh fish, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus were the most frequent isolates. After ambient storage, S. epidermidis, S. xylosus and Bacillus megaterium were no longer present whereas S. warneri, B. sphaericus, Brevibacillus borstelensis, Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus uberis increased in frequency. Micrococcus luteus and S. warneri were the most prevalent isolates from P. dentex, while E. faecium and Strep. uberis were the most frequent isolates from P. auratus and M. cephalus. With respect to different parts of the fish body, E. faecium, Strep. uberis and B. sphaericus were the most frequent isolates from the muscles, E. faecium, Strep. uberis from the gills and M. luteus from the gut. This study showed a diversity of Gram-positive bacteria in sub-tropical marine fish; however, their abundance was affected by fish habitat, fish body part and ambient storage.

  19. Cloning and gene construction analysis of β-actin in Oreochromis aureus%奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin基因的克隆与结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海彦; 贾永义; 唐永凯


    β-actin在真核细胞的生理过程中起着重要作用,其序列具有高度保守性,是一种管家基因.通过RT-PCR方法克隆出奥利亚罗非鱼(Oreochromis aureus)β-actin的部分cDNA序列,其长度为424 bp,翻译成138个氨基酸,计算的蛋白质分子量为15.5 ku.氨基酸同源性分析显示,奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin与真鲷(Pagrus major)、斑马鱼(Danio rerio)、青鳝(Oryzias latipes)、龙溪鳝(Rivulus marmoratus)的相似性最高,为99.3%;与鲫(Carassius auratus)、红鳍东方鲍(Takifugu rubripes)等其它鱼的相似性也较高,为97.8%~98.6%.此外,还克隆出了奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin相应的DNA序列,共619 bp.cDNA和DNA的序列比对显示克隆出的奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin含有2个内含子,这为将来设计β-actin荧光定量PCR引物以及测定其在不同组织中的表达量变化打下基础.%Eukaryotic β-actin gene plays an important role in physiological process and its sequence is highly conservative as a housekeeping gene. The partial cDNA encoding β-actin in Oreochromis aureus was isolated using RT-PCR. The cDNA isolated was 424 bp encoding 138 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 15.5 ku. The comparison analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of β-actin in O. aureus showed high similarity of 99.3% with those of Pagrus major, Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Rivulus marmoratus, and 97.8% ~ 98.6% homology with those of other fishes, such as Carassius auratus, Takifugu rubripes. The corresponding DNA sequence of O. aureus β-actin in size of 619 bp was also cloned. By comparing the sequences of cDNA and DNA, it was found that β-actin gene in O. aureus consisted of two introns. The present study provided some useful information in designing the β-actin primers for real time RT-PCR and evaluating the β-actin expression level for different tissues.

  20. Spatial variation in elemental composition of otoliths of three species of fish (family Sparidae) (United States)

    Gillanders, B. M.; Kingsford, M. J.


    Determining the nursery habitat of fishes that have moved from estuarine nursery habitats is difficult. The elemental fingerprints of otoliths of three species of sparids were determined to investigate their utility as a natural tag of the nursery habitat. Juvenile Pagrus auratus (snapper), Rhabdosargus sarba (tarwhine) and Acanthopagrus australis (bream) were collected from two sites in each of 15, six and three estuaries, respectively, and their otoliths analysed by solution-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Significant differences in otolith chemistry were found for all three species of juveniles collected from different estuaries. The same patterns among estuaries were not seen for all species, although it was not possible to sample the same sites within an estuary for all species. For bream, significant differences in otolith chemistry were found among all three estuaries, whereas for tarwhine the six estuaries were separated into three groups. For snapper, a number of estuaries could be separated, but there was some overlap for other estuaries. All three species were collected from the same site within one estuary and their otoliths analysed. Significant differences were found among species, but the implication of this finding remains unclear as the three species show differences in microhabitat use and may also differ in age. Because the elemental fingerprints of juveniles vary among estuaries or groups of estuaries, the nursery or recruitment estuary of adult fish could now be determined by analysing the juvenile region of adult otoliths. Thus, connectivity between estuaries and open coastal populations could be determined. Such information will have major implications for fisheries management because it will provide information on the distance that fish have moved from their recruitment estuary and the number of estuaries that contribute to each adult population.

  1. Short-term covariation of dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton photosynthesis in a coastal fish aquaculture site (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takashi; Murata, Osamu; Furuya, Ken; Eguchi, Mitsuru


    The influence of phytoplankton photosynthesis (PP) on dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics was evaluated in a red sea bream ( Pagrus major) aquaculture site. The surface PP was monitored continuously by a natural fluorescence sensor for 2-3 weeks during all seasons, except spring. In summer, when the daily PP was low during cloudy weather, DO at the surface markedly decreased below the critical level (5.7 mg O 2 L -1), which is needed for normal fish growth. However, on the subsequent clear day, active PP restored the DO back to above the critical level. In fall, under cloudy skies, the surface DO also decreased below the critical level and remained there, even when the subsequent days were clear. In winter, DO remained at high levels throughout the water column due to an active supply from the air and vertical mixing. Besides seasonal changes, surface DO showed a diel cycle with a minimum early in the morning and maximum in the evening. This diel cycle was also regulated by planktonic photosynthesis. This was most obvious and its amplitude was largest in summer, as PP was very high and thermal stratification prevented diffusion of DO from the surface to deeper water. The present study is the first detailed report on the close coupling of DO with PP in coastal waters, even under non-bloom conditions. Cloudy weather and early mornings were found to be the most critical periods in oxygen supply to cultured fish and other pelagic organisms in a fish culture site and other eutrophic coastal area.

  2. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr


    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  3. Bait effects in sampling coral reef fish assemblages with stereo-BRUVs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey R Dorman

    Full Text Available Baited underwater video techniques are increasingly being utilised for assessing and monitoring demersal fishes because they are: 1 non extractive, 2 can be used to sample across multiple habitats and depths, 3 are cost effective, 4 sample a broader range of species than many other techniques, 5 and with greater statistical power. However, an examination of the literature demonstrates that a range of different bait types are being used. The use of different types of bait can create an additional source of variability in sampling programs. Coral reef fish assemblages at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, were sampled using baited remote underwater stereo-video systems. One-hour stereo-video recordings were collected for four different bait treatments (pilchards, cat food, falafel mix and no bait (control from sites inside and outside a targeted fishery closure (TFC. In total, 5209 individuals from 132 fish species belonging to 41 families were recorded. There were significant differences in the fish assemblage structure and composition between baited and non-baited treatments (P<0.001, while no difference was observed with species richness. Samples baited with cat food and pilchards contained similar ingredients and were found to record similar components of the fish assemblage. There were no significant differences in the fish assemblages in areas open or closed to fishing, regardless of the bait used. Investigation of five targeted species indicated that the response to different types of bait was species-specific. For example, the relative abundance of Pagrus auratus was found to increase in areas protected from fishing, but only in samples baited with pilchards and cat food. The results indicate that the use of bait in conjunction with stereo-BRUVs is advantageous. On balance, the use of pilchards as a standardised bait for stereo-BRUVs deployments is justified for use along the mid-west coast of Western Australia.

  4. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus. (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru


    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić


    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  6. Development and validation of a radioimmunoassay for fish insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the effect of aquaculture related stressors on circulating IGF-I levels. (United States)

    Dyer, Anthony R; Upton, Zee; Stone, David; Thomas, Philip M; Soole, Kathleen L; Higgs, Naomi; Quinn, Kirsty; Carragher, John F


    This paper describes the development and validation of a commercially available radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of fish insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The assay was developed using recombinant barramundi IGF-I as antigen and recombinant tuna IGF-I as radiolabelled tracer and standard. Assay sensitivity was 0.15 ng/ml, inter-assay variation was 16% (n = 9) and intra-assay variation was 3% (n = 10). Cross reactivity of less than 0.01% was found with salmon insulin, salmon IGF-II and barramundi IGF-II, less than 0.5% with human IGF-I and less than 1% with human IGF-II. Parallel dose-response inhibition curves were shown for barramundi (Lates calcarifer), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), and seabream (Pagrus auratus) IGF-I. The assay was then used to measure stress related changes in different aquacultured fish species. Salt water acclimated Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar) bathed for 2 h in fresh water showed significantly lower IGF-I concentrations than control smolts two days after the bath (53.1 compared to 32.1 ng/ml), with levels of IGF-I also lower in smolts exhibiting stunted growth (stunts). Capture and confinement of wild tuna in sea-cages resulted in a significant decrease in IGF-I levels (28 ng/ml) when compared to tuna captured and sampled immediately (48 ng/ml), but had recovered to starting levels after 3 weeks (43 ng/ml). Handling and isolation in silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) led to a gradual decline in IGF-I over a 12 h period (36-19 ng/ml) but showed signs of recovery by 24 h (24 ng/ml) and had recovered fully 72 h after treatment (40 ng/ml). A similar trial in black bream (Acanthopagrus butcherii) showed comparable results with IGF-I levels gradually decreasing (40-26 ng/ml) over 24 h, results that were mirrored by cortisol concentrations which increased during this time (1-26 ng/ml). In the studies presented here changes in IGF-I levels were not

  7. Megalocytiviruses

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    Kazuhiro Nakajima


    Full Text Available The genus Megalocytivirus, represented by red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV, the first identified and one of the best characterized megalocytiviruses, Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, the type species of the genus, and numerous other isolates, is the newest genus within the family Iridoviridae. Viruses within this genus are causative agents of severe disease accompanied by high mortality in multiple species of marine and freshwater fish. To date outbreaks of megalocytivirus-induced disease have occurred primarily in south-east Asia and Japan, but infections have been detected in Australia and North America following the importation of infected ornamental fish. The first outbreak of megalocytiviral disease was recorded in cultured red sea bream (Pagrus major in Japan in 1990 and was designated red sea bream iridovirus disease (RSIVD. Following infection fish became lethargic and exhibited severe anemia, petechiae of the gills, and enlargement of the spleen. Although RSIV was identified as an iridovirus, sequence analyses of RSIV genes revealed that the virus did not belong to any of the four known genera within the family Iridoviridae. Thus a new, fifth genus was established and designated Megalocytivirus to reflect the characteristic presence of enlarged basophilic cells within infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence tests employing recently generated monoclonal antibodies and PCR assays are currently used in the rapid diagnosis of RSIVD. For disease control, a formalin-killed vaccine was developed and is now commercially available in Japan for several fish species. Following the identification of RSIV, markedly similar viruses such as infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV, turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV, Taiwan grouper iridovirus (TGIV, and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV were isolated in East and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analyses of the major capsid protein (MCP and

  8. Identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathways altered in TCDD-treated red seabream embryos by transcriptome analysis. (United States)

    Iida, Midori; Fujii, Satoshi; Uchida, Masaya; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Agusa, Tetsuro; Hirano, Masashi; Bak, Su-Min; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato


    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces a broad spectrum of toxic effects including craniofacial malformation and neural damage in fish embryos. These effects are mainly mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). However, the mode of action between TCDD-induced AHR activation and adverse outcomes is not yet understood. To provide a comprehensive picture of the AHR signaling pathway in fish embryos exposed to TCDD, red seabream (Pagrus major) embryos were treated with graded concentrations of TCDD (0.3-37nM) in seawater, or with a mixture of TCDD and 500nM CH223191, an AHR-specific antagonist. The transcriptome of red seabream embryos was analyzed using a custom-made microarray with 6000 probes specifically prepared for this species. A Jonckheere-Terpstra test was performed to screen for genes that demonstrated altered mRNA expression levels following TCDD exposure. The signals of 1217 genes (as human homologs) were significantly altered in a TCDD concentration-dependent manner (q-valueTCDD-induced alteration in mRNA expression was alleviated by co-exposure to CH223191, suggesting that the mRNA expression level of these genes was regulated by AHR. To identify TCDD-activated pathways, the microarray data were further subjected to gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and functional protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. GSEA demonstrated that the effects of TCDD on sets of genes involved calcium, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), actin cytoskeleton, chemokine, T cell receptor, melanoma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), axon guidance, and renal cell carcinoma signaling pathways. These results suggest the hypotheses that TCDD induces immunosuppression via the calcium, MAPK, chemokine, and T cell receptor signaling pathways, neurotoxicity via VEGF signaling, and axon guidance alterations and teratogenicity via the dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton and melanoma and renal cell carcinoma signaling pathways. Furthermore

  9. Development of a widely applicable immunoassay for insulin in marine teleosts that regulates cross-reactivity using biotinylation and inhibits interference by plasma components. (United States)

    Andoh, Tadashi


    Amino acids are important insulinotropins in fish, and their effects vary between amino acids and fish species. Insulin levels are indicative of growth efficiency and stress levels in fish; however, interspecies comparisons of insulin levels are hampered by the difficulty of measuring insulin concentration in each fish. We developed a widely applicable competitive immunoassay using biotinylated yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) insulin for measuring insulin in marine teleosts, including yellowtail and red seabream (Pagrus major), which are the most common species raised by aquaculture in Japan. Amino acid sequence substitution was limited at the ninth residue of the A-chain (A9) between these two species, and analysis of the primary structures of insulins from six phylogenetically far teleosts suggested that the sequences of yellowtail and red seabream insulins are identical to those of many teleosts, except the A9 residue. However, A9 is known to be an epitope that confers cross-reactive differences on insulin. We solved this problem through immunoreactive invalidation of this residue by biotinylation. The binding-inhibition curves of yellowtail and red seabream insulins were identical following the use of this technique. However, yellowtail and red seabream plasma was found to contain components that interfere with immunoassays. This problem was solved by the extraction of plasma using equal volume of acid-ethanol in yellowtail and by cooling at 0°C during the cross-reaction between the ligand and antibody in red seabream. Serially diluted plasma samples from both species exhibited linearity after these treatments. In a recovery test using plasma with added yellowtail insulin, the average recovery varied from 96.2% to 109.4%. A post-feeding rise in insulin was confirmed by this immunoassay in yellowtail, and peak of the rise was 39.8±7ng/ml at 1h postfeeding from 3.9±1.1ng/ml at 0h. This indicates that this assay is sufficient for measuring the baseline

  10. Integration of physiological energetics, biometrics, proximate composition and fatty acids as biomarkers to asses the utilization of fish feed waste by mussels growing near fish cages


    Irisarri, Jade


    En esta tesis se realiza un estudio para evaluar el impacto ambiental y comportamiento alimentario del mejillón (Mytilus galloprovincialis) criado en bateas del polígono de Lorbé, en la ría de Ares-Betanzos (Galicia), algunas de ellas localizadas próximas a una piscifactoría de besugo (Pagellus bogaraveo). Se propone establecer métodos para optimizar su cultivo manteniendo la integridad ecológica del área. De este modo, se evaluará la aplicación potencial del concepto de acuicultura multitróf...

  11. Molecular cloning of cDNA core sequences of detoxification-related genes and liver constitutive expression in rabbitfish Siganus oramin%黄斑篮子鱼去毒相关基因的克隆与肝脏组成型表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 梁旭方; 林群; 李光照; 胡永乐


    从基因水平探讨海洋鱼类对海洋藻毒素的去毒分子机理.采用RT-PCR法成功克隆了黄斑篮子鱼Siganus oramin肝脏Ⅰ时相代谢酶细胞色素P450 1A(CYPlA)、Ⅱ时相代谢酶alpha型谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GSTA)和rho型谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GSTR)、热休克蛋白70(HSP70)、alpha 1型钠钾ATP酶(ATPIAI)及β-肌动蛋白(beta-actin,ACT)基因cDNA核心序列,序列分别长879 bp、582 bp、588 bp、660 bp、749 bp和554 bp.序列同源性分析发现.属鲈形目的黄斑篮子鱼CYP1A、GSTA和GSTR与同属鲈彤目的牙鲆Paralichthys olivaceus、欧洲鲽Pleuronectes platessa、真鲷Pagrus major、鲤形目的斑马鱼Brachydanio rerio相应氨基酸序列同源性较高,CYP1A和GSTA与非洲爪蟾(两栖类)、鸡(鸟类)、小鼠、大鼠和人(哺乳类)相应氨基酸序列同源性低,这可能与鱼类Ⅰ、Ⅱ时相去毒酶基因承担水环境毒素去毒代谢的特殊功能有关;而HSP70、ATPIA和β-肌动蛋白在鱼类、两柄类、鸟类、哺乳类中均有较高的同源性,这可能与这些基因在机体中承担的最基本的生命功能相关.应用半定量RT-PCR的方法,以β-肌动蛋白作为外参照,在指数期增长范围内分别得到了CYP1A、GSTA、GSTR、HSP70和ATP1A1 mR-NA与β-肌动蛋白mRNA(%)的比值,确定黄斑篮子鱼肝脏去毒相关基因的组成型表达水平.其中,黄斑篮子鱼肝脏CYPIA、GSTA和GSTR基因组成型表达相对较高,HSP70和ATP1A1基因组成型表达相对较低,这可能与不同基因在黄斑篮子鱼海洋藻毒素去毒分子机理中承担的作用相关,为海洋藻毒素在海洋鱼类中的积聚及代谢去毒分子机制的研究提供了相关数据.

  12. Studies of Antimicrobial Peptides Hepcidin and Scygonadin in Chinese Marine-cultured Fishes and Mud Crab%海洋鱼类和青蟹抗菌肽hepcidin和scygonadin的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    抗菌肽或抗微生物肽因具有杀死或抑制微生物的共同特性,近年来科学家又将这些肽类称为"天然抗生素",有望在将来作为一种新型的生物药物替代现有的化学类抗生素.海洋动物中蕴藏着世界上丰富的抗菌活性物质,研究与开发应用海洋动物抗菌肽成为近年来的研究热点.结合国内外的相关研究进展,简要总结了课题组近年来在我国海水养殖鱼类抗菌肽hepcidin和青蟹抗菌肽scygonadin的研究进展,从抗菌肽的蛋白分离、纯化、基因克隆、基因表达模式、基因工程表达以及抗菌肽合成与表达产品的抗菌活性等进行了简要细致的叙述,对深入探索海洋动物抗菌肽在我国水产养殖业的开发应用具有重要的参考价值.%The small native compounds are isolated from various species of lives,with resistant activity against bacteria , are known as "antibacterial peptides"or "antimicrobial peptides" ( AMPs) and are also thought as "natural antibiotics " in recent years by scientists.It is widely acknowledged that these defensive compounds or AMPs could become new types of bio-antibiotics substituting for the currently used chemical antibiotics in near future. More and more people in the world realize that there are luxuriant AMPs existing in the marine animals , plants and microorganisms. The study of AMPs in marine animals is now the hotspot in research, thus attracting many researchers engaged in this area. The author briefly summarizes some typical results obtained from the study of AMPs in his group in recent several years. His group has done a lot of work in mining of genes and isolation of proteins which are related to antimicrobial activity from Chinese cultured fishes and crabs. More than 20 hepcidin cDNA sequences have been identified and the gene expression patterns were investigated in normal and bacterial challenged fish including Lateolabrax japonicus , Pagrus major , Sparus macrocephlus, Tilapia

  13. Sobre algunas técnicas pesqueras tradicionales vascas.

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    Jose Maria Merino


    Full Text Available Hemos limitado nuestra atención al estudio de las pesquerías tradicionales modestas, realizadas con aparejos de anzuelo en las costas vascas y cantábricas. Las primeras noticias que de ellas nos llegan remontan al siglo XII y XIV, haciendo referencia a las pescas de besugos y cazones, siendo la más antigua una procedente de 1272 que menciona las pesqueras de congrios de Bayona. Recogemos información de los aparejos habitualmente usados para estas pescas, insistiendo en que, en un principio, se utilizaron sólamente aparejos de mano, y que la aparición de los primeros palangres de gran fondo es mucho más reciente de lo que se había pensado. Económicamente, tras la pesca del besugo y la merluza, se explotó la pesca de los entonces denominados «peces de cuero» (pequeños escualos y, con una intensidad muy superior a la actual, graciasa su fácil conservación, la de los congrios. Se exponen los aparejos utilizados para la captura de estas especies y algunas características de las maniobras que realizan nuestros pescadores, así como algunos modos de comercialización y conservación del pescado. He intentado, a la vez, recoger cuantas voces vascas se refieren al tema, muchas de ellas fonéticamente, ya hace medio siglo, y sus variantes locales. Asimismo las correspondientes voces castellanas.