WorldWideScience

Sample records for berth utilization

  1. Impact analysis of channel dimensions on the effective utilization ratio of container terminal berths%航道尺度对集装箱码头泊位有效利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国磊; 王文渊; 郭子坚; 宋向群; 于旭会; 张冉

    2016-01-01

    The approach channel has become a key factor constraining the trafficability of seaports, and the impact of channel dimensions on the effective utilization ratio of berths needs to be considered when planning a container terminal. Using a container terminal as an example, this study integrated ship navigation and operation into a simu⁃lation of port construction and operation. Applying related industrial standards, we designed a series of simulation plans and determined the parameters of the simulation model. We then quantitatively analyzed the relationship be⁃tween the effective utilization ratio of the container terminal berths, and the quantity of berths and channel lines and the duration of navigation, to provide a theoretical basis on which to determine the effective utilization ratio of con⁃tainer terminal berths and to estimate the annual trafficability of berths. The results demonstrated that the dimen⁃sions of the approach channel are important in achieving a satisfactory effective utilization ratio of berths, especially with a single⁃line long channel. This study recommends using computer simulation technology when assessing the general port plane layout of real engineering projects to ensure the efficient operation of the port.%进港航道已经成为制约港口通过能力发挥的因素之一,在港口规划时应考虑航道尺度对泊位有效利用率的影响。本文以集装箱码头为例,将船舶航行作业过程引入港口生产作业仿真模型;根据相关行业规范,设计一系列仿真试验方案并确定仿真模型参数;定量分析集装箱码头泊位有效利用率与泊位数、航道线数和航行历时之间的影响关系,为合理确定集装箱码头泊位有效利用率、估算年泊位通过能力提供理论依据。结果表明,在选取合理泊位有效利用率时,进港航道尺度不可忽略,尤其是单线长航道。同时,建议在实际工程中采用计算机仿真技术

  2. 46 CFR 108.203 - Berths and lockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.203 Berths and lockers. (a) Each sleeping... pipe, ventilating duct, or other overhead installation. (i) Each berth must have a berth light....

  3. Dynamic berth and quay crane allocation for multiple berth positions and quay cranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Cahyono, Rully; Flonk, E.J.; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    We study in this paper a dynamic berth and quay cranes allocation strategy in general seaport container terminals. We develop a dynamical model that describes the operation of berthing process with multiple discrete berthing positions and multiple quay cranes. Based on the proposed model, we develop

  4. A Contribution to Berth Allocation Problem Solution with Draft Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Neven; Vilke, Siniša; Barić, Mate

    2015-01-01

    Models for berth assignments help to solve logistic problems in container terminals and are important decision making tools. This is particularly so where, because of the system complexity and vessels arrival rate, problems cannot be solved empirically. Another issue concerns potential infrastructure and equipment shortcomings, where high utilization of the existing system components is required. In this paper, the authors focus on draft or depth restrictions that may occur alongside a ...

  5. A VIEW OF THE BERTH ALLOCATION PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Vanina Macowski Durski Silva; Antônio Sérgio Coelho

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to verify the available scientific research in one of the prevalent problems associated with port services. Most of the studies about ports focus on strategic and tactical problems, thus, there exists a large volume of papers with operational research applications about container operations. Since the majority of the berths are managed and operated by private shipping companies, few studies have been conducted on berth allocation. Therefore, the m...

  6. Using Simulation in Evaluating Berth Allocation at a Container Terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Henesey, Lawrence; Davidsson, Paul; Persson, Jan A.

    2004-01-01

    The operations and decision making at a container terminal have been simulated. A Berth Allocation Management System – (BAMS) has been built which consists of two parts: a container terminal simulator modelling the operations and a management simulator modelling the various actors involved in the allocation of container ships to berths. Together these two parts generate berth schedules for arriving container ships. Two berth assignment policies are evaluated in different scenarios, with vario...

  7. Research on bulk-cargo-port berth assignment based on priority of resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfang Guo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a Priority of Resource Allocation model about how to utilize the resources of the port efficiently, through the improvement of traditional ant colony algorithm, the ship-berth matching relation constraint matrix formed by ontology reasoning. Design/methodology/approach: Through questionnaires?Explore factor analysis (EFA and principal component analysis, the authors extract the importance of the goods, the importance of customers, and type of trade as the main factors of the ship operating priority. Then the authors combine berth assignment problem with the improved ant colony algorithm, and use the model to improve ship scheduling quality. Finally, the authors verify the model with physical data in a bulk-cargo-port in China. Findings: Test by the real data of bulk cargo port, it show that ships’ resource using priority and the length of waiting time are consistent; it indicates that the priority of resource allocation play a prominent role in improving ship scheduling quality. Research limitations: The questionnaires is limited in only one port group, more  related Influence factors should be considered to extend the conclusion. Practical implications: The Priority of Resource Allocation model in this paper can be used to improve the efficiency of the dynamic berth assignment. Originality: This paper makes the time of ship in port minimized as the optimization of key indicators and establishes a dynamic berth assignment model based on improved ant colony algorithm and the ontology reasoning model.

  8. Hybrid Heuristic Approaches for Tactical Berth Allocation Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Larsen, Allan; Pacino, Dario;

    Tactical berth allocation problem deals with: the berth allocation (as- signs and schedules vessels to berth-positions), and the quay crane (QC) assignment (finds number of QCs that will serve). In this work, we strengthen the current mathematical models (MM) with novel lower bounds and valid...... inequalities. And, we propose a hybrid heuristic which combines MM with greedy and search heuristics. Results show that problem can be solved efficiently respect to optimality and computational time....

  9. The Tactical Berth Allocation Problem: integrated optimization in container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, Ilaria; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    In the context of container terminal operations, the simultaneous optimization of decision problems that are usually solved hierarchically by terminal's planners represents nowadays a promising research trend. In this talk we introduce the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem (TBAP), that deals with the integration of the berth allocation problem (BAP) and the quay crane assignment problem (QCAP). The objective is to schedule incoming ships over a time horizon, assigning them a berthing position...

  10. A methodology to assess vessel berthing and speed optimization policies

    OpenAIRE

    J Fernando Alvarez; Tore Longva; Erna S Engebrethsen

    2010-01-01

    Standard ocean shipping contracts stipulate that a chartered vessel must sail at ‘utmost despatch’, with no consideration for the availability of berths at the destination port. The berthing policies used at many ports, which admit vessels on a first-come, first-served basis, provide an additional incentive for the master to sail at full speed. These legacy contracts and berthing policies constitute a major driver of harbour congestion and marine fuel consumption, with adverse economic, safet...

  11. Models for the discrete berth allocation problem: A computational comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhrkal, Katja Frederik; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...

  12. Models for the Discrete Berth Allocation Problem: A Computational Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhrkal, Katja; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan;

    In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe the three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...

  13. Research on bulk-cargo-port berth assignment based on priority of resource allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Chunfang Guo; Zhongliang Guan; Yan Song

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a Priority of Resource Allocation model about how to utilize the resources of the port efficiently, through the improvement of traditional ant colony algorithm, the ship-berth matching relation constraint matrix formed by ontology reasoning. Design/methodology/approach: Through questionnaires?Explore factor analysis (EFA) and principal component analysis, the authors extract the importance of the goods, the importance of customers, and type of ...

  14. Solving the dynamic berth allocation problem by simulated annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Wei; Ting, Ching-Jung

    2014-03-01

    Berth allocation, the first operation when vessels arrive at a port, is one of the major container port optimization problems. From both the port operator's and the ocean carriers' perspective, minimization of the time a ship spends at berth is a key goal of port operations. This article focuses on two versions of the dynamic berth allocation problem (DBAP): discrete and continuous cases. The first case assigns ships to a given set of berth positions; the second one permits them to be moored anywhere along the berth. Simulated annealing (SA) approaches are proposed to solve the DBAP. The proposed SAs are tested with numerical instances for different sizes from the literature. Experimental results show that the proposed SA can obtain the optimal solutions in all instances of discrete cases and update 27 best known solutions in the continuous case.

  15. Modeling and Solving the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we integrate at the tactical level two decision problems arising in container terminals: the berth allocation problem, which consists of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions, and the quay crane assignment problem, which assigns to incoming ships a certain QC profile (i.e. number of quay cranes per working shift). We present two formulations: a mixed integer quadratic program and a linearization which reduces to a mixed integer linear program. The objec...

  16. Models for the Discrete Berth Allocation Problem: A Computational Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Buhrkal, Katja; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe the three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem, improve the performance of one model, and, through extensive numerical tests, compare all models from a computational perspective. The results indicate that a generalized setpartitioning mo...

  17. The berth allocation problem: Optimizing vessel arrival time

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalis M Golias; Georgios K Saharidis; Maria Boile; Sotirios Theofanis; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.

    2009-01-01

    The berth scheduling problem deals with the assignment of vessels to berths in a marine terminal, with the objective to maximize the ocean carriers’ satisfaction (minimize delays) and/or minimize the terminal operator's costs. In the existing literature, two main assumptions are made regarding the status of a vessel: (a) either all vessels to be served are already in the port before the planning period starts, or (b) they are scheduled to arrive after the planning period starts. The latter ca...

  18. Minimizing the Total Service Time of Discrete Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem by an Iterated Greedy Heuristic

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Wei Lin; Kuo-Ching Ying; Shu-Yen Wan

    2014-01-01

    Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem se...

  19. Exhaust emissions from ships at berth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Emission measurements have been carried out on board six ships at berth during normal real-world operation (hotelling, unloading and loading activities). The study included three passenger ferries, one transoceanic container/ro-ro, one transoceanic car/truck carrier, and one chemical tanker. Emissions were measured from 22 auxiliary engines (AEs, medium and high-speed marine diesels) covering seven engine models and ranging in size from 720 to 2675 kW maximum output. The fuels varied from low sulphur gasoils ( 2.91 cst viscosity) through to residual oils ( 411 cst viscosity). Both specific emission factors ( g kWh -1) at a given engine load and total emissions (kg) of nitrogen oxides (NO x), sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons during actual harbour stops were determined. In addition, some preliminary measurements to investigate PM size distributions were undertaken. The specific emissions showed significant variations between the different engine models and also within the same engine model on board the same ship. For example NO x emissions varied between 9.6 and 20.2 g kWh corr-1 between all engines and 14.2- 18.6 g kWh corr-1 between engines of the same model and fuel. Other emissions from boiler use and possible main engine warm-up prior to departure were in general expected to be considerably less than those from the AEs. The results obtained for the three passenger ferries demonstrate that empirically derived, emission formulae using dead weight tonnage can prove to be a cost-effective and accurate tool for harbour emission inventories.

  20. The Tactical Berth Allocation Problem (TBAP) with quay crane assignment and transshipment-related quadratic yard costs

    OpenAIRE

    Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria

    2008-01-01

    International sea-freight container transport has grown dramatically over the last years and container terminals play nowadays a key-role in the global shipping network. Increasing competition and competitiveness among terminals require more and more efficiency in container handling operations, both in the quayside and the landside, in order to better utilize limited resources (such as cranes, trucks, berths, storage space, etc.) as well as minimize ship's turnaround time. Operations research...

  1. Aheuristic Algorithm for Berth Scheduling Problem in Container Ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海滨

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the berth scheduling problem is transformed into a special two-dimensional packing problem with some constraints.A nonlinear programming model for the problem is established,and a heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the model.Simulation

  2. The liner shipping berth scheduling problem with transit times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Plum, Christian E.M.; Pisinger, David;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper speed optimization of an existing liner shipping network is solved by adjusting the port berth times. The objective is to minimize fuel consumption while retaining the customer transit times including the transhipment times. To avoid too many changes to the time table, changes of port...

  3. A Simulation Based Approach to Optimize Berth Throughput Under Uncertainty at Marine Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golias, Mihalis M.

    2011-01-01

    Berth scheduling is a critical function at marine container terminals and determining the best berth schedule depends on several factors including the type and function of the port, size of the port, location, nearby competition, and type of contractual agreement between the terminal and the carriers. In this paper we formulate the berth scheduling problem as a bi-objective mixed-integer problem with the objective to maximize customer satisfaction and reliability of the berth schedule under the assumption that vessel handling times are stochastic parameters following a discrete and known probability distribution. A combination of an exact algorithm, a Genetic Algorithms based heuristic and a simulation post-Pareto analysis is proposed as the solution approach to the resulting problem. Based on a number of experiments it is concluded that the proposed berth scheduling policy outperforms the berth scheduling policy where reliability is not considered.

  4. Recursive column generation for the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, Ilaria; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Seaport container terminals are source of many interesting large-scale optimization problems, that arise in the management of operations at several decision levels. In this work we study exact methods to solve the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem with Quay Crane Assignment, an integrated decision problem that occurs in the management of the quayside resources. We reformulate the problem via Dantzig-Wolfe and present an exact solution approach based on column generation that exploits the prob...

  5. Berth Allocation Problem with Quay Crane Assignment for Container Terminals Based on Rolling-Horizon Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the large-scale integral dynamic scheduling of continuous berths and quay cranes problem, a method based on rolling-horizon strategy is proposed. A multiobjective optimization model that is established minimizes the total penalty costs considering vessels’ deviations to their preferred berthing positions, delayed times for berthing comparing to their estimated arrival times, and delayed times for departure comparing to their estimated departure times. Then, the scheduling pr...

  6. 基于泊位偏好与岸桥干扰的泊位和岸桥分配%Berth and Quay Crane Allocation Considering Berth Preference and Quay Crane Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐美龙; 刘秀玲

    2014-01-01

    Berth and quay crane ( QC) are the most important scarce resource in the container terminal .Reasona-ble berth allocation and quay crane scheduling can improve utilization of the resources and port operation effec -tiveness and efficiency .The paper firstly presents the integrated MILP model of both berth allocation and QC scheduling based on the deviation from the berth preference position and capacity loss of the QC .Then, using the data from a container terminal in Ningbo and Gurobi optimization solver , we solve the model .Finally the computational result is economically analyzed .The computational results show that the mean utilization rate of berth line of this port is 46%.Among them , the berth line from 1000 to 1600 meter is hardly used , and deplo-ying 18 QCs is better than deploying 16 QCs in the terminal .The mean utilization rate of deploying 18 QCs is 80%, so the paper suggests the port should have two more QCs .Meanwhile we find that as vessels increase , the solving time by Gurobi increases quickly .At the same time , our method , so called two stage heuristic method , can still give the quasi-optimal solution in very short time .%泊位和岸桥是集装箱港口资源中最紧缺的资源,合理的泊位分配和岸桥调度可以提高集装箱港口的资源利用率和港口的运作效率和效益。针对泊位偏离和岸桥工作损失两个因素,文章建立了集装箱港口泊位和岸桥的混合整数线性规划模型;运用采集自宁波某典型集装箱港口的数据,用Gurobi优化软件和两阶段启发式算法对模型进行了求解;对计算结果进行了经济性分析。计算结果表明:该港口的岸线资源利用率为46%时,1000m~1600m基本没被利用;18台岸桥要比16台岸桥的目标值更优,求解时间更短,而且18台岸桥的平均利用率为80%,为此,建议该港口再增加两台岸桥。同时发现:随着船舶规模的增加,Gurobi优化求解的时间增长

  7. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for the Berth Allocation and Container Stacking Problems in Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salido, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Molins, Mario; Barber, Federico

    The Container Stacking Problem and the Berth Allocation Problem are two important problems in maritime container terminal's management which are clearly related. Terminal operators normally demand all containers to be loaded into an incoming vessel should be ready and easily accessible in the terminal before vessel's arrival. Similarly, customers (i.e., vessel owners) expect prompt berthing of their vessels upon arrival. In this paper, we present an artificial intelligence based-integrated system to relate these problems. Firstly, we develop a metaheuristic algorithm for berth allocation which generates an optimized order of vessel to be served according to existing berth constraints. Secondly, we develop a domain-oriented heuristic planner for calculating the number of reshuffles needed to allocate containers in the appropriate place for a given berth ordering of vessels. By combining these optimized solutions, terminal operators can be assisted to decide the most appropriated solution in each particular case.

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A SHIP IN UNSTEADY BERTHING MOTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua-ming; ZOU Zao-jian; TIAN Xi-min

    2009-01-01

    Ship berthing is a specific maneuver operation. The flow around a berthing ship and the forces acting on the hull are quite different from those for a ship in normal navigation. By solving the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, the transient flow field around a ship undergoing unsteady lateral motion is simulated and the varying lateral hydrodynamic force acting on the hull is evaluated in this article. The numerical results obtained with different turbulence models are analyzed and compared with experimental results and other numerical results published in literature, and a turbulence model more suitable for simulation of the viscous flow around a ship undergoing unsteady berthing is determined.

  9. Minimizing the total service time of discrete dynamic berth allocation problem by an iterated greedy heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Wei; Ying, Kuo-Ching; Wan, Shu-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set. PMID:25295295

  10. Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yong; Kim, Nakwan

    2014-06-01

    The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.

  11. Minimizing the Total Service Time of Discrete Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem by an Iterated Greedy Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP, which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set.

  12. A bi-objective berth allocation formulation to account for vessel handling time uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalis M Golias

    2011-01-01

    In this article we formulate the berth allocation problem as a bi-objective mixed-integer programming problem with the objective to maximize berth throughput and reliability of the schedule under the assumption that vessel handling times are stochastic parameters, being a function of other stochastic parameters (that is, quay crane breakdowns, quay-to-yard transport vehicle productivity, yard congestion, and so on). A combination of an exact algorithm, a Genetic Algorithms-based heuristic and...

  13. Berth allocation planning in Seville inland port by simulation and optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Pastrana, Carlos Alberto; Cortés Achedad, Pablo Fabio; Muñuzuri Sanz, Jesús; Onieva Giménez, Luis Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    We study the problems associated with allocating berths for containerships in the port of Seville. It is the only inland port in Spain and it is located on the Guadalquivir River. This paper addresses the berth allocation planning problems using simulation and optimisation with Arena software. We propose a mathematical model and develop a heuristic procedure based on genetic algorithm to solve non-linear problems. Allocation planning aims to minimise the total service time for ...

  14. An enriched model for the integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem

    OpenAIRE

    B. RAA; Dullaert, W.; R. VAN SCHAEREN

    2009-01-01

    Given the increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of container terminals, a lot of research efforts have been devoted to optimizing container terminal operations. Most papers deal with either the Berth Allocation Problem (BAP) or the (Quay) Crane Assignment Problem (CAP). In the literature, handling times are often simplified to be berth dependent or proportional to vessel size to ignore the CAP when scheduling vessels. This is unsatisfactory for real-life applications because the handl...

  15. The Tactical Berth Allocation Problem with QC Assignment and Transshipment Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria

    2009-01-01

    In this work we integrate at the tactical level two decision problems arising in container terminals: the berth allocation problem, which consists of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions, and the quay crane assignment problem, which assigns to incoming ships a certain QC profile (i.e. number of quay cranes per working shift). We present two formulations: a mixed integer quadratic program and a linearization which reduces to a mixed integer linear program. The objectiv...

  16. The Berth Allocation Problem with Service Time and Delay Time Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Akio Imai; Jin-Tao Zhang; Etsuko Nishimura; Stratos Papadimitriou

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses a two-objective berth allocation problem: ship service quality expressed by the minimisation of delay in ships' departure and berth utilisation expressed by the minimisation of the total service time. In this problem, noninferior solutions are expected to be identified. Two heuristics, which are implemented based on two existing procedures of the subgradient optimisation and genetic algorithm, are proposed for solving this problem. Through numerical experiments, it was fo...

  17. A two-phase genetic algorithm for the berth and quay crane allocation and scheduling problem

    OpenAIRE

    A. PONOMAREV; Dullaert, W.; B. RAA

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid genetic algorithm for a dynamic continuous berth allocation and quay crane scheduling problem. In the first phase of the algorithm, vessels are positioned at berthing locations and quay cranes are assigned to vessels using novel crane assignment heuristics. In the second phase, cranes are scheduled to minimize the distance travelled in repositioning the cranes. The solution approach is tested on benchmarks derived from real-life data, with varying levels of capaci...

  18. A Knowledge-based System for Berth Allocation in a Container Terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Junliang He; Youfang Huang; Daofang Chang; Weimin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Both of berth allocation and quay crane assignment are one of the most complex parts in container terminal operations, which significantly affect the operational efficiency, energy consumption and operational cost of the entire container terminal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient strategy for integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment (BACP) from the perspective of knowledge, which aims at energy-saving and improving operational efficiency. In this paper, knowledg...

  19. Ship-berth link and demurrage costs: evaluating different allocation policies and queue priorities via simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wanke

    2011-01-01

    The ship-berth link is one of the most critical aspects to be managed at port operations. Until now, simulation models have considered the impact of queue priorities, such as size and type of ships, on waiting times. This research differentiates from previous studies not only by considering another variable - the demurrage cost for each type of ship -, but also by considering the possibility of different berth allocation policies. It reports on a simulation study on small Brazilian private co...

  20. Experimental Study on Allowable Berthing and Mooring Conditions of An Oil Tanker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张日向; 刘忠波; 张宁川; 韩丽华

    2003-01-01

    When an oil tanker under the combined action of wind, waves and tidal current and is berthed or moored to a platform, the impact forces on the fenders and the tensile force in the mooring lines are important factors in the studies of berthing and mooring conditions. Based on the experiment of a berthing and mooring tanker model under the action of wind, wave and tidal current in the same direction, this paper studies the allowable berthing and mooring conditions by considering the tensile forces of mooring lines and impact forces on the fenders, as well as the impact energy on the fenders. And a method has been proposed here for motion amplitude analysis. A successful method to decrease impact forces on the fenders is put forward. Blowing-in wind and blowing-off wind and different angles between waves and the fenders are considered in the experimental study. In the berthing tests of the tanker model, the impact forces are measured and the impact energy is calculated, then the berthing conditions are determined. In the mooring tests of the tanker model, the mooring line tensile forces and impact forces are measured, and the allowable mooring conditions are given that will be useful to engineering design.

  1. Consistently Trained Artificial Neural Network for Automatic Ship Berthing Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, consistently trained Artificial Neural Network controller for automatic ship berthing is discussed. Minimum time course changing manoeuvre is utilised to ensure such consistency and a new concept named ‘virtual window’ is introduced. Such consistent teaching data are then used to train two separate multi-layered feed forward neural networks for command rudder and propeller revolution output. After proper training, several known and unknown conditions are tested to judge the effectiveness of the proposed controller using Monte Carlo simulations. After getting acceptable percentages of success, the trained networks are implemented for the free running experiment system to judge the network’s real time response for Esso Osaka 3-m model ship. The network’s behaviour during such experiments is also investigated for possible effect of initial conditions as well as wind disturbances. Moreover, since the final goal point of the proposed controller is set at some distance from the actual pier to ensure safety, therefore a study on automatic tug assistance is also discussed for the final alignment of the ship with actual pier.

  2. Robust Scheduling for Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodriguez-Molins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers must face the dynamism and uncertainty of real-world environments when they need to solve the scheduling problems. Different incidences or breakdowns, for example, initial data could change or some resources could become unavailable, may eventually cause the infeasibility of the obtained schedule. To overcome this issue, a robust model and a proactive approach are presented for scheduling problems without any previous knowledge about incidences. This paper is based on proportionally distributing operational buffers among the tasks. In this paper, we consider the berth allocation problem and the quay crane assignment problem as a representative example of scheduling problems. The dynamism and uncertainty are managed by assessing the robustness of the schedules. The robustness is introduced by means of operational buffer times to absorb those unknown incidences or breakdowns. Therefore, this problem becomes a multiobjective combinatorial optimization problem that aims to minimize the total service time, to maximize the buffer times, and to minimize the standard deviation of the buffer times. To this end, a mathematical model and a new hybrid multiobjective metaheuristic is presented and compared with two well-known multiobjective genetic algorithms: NSGAII and SPEA2+.

  3. Ship-berth link and demurrage costs: evaluating different allocation policies and queue priorities via simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wanke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ship-berth link is one of the most critical aspects to be managed at port operations. Until now, simulation models have considered the impact of queue priorities, such as size and type of ships, on waiting times. This research differentiates from previous studies not only by considering another variable - the demurrage cost for each type of ship -, but also by considering the possibility of different berth allocation policies. It reports on a simulation study on small Brazilian private container terminal, where different berth allocation policies and queue priorities have been tested. Results and further analyses conducted via MANOVA indicate that the demurrage cost ratio between large and small ships and the critical waiting time in queue, after which demurrage costs are charged, impact on the choice of most adequate combination of policies and priorities. The analysis presented in this paper may help port authorities in determining a more precise figure for total demurrage costs

  4. The berth allocation problem: a formulation reflecting time Window service deadlines

    OpenAIRE

    Golias, Mihalis; Boile, Maria; Theofanis, Sotirios

    2007-01-01

    The berth-allocation problem (BAP) aims to optimally schedule and assign vessels to berthing areas along a quay. The vessels arrive at the port over a period of time and normally request service and departure within a time window. These time windows are usually determined through contractual agreements between the port operator and the carrier, in terms of time of departure after the vessel’s arrival at the port. Formulations presented in the current literature, reduce the time window to a po...

  5. A Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem with Priority Considerations under Stochastic Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursavas, Evrim; Bulut, Onder; Tasgetiren, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic nature of vessel arrivals and handling times adds to the complexity of the well-known NP-hard berth allocation problem. To aid real decision-making under customer differentiations, a dynamic stochastic model designed to reflect different levels of vessel priorities is put forward. For exp

  6. Ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall: fender forces and ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijn, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this report a mathematical model is formulated which is sufficiently accurate to describe the typical behaviour of a ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall fitted with fenders as well as to determine the response of the fenders themselves. In order to achieve this a three-dimensional set of govern

  7. Simulation-based evaluation of berth allocation policies of container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Chervyakov, Anatoly

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to test and verify a hypothesis concerning policies for berth allocation to ships in a container terminal. The chosen domain is a rich research area where simulation could be used. Because of the high amount of variables involved and demand for optimal usage of available resources management of a container terminal is a great challenge.

  8. Development of integrated model for continuous berth allocation problem and quay crane scheduling with non crossing constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Azyanzuhaila Hasan; Zainuddin, Zaitul Marlizawati

    2014-09-01

    High efficiency of port operation is required to succeed in the competition between port container terminals. Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Scheduling are the most important part in container terminal operations. The integrated model is formulated as a MIP problem with the objective to minimize the sum of the dwell times, where a vessel's dwell time is measured between arrival and departure including both times waiting to be berthed and servicing time while berthed. The construction of suitable mathematical model is formulated by considering various practical constraints.

  9. Models and Heuristics for the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem with Quay-Crane Assignment and Transshipment Quadratic Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the integration of two problems arising in the management of transshipment container terminals: the problem of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions (berth allocation problem), and the problem of assigning quay cranes to incoming ships (quay crane assignment problem). In particular, motivated by the practice in the negotiation process between the terminal management and the shipping liner, the model is based on the concept of quay-crane assign...

  10. Models and Heuristics for the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem with Quay-Crane Assignment and Transshipment Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria

    2009-01-01

    In the context of international sea-freight container transport, we study an integrated decision problem arising in container terminal management. We consider the integration of the Berth Allocation Problem (BAP), which consists of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions, and the Quay Crane Assignment Problem (QCAP), which assigns to incoming ships a certain QC profile (i.e. number of quay cranes per working shift). BAP and QCAP are strictly correlated, since the QC prof...

  11. A Knowledge-based System for Berth Allocation in a Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junliang He

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both of berth allocation and quay crane assignment are one of the most complex parts in container terminal operations, which significantly affect the operational efficiency, energy consumption and operational cost of the entire container terminal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient strategy for integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment (BACP from the perspective of knowledge, which aims at energy-saving and improving operational efficiency. In this paper, knowledge acquisition for BACP is initially conducted. And then, knowledge sorting process for BACP, including taxonomic tree generation and organization of acquired knowledge, is performed. After that, rules for BACP are extracted using the IF and THEN clause. Furthermore, a knowledge reasoning mechanism is designed. Finally, numerical experiments are used to illustrate the proposed knowledge-based system and verify the effectiveness and reliability.

  12. A genetic algorithm for robust berth allocation and quay crane assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Molins, Mario; Ingolotti Hetter, Laura Paola; Barber Sanchís, Federico; Salido Gregorio, Miguel Angel; R. Sierra, María; Puente, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Scheduling problems usually obtain the optimal solutions assuming that the environment is deterministic. However, actually the environment is dynamic and uncertain. Thus, the initial data could change and the initial schedule obtained might be unfeasible. To overcome this issue, a proactive approach is presented for scheduling problems without any previous knowledge about the incidences that can occur. In this paper, we consider the berth allocation problem and the quay crane assignment probl...

  13. Integrated discrete berth allocation and quay crane scheduling in port container terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Der-Horng; Qiu Wang, Hui

    2010-08-01

    The integrated discrete berth allocation and quay crane scheduling problem studied in this article considers the relationship between them. This article provides a mixed integer programming model for the studied problem that is ?-complete in nature. A genetic algorithm is proposed to obtain near optimal solutions. Computational experiments are conducted to examine the proposed solution algorithm. The computational results show that the proposed genetic algorithm is effective and efficient in solving the studied problem.

  14. Integrated Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem: Set partitioning models and computational results

    OpenAIRE

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan; Larsen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Most of the operational problems in container terminals are strongly interconnected. In this paper, we study the integrated Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem in seaport container terminals. We will extend the current state-of-the-art by proposing novel set partitioning models. To improve the performance of the set partitioning formulations, a number of variable reduction techniques are proposed. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of different discretization schemes and the i...

  15. A Simulation based model for the berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Hafez, M.A.; Hubbard, Nick J.; Tipi, Nicoleta S.; Eltawil, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    With the global development of container transport, container terminals have become important nodes in transport networks which serve as hubs for the transshipment of containerized goods from ship to ship or from ship to other transport modes. As the container transport system is capital intensive, the turnaround time of ships at container terminals is an important factor for liner shipping companies to consider in order to decrease their costs. The turnaround time includes berthing, unloadin...

  16. Berth Allocation Problem with Quay Crane Assignment for Container Terminals Based on Rolling-Horizon Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the large-scale integral dynamic scheduling of continuous berths and quay cranes problem, a method based on rolling-horizon strategy is proposed. A multiobjective optimization model that is established minimizes the total penalty costs considering vessels’ deviations to their preferred berthing positions, delayed times for berthing comparing to their estimated arrival times, and delayed times for departure comparing to their estimated departure times. Then, the scheduling process was divided into a set of continual scheduling interval according to the dynamic arrival sequences. Meanwhile, rolling-horizon strategies for setting rolling and frozen windows and the parameter updating strategy are designed. The input parameters of the model in the next rolling window are updated according to the optimal results of each time window which have been obtained. The model is solved by choosing appropriate rolling and freezing window lengths that represents the numbers of adjacent vessels in the sequence of calling vessels. The holistic optimal solution is obtained by gradually rolling and combining the results of each window. Finally, a case study indicated that the rolling schedule can solve large-scale scheduling problems, and the efficiency of the proposed approach relates to the size of rolling window, freeze ship quantity, and rolling frequency.

  17. Integrated Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem: Set partitioning models and computational results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan;

    2015-01-01

    Most of the operational problems in container terminals are strongly interconnected. In this paper, we study the integrated Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem in seaport container terminals. We will extend the current state-of-the-art by proposing novel set partitioning models. To...... improve the performance of the set partitioning formulations, a number of variable reduction techniques are proposed. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of different discretization schemes and the impact of using a time-variant/invariant quay crane allocation policy. Computational experiments show that...

  18. The effect of early berthing prospects on the energy efficiency operational index in oil tanker vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Marine pollution is one of the main concerns of our society. In order to reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed technical, operational and management measures. Part of the operational measures refers to CO2 emissions that contribute to the energy efficiency of the vessel. The difficulty in assessing the energy efficiency of the vessel rests with the diversity of voyage parameters, including quantity of cargo, distance and type of fuel in use. Assessing the energy efficiency of the vessel is thus not a matter of determining the absolute value of the CO2, but of providing a meaningful construct to enable tracking performance trends over time, for the same ship, a fleet of ships or across the industry. This concept is the Energy Efficiency Operational Index, EEOI. The purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of a well predicted voyage on the EEOI value. The method used consists in a comparative analysis of two situations regarding berthing prospects: the real passage plan and an early prediction that supposes the vessel to arrive on time as required. The results of the study represent a monitoring tool for the ship owners to assess the EEOI from the early stage of designing the berthing prospects.

  19. Hydrodynamic loads of sea waves on horizontal elements of berths with wave quenching chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshchenko Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the process of hydraulic structures design, in particular berths with wave cancelling structures, which serve to decrease the wave impact on structures, there appears a problem of vertical wave hydrodynamic loads calculation on floor slabs. In the existing normative documents there are no requirements on calculating vertical wave loads on the horizontal floor slabs of open-type structures (enveloping, mooring, approach trestles, etc. and stairs of sloping-staired open-type structures. A mathematical model is proposed for calculation of the vertical wave loads on the floor slab through moorings. The model is based on the theory of jet impact on a solid surface. The width of the wave crest, striking in the overlap of the pier, and its vertical velocity is determined by the linear wave theory. The coefficient of transmission of waves through wave quenching chambers is calculated according to the previously developed methods. Vertical wave loading is adjusted based on the ratio of the wave length and width of the overlay. Model validation is performed according to the hydraulic modelling interaction of waves with through berths in the port of Tuapse. 7 variants of their design were considered. Data mapping mathematical and hydraulic modeling showed them a close match.

  20. The Mooring Pattern Study for Q-Flex Type LNG Carriers Scheduled for Berthing at Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Nas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ever growing energy industry requires larger quantities of LNG to be transported by bigger ships between terminals. Every day, new kind of large vessels created by new technologies, and these are used to trade around the globe. This is the dynamic change in shipping industry. But on the other hand these new vessels need to safely berth to existing terminals which we may accept as more static part of the trade. Thus this study born by the request of Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal management to determine if it is safe to berth to the terminal by a new breed of large LNG carrier type named as Q-Flex and Q-Max. Transas Bridge Simulator NTPRO 5000 series was used in this study for extensive experiments which had been simulated by the use of hook function. During the study, every force applied to mooring hooks and dolphins by the ship lines were divided into 3 dimensions and then measured by simulation experiments. With analysis of the data, required hook and dolphins strengths were determined for the safe mooring arrangements. Upon the completion of the study Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal became the first safe berth for Q-Flex type vessels in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. And finally all experiments were confirmed with real life experience when the first Q-Flex type LNG carrier berthed to the Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal.

  1. 76 FR 77515 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... contaminant, oxides of nitrogen (NO X ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a greenhouse gas. These reductions will...-Berth Regulation is designed to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter from.... Fleets that achieve reductions of emissions of oxides of nitrogen or particulate matter in excess of...

  2. A branch-and-price algorithm to solve the integrated berth allocation and yard assignment problem in bulk ports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robenek, Tomáš; Umang, Nitish; Bierlaire, Michel;

    2014-01-01

    In this research, two crucial optimization problems of berth allocation and yard assignment in the context of bulk ports are studied. We discuss how these problems are interrelated and can be combined and solved as a single large scale optimization problem. More importantly we highlight the diffe......In this research, two crucial optimization problems of berth allocation and yard assignment in the context of bulk ports are studied. We discuss how these problems are interrelated and can be combined and solved as a single large scale optimization problem. More importantly we highlight......-shaking neighborhood search is presented. The proposed algorithms are tested and validated through numerical experiments based on instances inspired from real bulk port data. The results indicate that the algorithms can be successfully used to solve instances containing up to 40 vessels within reasonable computational...

  3. Characterization of n-Hexane sub-fraction of Bridelia micrantha (Berth and its antimycobacterium activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samie Amidou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, is the most notified disease in the world. Development of resistance to first line drugs by MTB is a public health concern. As a result, there is the search for new and novel sources of antimycobacterial drugs for example from medicinal plants. In this study we determined the in vitro antimycobacterial activity of n-Hexane sub-fraction from Bridelia micrantha (Berth against MTB H37Ra and a clinical isolate resistant to all five first-line antituberculosis drugs. Methods The antimycobacterial activity of the n-Hexane sub-fraction of ethyl acetate fractions from acetone extracts of B. micrantha barks was evaluated using the resazurin microplate assay against two MTB isolates. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction was performed using 100% n-Hexane and Chloroform/Methanol (99:1 as solvents in order of increasing polarity by column chromatography and Resazurin microtiter plate assay for susceptibility tests. Results The n-Hexane fraction showed 20% inhibition of MTB H37Ra and almost 35% inhibition of an MTB isolate resistant to all first-line drugs at 10 μg/mL. GC/MS analysis of the fraction resulted in the identification of twenty-four constituents representing 60.5% of the fraction. Some of the 24 compounds detected included Benzene, 1.3-bis (3-phenoxyphenoxy (13.51%, 2-pinen-4-one (10.03%, N(b-benzyl-14-(carboxymethyl (6.35% and the least detected compound was linalool (0.2%. Conclusions The results show that the n-Hexane fraction of B. micrantha has antimycobacterial activity.

  4. Mobile Ocean Test Berth Support: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-413

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LiVecchi, Albert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC), headquartered at the Oregon State University, is establishing the capabilities to test prototype wave energy conversion devices in the ocean. This CRADA will leverage the technical expertise and resources at NREL in the wind industry and in ocean engineering to support and enhance the development of the NNMREC Mobile Ocean Test Berth (MOTB). This CRADA will provide direct support to NNMREC by providing design evaluation and review of the MOTB, developing effective protocols for testing of the MOTB and wave energy conversion devices in the ocean, assisting in the specification of appropriate instrumentation and data acquisition packages, and providing guidance on obtaining and maintaining A2LA (American Association for Laboratory Accreditation) accreditation.

  5. Berth Allocation with Service Priority for Container Terminal of Hub Port%集装箱枢纽港泊位分配问题优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代丽利

    2014-01-01

    通过分析船舶大型化对船公司和码头运营商的影响,文中提出在泊位分配的过程中,码头需站在共赢的角度,箱位大的船舶的服务优先级高于箱位小的船舶。建立了具有优先权的动态泊位分配模型,采用改进的广义遗传算法对模型求解。算例结果证明模型和算法正确有效。%Through analyzing the effects of container ships with larger size to the shipping companies and terminal operators,this paper put forward a view,from a win-win perspective,that container ships with larger Twenty-foot Equivalent Units (TEUs)capacity should be given the higher priority in the process of berth allocation.Following the above view,a dynamic berth allocation model considering the service priority was developed and an improved generalized genetic algorithms was used to solve the model.Example application results show that the model and the algorithm are correct and effective.

  6. Integrated Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Scheduling by Memetic Algorithms%基于Memetic算法的泊位和岸桥分配问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐美龙; 刘菲

    2011-01-01

    continuous berth; dynamics; berth allocation; quay crane scheduling; collaborative%泊位是港口资源中最紧缺的资源,合理的泊位分配和岸桥调度可以提高集装箱码头的作业效率,研究了集装箱码头泊位和岸桥的同时优化问题.将泊位与岸桥的分配问题抽象为二维装箱问题,然后建立了泊位、岸桥同时优化的混合整数线性规划模型,并提出了Memetic算法进行求解.计算结果表明,在求解大规模船舶指派优化问题时,使用Memetic算法求解比使用Gurobi软件求解在计算时间上具有明显的优越性.

  7. Robust Optimization Model for Berth Planning Problem in Container Terminals%集装箱码头泊位计划的鲁棒优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆成; 赵孝峰; 胡祥培; 杨忠振

    2015-01-01

    To tackle the uncertainties that happen in operations of container terminals , robust optimization model and algorithms for berth planning problem are developed .The objective is to decrease the impact of uncertainties on operation efficiency of container terminals .Firstly, the robustness measures for berth schedule are proposed , and the each measure is assessed through computational experiments .Then, a two-stage robust optimization algo-rithm is designed:the first stage is to minimize the total delay of berthing vessels without considering the sched -ule robustness , and the total delay obtained is taken as a threshold value for the next stage .The second stage is to maximize the robustness measures while keeping the total vessel delay at a level equal to or smaller than the threshold value obtained by the first stage.Finally, the impact of operation resource(the number of quay cranes) on schedule robustness is analyzed .Numerical experiments indicate that weighted slack index is a valid robust-ness measure and the proposed two-stage algorithm can solve the robust optimization of berth plan efficiently .%针对集装箱码头作业中的不确定性因素,构建泊位计划的鲁棒优化模型与算法,目的是降低不确定性因素对集装箱码头作业系统的影响。首先,提出泊位计划鲁棒性度量指标,利用算例对各指标的效果进行分析。在此基础上,设计泊位计划鲁棒优化的两阶段优化算法。算法的第一阶段不考虑泊位计划的鲁棒性,以船舶总延误时间最小为目标;算法的第二阶段以所选择的鲁棒性指标最大为目标,以第一阶段获得的船舶总延误时间为约束条件,获得鲁棒调度方案。最后,研究作业资源(装卸桥数量)的变化对泊位计划鲁棒性的影响。算例分析表明,权重松弛量是有效的度量泊位计划鲁棒性的指标,两阶段算法可以有效解决泊位计划鲁棒优化问题。

  8. 面向服务的泊位和岸桥联合调度%Service-oriented berth allocation and quay crane assignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜玉泉; 陈秋双; 姬晓涛

    2011-01-01

    In terms of the basic ideas of behavioral operation research,a service-oriented Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming(MINLP) model by using a deep integration method was formulated to deal with the berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem.To overcome the problems of computational intractability and optimality absence,the model was transformed into a Mixed-Integer Second Order Cone Programming(MISOCP) model,and the optimization software CPLEX was used to solve the model.Since the branch and cut algorithm was time-consuming and ran out of memory for some instances,MINLP model was solved by outer approximation algorithm.Based on the characteristics of the problem,the model was decomposed into a mixed-integer linear programming master problem and a nonlinear programming sub-problem.The optimal solution to the sub-problem was obtained by analytical method,and the outer approximation of nonlinear constraints was derived by using the first-order Taylor series expansion.Finally,solution performance of the branch and cut algorithm and the outer approximation algorithm was compared by numerical experiments.Moreover,convergence of the outer approximation algorithm was verified.The sensitivity analysis of key parameters in the model was also conducted.%从行为运筹学角度,面向服务性目标,采用深度集成的方法对泊位和岸桥联合调度问题建立了混合整数非线性规划模型。为克服计算困难和最优性缺失等问题,将模型转化为混合整数二阶锥规划模型,并利用优化软件CPLEX对其求解。针对CPLEX中分支切割算法在某些实例上存在内存溢出、求解时间长等问题,采用外逼近算法对混合整数非线性规划模型进行求解:根据问题特点将模型分解为混合整数线性规划主问题和非线性规划子问题,其中,子问题可用解析方法求得最优解,同时利用一阶Taylor展开导出了非线性约束的外逼近。最后,基于数值实验比较了分支

  9. Emergency strategy of berth scheduling in container terminal based on memetic algorithm%基于Memetic算法的集装箱码头泊位应急调度策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 杨春霞; 杨赞

    2011-01-01

    To solve the emergency scheduling problem caused by the overstock of ships in container terminal,a emergency strategy of berth scheduling was proposed based on the Memetic algorithm.Firstly,a series of recovery times with different length were given through the human-computer interaction;secondly,in each recovery time,the berth rescheudling was carried out to minimize the number of rejected ships based on the Memetic algorithm;finally,the final scheme was determined with the recovery times and the optimization results considered.Numberial examples show that the proposed strategy can restore container terminal to normal production order quickly with the load-upload accomplishment for all ships,which can satisfy the decision demands of the emergency management in container terminals.%针对集装箱码头因船舶压港产生的应急调度问题,提出一种基于Memetic算法的泊位应急调度策略.首先,通过人机交互方式确定一系列不同长度的恢复时间;其次,在每段恢复时间内采用Memetic算法对相应船舶集合进行重调度,以实现甩港船舶数最少的优化目标;最后,通过综合分析恢复时间和优化结果确定最终方案.试验结果表明,该优化策略可使集装箱码头在尽量完成船舶作业的同时,以最快速度恢复到正常生产秩序,可供集装箱码头应急决策时参考.

  10. Burr Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This note proposes the Burr utility function. Burr utility is a flexible two-parameter family that behaves approximately power-like (CRRA) remote from the origin, while exhibiting exponential-like (CARA) features near the origin. It thus avoids the extreme behavior of the power family near the origi

  11. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  12. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Stiggelbout; P.P. Wakker

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities. Th

  13. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; J. Miyamoto

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities. Th

  14. Analysis of Berth Length Optimization of Indonesia Power Plant Terminal Project%印尼某电站码头工程泊位长度优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奇虎

    2014-01-01

    Based on one power plant terminal project in Indonesia,the length of coal unloading berth in the bidding document is compared with the optimized length that is approved in the detailed design,which shows otherwise that the execution of overseas projects,especially EPC projects,require not only the promotion of China standards and codes to the world,but also the thorough investigation and exact grasp of local market,China standards must combine with local conditions to reduce the project risk and gain higher economic benefit.%本文通过介绍印度尼西亚某电站码头工程卸煤码头泊位长度投标长度和施工图批准的泊位长度的优化对比,从侧面来说明在国外实施项目,尤其是EPC项目,不仅要将中国的规范和标准推向世界,更需要彻底调查和准确掌握当地市场情况,将中国规范结合当地实际情况来降低实施项目的风险并获得较好的经济效益。

  15. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, John; Wakker, Peter

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities. The standard development of these results is based on expected utility theory which is now known to be descriptively invalid. The empirical violations of expected utility impair the credib...

  16. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute ut

  17. Geotechnical Design of Retaining Structures for a Berth Facility in Port of Los Angeles%洛杉矶港口停靠设施支挡结构的土工设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜利平; Ross Khiabani

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of a geotechnical investigation for two proposed retaining structures at a berth facility in the Port of Los Angeles,California,U.S.A.These retaining structures are needed for excavation of the existing dike slope to accommodate two Islander Barges.Based on the data obtained from a field exploration and laboratory testing program,the project site is underlain by sands and silty sands interbedded with silts and clay layers.The site is liquefiable under both the Operating Level Earthquake(0LE)event(a Magnitude 5.5 event with a peak acceleration of 0.28g)and the Contingency Level Earthquakes(CLE) event (a Magnitude 6.5 event with a peak acceleration of 0.52g).The retaining structures were proposed to consist of steel sheet piles with a combination of AZ-king piles and AZ-intermediary piles.Using the lateral pressure diagrams under both the static and OLE conditions,limit equilibrium analyses were performed to provide recommendations on the pile lengths and section sizes.%介绍了美国加州洛杉矶港口停靠设施两种支挡结构的岩土工程勘探和设计成果,为了在码头提供两个驳船停靠点,要对现有堤坝边坡进行开挖,开挖后的边坡需要有支挡结构支撑.根据现场勘察和室内试验数据,项目地基为砂、泥质砂和黏土层,场地在运行地震水平下(震级5.5,峰值加速度0.28g)和偶发性地震水平下(震级6.5,峰值加速度0.52g)将会发生液化现象.建议支挡结构采用AZ型中心桩和AZ型辅助桩结合的钢板桩,并采用静力和运行震动水平共同作用下的侧压力分布图和极限平衡法分析确定桩长和截面尺寸.

  18. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  19. Bibliographic utility networks

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Anup Kumar; Dutta, Bidyarthi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the functions, features, and advantages of bibliographic utility networks. Some cases have also described in order to get in-depth knowledge on their core services. The services of a bibliographic utility network are centred on online union catalogue database. Some bibliographic utility networks derived a number of services from their exhaustive union catalogue database to be used by different segments of clienteles. The services are not only contributory from participa...

  20. Directed expected utility networks

    OpenAIRE

    Leonelli, Manuele; Smith, Jim Q.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of statistical graphical models have been defined to represent the conditional independences underlying a random vector of interest. Similarly, many different graphs embedding various types of preferential independences, as for example conditional utility independence and generalized additive independence, have more recently started to appear. In this paper we define a new graphical model, called a directed expected utility network, whose edges depict both probabilistic and utility ...

  1. Study on information utility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Information has two aspects. One aspect is the objective one; another aspect is the subjective one. Shannon has discussed the objective aspect of information in information theory. But the subjective aspect of information has not been fully discussed. Someone use "Bayesian approaches" to evaluate the value of information. But in some cases it does not meet the information user's need. This paper is focus on the subjective aspect of objectively measurable information and gives formal definitions for information, information utility, and marginal information utility, normalized calculation of information utility. The information discussed in the paper has interdisciplinary nature. This work can be the foundation of many application areas.

  2. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  3. UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was created by UVM in...

  4. UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC data layer contains points which are intended to represent the location of telecommunications facilities (towers and/or antennas) in...

  5. UtilityOther_ELCFRANCHISE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate and should be used...

  6. Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.

  7. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  8. The Futility of Utility

    OpenAIRE

    Gennady Bilych

    2012-01-01

    The Utility Theory, which forms the fundamental framework of a significant area of economic science devoted to the study of consumer behaviour, has always been met with objection and criticism from many economists and it continues to do so. The inability to quantify utility and the dubiousness of the comparative evaluation of different consumer combinations of goods continue to give rise to attempts to supplement, amend or improve the existing theory of supply and demand. Such attempts should...

  9. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  10. Utility requirements for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  11. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  12. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...... are important, but that economics cannot alone explain the differences in health care utilization....

  13. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  14. Finite-dimensional utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Nakamura

    2000-01-01

    Sufficient axioms are identified for the existence of a finite- dimensional quasilinear utility function whose lexicographically ordered vectors preserve a decision maker's preference order on a mixture set ${\\cal M}$. It is shown that those axioms are also necessary for the linear lexicographic representation when the underlying set ${\\cal M}$ is a mixture space.

  15. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  16. A Classroom Mathematics Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Reviews CATUSPLOT, a mathematics utility aimed at high school algebra through college-level calculus. Basic program capabilities include plotting, tabulating, integrating, and locating of intersections of functions composed of combinations of polynomial, trigonometric, and exponential functions. Rated excellent on all areas examined…

  17. Utilities:Other:Utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:utilpnt_other)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, not including water- and power-related utilities, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utilities...

  18. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  19. Utility customer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Customer issues affected by the restructuring of the $250 billion US electric power industry were discussed. In the past the industry's vertically integrated utilities conducted their business in protected geographic markets. With deregulation and greater competition, that industry structure will change. This presentation highlighted the strategies that Unicom is using to react to the restructuring of the electric power industry. The underlying principle is for the utility to reinvent itself to change its market orientation and focus on customer services, such as reliability, responsiveness, custom tailored solutions, and guaranteed savings over time. Attempting to become total energy providers and delivering integrated solutions to meet the needs of large industrial and commercial consumers, intensive market research, improved service and installation, and sophisticated customer retention initiatives will also have to be high on the agenda

  20. Revenue assurance in utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Rihar, Miha

    2010-01-01

    In recent times utility companies have to orient to effective business due to hard market conditions. Thus, companies want to diminish business expenses and increase the revenues. Effective revenue capture is, after all, the aim of revenue assurance. Actually the revenue capture is usually not perfect and without losses. A part of revenues are always lost on the way from a service to payment, which is called revenue leakage and causes a financial loss. The revenue leakage is above all the ...

  1. European utility fuel procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the major factors affecting the procurement strategies of European nuclear utilities for purchasing natural uranium, conversion services, and enrichment services. The role of the EURATOM Supply Agency in negotiating contracts for nuclear materials for the European Union is described. Bilateral agreements between the United States and EURATOM, and between the European Union and Russia are briefly outlined. National procurement strategies of Belgium, France, Germany, and Sweden are also discussed

  2. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  3. Utilization of media monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Tiihonen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The objective of the study is to discover the role of media monitoring in companies. In more detail, the utilization methods of the media monitoring results will be examined. This information will be portrayed on a three leveled information processing cycle of “The Knowing Organization” to discover how deep the information is processed in reality. Knowledge and intelligence are often represented as an aid for decision making and this research will broaden the scope by evaluating the ...

  4. Time functions as utilities

    CERN Document Server

    Minguzzi, E

    2009-01-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed...

  5. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  6. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  7. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  8. Managing the nuclear utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  9. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  10. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  12. Atomic energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As observed worldwide, sufficient consensus has not been obtained on the peaceful utilization of atomic energy, but why has only France showed the relatively smooth advance ? Is it the result of the PR activities by enterprises ? The author visited two French nuclear facilities in June-July, 1990, and experienced the way of acceptance of the peaceful utilization of atomic energy and the action of enterprises in France. The French Electric Power Corp. (EDF) already clarified the guideline to the society about 'How to obtain the trust of public for atomic energy'. The gist of the contents of this EDF guideline is shown. The investigation by the authors can be judged as illustrating concretely the posture of enterprises to endeavor for the realization of this EDF guideline. The serious consideration on communication and community, the opening of information to public and sincere response, the fostering of the expression techniques of those in charge of PR, the immediate notice at the time of accidents, the maintenance of information transmission systems and so on carried out for 30 years contributed to the fostering of trust. The points of social psychology for national consensus and the investigation in the La Hague reprocessing plant and the Super Phenix in Creys Malville are reported. (K.I.)

  13. 基于树莓派的智能停车场泊位诱导系统整合研究%Smart Parking Berth Guidance System Integration Research Based on Raspberry Pi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵泽强; 李坤

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the utilization of the parking lot effectively, make cars park accurately and effectively, reduce management costs of parking lot, this paper achieves the goal that managers can count traffic in different periods timely, achieves optimizing the allocation of resources parking and improving intelligence level of parking lot, and provides a set of integrated parking information service system for parking space management.%文章从有效提高停车场的使用率,方便车辆准确有效停泊,降低停车场的管理成本等方面出发,管理者能及时统计不同时期的车流量,优化车位资源配置,提高停车场智能化水平,为停车场车位管理提供了一套整合的停车场信息服务系统。

  14. Utilities in UNIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual goes to the users with some or much experience in the unix operating system. In such manner that they can get more efficiency using the unix of the most vendors. Include the majority of UNIX commands, shell built-in functions to create scripts, and a brief explication of the variables in several environments. In addition, other products are included, more and more integrated in the most of the unix operating systems. For example: the scanning and processing language awk, the print server LPRng, GNU Utilities, batch subsystem, etc. The manual was initially based in an specific unix. But it and been written for use of the most unix that exist: Tru64 unix, aix, iris, hpux. solaris y linux. In this way, many examples in the chapter had been included. The purpose of this manual is to provide an UNIX reference for advanced users in any of the unix operating systems family. (Author)

  15. Utility-Based HTN Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgievski, Ilche; Lazovik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We propose the use of HTN planning for risk-sensitive planning domains. We suggest utility functions that reflect the risk attitude of compound tasks, and adapt a best-first search algorithm to take such utilities into account.

  16. Subsurface Utility Engineering for Drinking Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berk Uslu,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Buried utility locating practices are an integral part of condition assessment, renewal engineering, and damage prevention programs for drinking water and wastewater utilities. An extensive literature review was conducted to determine the underground utility practices, locating technologies, data management practice, as well as education and outreach programs. This literature review synthesized the practices form other industries. The practices from water and wastewater utilities were determined by the help of participation utilities to the WATERiD Database. Case studies in locating technology applications and locating practice application was written to capture these practices. These case studies were also supplemented by phone interviews with various utilities. Comparison between the literature and utility practice indicated various gaps in the utility practice. Recommendations are offered to fill these gaps for an effective use of underground utility practices by water and wastewater utilities. These recommendation include adaptation and implementation of specific best practices of transportation industry by the water and wastewater utilities. Specifically, adaptations of; standards, decision support tools for data quality levels and locating technologies, data standardization and integration, as well as participation on education and outreach programs are discussed.

  17. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  18. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  19. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  20. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  1. Space Resources Utilization Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts on various topics. These topics include; Economics of Lunar Mineral Exploration; Lunar Solar Power System and Lunar Development; Space Resource Roundtable Rationale; Successfully Mining Asteroids and Comets; Lunar Polar Ice: Method for Mining the New Resource for Exploration; Acoustic Shaping: Enabling Technology for a Space-based Economy; Return to the Moon: A New Strategic Evaluation; Spacewatch Discovery and Study of Accessible Asteroids; Role of Mining in Space Development; A Commercial/Lunar Resources Exploration Concept; Radar Reconnaissance of Near-Earth Asteroids; Solar Energy Conversion Using In Situ Lunar Soil; The Application of Thermal Plasmas to Ore Reduction for In Situ Resource Utilization; Prospecting Near-Earth Asteroids from the Ground; Some Implications of Space Tourism for Extraterrestrial Resources; An Overview of NASA's Current In Situ Consumable Production (ISCP) Development Activities and Goals; Prospectives on Lunar Helium-3; Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis for In Situ Materials Processing; Subsurface Exploration from Lander and Rover Platforms with Seismic Surface Waves; Space Weathering and the Formation of Lunar Soil: The Moon as the Model for all Airless Bodies in the Solar System; and Acoustic Shaping in Microgravity: Technology Issues.

  2. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  3. Gas utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-09-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ``Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD&D Priorities`` indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ``Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,`` clearly identify the market sectors driving today`s technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors.

  4. Facility Utilization Reports - FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....

  5. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  6. The utility target market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model (the Utility Target Market Model) is used to evaluate the economic benefits of photovoltaic (PV) power systems located at the electrical utility customer site. These distributed PV demand-side generation systems can be evaluated in a similar manner to other demand-side management technologies. The energy and capacity values of an actual PV system located in the service area of the New England Electrical System (NEES) are the two utility benefits evaluated. The annual stream of energy and capacity benefits calculated for the utility are converted to the installed cost per watt that the utility should be willing to invest to receive this benefit stream. Different discount rates are used to show the sensitivity of the allowable installed cost of the PV systems to a utility's average cost of capital. Capturing both the energy and capacity benefits of these relatively environmentally friendly distributed generators, NEES should be willing to invest in this technology when the installed cost per watt declines to ca $2.40 using NEES' rated cost of capital (8.78%). If a social discount rate of 3% is used, installation should be considered when installed cost approaches $4.70/W. Since recent installations in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District have cost between $7-8/W, cost-effective utility applications of PV are close. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon

  8. Engineering parameters for expansion of MPT berths, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Chandramohan, P.; Jena, B.K.; Pednekar, P.S.

    Comprehensive program for a harbour development and management requires general and detailed information on the coastal environment including engineering characteristics in addition to physical, chemical and biological parameters. Mormugao Port...

  9. Robust Scheduling for Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Decision makers must face the dynamism and uncertainty of real-world environments when they need to solve the scheduling problems. Different incidences or breakdowns, for example, initial data could change or some resources could become unavailable, may eventually cause the infeasibility of the obtained schedule. To overcome this issue, a robust model and a proactive approach are presented for scheduling problems without any previous knowledge about incidences. This paper is based on proporti...

  10. Performance measures from the explorer platform berthing experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stephen

    1993-12-01

    The Explorer Platform is a Modular Mission Spacecraft: it has several subunits that are designed to be replaced on orbit. The Goddard Space Flight Center Robotics Lab undertook an experiment to evaluate various robotic approaches to replacing one of the units; a large (approximately 1 meter by 1 meter by 0.5 meter) power box. The hardware consists of a Robotics Research Corporation K-1607 (RRC) manipulator mounted on a large gantry robot, a Kraft handcontroller for teleoperation of RRC, a Lightweight Servicing Tool (LST) mounted on the RRC, and an Explorer Platform mockup (EP) with a removable box (MMS) that has fixtures that mate with the LST. Sensors include a wrist wrench sensor on the RRC and Capaciflectors mounted on the LST and the MMS. There are also several cameras, but no machine vision is used. The control system for the RRC is entirely written by Goddard; it consists of Ada code on three Multibus I 386/387 CPU boards doing the real-time robot control, and C on a 386 PC processing Capaciflector data. The gantry is not moved during this experiment. The task is the exchange of the MMS; it is removed and replaced. This involves four basic steps: mating the LST to the MMS, demating the MMS from the EP, mating the MMS to the EP, and demating the LST form the MMS. Each of the mating steps must be preceeded by an alignment to bring the mechanical fixtures within their capture range. Two basic approaches to alignment are explored: teleoperation with the operator viewing thru cameras, and Capaciflector based autonomy. To evaluate the two alignment approaches, several runs were run with each approach and the final pose was recorded. Comparing this to the ideal alignment pose gives accuracy and repeatability data. In addition the wrenches exerted during the mating tasks were recorded; this gives information on how the alignment step affects the mating step. There are also two approaches to mating; teleoperation, and impedance based autonomy. The wrench data taken during mating using these two approaches is used to evaluate them. Section 2 describes the alignment results, section 3 describes the mating results, and finally Section 4 gives some conclusions.

  11. Child Health USA 2013: Prenatal Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Services Utilization > Prenatal Care Utilization Prenatal Care Utilization Narrative Early and adequate prenatal care helps to ... 20.3 6.0 Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Upon Initiation, * by Maternal Race/Ethnicity, 2011 Race/ ...

  12. Graphic utilities 'GPREP' and 'LIBGR'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotting utilities, which are widely appreciable to problems of computational physics, have been developed as a part of a library system for a one dimensional tokamak transport code. Utility routines are composed of two procedures, i.e., the pre-processor ''GPREP'' registrates graphic data to a data file with a set format, and ''LIBGR'' processes the data to match with the required format of ''ARGUS'' and plotts the graph. The regular form of data by ''GPREP'' enables us to read out data without any information on data recording so that these utilities are very usefull for dealing with a lot of disorder data with different type. (author)

  13. Medicare Utilization for Part B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance SMI) which includes the Medicare Part B Physician and...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. US Forest Service Land Utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture for conservation and utilization under Title III of the Bankhead-Jones Farm...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. Cloud Computing Utility and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Tiwari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Architecture provides services on demand basis via internet (WWW services. Application design in cloud computing environment or the applications which support cloud paradigm are on demand on the basis of user requirement. Those applications provide the support on various hardware, software and other resource requirement on demand. API used in the cloud computing provide the greater advantage to provide industrial strength, where the complex reliability and scalability logic of the underlying services remains implemented and hidden in the cloud environment. Cloud Computing provide the highest utilization in terms of utilization, resource sharing, requirement gathering and utility to the other needful resources. In this paper we discuss several utility and their applications. We provide a broad discussion which is useful for cloud computing research.

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. Comparative genomics of ethanolamine utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoy, Olga; Ravcheev, Dmitry; Mushegian, Arcady

    2009-01-01

    Ethanolamine can be used as a source of carbon and nitrogen by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, the enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, is encoded by the gene tandem eutBC. Despite extensive studies of ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, much remains to be learned about EutBC structure and catalytic mechanism, about the evolutionary origin of ethanolamine utilization, and about regulatory links between t...

  1. Ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Roof, D M; Roth, J R

    1988-01-01

    Ethanolamine can serve as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for Salmonella typhimurium if vitamin B12 is present to serve as a cofactor. The pathway for ethanolamine utilization has been investigated in order to understand its regulation and determine whether the pathway is important to the selective forces that have maintained the ability to synthesize B12 in S. typhimurium. We isolated mutants that are defective in ethanolamine utilization (eut mutants). These mutants defined a cluster...

  2. Capacity Utilization and Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Fagnart, J.F.; Licandro, O.; Sneessens, Henri

    1997-01-01

    In a monopolistic competition framework, we propose a dynamic model in which capacity underutilization is a macroeconomic equilibrium feature relying on a diversity of microeconomic situations. Capacity underutilization follows from microeconomic uncertainty at the time firms must decide on their productive capacity. We settle a relationship between capacity utilization and markups via the effect of capacity utilization rate changes on firms' market power. We show that such a relationship inf...

  3. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  4. Efficient Anonymizations with Enhanced Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Goldberger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most well studied models of privacy preservation is k-anonymity. Previous studies of k-anonymization used various utility measures that aim at enhancing the correlation between the original public data and the generalized public data. We, bearing in mind that a primary goal in releasing the anonymized database for datamining is to deducemethods of predicting the private data from the public data, propose a new information-theoretic measure that aims at enhancing the correlation between the generalized public data and the private data. Such a measure significantly enhances the utility of the released anonymized database for data mining. We then proceed to describe a new algorithm that is designed to achieve k-anonymity with high utility, independently of the underlying utility measure. That algorithm is based on a modified version of sequential clustering which is the method of choice in clustering. Experimental comparison with four well known algorithms of k-anonymity show that the sequential clustering algorithm is an efficient algorithm that achieves the best utility results. We also describe a modification of the algorithm that outputs k-anonymizations which respect the additional security measure of l-diversity.

  5. Ethanolamine utilization in Vibrio alginolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri Neelam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. However, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the Vibrio genus. Our comparative genomics study reveals the presence of genes that are involved in ethanolamine utilization in several Vibrio species. Using Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system we demonstrate that ethanolamine is better utilized as a nitrogen source than as a carbon source. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Lakshminarayan Iyer and Dr. Vivek Anantharaman (nominated by Dr. L Aravind.

  6. 25 CFR 175.24 - Utility responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility responsibilities. 175.24 Section 175.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Utility Service Administration § 175.24 Utility responsibilities. A utility subject to this part shall:...

  7. Back to Bentham? Explorations of experience utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; D. Kahneman; R.K. Sarin

    1997-01-01

    Two core meanings of "utility" are distinguished. "Decision utility" is the weight of an outcome in a decision. "Experienced utility" is hedonic quality, as in Bentham's usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past episodes (remem

  8. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte;

    1994-01-01

    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory to charac......An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...

  9. E-Commerce for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  10. 'Utility marketing' as an oxymoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity industry restructuring through the elimination of monopolies and the introduction of competition was examined. A distinction was made between marketing a product and brand marketing, emphasizing the customer loyalty, customer confidence and high profitability associated with brand names. The meaning of 'brand' in general and particularly in relation to electric power was explained. The old and the new utilities world were contrasted, and the place and importance of marketing in the deregulated, customer choice-based, market-driven new utilities world was described

  11. Utility launches computer information service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaty, W. [ed.; Ordonez, B.

    1994-12-01

    Three employees at Lee County Electric Cooperative in North Fort Meyers, Fla., have developed InterLine, an on-line computer service designed specifically for the electric utility industry. Since introducing InterLine to the public, the development team has been looking at what areas of information would be most useful to subscribers. In the initial phase, system features include forums on electrical engineering, safety and health and transmission and distribution, a library of files and the Internet gateway. If InterLIne is embraced by the electric utility industry, long range plans are to take it internationls.

  12. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    the project included executing over 450 crew-hours of ISS real-time payload operations including a major onboard communications upgrade, SpaceX un-berth, a Soyuz launch, roll-out of ISS live video and interviews from the POIC, annual BCC certification and hurricane season, and ISS simulations and testing. Continuous ISS payload operations were possible during the PCA facility modifications with the reconfiguration of four control rooms and standup of two temporary control areas. Another major restriction to the project was an ongoing facility upgrade that included a NASA Headquarters mandated replacement of all electrical and mechanical systems and replacement of an external generator. These upgrades required a facility power outage during the PCA upgrades. The project also encompassed console layout designs and ordering, amenities selections and ordering, excessing of old equipment, moves, disposal of old IT equipment, camera installations, facility tour re-schedules, and contract justifications. These were just some of the tasks needed for a successful project. This paper describes the logistics and lessons learned in upgrading a control center capability in the middle of complex real-time operations. Combining the efficiencies of controller interaction and new technology infusion were prime drivers for this upgrade to handle the increased utilization of science research on ISS. The success of this project could not jeopardize the current operations while these facility upgrades occurred.

  13. Waste heat utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proceedings contain 17 papers presented at meetings of the Working Group for Waste Heat Utilization of the Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture of which 7 fall under the INIS scope. The working group met in May 1980 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in October 1981 in Aberdeen, Scotland and in September 1982 in Brno. (Z.M.)

  14. Module Utilization Committee. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-03-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the US Department of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules. The final report of that committee accounts for that disposition. The membership and activities of the committee are set forth and the results of its activities are reported.

  15. Thorium utilization in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the recent (prior to Aug, 1976) literature on thorium utilization is reviewed briefly and the available information is updated. After reviewing the nuclear properties relevant to the thorium fuel cycle we describe briefly the reactor systems that have been proposed using thorium as a fertile material. (author)

  16. Utility perspective on hydrogen control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the hydrogen control measures at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station through September 1982 is provided as well as a discussion of the organizational interfaces between Mississippi Power and Light and other participating organizations and a utility perspective on hydrogen control

  17. Analytical Utility of Campylobacter Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to address the analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies in preparation for an upcoming United States Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) baseline study to enumerate Campylobacter...

  18. The Library Space Utilization Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard B.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Library Space Utilization (LSU) methodology, which demonstrates that significant information about the functional requirements of a library can be measured and displayed in a quantitative and graphic form. It measures "spatial" relationships between selected functional divisions; it also determines how many people--staff and…

  19. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  20. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  1. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  2. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  3. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  4. Utility Regulators : Roles and Responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Warrick

    1997-01-01

    There are three main issues in defining a utility regulator's role: the scope of its coverage, its role in relation to ministers, and its role in relation to other regulatory entities such as the competition agency or agencies dealing with environment or health and safety. The author makes a case for multi-industry agencies covering everything from power to water to transport. Multi-industry ...

  5. Strategy for utilizing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the national goals is to achieve independence in the area of energy supplies in the next few years. It is believed that attaining this goal will require extensive utilization of nuclear power in conventional fission reactors. It is proposed that the best way to develop the nuclear resource is through government ownership of the reactors. It is argued that this will minimize the risks associated with the nuclear-power option and clear the way for its exploitation

  6. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...

  7. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Jun, B. J. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO. Achievements of HANARO utilization. Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO. HANARO Symposium. Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index. Operation and Management of HANARO Server. Management of HANARO related committees. Training of HANARO users. Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future.

  8. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO, Operation and Management of HANARO Homepage, HANARO Workshop 2004, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users, Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  9. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO. Achievements of HANARO utilization. Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO. HANARO Symposium. Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index. Operation and Management of HANARO Server. Management of HANARO related committees. Training of HANARO users. Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  10. Promotion of HANARO utilization for year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object and importance to activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for activation of the research using HANARO, Management of HANARO homepage, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users, Establishment of user-room, Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  11. Promotion of HANARO utilization for year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. - The neutron usage fee in HANARO - Achievements of HANARO utilization - Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO - Management of HANARO Homepage - HANARO Workshop 2003 - Operation and Management of HANARO related committees - Training of HANARO users - Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  12. Integrating photovoltaics into utility distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy sources vary from site to site and utility to utility. The objective of this paper is to examine several utility- and site-specific conditions which may affect economic viability of distributed PV applications to utility systems. Assessment methodology compatible with technical and economic assessment techniques employed by utility engineers and planners is employed to determine PV benefits for seven different utility systems. The seven case studies are performed using utility system characteristics and assumptions obtained from appropriate utility personnel. The resulting site-specific distributed PV benefits increase nonsite-specific generation system benefits available to central station PV plants as much as 46%, for one utility located in the Southwest

  13. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  14. Vision 2021. The utilities future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liere, J. van [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    The electricity industry is gradually making the transition to a free market economy characterized by competition. With the arrival of a more market-oriented structure, the electricity companies have taken measures to reduce costs while retaining reliability and safety of the production and distribution. Today the majority of these efforts are oriented towards optimizing the scope and the structure of the organizations and towards streamlining internal processes in order to improve productivity. Throughout the world, the increasing competition among utilities is accompanied by the unbundling of production, transport, distribution and customer service functions. There is a remarkable similarity between the transitions in the computer industry some years ago (from main frame to personal PC`s) and in the electric utility industry today. The new structure is expected to be less centralized and more dispersed. In the dispersed generation concept the locally deployed power plant must become smaller, more flexible, more efficient and less expensive than today`s power plants. Power generation is gradually changing from a steam cycle (Rankine cycle) via the combined cycle to the gas cycle (Brayton cycle). The fuel used to power the gas turbine is expected to change in the future from high calorific to low calorific gas, generated from biomass, waste, oil residues, blast furnaces, coal, etc. Five new areas to be addressed have been identified that can be characterized as follows: (a) improved utilization of capital-intensive production resources to reduce costs, (b) electrification and the supply of heat to increase sales and market share, (c) sustainable developments to broaden our future resource base, (d) improved efficiency based on the Brayton cycle to increase flexibility, (e) development of energy services with new secondary services to stay in the market. (EG) 10 refs.

  15. Environmentally friendly utilization of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    The thesis deals with various ways of utilization of biomass. Chapter 1 compares three biomass types: birch wood Betula sp., marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, and terrestrial moss Pleurozium schreberi, as precursors for preparation of biosorbents for removal of copper ions from diluted water solutions. Small sample doses (0.5 g/100ml) of the biosorbents prepared from alga and moss enabled more than 90 % removal of Cu (II) ions from diluted water solutions (5-20 mg/l). The sample from birch...

  16. Asymptotics of robust utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Knispel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    For a stochastic factor model we maximize the long-term growth rate of robust expected power utility with parameter $\\lambda\\in(0,1)$. Using duality methods the problem is reformulated as an infinite time horizon, risk-sensitive control problem. Our results characterize the optimal growth rate, an optimal long-term trading strategy and an asymptotic worst-case model in terms of an ergodic Bellman equation. With these results we propose a duality approach to a "robust large deviations" criterion for optimal long-term investment.

  17. Utilization of Fatliquors by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sharma

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available wenty five fungi isolated from deteriorated finished leathers have been tested to know their relative capacity to utilize the fatliquors viz., raw fish oil, castor oil, fish oil (sulphated, spindle oil turkey red oil and coconut oil. All these fatty substances supported the growth of all the fungi except a few species of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Drechslera which showed moderate growth. The studies support the contention that fatliquors initially provide a substrate for the growth of fungi on finished leather and its products.

  18. Support for cold neutron utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique

  19. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  20. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWth, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  1. Managing change in nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry has undergone change since inception, but never so much as now. The rewards for proactively changing in anticipation of emerging demands are great, but the cost of failure is also great. Today nuclear plants are being shut down by socio-political and economic processes. The survival of the technology as a clean energy source for the future depends on the demonstration of long term safety to the public, protection of the environment, and economic superiority to competing energy sources. The overriding influence on these factors is strong management of the business with effective regulation. In particular it is necessary for both utility and regulator to believe that enhancing safety is part of being successful. This publication has been developed for all levels of management who are developing and implementing changes within their areas of responsibility. The safety conscious, continuous improvement, management culture, which has proven successful in today's nuclear business, has taken time to develop. Many utilities have difficulty sustaining this culture during the transitions that are intrinsic to change. Properly managed however, changes can enhance nuclear safety, plant reliability and cost competitiveness, from the design stage to decommissioning. Change has no respect for timing and regardless of the level of experience managers may have in its management, large scale change is confronting every nuclear utility world wide. These take the form of government policy changes, open market demands, privatization with the demand for increased shareholder returns, regulatory and social pressures, and economic and political transition. The danger from such issues for the nuclear company executive and the regulator is that they are powerful distractions, particularly for those executives who are not experienced in the unique managerial requirements of the nuclear business. This report gathers the experience of Member States into an array of

  2. Utilities:Power:Power-Related Utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Power:utilpnt_power)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents power-related utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utilities were collected using Trimble Global Positioning...

  3. Utility Disturbance Management in the Process Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Use of utilities, such as steam and cooling water, is very common at industrial sites. Utilities are often shared between several production areas, and a disturbance in the supply of a utility is therefore likely to affect a large part of the production site, and cause great loss of revenue. In order to minimize the loss of revenue due to disturbances in utilities, the optimal supply of utilities to different areas has to be determined. It is not evident how utility resources should be divide...

  4. NON-EXPECTED UTILITY THEORIES: WEIGHTED EXPECTED, RANK DEPENDENT, AND CUMULATIVE PROSPECT THEORY UTILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Tuthill, Jonathan W.; Frechette, Darren L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the failings of expected utility including the Allais paradox and expected utility's inadequate one dimensional characterization of risk. Three alternatives to expected utility are discussed at length; weighted expected utility, rank dependent utility, and cumulative prospect theory. Each alternative is capable of explaining Allais paradox type problems and permits more sophisticated multi dimensional risk preferences.

  5. Micrograin Superplasticity: Characteristics and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farghalli A. Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Micrograin Superplasticity refers to the ability of fine-grained materials (1 µm < d < 10 μm, where d is the grain size to exhibit extensive neck-free elongations during deformation at elevated temperatures. Over the past three decades, good progress has been made in rationalizing this phenomenon. The present paper provides a brief review on this progress in several areas that have been related to: (a the mechanical characteristics of micrograin superplasticity and their origin; (b the effect of impurity content and type on deformation behavior, boundary sliding, and cavitation during superplastic deformation; (c the formation of cavity stringers; (d dislocation activities and role during superplastic flow; and (e the utilization of superplasticity.

  6. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  7. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  8. Aspects of carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omae, Iwao [Omae Research Laboratories, 335-23 Mizuno, Sayama, Saitama 350-1317 (Japan)

    2006-06-30

    Carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen, alcohols, acetals, epoxides, amines, carbon-carbon unsaturated compounds, etc. in supercritical carbon dioxide or in other solvents in the presence of metal compounds as catalysts. The products of these reactions are formic acid, formic acid esters, formamides, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, alkylene carbonates, carbamic acid esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, polycarbonate (bisphenol-based engineering polymer), aliphatic polycarbonates, etc. Especially, the productions of formic acid, formic acid methyl ester and dimethylformamide with a ruthenium catalyst; dimethyl carbonate and urethanes with a dialkyltin catalyst; 2-pyrone with a nickel-phosphine catalyst; diphenyl carbonate with a lead phenoxide catalyst; the alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides with a zinc catalyst has attracted attentions as the industrial utilizations of carbon dioxide. The further development of these production processes is expected. (author)

  9. Resourceful Utilization of Tannery Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Wang Xikui; Ding Maochen; Zhang Chaoyu

    2012-01-01

    Leather industry is an important light industry in China. Leather making requires a series of chemical treatment. Degreasing, unhairing and chrome tanning wastewaters are the main portions of tannery wastewater. Reclaiming and reusing these wastewaters can eliminate 80% of COD, 75% of BOD, 95% of chromium and 93% of sulfuret, furthermore reduce environment impact, decrease treatment costs, save chemicals and water. Some application methods of wastewater reclamation and reuse for dif- ferent operations were reported. The suitable reclamation and reuse technologies can enable leather making processes more ra- tional, and realize the recovery and recycle of several chemicals in the tannery. Resourceful utilization of tannery wastewater should mate with renovating production technology, updating equipment, and must be guaranteed sufficiently by environmental protection measures.

  10. Utilization of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Report on an IAEA interregional training course, Budapest, Hungary, 5-30 November 1979. The course was attended by 19 participants from 16 Member States. Among the 28 training courses which the International Atomic Energy Agency organized within its 1979 programme of technical assistance was the Interregional Training Course on the Utilization of Nuclear Research Reactors. This course was held at the Nuclear Training Reactor (a low-power pool-type reactor) of the Technical University, Budapest, Hungary, from 5 to 30 November 1979 and it was complemented by a one-week Study Tour to the Nuclear Research Centre in Rossendorf near Dresden, German Democratic Republic. The training course was very successful, with 19 participants attending from 16 Member States - Bangladesh, Bolivia, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Iraq, Korean Democratic People's Republic, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam and Yugoslavia. Selected invited lecturers were recruited from the USA and Finland, as well as local scientists from Hungarian institutions. During the past two decades or so, many research reactors have been put into operation around the world, and the demand for well qualified personnel to run and fully utilize these facilities has increased accordingly. Several developing countries have already acquired small- and medium-size research reactors mainly for isotope production, research in various fields, and training, while others are presently at different stages of planning and installation. Through different sources of information, such as requests to the IAEA for fellowship awards and experts, it became apparent that many research reactors and their associated facilities are not being utilized to their full potential in many of the developing countries. One reason for this is the lack of a sufficient number of trained professionals who are well acquainted with all the capabilities that a research reactor can offer, both in research and

  11. Exploring Overtime Utilization Patterns in Healthcare Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almorsy, Lamia; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    To control healthcare costs it is essential to analyze and improve staffing, the largest organizational expense, by improving utilization of human resources. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center explored overtime utilization patterns. There was no significant correlation between overtime utilization and workload (P=0.91, r=0.04) or number of staff (P=0.71, r=0.12). Some departments showed a positive correlation between overtime utilization and workloads, others showed no correlation or even a negative correlation between overtime utilization and workloads. Consideration of other factors is recommended, including staff turnover rates, productivity and efficiency, staff competency and training. Further analysis of overtime utilization should be conducted per employees' grade and profession, to compare the utilization of the technical, non-technical and administrative staff members. The hospital information system should not only be used to login overtime utilization and workload, but should also be enhanced to monitor, control and analyze these performance indicators. PMID:27350503

  12. When Do Market Games Have Transferable Utility?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, Ted; Varian, Hal

    1985-01-01

    A question with a nice clean answer. When do market games have transferable utility? Subject to some regularity conditions, the answer is if and only if indirect utility can be represented in the Gorman polar form.

  13. Urban ecology and the municipal utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools......Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools...

  14. The laboratory test utilization management toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Efficiently managing laboratory test utilization requires both ensuring adequate utilization of needed tests in some patients and discouraging superfluous tests in other patients. After the difficult clinical decision is made to define the patients that do and do not need a test, a wealth of interventions are available to the clinician and laboratorian to help guide appropriate utilization. These interventions are collectively referred to here as the utilization management toolbox. Experience...

  15. Benchmark Two-Good Utility Functions

    OpenAIRE

    de Jaegher, K.

    2007-01-01

    Benchmark two-good utility functions involving a good with zero income elasticity and unit income elasticity are well known. This paper derives utility functions for the additional benchmark cases where one good has zero cross-price elasticity, unit own-price elasticity, and zero own price elasticity. It is shown how each of these utility functions arises from a simple graphical construction based on a single given indifference curve. Also, it is shown that possessors of such utility function...

  16. Health utility indices and equity considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this paper is to propose methods that incorporate equity concerns into cost utility analysis. The focus of the paper is on QALYs, but the results apply to health utility indices in general. Two interpretations of QALYs are considered: QALYs as (von Neumann Morgenstern) utiliti

  17. Health utilities of hypertensive patients in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.; Postma, M.J.; Veninga, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With a lack of an essential evidence on utilities to support cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam, we aimed to gather data on health utilities for hypertensive patients and identify predictors of utility. Methods: Hypertensive patients, from 40 to 80 years ol

  18. 49 CFR 218.22 - Utility employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utility employee. 218.22 Section 218.22..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers § 218.22 Utility employee. (a) A utility employee shall be subject to the Hours of Service Act, and the requirements...

  19. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  20. 25 CFR 700.105 - Utility charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility charges. 700.105 Section 700.105 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.105 Utility charges. Utility charges means the cost for...

  1. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  2. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  3. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All... detailed plan indicating how the bandwidth requested will be utilized. In particular the application...

  4. 45 CFR 12.12 - Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utilization. 12.12 Section 12.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.12 Utilization. (a) Where property or any portion thereof is...

  5. 45 CFR 650.11 - Utilization reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utilization reports. 650.11 Section 650.11 Public... Utilization reports. Paragraph (h) of the standard Patent Rights clause set forth in § 650.4 obliges grantees “to submit on request periodic reports no more frequently than annually on the utilization of...

  6. Radiological protection demands in waste utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors describe regulations concerning requirements of radiological protection in the utilization of wastes. The presence of natural radioisotopes in the wastes is discussed. Legal regulations concerning utilization of radioactive wastes in Poland are presented. The article lists Polish institutions authorized to asses suitability of the wastes for utilization

  7. 77 FR 45907 - Financial Market Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... CFR Part 234 RIN 7100-AD 71 Financial Market Utilities AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal..., Designated Financial Market Utilities. This rule implements provisions of sections 805(a) and 806(e) of the... risk-management standards for financial market utilities (``FMUs'') that are designated as...

  8. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air......We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  9. Fuel Utilization and Environment Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Soroka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An influence of utilization of various fuel types on the environment pollution has been analyzed taking into account the state and forecast of changes in consumption structure of primary energy in the world.The regional peculiarities of the environment impact have been studied methodically (regarding the Ukraine as an example: distribution of the harmful effluents has been considered in various regions of the country and inter-relations of some branches of national economy and industry with the atmosphere pollution have been examined.The CO2 effluent distribution within the European regions has been considered as the main greenhouse gas. It has been stated that the difference of the specific CO2 effluent yield per unit of GDP makes more than an order by value between some European countries.This index becomes higher if specific GDP of the country concerned is lower and portion of extractive industries, metallurgical and fuel-power complexes is higher in the country’s economy.

  10. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.

  11. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  12. Equity implications of utility energy conservation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-03-15

    This paper uses the Residential Energy Consumption Survey undertaken by the Energy Information Administration in 1990 to estimate the statistical association between household income and participation in electric utility energy conservation programs and the association between participation and the electricity consumption. The results indicate that utility rebates, energy audits, load management programs and other conservation measures tend to be undertaken at greater frequency by high income households than by low income households. Participants in conservation programs tend to occupy relatively new and energy efficient residences and undertake conservation measures other than utility programs, which suggests that utility sponsored programs are substitutes for other conservation investments. Electricity consumption during 1990 is not significantly less for households participating in utility programs than for nonparticipants, which also implies that utility conservation programs are displacing other conservation investments. Apparently, utility programs are not avoiding costs of new construction and instead are transferring wealth, particularly to high income participating households.

  13. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object and Importance To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. Scope and Contents In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO, HANARO Symposium, Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index, Operation and Management of HANARO Server, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users and Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  14. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  15. 18 CFR 35.26 - Recovery of stranded costs by public utilities and transmitting utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... standards that a public utility or transmitting utility must satisfy in order to recover stranded costs. (b... utility or a transmitting utility to provide service to: (i) A wholesale requirements customer that subsequently becomes, in whole or in part, an unbundled wholesale transmission services customer of such...

  16. [Utilities: a solution of a decision problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael; Ohmann, Christian; Lorenz, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    Utility is a concept that originates from utilitarianism, a highly influential philosophical school in the Anglo-American world. The cornerstone of utilitarianism is the principle of maximum happiness or utility. In the medical sciences, this utility approach has been adopted and developed within the field of medical decision making. On an operational level, utility is the evaluation of a health state or an outcome on a one-dimensional scale ranging from 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health). By adding the concept of expectancy, the graphic representation of both concepts in a decision tree results in the specification of expected utilities and helps to resolve complex medical decision problems. Criticism of the utility approach relates to the rational perspective on humans (which is rejected by a considerable fraction of research in psychology) and to the artificial methods used in the evaluation of utility, such as Standard Gamble or Time Trade Off. These may well be the reason why the utility approach has never been accepted in Germany. Nevertheless, innovative concepts for defining goals in health care are urgently required, as the current debate in Germany on "Nutzen" (interestingly translated as 'benefit' instead of as 'utility') and integrated outcome models indicates. It remains to be seen whether this discussion will lead to a re-evaluation of the utility approach.

  17. Resolving inconsistencies in utility measurement under risk: Tests of generalizations of expected utility

    OpenAIRE

    Bleichrodt, Han; Abell??n-Perpi??an, Jos?? Mar??a; Pinto, Jos?? Luis; M??ndez-Mart??nez, Ildefonso

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores inconsistencies that occur in utility measurement under risk when expected utility theory is assumed and the contribution that prospect theory and some other generalizations of expected utility can make to the resolution of these inconsistencies. We used five methods to measure utilities under risk and found clear violations of expected utility. Of the theories studied, prospect theory was the most consistent with our data. The main improvement of prospect theory over expe...

  18. Thorium utilization in Candu reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, means of thorium utilization in a CANDU reactor are considered. A once through thorium-DUPIC cycle is analyzed in detail. CANDU has the best neutron economy among the commercially available power reactors, which makes it suitable for many different fuel cycle options. A review of the available fuel cycles is also done in the scope of this study to select an economically viable cycle which does not impose profound changes in the neutronic properties of the core that require remodeling of core and related systems. To create a good model ot the CANDU core for the necessary calculations, the steady state properties of CANDU reactor are analyzed. It is assumed that approximation ot refueling as moving the bundles at a constant velocity is valid. This approximation leads to a corollary; The average cross sections of two adjacent bidirectionally refueled channels are independent of axial location. This is also veritied. A result of this corollary the CANDU core can be modeled only in radial direction in cylindirical geometry. The steady state CANDU core model is prepared using the actual power values and these values are sought in the results. The control systems which effect the neutron flux shape are introduced into the model later in the form of additional absorption cross section and lower diffusion coefficient. The results are in good agreement with the actual values. Several different thorium-DUPIC fuel bundle configurations are considered and the one with 12 Th02 elements in the third ring is found to have similar burnup dependent cross-sections and location infinite multiplication factors. Using the model created, the bundle is tested also in the tull core model and it is tound that this bundle configuration complies with the current refueling scheme. That is, no changes are necessary in the refuelind rate or the control systems. A higher conversion ratio of 0.82 is attained, while the excess reactivity of the core is found to decrease by 0.01 Ak

  19. Diagnosis method utilizing neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been made on the technique of neural networks, which will be used to identify a cause of a small anomalous state in the reactor coolant system of the ATR (Advance Thermal Reactor). Three phases of analyses were carried out in this study. First, simulation for 100 seconds was made to determine how the plant parameters respond after the occurence of a transient decrease in reactivity, flow rate and temperature of feed water and increase in the steam flow rate and steam pressure, which would produce a decrease of water level in a steam drum of the ATR. Next, the simulation data was analysed utilizing an autoregressive model. From this analysis, a total of 36 coherency functions up to 0.5 Hz in each transient were computed among nine important and detectable plant parameters: neutron flux, flow rate of coolant, steam or feed water, water level in the steam drum, pressure and opening area of control valve in a steam pipe, feed water temperature and electrical power. Last, learning of neural networks composed of 96 input, 4-9 hidden and 5 output layer units was done by use of the generalized delta rule, namely a back-propagation algorithm. These convergent computations were continued as far as the difference between the desired outputs, 1 for direct cause or 0 for four other ones and actual outputs reached less than 10%. (1) Coherency functions were not governed by decreasing rate of reactivity in the range of 0.41x10-2dollar/s to 1.62x10-2dollar /s or by decreasing depth of the feed water temperature in the range of 3 deg C to 10 deg C or by a change of 10% or less in the three other causes. Change in coherency functions only depended on the type of cause. (2) The direct cause from the other four ones could be discriminated with 0.94+-0.01 of output level. A maximum of 0.06 output height was found among the other four causes. (3) Calculation load which is represented as products of learning times and numbers of the hidden units did not depend on the numbers

  20. The laboratory test utilization management toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Efficiently managing laboratory test utilization requires both ensuring adequate utilization of needed tests in some patients and discouraging superfluous tests in other patients. After the difficult clinical decision is made to define the patients that do and do not need a test, a wealth of interventions are available to the clinician and laboratorian to help guide appropriate utilization. These interventions are collectively referred to here as the utilization management toolbox. Experience has shown that some tools in the toolbox are weak and other are strong, and that tools are most effective when many are used simultaneously. While the outcomes of utilization management studies are not always as concrete as may be desired, what data is available in the literature indicate that strong utilization management interventions are safe and effective measures to improve patient health and reduce waste in an era of increasing financial pressure. PMID:24969916

  1. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  2. Using consensus building to improve utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utility industry and its regulatory environment are at a crossroads. Utilities, intervenors and even public utility commissions are no longer able to initiate and sustain changes unilaterally. Traditional approaches to regulation are often contentious and costly, producing results that are not perceived as legitimate or practical. Consensus building and alternative dispute resolution have the potential to help utilities, intervenors and regulators resolve a host of regulatory issues. This book traces the decline of consensus in utility regulation and delineates current controversies. It presents the theory and practice of alternative dispute resolution in utility regulation and offers a framework for evaluating the successes and failures of attempts to employ these processes. Four regulatory cases are analyzed in detail: the Pilgrim nuclear power plant outage settlement, the use of DSM collaboratives, the New Jersey resource bidding policy and the formation of integrated resource management rules in Massachusetts

  3. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  4. British Columbia Utilities Commission 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The BC Utilities Commission is an independent regulatory agency of the provincial government that operates under the Utilities Commission Act. The Commission's main responsibility is the regulation of the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that rates charged for energy are fair, just and reasonable, and that utility operations provide safe, adequate and secure service to their clients. It approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities and their issuance of securities. The Commission's function is quasi-judical and its Decisions and Orders may be appealed to the Court of Appeal on questions of law or jurisdiction. It participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. It also reviews, evaluates, and reports on energy related matters referred to it by Cabinet. This review usually involves public hearings followed by a decision or a report and recommendations to the Lieutenant Governor in Council.

  5. British Columbia Utilities Commission 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The BC Utilities Commission is an independent regulatory agency of the provincial government that operates under the Utilities Commission Act. The Commission`s main responsibility is the regulation of the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that rates charged for energy are fair, just and reasonable, and that utility operations provide safe, adequate and secure service to their clients. It approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities and their issuance of securities. The Commission`s function is quasi-judical and its Decisions and Orders may be appealed to the Court of Appeal on questions of law or jurisdiction. It participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. It also reviews, evaluates, and reports on energy related matters referred to it by Cabinet. This review usually involves public hearings followed by a decision or a report and recommendations to the Lieutenant Governor in Council.

  6. Potential of virtual worlds in commercial utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Jergon, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Thesis is concerned by virtual worlds and possibilities of their utilization other than are their original purposes. The objectives of this paper are to confront virtual worlds with mass media and their utilization. The author wants to show that virtual worlds are in many aspects similar to mass media. The author also shows possible utilization of virtual worlds for commercial companies, non-profit organizations, research and individuals. Work shows possible options for usage of virtual world...

  7. Integration of SPS with utility system networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupang, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    The integration of the solar power satellite (SPS) into the electric utility power system is discussed. Specifically treated are the nature of the power output variations from the spacecraft to the rectenna, the operational characteristics of the rectenna power, and the impacts on the electric utility system of the SPS power. It is concluded that the SPS may be integrated into the electric utility system with few negative impacts. Further assessment, using more detailed models, is required. (MJJ)

  8. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  9. Utilities for high performance dispersion model PHYSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazawa, Hiromi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment)

    1992-09-01

    The description and usage of the utilities for the dispersion calculation model PHYSIC were summarized. The model was developed in the study of developing high performance SPEEDI with the purpose of introducing meteorological forecast function into the environmental emergency response system. The procedure of PHYSIC calculation consists of three steps; preparation of relevant files, creation and submission of JCL, and graphic output of results. A user can carry out the above procedure with the help of the Geographical Data Processing Utility, the Model Control Utility, and the Graphic Output Utility. (author).

  10. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  11. Axiomatizations and factorizations of Sugeno utility functions

    CERN Document Server

    Couceiro, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a multicriteria aggregation model where local utility functions of different sorts are aggregated using Sugeno integrals, and which we refer to as Sugeno utility functions. We propose a general approach to study such functions via the notion of pseudo-Sugeno integral (or, equivalently, pseudo-polynomial function), which naturally generalizes that of Sugeno integral, and provide several axiomatizations for this class of functions. Moreover, we address and solve the problem of factorizing a Sugeno utility function as a composition of a Sugeno integral with local utility functions, if such a factorization exists.

  12. The predictive validity of prospect theory versus expected utility in health utility measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan-Perpiñan, Jose Maria; Bleichrodt, Han; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis

    2009-12-01

    Most health care evaluations today still assume expected utility even though the descriptive deficiencies of expected utility are well known. Prospect theory is the dominant descriptive alternative for expected utility. This paper tests whether prospect theory leads to better health evaluations than expected utility. The approach is purely descriptive: we explore how simple measurements together with prospect theory and expected utility predict choices and rankings between more complex stimuli. For decisions involving risk prospect theory is significantly more consistent with rankings and choices than expected utility. This conclusion no longer holds when we use prospect theory utilities and expected utilities to predict intertemporal decisions. The latter finding cautions against the common assumption in health economics that health state utilities are transferable across decision contexts. Our results suggest that the standard gamble and algorithms based on, should not be used to value health. PMID:19833400

  13. The predictive validity of prospect theory versus expected utility in health utility measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan-Perpiñan, Jose Maria; Bleichrodt, Han; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis

    2009-12-01

    Most health care evaluations today still assume expected utility even though the descriptive deficiencies of expected utility are well known. Prospect theory is the dominant descriptive alternative for expected utility. This paper tests whether prospect theory leads to better health evaluations than expected utility. The approach is purely descriptive: we explore how simple measurements together with prospect theory and expected utility predict choices and rankings between more complex stimuli. For decisions involving risk prospect theory is significantly more consistent with rankings and choices than expected utility. This conclusion no longer holds when we use prospect theory utilities and expected utilities to predict intertemporal decisions. The latter finding cautions against the common assumption in health economics that health state utilities are transferable across decision contexts. Our results suggest that the standard gamble and algorithms based on, should not be used to value health.

  14. Utilization of thorium in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA convened a Panel on the utilization of thorium in power reactors from 14 to 18 June 1965. 45 scientists from 14 countries and two international organizations took part in it. The proceedings of the Panel include 23 survey papers and brief reviews which stress the importance of utilizing thorium. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, tabs, figs

  15. 24 CFR 5.632 - Utility reimbursements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility reimbursements. 5.632... Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Payment § 5.632 Utility reimbursements. (a) Applicability. This...); (2) A public housing family paying an income-based rent (see § 960.253 of this title)....

  16. Subjective Expected Utility Theory with "Small Worlds"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Jacob; Hansen, Frank

    which is a more general construction than a state space. We retain preference axioms similar in spirit to the Savage axioms and obtain, without abandoning linearity of expectations, a subjective expected utility theory which allows for an intuitive distinction between risk and uncertainty. We also...... obtain separation of subjective probability and utility as in the state space models....

  17. 77 FR 46987 - Utility Allowances Submetering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... published in the Federal Register amendments to Sec. 1.42-10 (73 FR 43863). If gross rent includes a utility... containing final regulations under section 42 (59 FR 10067). Among these regulations was Sec. 1.42- 10, which... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI91 Utility Allowances Submetering AGENCY:...

  18. Working memory management and predicted utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham, Christopher H; Badre, David

    2013-01-01

    Given the limited capacity of working memory (WM), its resources should be allocated strategically. One strategy is filtering, whereby access to WM is granted preferentially to items with the greatest utility. However, reallocation of WM resources might be required if the utility of maintained information subsequently declines. Here, we present behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging evidence that human participants track changes in the predicted utility of information in WM. First, participants demonstrated behavioral costs when the utility of items already maintained in WM declined and resources should be reallocated. An adapted Q-learning model indicated that these costs scaled with the historical utility of individual items. Finally, model-based neuroimaging demonstrated that frontal cortex tracked the utility of items to be maintained in WM, whereas ventral striatum tracked changes in the utility of items maintained in WM to the degree that these items are no longer useful. Our findings suggest that frontostriatal mechanisms track the utility of information in WM, and that these dynamics may predict delays in the removal of information from WM.

  19. Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kahneman (Daniel); P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.K. Sarin (Rakesh)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo core meanings of “utility” are distinguished. “Decision utility” is the weight of an outcome in a decision. “Experienced utility” is hedonic quality, as in Bentham’s usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past epi

  20. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches

  1. The homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a test to verify if every agent from a population of heterogeneous consumers has the same marginal utility of income function. This homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption is often (implicitly) used in applied demand studies because it has nice aggregation properties and facilit

  2. Is Utility Transferable? A Revealed Preference Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a revealed preference analysis of the transferable utility hypothesis, which is widely used in economic models. First, we establish revealed preference conditions that must be satisfied for observed group behavior to be consistent with Pareto efficiency under transferable utility. Next, w

  3. Recent market behavior of utility stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the recent market behavior of utility stocks as compared to the Standard and Poor's 500 and the long-term government bond yield. Utility stock's performance continues to be affected by unfavorable regulation,and it appears that it will continue to be a factor for some time to come. A continually shrinking excess capacity continues to be a concern

  4. Information Alchemy: Transforming Information through Knowledge Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of knowledge utilization, what it encompasses, and its three waves of activity in America. Basic principles and strategies to consider are listed, and an example of how knowledge utilization is applied by the Center for Mental Health Services is given. (17 references) (EA)

  5. Clinical Utility and "DSM-V"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The construction of the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual has been guided primarily by concerns of construct validity rather than of clinical utility, despite claims by its authors that the highest priority has in fact been clinical utility. The purpose of this article was to further articulate the concept and importance of…

  6. Marginal Utility and Convex Indifference Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews discussion of the relationship between marginal utility and indifference curves which has been presented in recent issues of "Economics." Concludes that indifference analysis does not embody the assumptions of marginal utility theory and that there is no simple relationship between these concepts that does not entail unacceptable…

  7. Benchmark Two-Good Utility Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    2007-01-01

    Benchmark two-good utility functions involving a good with zero income elasticity and unit income elasticity are well known. This paper derives utility functions for the additional benchmark cases where one good has zero cross-price elasticity, unit own-price elasticity, and zero own price elasticit

  8. 78 FR 76973 - Financial Market Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... CFR Part 234 RIN 7100 AD-94 Financial Market Utilities AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... through the account provide certain financial services to, financial market utilities (``FMUs'') that are..., upon which the financial markets and the broader economy rely to function effectively. FMUs...

  9. Continuous expected utility for arbitrary state spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker

    1985-01-01

    Subjective expected utility maximization with continuous utility is characterized, extending the result of Wakker (1984, Journal of Mathematical Psychology) to infinite state spaces. In Savage (1954, The Foundations of Statistics) the main restriction, P6, requires structure for the state space, e.g

  10. How Best To Utilize a Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patricia H.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the importance and meaning of the degree of spontaneity in memory strategy production. Situates the concept of utilization deficiency within current work on memory strategy heterogeneity, contextual support, and situation-specific skills. Concludes that work on utilization deficiencies helps balance the focus on early emergence of…

  11. Dynamic decision making without expected utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jaffray, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Non-expected utility theories, such as rank dependent utility (RDU) theory, have been proposed as alternative models to EU theory in decision making under risk. These models do not share the separability property of expected utility theory. This implies that, in a decision tree, if the reduction...... of compound lotteries assumption is made (so that preferences at each decision node reduce to RDU preferences among lotteries) and that preferences at different decision nodes are identical (same utility function and same weighting function), then the preferences are not dynamically consistent; in particular...... maker’s discordant goals at the different decision nodes. Relative to the computations involved in the standard expected utility evaluation of a decision problem, the main computational increase is due to the identification of non-dominated strategies by linear programming. A simulation, using the rank...

  12. Economics of wind energy for utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccabe, T. F.; Goldenblatt, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    Utility acceptance of this technology will be contingent upon the establishment of both its technical and economic feasibility. This paper presents preliminary results from a study currently underway to establish the economic value of central station wind energy to certain utility systems. The results for the various utilities are compared specifically in terms of three parameters which have a major influence on the economic value: (1) wind resource, (2) mix of conventional generation sources, and (3) specific utility financial parameters including projected fuel costs. The wind energy is derived from modeling either MOD-2 or MOD-0A wind turbines in wind resources determined by a year of data obtained from the DOE supported meteorological towers with a two-minute sampling frequency. In this paper, preliminary results for six of the utilities studied are presented and compared.

  13. Legal considerations in utility stranded cost securitizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.B.; Jameson, J.M.; Yoong, D.K.L.

    1997-10-01

    The effects that state and federal law provisions, and accounting, tax and bankruptcy considerations have on securitization of utility stranded costs are complex and demand careful attention from government, utilities and their advisors. Although the legal structuring of a utility securitization is more involved than that of most other securitizations, its documentation is not particularly more complicated. To facilitate the movement towards a competitive electricity generation marketplace, many investor-owned utilities, regulators and state lawmakers are considering securitizations as a means of recovering stranded costs. Securitizations generally, and securitizations of stranded costs in particular, are subject to many legal requirements, all of which need to be satisfied in order to structure and consummate a successful transaction. Utility executives, regulators and lawmakers need to be cognizant of the legal requirements that will strongly influence the structure and success of any stranded cost legislation or securitization they propose. As of this writing, no U.S. stranded cost securitizations have been completed.

  14. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kaiser, Marshall [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities—or about 25% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  15. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, nearly 600 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or almost 20% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals about 125. Through these programs, more than 40 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2004 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  16. Material degradation - a nuclear utility's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of nuclear plant materials has been responsible for major costs and unit outage time. As such, nuclear utilities are important end users of the information produced by R and D on material degradation. This plenary describes the significance of material degradation for the nuclear utilities, and how utilities use information about material degradation in their short, medium and long term planning activities. Utilities invest in R and D programs to assist them in their business objective of operating safely, reliably and cost competitively. Material degradation impacts all three of these business drivers. Utilities make decisions on life cycle planning, unit refurbishment and 'new build' projects on the basis of their understanding of the behaviour of a variety of materials in a broad range of environments. The R and D being carried out today will determine the future business success of the nuclear utilities. The R and D program needs to be broadly based to include a range of materials, environments and time-frames, particularly any new materials proposed for use in new units. The R and D community needs to help the utility managers make choices that will result in an optimized materials R and D program

  17. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  18. Characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make clear the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia, PET studies with 18F-FDG were carried out. Taking the pattern of 18F-FDG utilization, dementia can be subdivided into two types. One type shows a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction glucose utilization in the posterior part of neocortex covering the temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices. This is referred to as type I. Although this type constitutes only about 1/5 of all dementia patients, it is considered the fundamental type of dementia. Aside from this, there is type wherein a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction in glucose utilization of the neocortex. This is type II. It constitutes about 4/5 of all dementia patients which is far more type I. There are no essential difference in the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in AD and MID. However, with regards the mean, AD is lower than MID. Various organic defect in neocortex do not correlate with the global reduction in glucose utilization in dementia patients. These results suggest that the reduction in glucose utilization in dementia may be functional disorder. (author)

  19. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 2 part 2, of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. This volume particularly contains basic design and performance data.

  20. Shareholders, creditors approve utility reorganization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shareholders and all classes of secured creditors of Public Service Company of New Hampshire voted overwhelmingly last month to approve Northeast Utilities' Chapter 11 reorganization plan for PSNH, the utility announced. PSNH filed for bankruptcy protection in January 1988. Under the reorganization plan, Connecticut-based NU would acquire the utility for $2.3 billion. While PSNH's preferred and common stockholders voted to accept the proposal, holders of warrants to purchase PSNH common stock rejected the plan. Except for the votes of a group of independent power producers, PSNH's unsecured creditors also voted to accept the plan

  1. The Service Utility Model in Service Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; ZHOU Wen-an; SONG Jun-de

    2005-01-01

    Aiming to provide a measurable service Quality of Service (QoS) evaluating method for service inventory management, this paper proposes a new mobile Service Utility Model (SUM), considers the service and business layer elements into the service utility influence profile, and proposes an self-adaptive service inventory management algorithm as a QoS control scheme based on SUM. It can be concluded from the simulation result that the service inventory utility can be fully reflected by SUM and the whole system efficiency is greatly increased by using SUM as the adaptive rule.

  2. 42 CFR 403.746 - Condition of participation: Utilization review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Utilization review. 403...: Utilization review. The RNHCI must have in effect a written utilization review plan to assess the necessity of... actions by the utilization review committee. (a) Standard: Utilization review plan. The utilization...

  3. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  4. Industrial low temperature utilization of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.

    1976-05-01

    This brief presentation on industrial utilization of low temperature geothermal resources first considers an overview of what has been achieved in using geothermal resources in this way and, second, considers potential, future industrial applications.

  5. Utility-based Recommendations for Networked Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Sloep, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L., Bitter-Rijpkema, M. E., & Sloep, P. B. (2010, 2 November). Utility-based Recommendations for Networked Innovation. Poster presentation at the SIKS / SIREN day 2010, Veldhoven, The Netherlands.

  6. Utility FGD survey, Janurary--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, systems designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  8. Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As part of the Obama administrations work to make our health care system more affordable and accountable, data are being released that summarize the utilization and...

  9. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  10. Medicares Hospice Benefit - Analysis of Utilization and..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive analyses reported in Medicares Hospice Benefit - Analysis of Utilization and Resource Use, published in Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  11. Computerized Nursing Care Planning Utilizing Nursing Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Crosley, Joan M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the beginning phase of a long term project introducing computerized nursing care planning utilizing nursing diagnoses within one nursing department. Areas for future study are proposed.

  12. CROSS DRIFT ALCOVE/NICHE UTILITIES ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Goodin

    1999-07-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the design basis and general arrangement requirements of the non-potable water, waste water, compressed air and ventilation (post excavation) utilities required in support of the Cross Drift alcoves and niches.

  13. Recent development of vibration utilization engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangchun WEN

    2008-01-01

    The utilization of vibration and wave, which was developed during the latter half of the 20th century, is one of the most valueable technology applications and has been rapidly developing recently [1-10]. Because the technique is closely associated with industry and agricul-ture, it can create huge social and economical benefits and provide excellent services for society. Thus, due to its necessity in industry and daily life, extensive research has been devoted to vibration utillization engineering. In this paper, vibration utilization is classified into linear or non-linear vibrations, waves, and electric-magnetic oscilla-tions. Their phenomena, patterns, and applications in nature and society are introduced. Some research results about vibration utilization engineering are described.

  14. ARC Code TI: CFD Utility Software Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CFD Utility Software Library consists of nearly 30 libraries of Fortran 90 and 77 subroutines and almost 100 applications built on those libraries. Many of the...

  15. Metabolic Engineering for Substrate Co-utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawand, Pratish

    Production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals is being increasingly pursued by chemical industry to reduce its dependence on petroleum. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is an abundant source of sugars that can be used for producing biofuels and bio-based chemicals using fermentation. Hydrolysis of LCB results in a mixture of sugars mainly composed of glucose and xylose. Fermentation of such a sugar mixture presents multiple technical challenges at industrial scale. Most industrial microorganisms utilize sugars in a sequential manner due to the regulatory phenomenon of carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Due to sequential utilization of sugars, the LCB-based fermentation processes suffer low productivities and complicated operation. Performance of fermentation processes can be improved by metabolic engineering of microorganisms to obtain superior characteristics such as high product yield. With increased computational power and availability of complete genomes of microorganisms, use of model-based metabolic engineering is now a common practice. The problem of sequential sugar utilization, however, is a regulatory problem, and metabolic models have never been used to solve such regulatory problems. The focus of this thesis is to use model-guided metabolic engineering to construct industrial strains capable of co-utilizing sugars. First, we develop a novel bilevel optimization algorithm SimUp, that uses metabolic models to identify reaction deletion strategies to force co-utilization of two sugars. We then use SimUp to identify reaction deletion strategies to force glucose-xylose co-utilization in Escherichia coli. To validate SimUp predictions, we construct three mutants with multiple gene knockouts and test them for glucose-xylose utilization characteristics. Two mutants, designated as LMSE2 and LMSE5, are shown to co-utilize glucose and xylose in agreement with SimUp predictions. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in glucose-xylose co-utilization of the

  16. Utility maximization in incomplete markets with default

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We adress the maximization problem of expected utility from terminal wealth. The special feature of this paper is that we consider a financial market where the price process of risky assets can have a default time. Using dynamic programming, we characterize the value function with a backward stochastic differential equation and the optimal portfolio policies. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.

  17. Utility interconnection issues for wind power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J. I.; Lawler, J. S.; Reddoch, T. W.; Sullivan, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    This document organizes the total range of utility related issues, reviews wind turbine control and dynamic characteristics, identifies the interaction of wind turbines to electric utility systems, and identifies areas for future research. The material is organized at three levels: the wind turbine, its controls and characteristics; connection strategies as dispersed or WPSs; and the composite issue of planning and operating the electric power system with wind generated electricity.

  18. Evaluation of energy roof direct utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Rossetto, L.; Viero, L.

    1984-04-01

    Energy roofs are roofing systems equipped with channels which allow both solar and atmospheric energy collection. They were conceived as cold source for heat pump systems. The behavious of an energy roof in DHW direct heating was studied; this might extend energy roof utilization all year long. The estimates were performed through more reliable recently proposed correlations for wind convection heat transfer coefficients. The advantage of annual energy roof utilization in DHW direct heating is predictable.

  19. Alternative Regulation for North American Electric Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a decade of favorable operating conditions, utilities find themselves faced with accelerating prices for key inputs and a growing need for new capacity. These pressures are likely to prompt increasingly frequent, and perhaps more contentious, rate cases. Steady progress in the development of alternative regulation provides hope that the utility industry will respond to these challenges much better than in 1975-85. (author)

  20. Optical fibre cable selection for electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The report provides an assessment of the range of optical fibre cable solutions available, by type e.g. OPGW, ADSS, rather than by design. it also examines the key issues which will influence an electricity utilities decisions and proposes a method of evaluating the options to identify the one which most closely matches the utility's critical needs, with measurements against time, cost and quality targets. (author)

  1. Utility adaptation to a changing procurement environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By utilizing the new EPRI guidelines, it is possible to improve the procurement process while yielding a higher level of assurance of getting the right items, and while providing the utility with significant monetary savings. Such guidelines are: parts safety classification evaluations; commercial grade dedications plans; on-site testing facility; spare parts equivalency evaluations; supplier qualification and source verification. Specific programs within Niagara Mohawk and financial savings are reviewed. (1 tab.)

  2. Industry activities to resolve utility procurement issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several industry organizations which are active in assisting the utilities in their equipment procurement enhancement. They include the Nuclear Management Resources Council (NUMARC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC). The products include the NUMARC Procurement Initiatives, EPRI procurement related guidelines and databases, and NUPIC joint audits and commercial grade surveys. The industry procurement activities and products are reviewed, and their use by utilities to enhance their procurement process is related. 1 fig

  3. Utilization of renewable energy in architectural design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lei; QIN Youguo

    2007-01-01

    Renewable energy does not simply equal to using a photovoltaic (PV) board.In addition to heating,ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) engineering considerations,the design approaches of architects are crucial to the utilization condition and methods of renewable energy.Through profound comprehension of the relationship between renewable energy utilization and design approaches,we can achieve a dual-standard of building environment performance and esthetics.

  4. Generalized anxiety disorder and health care utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Kujanpää, T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental health problem, which is characterized by excessive anxiety and worry, problems that are difficult to control. In the general population, the 12-month prevalence of GAD is 2-3%, with the lifetime prevalence being about 5%. However, GAD is more prevalent among primary care utilizers i.e. approximately 5-8% of them suffer from this disorder. Earlier studies have revealed GAD to be associated with a high utilization of health care resou...

  5. Has branding failed the utility industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brew, A. [Addison, New York, NY (United States)]|[Addison, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Addison, Chicago, IL (United States); Phelps, L. [Phelps Consulting Group (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Some flawed, and now discredited, experiments have thrown a shadow over the value of branding in the utility industry. But brands do have power in the energy industry, if they are well conceived and their execution is well supported. Branding has been enthusiastically embraced by those industries that are bearing the brunt of regulatory and technological changes. At the forefront of these are the telecommunications, airlines, financial services, and power utilities industries.

  6. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacterial sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    The terrestrial nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, is living ranging from polar to desert. N. commune makes visible colonies composed extracellular polymeric substances. N. commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. To exhibit the potential abilities, the N. commune sheet is made to use convenient and evaluated by plant growth and radioactive accumulation. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment.

  7. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 600 utilities—or about 20% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals more than 130. Through these programs, more than 50 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  8. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  9. Shaping the future of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On December 14, 1992, Cincinnati Gas ampersand Electric Company (CG ampersand E) and PSI Resources, Inc. announced an agreement to merge the two companies into a newly formed company, CINergy Corp. In announcing the proposed merger, James E. Rogers Jr., chairman, president, and chief executive officer of PSI said, Our companies have chosen to shape our future and our industry. This is an ideal partnership, since our strengths complement each other and our vision of the future is the same. Will this merger be the first of many that will shape the future of the electric utility in the United States? What is the vision of the future for the industry? About five years ago, a well-known Wall Street utility analyst traveled around the country talking about the anticipated consolidation of electric utility companies in the US His motto was Fifty in Five, meaning widespread consolidation that would reduce the number of independent investor-owned utilities from more than 100 to 50 within a five-year period. He even developed a map showing the mergers/consolidations he looked for and actually named names. More than five years have passed, and only a handful of utility mergers have taken place. But, looking forward from 1992, restructuring of the utility industry is very much a vision of the future. What is the driving force? The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 provides the legislative framework for the electric utility industry in the US in future years. While the specific rules that will govern the industry are yet to be promulgated, the intent to allow (even promote) competition is evident in the Act itself. But it appears the vision of the future is market driven

  10. Effects of utility DSM programs on risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1992-05-01

    Electric utilities face a variety of uncertainties that complicate their long-term resource planning and acquisition. These uncertainties include future economic and load growths, fuel prices, environmental regulations, economic regulations, performance and construction cost of existing power plants, cost and availability of purchased power, and the costs and performance of new demand and supply resources. As utilities increasingly turn to demand-side management (DSM) programs to provide energy and capacity resources, it becomes more important to analyze the interactions between these programs and the uncertainties facing utilities. This report uses a new planning model (DIAMOND, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) to explore quantitatively the uncertainty implications of supply-only vs DSM + supply resource portfolios. The analysis focuses on risks to society, with only limited attention to the allocation of risks among customers, shareholders, and others. Four sets of uncertainties are considered in these analyses: economic growth, fuel prices, the costs to build new power plants, and the costs to operate DSM programs. These four types of uncertainties serve as proxies for the many others that face utilities, including delays in completing power plants (proxied by cost of completing plants) and the energy and load reductions caused by DSM programs (proxied by cost of DSM programs). The two types of resource portfolios are tested against these four sets of uncertainties for the period 1990 to 2010. Sensitivity, scenario, and worst-case analysis methods are used. Results show that it is feasible to analyze the effects on uncertainty of including DSM programs in a utility`s resource mix. In light of these results, utilities, which to date have done very little such analysis, should conduct such studies as part of their integrated-resource planning activities.

  11. A bayesian approach to laboratory utilization management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G Hauser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory utilization management describes a process designed to increase healthcare value by altering requests for laboratory services. A typical approach to monitor and prioritize interventions involves audits of laboratory orders against specific criteria, defined as rule-based laboratory utilization management. This approach has inherent limitations. First, rules are inflexible. They adapt poorly to the ambiguity of medical decision-making. Second, rules judge the context of a decision instead of the patient outcome allowing an order to simultaneously save a life and break a rule. Third, rules can threaten physician autonomy when used in a performance evaluation. Methods: We developed an alternative to rule-based laboratory utilization. The core idea comes from a formula used in epidemiology to estimate disease prevalence. The equation relates four terms: the prevalence of disease, the proportion of positive tests, test sensitivity and test specificity. When applied to a laboratory utilization audit, the formula estimates the prevalence of disease (pretest probability [PTP] in the patients tested. The comparison of PTPs among different providers, provider groups, or patient cohorts produces an objective evaluation of laboratory requests. We demonstrate the model in a review of tests for enterovirus (EV meningitis. Results: The model identified subpopulations within the cohort with a low prevalence of disease. These low prevalence groups shared demographic and seasonal factors known to protect against EV meningitis. This suggests too many orders occurred from patients at low risk for EV. Conclusion: We introduce a new method for laboratory utilization management programs to audit laboratory services.

  12. Iranian nurses' constraint for research utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Neda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper identifies the views of Iranian clinical nurses regarding the utilization of nursing research in practice. There is a need to understand what restricts Iranian clinical nurses to use research findings. The aim of this study was to identify practicing nurses' view of aspects which they perceived constrain them from research utilization that summarizes and uses research findings to address a nursing practice problem. Methods Data were collected during 6 months by means of face-to face interviews follow by one focus group. Analysis was undertaken using a qualitative content analysis. Results Findings disclosed some key themes perceived by nurses to restrict them to use research findings: level of support require to be research active, to be research minded, the extent of nurses knowledge and skills about research and research utilization, level of educational preparation relating to using research, administration and executive challenges in clinical setting, and theory-practice gap. Conclusion This study identifies constraints that require to be overcome for clinical nurses to actively get involved in research utilization. In this study nurses were generally interested to use research findings. However they felt restricted because of lack of time, lack of peer and manager support and limited knowledge and skills of the research process. This study also confirms that research utilization and the change to research nursing practice are complex issues which require both organizational and educational efforts.

  13. Universally Utility-Maximizing Privacy Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Arpita; Sundararajan, Mukund

    2008-01-01

    A mechanism for releasing information about a statistical database with sensitive data must resolve a trade-off between utility and privacy. Privacy can be rigorously quantified using the framework of {\\em differential privacy}, which requires that a mechanism's output distribution is nearly the same (in a strong sense) whether or not a given database row is included or excluded. In this paper, we pursue much strong and general utility guarantees. We seek a mechanism that guarantees near-optimal utility to every potential user, independent of its side information. Formally, we model the side information of a potential user as a prior distribution over query results. An interaction between a user and a mechanism induces a posterior distribution, and we define the utility of the mechanism for this user as the accuracy of this posterior, as quantified via a user-specific loss function. A differentially private mechanism $M$ is (near-)optimal for a given user $u$ if $u$ derives (almost) as much utility from $M$ a...

  14. Development of beam utilization/application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. H.; Kim, Y.K.; Song, T.Y. [and others

    1999-05-01

    High power proton accelerator is considered as one of national fundamental research facilities and a key to advanced nuclear technology development, having been widely used in an un detachable relationship with nuclear research in advanced countries. The high power proton accelerator will be installed in several phases as an up front facility of the nuclear waste transmutation system. It is expected that a common understanding and a general agreement over proper utilization of the accelerator should be deduced and that a user program for beam utilization and application should be firmly established in time for the completion of each phase of the accelerator. This high power proton accelerator will consist of several component accelerators and, from up front, accelerators such as injector, RFQ, CCDTL, etc. will be installed in sequence and deliver respectively at each stage beams of 3MeV, 20MeV, 100Mev, etc. to be variously utilized forindustries, defence industry, medical treatment, environmental protection and basic science research. In order for the accelerator to be fully utilized as a national fundamental research facility beyond nuclear field, it is necessary to formulate a proceeding plan of the user program for the accelerator and to cultivate industrial utilization/application studies of proton beams accelerated by injector or RFQ of the accelerator. (author). 38 refs., 84 tabs., 39 figs.

  15. Development of beam utilization/application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High power proton accelerator is considered as one of national fundamental research facilities and a key to advanced nuclear technology development, having been widely used in an un detachable relationship with nuclear research in advanced countries. The high power proton accelerator will be installed in several phases as an up front facility of the nuclear waste transmutation system. It is expected that a common understanding and a general agreement over proper utilization of the accelerator should be deduced and that a user program for beam utilization and application should be firmly established in time for the completion of each phase of the accelerator. This high power proton accelerator will consist of several component accelerators and, from up front, accelerators such as injector, RFQ, CCDTL, etc. will be installed in sequence and deliver respectively at each stage beams of 3MeV, 20MeV, 100Mev, etc. to be variously utilized for industries, defence industry, medical treatment, environmental protection and basic science research. In order for the accelerator to be fully utilized as a national fundamental research facility beyond nuclear field, it is necessary to formulate a proceeding plan of the user program for the accelerator and to cultivate industrial utilization/application studies of proton beams accelerated by injector or RFQ of the accelerator. (author). 38 refs., 84 tabs., 39 figs

  16. Realistic utility versus game utility: a proposal for dealing with the spread of uncertain prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Vittorio Frosini

    2013-01-01

    The author develops the properties and implications of a proposal, concerning a summary statistic of the random prospect of utilities. Following a suggestion of Allais, such a statistic is increasing with expected utility, and decreasing – for most people, who are risk averse – with the mean absolute deviation of utilities; a parameter multiplying this disper sion measure allows for risk averse or risk prone behaviour, according to its sign, and also for more or less departure from a certain ...

  17. Evaluation of the electric utility missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  18. Construction utilization of foamed waste glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang LU; Katsutada ONITSUKA

    2004-01-01

    Foamed waste glass(FWG) material is newly developed for the purpose to utilize the waste glassware andother waste glass. FWG has a multi-porous structure that consists of continuous or discontinuous voids. Hencelightweight but considerable stiffness can be achieved. In the present study, the manufacture and engineeringproperties of FWG are introduced first. Then, the utilizations of FWG are investigated in laboratory tests and fieldtests. Some case studies on design and construction work are also reported here. Through these studies we knowthat the discontinuous void material can be utilized as a lightweight fill material, ground improvement material andlightweight aggregate for concrete. On the other hand, the continuous void material can be used as water holdingmaterial for the greening of ground slope and rooftop, and as clarification material for water.

  19. Sustainable Virtual Utilities Based on Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Gustavsson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Next generation of energy systems, being dependant on Renewable Energy Resources (RES and Distributed Generation (DG, will typically be based on flexible virtual cells of cells of balanced power consumption – generation, that is microgrids, rather than present day vertical hierarchical grid systems. Furthermore, the supporting information infrastructure and nonlinear dependencies will pose new dependability challenges to the systems involved. As a consequence, we have to decouple present day proprietary hierarchical SCADA systems into sets of services that allow for horizontal as well as vertical integration supporting operations and business models of future virtual utilities. The virtual utilities are integrating two critical infrastructures; power grids and cyber networks. To allow for this flexibility and assuring dependability we argue that the underlying infrastructures should be modelled as Service Oriented Architectures (SOA. We propose in this paper a methodology towards ensuring quality of service in virtual utilities based on microgrids.

  20. Effects of utility DSM programs on risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1992-05-01

    Electric utilities face a variety of uncertainties that complicate their long-term resource planning and acquisition. These uncertainties include future economic and load growths, fuel prices, environmental regulations, economic regulations, performance and construction cost of existing power plants, cost and availability of purchased power, and the costs and performance of new demand and supply resources. As utilities increasingly turn to demand-side management (DSM) programs to provide energy and capacity resources, it becomes more important to analyze the interactions between these programs and the uncertainties facing utilities. This report uses a new planning model (DIAMOND, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) to explore quantitatively the uncertainty implications of supply-only vs DSM + supply resource portfolios. The analysis focuses on risks to society, with only limited attention to the allocation of risks among customers, shareholders, and others. Four sets of uncertainties are considered in these analyses: economic growth, fuel prices, the costs to build new power plants, and the costs to operate DSM programs. These four types of uncertainties serve as proxies for the many others that face utilities, including delays in completing power plants (proxied by cost of completing plants) and the energy and load reductions caused by DSM programs (proxied by cost of DSM programs). The two types of resource portfolios are tested against these four sets of uncertainties for the period 1990 to 2010. Sensitivity, scenario, and worst-case analysis methods are used. Results show that it is feasible to analyze the effects on uncertainty of including DSM programs in a utility's resource mix. In light of these results, utilities, which to date have done very little such analysis, should conduct such studies as part of their integrated-resource planning activities.

  1. Handbook of evaluation of utility DSM programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Reed, J. [eds.; Bronfman, B.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Hicks, E.; Hirst, E.; Hoffman, M.; Keating, K.; Michaels, H.; Nadel, S.; Peters, J.; Reed, J.; Saxonis, W.; Schoen, A.; Violette, D.

    1991-12-01

    Program evaluation has become a central issue in the world of utility integrated resource planning. The DSM programs that utilities were operating to meet federal requirements or to improve customer relations are now becoming big business. DSM is being considered an important resource in a utility`s portfolio of options. In the last five years, the amount of money that utilities have invested in DSM has grown exponentially in most regulatory jurisdictions. Market analysts are now talking about DSM being a $30 billion industry by the end of the decade. If the large volume of DSM-program investments was not enough to highlight the importance of evaluation, then the introduction of regulatory incentives has really focused the spotlight. This handbook was developed through a process that involved many of those people who represent the diverse constituencies of DSM-program evaluation. We have come to recognize the many technical disciplines that must be employed to evaluate DSM programs. An analysis might start out based on the principles of utility load research to find out what happened, but a combination of engineering and statistical methods must be used to ``triangulate`` an estimate of what would have happened without the program. The difference, of course, is that elusive but prized result of evaluation: what happened as the direct result of the DSM program. Technical performance of DSM measures is not the sole determinant of the answer, either. We also recognize the importance of such behavioral attributes of DSM as persistence and free ridership. Finally, DSM evaluation is meaningless without attention to planning an approach, communicating results to relevant decision-makers, and focusing as much on the process as the impacts of the program. These topics are all covered in this handbook.

  2. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  3. Independence properties Vis-A-Vis several utility representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marley, AAJ; Luce, RD

    2005-01-01

    A detailed theoretical analysis is presented of what five utility representations - subjective expected utility (SEU), rank-dependent (cumulative or Choquet) utility (RDU), gains decomposition utility (GDU), rank weighted utility (RWU), and a configural-weight model (TAX) that we show to be equivale

  4. Fusion Utility in the Knudsen Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovits, Seth [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-01

    In inertial confi nement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared to those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer e ffect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate restoring the reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  5. Assessment of Research Needs for Coal Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1983-08-01

    The Coal Combustion and Applications Working Group (CCAWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on coal combustion and utilization. The important topical areas of coal gasification and coal liquefaction have been deliberately excluded because R and D needs for these technologies were reviewed previously by the DOE Fossil Energy Research Working Group. The CCAWG studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect prospects for augmented coal utilization. In this report, we summarize the findings and research recommendations of CCAWG.

  6. Robust utility maximization in a discontinuous filtration

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanblanc, Monique; Ngoupeyou, Armand

    2012-01-01

    We study a problem of utility maximization under model uncertainty with information including jumps. We prove first that the value process of the robust stochastic control problem is described by the solution of a quadratic-exponential backward stochastic differential equation with jumps. Then, we establish a dynamic maximum principle for the optimal control of the maximization problem. The characterization of the optimal model and the optimal control (consumption-investment) is given via a forward-backward system which generalizes the result of Duffie and Skiadas (1994) and El Karoui, Peng and Quenez (2001) in the case of maximization of recursive utilities including model with jumps.

  7. Current radioactive waste utilization at PA 'MAYAK'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Production Association 'Mayak' is one of the largest production union of Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) in Russia. In 1988 the last military reactor, which worked for making military plutonium was stopped. From this time civic history of 'Mayak' was began. Today 'Mayak' is the complex production union of NFC, which utilizes the Radiated Nuclear Fuel (RNF). The combine is dynamically develops, new technologies are domesticate and intrude, large works for liquidation of accidents and mistakes of lapsed years are in progress. The short review of radioactive waste utilization methods is present in this account. (author)

  8. Internet SCADA Utilizing API's as Data Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Haeng-Kon; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    An Application programming interface or API is an interface implemented by a software program that enables it to interact with other software. Many companies provide free API services which can be utilized in Control Systems. SCADA is an example of a control system and it is a system that collects data from various sensors at a factory, plant or in other remote locations and then sends this data to a central computer which then manages and controls the data. In this paper, we designed a scheme for Weather Condition in Internet SCADA Environment utilizing data from external API services. The scheme was designed to double check the weather information in SCADA.

  9. Utilization of dental services in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, ECM; Lin, HC; Wang, ZJ; Wong, MCM; Schwarz, E

    2001-01-01

    A population's utilization of dental services is an important parameter in oral health care planning, which has rarely been studied in China. The objectives of this report were to describe the dental service utilization pattern of middle-aged and elderly Chinese and to analyze the influence of selected variables on the use of dental services. A Guangdong Province population of 1573 35- to 44-year-olds and 1515 65- to 74-year-olds recruited from urban and rural communities was interviewed in t...

  10. Addiction and the Utilization of Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ju Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of different scales of addictive factors on the utilization of medical services in this paper using a two-part model. Data are from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and the claims data in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The results show that personal addictive behavior is significantly associated with both outpatient and inpatient utilization. Moreover, our result implies that those who smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day might not visit a doctor until the illness was severe. It suggests that the government can accomplish these goals by promotion and education in order to increase public awareness of personal health.

  11. An Efficient Framework to Utilize Grover Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigeru Yamashita; Masaki Nakanishi

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient framework to utilize quantum search practically.To the best of our knowledge,this is the first paper to show a concrete usage of quantum search in general programming.In our framework, we can utilize a quantum computer as a coprocessor to speed-up some parts of a program that runs on a classical computer.To do so,we propose several new ideas and techniques,such as a practical method to design a large quantum circuits for search problems and an efficient quantum comparator.

  12. Floodwater utilization of the Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qian-jin; CAO Guang-jing; DAI Hui-cao; ZHAO Yun-fa

    2009-01-01

    Floods are both risks and resources. Floodwater utilization is an important part of flood management. Considering the rising shortage of water resources, serious water pollution, and undersupply of electric power, it's imperative to strengthen flood management. In light of the hydrological characteristics of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) on the Yangtze River in P. R. China, we investigated the necessity and feasibility of TGP floodwater utilization, proprosed dynamic control of limited water level during flood season of the reservoir and basin-wide integrated floodwater management as strategies, and identified problems that might occur in practice.

  13. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  14. DYNAMIC BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION ALGORITHM UTILIZING FULL BAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Guodong; Wen Jianhua; Wu Jiangxing

    2006-01-01

    A kind of Dynamic Full Bandwidth Utilized (DFBU) allocation algorithm is introduced. This algorithm allows a single link to use bandwidth far beyond its fair share bandwidth in a multi-service packet transporting system. Three important parameters as the bound on maximum and minimum bandwidth, the maximum packet delay and the minimum band width utilization are discussed and analyzed. Results of experiments show that the DFBU-algorithm is capable of making a single link in the system to use all the spare bandwidth (up to full-bandwidth) while the performance of fairness and QoS requirement is still guaranteed.

  15. Utility Independence of Multiattribute Utility Theory is Equivalent to Standard Sequence Invariance of Conjoint Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han); J.N. Doctor (Jason); M. Filko (Martin); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUtility independence is a central condition in multiattribute utility theory, where attributes of outcomes are aggregated in the context of risk. The aggregation of attributes in the absence of risk is studied in conjoint measurement. In conjoint measurement, standard sequences have been

  16. Under stochastic dominance choquet-expected utility and anticipated utility are identical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to convince the reader that Choquet-expected utility, as initiated by Schmeidler (1982) for decision making under uncertainty, when formulated for decision making under risk naturally leads to Yaari (1987)'s anticipated utility. Thus the two generalizations of expected utili

  17. Under stochastic dominance Choquet-expected utility and anticipated utility are identical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this paper is to convince the reader that Choquet-expected utility, as initiated by Schmeidler (1982, 1989) for decision making under uncertainty, when formulated for decision making under risk naturally leads to anticipated utility, as initiated by Quiggin/Yaari. Thus the two

  18. The supply and utilization of dental services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Postma, J.H.M.

    1984-01-01

    In this article the question is addressed whether regional differences in the supply of dental manpower influences the utilization of dental services. The percentage of the population that visits the dentist, is indeed higher in regions with a higher density of dentists. The number of people that vi

  19. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M; Grondona, M

    2002-12-19

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. This paper presents an overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  20. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  1. Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Bielová, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    The subject of bachelor's thesis "Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication" is analyze problematic of marketing communications in sector of educational services. The aims are potential clients of education. I will try to make out import of marketing research for marketing communication of the company.

  2. Presence and the utility of audio spatialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bormann, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    The primary concern of this paper is whether the utility of audio spatialization, as opposed to the fidelity of audio spatialization, impacts presence. An experiment is reported that investigates the presence-performance relationship by decoupling spatial audio fidelity (realism) from task...

  3. A Simple Axiomatization of Nonadditive Expected Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.K. Sarin (Rakesh); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides an extension of Savage's subjective expected utility theory for decisions under uncertainty. It includes in the set of events both unambiguous events for which probabilities are additive and ambiguous events for which probabilities are permitted to be nonadditive. The

  4. The diagnostic utility of MRI in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne J; Weber, Ulrich; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    and fat infiltrations, and recent studies suggest that assessment of both inflammatory and structural changes of the sacroiliac joints may improve the diagnostic utility of MRI. The present article reviews the evidence for the use of sacroiliac joint and spinal MRI to assess patients with axial...

  5. MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN CHINESE UTILITY COAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of analyzing representative samples of 20 Chinese utility coals for mercury content, and proximate, ultimate, and heating values. The data for these bituminous coals, obtained from China with the cooperation of the Chinese University of Mining Technology,...

  6. Wind energy utilization by means of aerogenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racalbuto, S.

    1979-01-01

    Meteorological factors associated with choosing the proper site for wind energy conversion systems are examined with emphasis on wind velocity considerations. This choice is shown to depend on the meteorological and morphological characteristics of a given site and on the manner of utilization of the electrical energy produced. These various factors are considered in planning the wind energy system on the Ustica Island.

  7. Nitrogen-fixing methane-utilizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de J.A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Methane occurs abundantly in nature. In the presence of oxygen this gas may be metabolized by bacteria that are able to use it as carbon and energy source. Several types of bacteria involved in the oxidation of methane have been described in literature. Methane-utilizing bacteria have in common that

  8. Inter-utility trade in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced inter-utility cooperation could have a profound effect on the future of the electricity supply industry. Coordinated planning, development, and operations of electric power systems have the potential to reduce the cost of electricity to consumers and to lessen the impact of electricity supply on the environment. These effects could be achieved by being able to supply electricity from lower cost and more environmentally benign sources located over wider geographic areas, and having to install less new generating capacity. Access to transmission and wheeling services would be an important factor in allowing increased inter-utility cooperation to occur. Canada's National Energy Board conducted a review to identify measures that can be taken to enhance interprovincial trade in electricity, to encourage greater cooperation between electric utilities in the areas of systems planning and development, and to enable buyers and sellers of electricity to obtain access to available transmission capacity through intervening provinces for wheeling purposes. The work undertaken by the Board during that review is described. A total estimated economic benefit of $23-32.5 billion was identified, mainly from long-term firm sales and from seasonal diversity exchanges. Four options were developed that appear to be available to encourage and achieve enhanced inter-utility cooperation. These are continuation of voluntary cooperation, voluntary cooperation with federal monitoring, establishing voluntary regional planning entities, and establishing regional planning entities with mandated federal power

  9. Poultry Industry Trends for Litter Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler litter utilization falls primarily into two broad categories, as fertilizer or in litter-to-energy processes. Without economic, environmentally sound litter uses, potential or real regional litigation may force alternative management that can be detrimental to the grower’s bottom line as wel...

  10. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeker William C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  11. Developing an Actuarial Track Utilizing Existing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathy V.; Sarol, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    Students earning a degree in mathematics often seek information on how to apply their mathematical knowledge. One option is to follow a curriculum with an actuarial emphasis designed to prepare students as an applied mathematician in the actuarial field. By developing only two new courses and utilizing existing courses for Validation by…

  12. 7 CFR 1924.107 - Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under this subpart must have adequate, economic, safe, energy efficient, dependable utilities with... private, shall meet the design requirements of the state department of health or other comparable... the following: (A) Be an organization that meets the ownership and operating requirements for a...

  13. Effective utilization and management of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of utilizing a research reactor effectively is closely related to its management and therefore should not be considered separately. Too often, attention has been focused on specific techniques and methods rather than on the overall programme of utilization, with the result that skills and equipment have been acquired without any active continuing programme of applications and services. The seminar reported here provided a forum for reactor managers, users, and operators to discuss their experience. At the invitation of the Government of Malaysia, it was held at the Asia Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur, from 7 to 11 November 1983. It was attended by about 50 participants from 19 Member States; it is hoped that a report on the seminar, including papers presented, can be published and thus reach a wider audience. Thirty-one lectures and contributions were presented at a total of seven sessions: Research reactor management; Radiation exposure and safety; Research reactor utilization (two sessions); PUSPATI Research Reactor Project Development; Core conversion to low-enriched uranium, and safeguards; Research reactor technology. In addition, a panel discussed the causes and resolutions of the under-utilization of research reactors

  14. Increasing Counseling Center Utilization: Yeshiva University's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Victor; Nissel, Chaim; Eisenberg, Daniel; Kay, Jerald; Brown, Joshua T.

    2012-01-01

    Yeshiva University established a counseling center during the 2004-2005 academic year. As a religiously based institution, the administration recognized that there would likely be significant impediments to utilization of on-campus mental health services as a result of negative attitudes about mental illness and its treatment--stigma. To combat…

  15. Japanese electric utilities call for IPP capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, E.

    1997-03-01

    Japan`s ten power utilities have finally grasped the nettle, and called in IPPs to supply at least 3 GW of new capacity in each of the next ten years. The first twenty schemes awarded last year are all based on existing industrial energy producers, and consist mainly of coal- or oil-fired plants of 150 MW or less. 1 tab.

  16. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-09-01

    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO).

  17. Recent activities on neutron beam utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the utilization of neutron beam brought out in research reactors had mainly been carried out in KUR of Kyoto University and JRR-2 of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in the fields of neutron scattering experiment, neutron radiography, neutron induced prompt-gamma ray analysis, medical and biological irradiation and so on. After the completion of upgrading work of JRR-3 in JAERI in 1990 (JRR-3M), the quality and quantity for the neutron beam experiments are extremely improved by means of its high intensity of neutron flux and high signal-to-noise ratio of cold and thermal neutron beams at more than twenty neutron beam ports. Especially, the cold neutron beam has brought the field of the utilization expanded and the neutron guide tubes have increased the number of neutron beam facilities as if there are three research reactors. These facilities induced to more active use of research reactors and increased the researchers in the many fields. At present, research reactors are utilized widely in various fields of not only nuclear researches but also non-nuclear researches and industrial uses. The JRR-3M has been operated only for about three years, however, interesting results have already been obtained using cold and thermal neutron beams. The current status of the neutron beam utilization using the research reactors in JAERI is reported and also several research topics obtained at JRR-3M are introduced in this presentation. (author)

  18. Recovery and utilization of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Beirutty, M.; Akyurt, M.; Najjar, Y.; Alp, T. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Coll. of Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    A review of waste heat recovery and utilization is presented. The potential for re-using the otherwise waste heat in different branches of industry is discussed. Traditional and new ways to recover the discharged heat from industrial equipment are illustrated. It is concluded that there exist numerous opportunities for recuperating and using waste heat. (author)

  19. Toward a Theoretical Model of Evaluation Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Burke

    1998-01-01

    A metamodel of evaluation utilization was developed from implicit and explicit process models and ideas developed in recent research. The model depicts evaluation use as occurring in an internal environment situated in an external environment. Background variables, international or social psychological variables, and evaluation use variables are…

  20. Social Work Science and Knowledge Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Reed, Martena

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article advances understanding of social work science by examining the content and methods of highly utilized or cited journal articles in social work. Methods: A data base of the 100 most frequently cited articles from 79 social work journals was coded and categorized into three primary domains: content, research versus…

  1. Advance Mining of Temporal High Utility Itemset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Soni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The stock market domain is a dynamic and unpredictable environment. Traditional techniques, such as fundamental and technical analysis can provide investors with some tools for managing their stocks and predicting their prices. However, these techniques cannot discover all the possible relations between stocks and thus there is a need for a different approach that will provide a deeper kind of analysis. Data mining can be used extensively in the financial markets and help in stock-price forecasting. Therefore, we propose in this paper a portfolio management solution with business intelligence characteristics. We know that the temporal high utility itemsets are the itemsets with support larger than a pre-specified threshold in current time window of data stream. Discovery of temporal high utility itemsets is an important process for mining interesting patterns like association rules from data streams. We proposed the novel algorithm for temporal association mining with utility approach. This make us to find the temporal high utility itemset which can generate less candidate itemsets.

  2. Average utility maximization: A preference foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen

  3. China Encourages Natural Gas Development and Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuehou; Jiang Shiang

    1997-01-01

    @@ China is one of the earliest nations in developing and utilizing natural gas with modern drilling technique adopted as early as in the 1940s, and the scale of the country's gas resources exploration and development has been expanded since 1950s. At the end of 1995, its yearly gas production reached 17.4 × 109 m3.

  4. HIV COST AND SERVICES UTILIZATION STUDY (HCSUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS) is the first major research effort to collect information on a nationally representative sample of people in care for HIV infection. HCSUS is funded through a cooperative agreement between the Agency for Health Care Policy Resea...

  5. Cost Utility: An Aid to Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Crist H.

    A set of procedures were developed which assist in structuring tasks and objectives in a manner to permit rational decision making. The model uses a jury of experts to rank various objectives and program processes in terms of their importance. Values are generated which relate to costs in the form of a utility-cost ratio. The model was tested in a…

  6. '02 technical report of RIPF utility results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the proper management of RIPF and utilization facilities, such as, hot cells, KGMP, HTS, PTS and affiliated facilities, the project could contribute to both accomplishment of studies on radioisotopes and radiation and public welfare by supplying hospitals with high quality diagnostic and therapeutic radioisotopes

  7. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. 76 FR 18445 - Financial Market Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Board would expect a designated FMU to meet the sound practices set forth in the ``Interagency Paper on... (``cover one''); or should the Board require sufficient financial resources to withstand defaults by the... CFR Part 234 RIN 7100-AD71 Financial Market Utilities AGENCY: Board of Governors of the...

  9. Nutrient Digestion and Utilization in Farm Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present current research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fish. The book is organised into six sections that cover a range of topics and modelling approaches; these are (i) absorption and passage; (ii) growth and devel

  10. 78 FR 14024 - Financial Market Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... CFR Part 234 RIN No. 7100-AD 94 Financial Market Utilities AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... maintain an account for, and through the account provide certain financial services to, financial market... financial markets and the broader economy rely to function effectively. FMUs operate multilateral systems...

  11. Analysis of nuclear fuel utilization strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having in mind a rational utilization of the national uranium reserves, in the alternatives considered here in both the recycling of irradiated fuel and the introduction of fast breeder reactors (FBR's) in the electric energy generation system are analyzed. Present thermal reactors (PWR's) would be, thus, gradually replaced, and the plutonium produced by them used as fuel for the next generation of FBR's. (Author)

  12. Light Duty Utility Arm Software Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes how validation testing of the software will be implemented for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm System (LDUA). The purpose of LDUA software validation testing is to demonstrate and document that the LDUA software meets its software requirements specification

  13. 48 CFR 970.4102 - Acquiring utility services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquiring utility services... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Acquisition of Utility Services 970.4102 Acquiring utility services....

  14. Utilities at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (utilpnt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, including water- and power-related utilities, at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The utilities were...

  15. Computer-Navigated Total Knee Arthroplasty Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Abiram; Penrose, Colin Thomas; Seyler, Thorsten Markus; Mather, Richard Chad; Wellman, Samuel Secord; Bolognesi, Michael Paul

    2016-07-01

    Computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty (CN-TKA) has been used to improve component alignment, though the evidence is currently mixed on whether there are clinically significant differences in long-term outcomes. Given the established increased costs and operative time, we hypothesized that the utilization rate of CN-TKA would be decreasing relative to standard TKA in the Medicare population given the current health care economic environment. We queried 1,914,514 primary TKAs performed in the entire Medicare database from 2005 to 2012. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify and separate CN-TKAs. Utilization of TKA was compared by year, gender, and region. Average change in cases per year and compound annual growth rate (CAGR) were used to evaluate trends in utilization of the procedure. We identified 30,773 CN-TKAs performed over this time period. There was an increase in utilization of CN-TKA per year from 984 to 5,352 (average = 572/year, R (2) = 0.85, CAGR = 23.58%) from 2005 to 2012. In contrast, there was a slight decrease in overall TKA utilization from 264,345 to 230,654 (average = 4297/year, R (2) = 0.74, CAGR = - 1.69%). When comparing proportion of CN-TKA to all TKAs, there was an increase from 0.37 to 2.32% (average 0.26%/year, R (2) = 0.88, CAGR = 25.70%). CN-TKA growth in males and females was comparable at 24.42 and 23.11%, respectively. The South region had the highest growth rate at 28.76%, whereas the Midwest had the lowest growth rate at 15.51%. The Midwest was the only region that peaked (2008) with a slow decline in utilization until 2012. Despite increased costs with unclear clinical benefit, CN-TKA is increasing in utilization among Medicare patients. Reasons could include patient preference, advertising, proper of coding the procedure, and increased publicly available information about

  16. Risk Aversion and Expected-Utility Theory: A Calibration Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Rabin, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    Within the expected-utility framework, the only explanation for risk aversion is that the utility function for wealth is concave: A person has lower marginal utility for additional wealth when she is wealthy than when she is poor. This paper provides a theorem showing that expected-utility theory is an utterly implausible explanation for appreciable risk aversion over modest stakes: Within expected-utility theory, for any concave utility function, even very little risk aversion over modest st...

  17. A process approach to the utility for gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Le Menestrel, Marc

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that any specific utility or disutility for gambling must be excluded from expected utility because such a theory is consequential while a pleasure or displeasure for gambling is a matter of process, not of consequences. A (dis)utility for gambling is modeled as a process utility which monotonically combines with expected utility restricted to consequences. This allows for a process (dis)utility for gambling to be revealed. As an illustration, the model sho...

  18. Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Lysenko, A M; Kuenen, J G

    2001-02-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS-) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  19. Exploring utility function in utility management: an evaluating method of library preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Bin; Shi, Feng; Yu, Rui-qiang

    2013-01-01

    In order to seek a new method of book evaluation and realize book resources sharing among the regional university libraries, we think that library should collect books of the high utility value in the case of limited funds. We proposed a changing Bellman equation as a utility function and used the explicit functions of the book usage factor and the book usage half-life derived from the utility function as an evaluating method of the collecting books. The results from empirical data given some...

  20. Survey of electric utility demand for coal. [1972-1992; by utility and state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, J.G.; Caruso, J.V.; Kouvalis, A.; Maslowski, C.S.

    1979-08-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of electric utility demand for coal in the United States. The sources of survey information are: (1) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form 423 data on utility coal purchases during the period July 1972 through December 1978 and (2) direct telephone survey data on utility coal-purchase intentions for power plants to be constructed by 1992. Price and quantity data for coal used in existing plants are presented to illustrate price and market-share trends in individual coal-consuming states during recent years. Coal source, quality, quantity, and transportation data are reported for existing and planned generating plants.

  1. Research reactor utilization in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) has been used since 1963 for a wide spectrum of scientific activities ranging from fundamental research in nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, and radiobiology to radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, materials testing, and manpower development. The paper gives a brief history of the establishment of PRR-1 and its utilization. The current research programme of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) using the PRR-1 is then presented. The main objective of the programme is to accelerate the application of nuclear energy for the industrialization of the country through the utilization of the PRR-1. The paper also presents the PNRI's regulatory protocol which ensures the safe operation of the PRR-1. (author)

  2. City growth as a resource utilization problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Asim; Chakrabarti, Anindya S; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2014-01-01

    We study a resource utilization scenario characterized by intrinsic attractiveness, in a system of many restaurants where customers compete to get the best services out of many choices. Results for the case with uniform attractiveness are reported. When attractiveness is uniformly distributed, it gives rise to a Zipf-Pareto law for the number of customers. We perform an exact calculation for the utilization fraction for the case when choices are made independent of attractiveness. A variant of the model is also introduced where the attractiveness can be treated as a fitness to stay in the business. When a restaurant loses customers, its fitness is replaced by a random fitness. The fitness distribution is characterized by a power law, but the power law distribution in number of customers still holds, implying the robustness of the model. Our model serves as a paradigm for city size distribution and the emergence of Zipf law.

  3. Planning manual for utility application of WECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.L. (ed.)

    1979-06-01

    A two-part approach for evaluating the feasibility of wind electric conversion systems (WECS) for utility application is presented and explained. Assessment of wind energy potential, sites, interconnection, and capital and production costing is included. The first part is a brief preliminary procedure used to determine whether the expense and effort of a detailed investigation is justified. The preliminary procedure requires assumptions which limit its accuracy. If the result indicates that WECS have probable potential for a specific utility application, then a set of modifications to detailed conventional planning procedures is developed. The modifications include discussion of wind velocity estimation and effects of site features on wind velocity, institutional problems, siting, choosing generation cases with WECS, reliability considerations, production costing, and operating problems. Appendices include an annotated bibliography, wind measurement methods, procedure for estimating WECS capacity factor, and a method for generating correlated wind velocity samples for use in production cost programs.

  4. Smart data acquisition system for utilities metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileana, I.; Risteiu, M.; Tulbure, A.; Rusu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper approaches the task of automatically reading and recognition of registered data on the utility meters of the users and is a part of a more complex project of our team concerning the remote data acquisition from industrial processes. A huge amount of utility meters in our country is of mechanical type without remote acquiring facilities and as an intermediate solution we propose an intelligent optical acquisition system which will store the read values in desktop and mobile devices. The main requirements of such a system are: portability, data reading accuracy, fast processing and energy independence. The paper analyses several solutions (including Artificial Neural Networks approach) tested by our team and present the experimental results and our conclusions.

  5. Overview of Steel Slag Application and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant quantities of steel slag are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel industries. Slag is produced from different types of furnaces with different operating conditions. Slag contains Ferrous Oxide, Calcium Oxide, Silica etc. Physical and chemical properties of slag are affected by different methods of slag solidification such as air cooled, steam, and injection of additives. Several material characterization methods, such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanned Electron Microscopy (SEM and Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES are used to determine elemental composition in the steel slag. Therefore, slags can become one of the promising materials in various applications such as in transportation industry, construction, cement production, waste water and water treatment. The various applications of steel slag indicate that it can be reused and utilized rather than being disposed to the landfill. This paper presents a review of its applications and utilization.

  6. Analysis of Comprehensive Utilization of Coconut Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kan; ZHENG; Dong; LIANG; Xirui; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the coconut cultivation in China,and the current comprehensive utilization of waste resources generated during cultivation and processing of coconut.The wastes generated in the process of cultivation include old coconut tree trunk,roots,withered coconut leaves,coconut flower and fallen cracking coconut,mainly used for biogas extraction,direct combustion and power generation,brewing,pharmacy,and processing of building materials;the wastes generated during processing include coconut water,coconut coat,coconut shell and coconut meal,mainly used for processing beverages,pharmaceutical products,activated carbon,medium and feed.This paper analyzes and explores some problems in the process of comprehensive utilization of coconut waste in China,such as insufficient understanding,inadequate development and lack of research efforts,and finally puts forth the corresponding development countermeasures.

  7. Comprehensive Utilization of Complex Titania Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhang-fu; PAN Yi-fang; ZHOU E; XU Cong; LI Shu-qing

    2007-01-01

    To fully utilize Panzhihua titanium resources, a new process was proposed. In the process, Panzhihua ilmenite concentrate was first reduced in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) to produce a titanium-rich material and iron. The titanium-rich material was then used in a new chlorination process to produce TiCl4. The comparison of different groups of experimental results or calculation results showed that the utilization ratio of material was improved by using the titanium-rich material after pretreatment other than low level titanic ilmenite directly and the combined fluidized beds (FTF) were more likely to reduce bed height and reaction time than the single fluidized beds (Single F or Single T) under the condition of the same chlorination conversion ratio. Finally, the influence of reduction temperature and the anti-agglomeration capacity of the combined fluidized bed was analyzed.

  8. Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  9. Implementing wind forecasting at a utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L.; Hansen, M.A.; Vesterager, K.; Bergstroem, W.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a project - funded by the Danish Ministry of Energy and the Environment - that has as its aim to implement prediction of the power produced by wind farms in the daily planning at the Danish utility ELKRAFT. The predictions are generated from forecasts from HIRLAM (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) of the Danish Meteorological Institute. These predictions are then made valid at individual sites (wind farms) by applying either a matrix generated by the sub-models of WA{sup s}P (Wind Atlas Application and Analysis Program) or by use of a Kalman filter. In the project 17 wind farms have been selected for study. The farms are located on the Zealand and Bornholm islands and all belonging to the Danish utility ELKRAFT. (au) 10 tabs., 65 ills., 14 refs.

  10. EPCOR Utilities Inc. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from EPCOR Utilities Inc. and a review of their 1998 operations was presented. EPCOR was incorporated in 1995 and established as parent of Edmonton Power, Aqualta and Eltec in 1996. The city of Edmonton is the sole shareholder. EPCOR showed strong financial results and operational achievements in 1998. Among the many achievements were the efforts to ensure that the electric power systems are ready for the year 2000. Reduction of CO2 emissions was another task pursued with good results. The electric power utility also invested in the re-powering of the Rossdale Generating Station and participated in the co-generation project at Joffre. The report provides details of these and other operational activities and presents consolidated financial statements. A new work management system to improve operational excellence and to better serve EPCOR customers during power disturbances was also launched during the year under review. tabs., figs

  11. Overview of waste heat utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The heavy truck diesel engine rejects a significant fraction of its fuel energy in the form of waste heat. Historically, the Department of Energy has supported technology efforts for utilization of the diesel exhaust heat. Specifically, the Turbocompound and the Organic Rankine Cycle System (ORCS) have demonstrated that meaningful improvements in highway fuel economy can be realized through waste heat utilization. For heat recovery from the high temperature exhaust of future adiabatic diesel engines, the DOE/NASA are investigating a variety of alternatives based on the Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling power cycles. Initial screening results indicate that systems of this type offer a fuel savings advantage over the turbocompound system. Capital and maintenance cost projections, however, indicate that the alternative power cycles are not competitive on an economic payback basis. Plans call for continued analysis in an attempt to identify a cost effective configuration with adequate fuel savings potential.

  12. Utilization of structural steel in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Muiris C; Allwood, Julian M

    2014-08-01

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10 000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is 'rationalization'-providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in 'embodied' carbon emissions.

  13. Role of utility nuclear waste management group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Utility Nuclear Waste Management Group (UNWMG) is a group of 39 nuclear utilities which support a general program which is under the administration of Edison Electric Institute (EEI), but which actually operates quite separately. The function of the group is primarily to interact with Congress in the development of desired legislation, interact with NRC and EPA in the development of regulations, and interact with DOE in the carrying out of programs in which they are interested. The group is organized into four working groups. One devotes its efforts to high-level waste activities, one to low-level waste interests, one to spent fuel storage and reprocessing, and a fourth to public information. Each of these working groups has a number of task forces that are organized to respond to a particular need at the time. The activities of each group are discussed briefly

  14. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  15. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  16. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina Louise; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products.

  17. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Magdalena; Natadiputri G H; Nailufar; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin), enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performan...

  18. Effective Utilization Of Tax Revenue In Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Baghebo

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to examine the effective utilization of tax revenue vis-à-vis the impact of Government expenditure on economic growth and development of Nigeria. Government intervenes in the economy through a variety of policies, of these policies, two are most important. They are fiscal and monetary policy. This work is on the expenditure component of fiscal policy. Until recently, Nigeria has been one of the most disappointing development stories of the modern era-a cautionary tale...

  19. Analysis of Comprehensive Utilization of Coconut Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Kan; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Xirui

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the coconut cultivation in China, and the current comprehensive utilization of waste resources generated during cultivation and processing of coconut. The wastes generated in the process of cultivation include old coconut tree trunk, roots, withered coconut leaves, coconut flower and fallen cracking coconut, mainly used for biogas extraction, direct combustion and power generation, brewing, pharmacy, and processing of building materials; the wastes generated ...

  20. Health care utilization by immigrants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giuliana; Ponzo, Michela; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Healthcare utilization studies show how well documented disparities between migrants and non-migrants. Reducing such disparities is a major goal in European countries. However, healthcare utilization among Italian immigrants is under-studied. The objective of this study is to explore differences in healthcare use between immigrant and native Italians. Cross-sectional study using the latest available (2004/2005) Italian Health Conditions Survey. We estimated separate hurdle binomial negative regression models for GP, specialist, and telephone consultations and a logit model for emergency room (ER) use. We used logistic regression and zero-truncated negative binomial regression to model the zero (contact decision) and count processes (frequency decisions) respectively. Adjusting for risk factors, immigrants are significantly less likely to use healthcare services with 2.4 and 2.7 % lower utilization probability for specialist and telephone consultations, respectively. First- and second-generation immigrants' probability for specialist and telephone contact is significantly lower than natives'. Immigrants, ceteris paribus, have a much higher probability of using ERs than natives (0.7 %). First-generation immigrants show a higher probability of visiting ERs (1 %). GP visits show no significant difference. In conclusion Italian immigrants are much less likely to use specialist healthcare and medical telephone consultations than natives but more likely to use ERs. Hence, we report an over-use of ERs and under-utilization of preventive care among immigrants. We recommend improved health policies for immigrants: promotion of better information dissemination among them, simplification of organizational procedures, better communications between providers and immigrants, and an increased supply of health services for the most disadvantaged populations. PMID:23239018

  1. Solar heat utilization for adsorption cooling device

    OpenAIRE

    Malcho Milan; Patsch Marek; Pilát Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with possibility of solar system connection with adsorption cooling system. Waste heat from solar collectors in summer is possible to utilize in adsorption cooling systems, which desorption temperatures have to be lower than temperature of heat transport medium operation temperature. For verification of work of this system was constructed on the Department of power engineering on University of Zilina solar adsorption cooling device.

  2. Solar heat utilization for adsorption cooling device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcho Milan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with possibility of solar system connection with adsorption cooling system. Waste heat from solar collectors in summer is possible to utilize in adsorption cooling systems, which desorption temperatures have to be lower than temperature of heat transport medium operation temperature. For verification of work of this system was constructed on the Department of power engineering on University of Zilina solar adsorption cooling device.

  3. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

    2002-07-08

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. This paper presents a overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  4. Whey proteins utilization in food processing

    OpenAIRE

    Malá, Stanislava

    2013-01-01

    In my study entitled "Whey proteins utilization in food processing" I address functional, nutritional and physiological properties of whey and whey proteins. In the first section I describe the composition and significance of whey and I pay attention to the surfactant and physiological properties of whey proteins. The second part of my bachelor thesis deals with technological operations during whey processing, commercially accessible whey products, and finally the use of whey proteins in the ...

  5. The utility of pollination for autonomic computing

    OpenAIRE

    Kasinger, Holger; Bauer, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    From the biology’s point of view, pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants. From our point of view, pollination is a promising and novel, biological paradigm for future dependable and self-managing computing systems. This estimation is based on the characteristics the pollination process between plants and insects implies inherently. To utilize pollination as a paradigm for self-managing and thus autonomic computing systems, this paper identifies the useful prope...

  6. Broad Prospect for CBM Development and Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Mingxun; Lin Jianhao; Hu Aimei

    2006-01-01

    @@ Significance of CBM development and Utilization CBM (coal-bed methane) is the coal coexisting and associated gas resource. Influenced by the success of CBM exploration and development in the United States in the end of 1980s, China started assessment of CBM resource and exploration and development of CBM resource. However, the nation did not start the pilot CBM development on a large scale until the 21st century.

  7. Reactive Robot Navigation Utilizing Nonlinear Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Ting; Macnab, Chris J.B.; Sebastian Magierowski

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient heuristic solution to choosing a path around obstacles in the face of limited sensor information. Specifically, we propose a navigation algorithm for a mobile robot that reaches a measured target position while avoiding obstacles, making decisions in real-time (without stopping) and relying strictly on information obtained from limited and noisy robot-mounted sensors to determine the location and severity of obstacles. The solution utilize...

  8. A conversion between utility and information

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO A. ORTEGA; Daniel A. Braun

    2009-01-01

    Rewards typically express desirabilities or preferences over a set of alternatives. Here we propose that rewards can be defined for any probability distribution based on three desiderata, namely that rewards should be real-valued, additive and order-preserving, where the latter implies that more probable events should also be more desirable. Our main result states that rewards are then uniquely determined by the negative information content. To analyze stochastic processes, we define the util...

  9. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU; M. Hakan TÜRKÇAPAR; Akkoyunlu, Canan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using technique...

  10. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, C J; Schmidt, D D; Olson, E S; Leroux, K M; Wocken, C A; Aulich, T A; WIlliams, K D

    2008-07-28

    Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with

  11. Transformation and utilization of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanage, Bhalchandra M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Arai, Masahiko (ed.) [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Division of Chemical Process Engineering

    2014-04-01

    This book shows the various organic, polymeric and inorganic compounds which result from the transformation of carbon dioxide through chemical, photocatalytic, electrochemical, inorganic and biological processes. The book consists of twelve chapters demonstrating interesting examples of these reactions, depending on the types of reaction and catalyst. It also includes two chapters dealing with the utilization of carbon dioxide as a reaction promoter and presents a wide range of examples of chemistry and chemical engineering with carbon dioxide.

  12. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-01-01

    The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  13. Basic Research Utilities for SBAS (BRUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Orús Pérez, Raül; Sanz Subirana, Jaume; Farnworth, Richard; Soley, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    The software package BRUS (Basic Research utilities for SBAS) to process WAAS and EGNOS data is being developed by gAGE/UPC. Some of the main characteristics of BRUS are its architecture design and functionalities that allow to obtain huge information for the different error source components (satellite coordinates, clocks, ionospheric corrections,...), providing wide possibilities for the SBAS performance analysis in both, SIS and position domain. As an application, the performance of the EG...

  14. Utility based pricing of contingent claims

    OpenAIRE

    Gamba, A.; P. Pellizzari

    1999-01-01

    In a discrete setting, we develop a model for pricing a contingent claim. Since the presence of hedging opportunities influences the price of a contingent claim, first we introduce the optimal hedging strategy assuming a contingent claim has been issued: a strategy implemented by investing the budget plus the selling price is optimal if it maximizes the expected utility of the agent's revenue, which is the difference between the outcome of the hedging portfolio and the payoff of the claim. Ne...

  15. Energy utilization in fluctuating biological energy converters

    OpenAIRE

    Szőke, Abraham; Hajdu, Janos

    2016-01-01

    We have argued previously [Szoke et al., FEBS Lett. 553, 18–20 (2003); Curr. Chem. Biol. 1, 53–57 (2007)] that energy utilization and evolution are emergent properties based on a small number of established laws of physics and chemistry. The relevant laws constitute a framework for biology on a level intermediate between quantum chemistry and cell biology. There are legitimate questions whether these concepts are valid at the mesoscopic level. Such systems fluctuate appreciably, so it is not ...

  16. Clean and Highly Efficient Utilization of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; YANG Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Clean and highly efficient utilization of coal is an important scientific and technological issue.As the petroleum resource decreases but its consumption increases, all of the countries in the world have to face the big issue of sustainable development of energy and economy and protection of environment.Therefore, study on clean coal technology (CCT) has attracted much attention and become one of important themes of energy research.

  17. Costing methods utilization in Czech enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Popesko

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the research of the different types of product costing methods utilization in Czech enterprises performed in the years of 2004, 2007 and 2009. Results of individual surveys are compared, in order to prove the expected tendencies of higher usage of modern costing methods such as Activity-Based Costing, in recent years. First part of the paper refers to previous studies of the enterprise cost structure presented by other authors and illustrates the most import...

  18. Defining Trust Using Expected Utility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Trust has been discussed in many social sciences including economics, psychology, and sociology. However, there is no widely accepted definition of trust. Inparticular, there is no definition that can be used for economic analysis. This paper regards trust as expectation and defines it using expected utility theory together with concepts such as betrayal premium. In doing so, it rejects the widely accepted black-and-white view that (un) trustworthy people are always (un)trustworthy. This pape...

  19. Present status of radiation utilization in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present development of radiation utilization in Thailand covers two main areas, i.e. (1) production and utilization of radioisotopes and (2) radiation processing and technology. Radioisotope production from 2 megawatts Thai Research Reactor (TRR1/M1) is being studied, directed toward expanding the varieties of radioisotopes, improvement of quality, and technological development on quantity producing to meet the total national needs. However a large amount of radioisotopes is also imported mainly for industrial and medical applications. Radioisotopes and radiations are utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy from 30 hospitals and institutions. X-ray photographing, X-ray computer tomography and others are typical use for medical examination purposes, while Co-60 gamma rays and electron beam are in used for curing. Since 1972, Thailand has been participated to the IAEA/RCA Industrial Project, through the liaison of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), and increases the awareness of industry to the economic benefits through the uses of nuclear technology. More than 60 companies are using radioisotopes for gauging, examination purposes and production controls, while these radioisotopes are mostly imported. Nuclear techniques in agriculture are addressed concerns with optimizing fertilizer application, determination soil-water-nitrogen fixation relationships, improving animal health and reproduction, measurement of toxic residues, appropriated food preservation techniques and breeding plant for better yield and disease resistance. The eradication of fruit flies by Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) with gamma rays has been successfully applied in northern and middle part of Thailand. The progress and present status of radiation utilization and processing in Thailand will be introduced. (author)

  20. Endogenous Growth, Capital Utilization and Depreciation

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar-Márquez, J.; Ruiz-Tamarit, Jose

    2001-01-01

    We study an extended version of the one-sector AK growth model introducing adjustment and maintenance costs. Agents are allowed to under-use the installed capital and to vary the depreciation rate. The model is analyzed using particular functional forms and is solved in closed-form. We find that adjustment and maintenance costs (e?- ciency) reduce (increases) investment, depreciation, capital utilization and the rate of growth; impatience reduces the rate of growth but increases depreciation ...

  1. Utilization of solar energy in cold climate

    OpenAIRE

    Tazeeva, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Solar radiation is a source of life on the Earth. The sun heats the atmosphere and the surface of our planet. Because of the sun winds are blowing, circulation of water is happened, seas and oceans are heated, and plants are growing. Nowadays people know how to transfer solar radiation straightly into energy. The subject of the project is to research the possibilities of utilization of solar energy in cold climate. At this project the model of calculation solar energy is shown. Following ...

  2. Utilization of radioisotopes in the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of radioisotopes utilization in the agriculture, such as, the use of gamma radiation for genetic improvement of plants; the use of C14 as tracer for comprehension of the vegetable physiology; the use of nitrogen and phosphorus isotopes in soil fertilization and plant nutrition; the use of radiation for inset sterelization and, measurement of the humidity and density of soils by neutron moderation and attenuation of gamma radiation, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  3. Review of Energy Harvesters Utilizing Bridge Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For health monitoring of bridges, wireless acceleration sensor nodes (WASNs are normally used. In bridge environment, several forms of energy are available for operating WASNs that include wind, solar, acoustic, and vibration energy. However, only bridge vibration has the tendency to be utilized for embedded WASNs application in bridge structures. This paper reports on the recent advancements in the area of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs utilizing bridge oscillations. The bridge vibration is narrowband (1 to 40 Hz with low acceleration levels (0.01 to 3.8 g. For utilization of bridge vibration, electromagnetic based vibration energy harvesters (EM-VEHs and piezoelectric based vibration energy harvesters (PE-VEHs have been developed. The power generation of the reported EM-VEHs is in the range from 0.7 to 1450000 μW. However, the power production by the developed PE-VEHs ranges from 0.6 to 7700 μW. The overall size of most of the bridge VEHs is quite comparable and is in mesoscale. The resonant frequencies of EM-VEHs are on the lower side (0.13 to 27 Hz in comparison to PE-VEHs (1 to 120 Hz. The power densities reported for these bridge VEHs range from 0.01 to 9539.5 μW/cm3 and are quite enough to operate most of the commercial WASNs.

  4. Prokaryotic silicon utilizing microorganisms in the biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Although a little study has been done to determine the silicon utilizing prokaryotes, our previous experiments indicated that almost all Gram-positive bacteria are silicon utilizing; one of them, Streptococci survived exposure on the lunar surface for a long period in experiment done by others. Our initial experiments with these Gram positive microorganisms showed that there were limited growths of these microorganisms on carbon free silicate medium probably with the help of some carry over carbon and nitrogen during cultivation procedures. However, increase in growth rate after repeated subcultures could not be explained at present. The main groups of prokaryotes which were found silicon utilizing microorganisms were Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium. In a another previous study by us when silicon level was studied in such grown up cells on carbon "free" silicate medium by electron prove microanalyser, it was found that silicon in cells grown on carbon "free" silicate medium was much higher (24.9%) than those grown on conventional carbon based medium (0.84%). However, these initial findings are encouraging for our future application of this group of organisms on extraterrestrial surfaces for artificial micro-ecosystem formation. It was found that when electropositive elements are less in extraterrestrial situation, then polymerization of silicon-oxygen profusion may occur easily, particularly in carbon and nitrogen paucity in the rocky worlds of the Universe.

  5. Continuous utility factor in segregation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Parna; Sen, Parongama

    2016-02-01

    We consider the constrained Schelling model of social segregation in which the utility factor of agents strictly increases and nonlocal jumps of the agents are allowed. In the present study, the utility factor u is defined in a way such that it can take continuous values and depends on the tolerance threshold as well as the fraction of unlike neighbors. Two models are proposed: in model A the jump probability is determined by the sign of u only, which makes it equivalent to the discrete model. In model B the actual values of u are considered. Model A and model B are shown to differ drastically as far as segregation behavior and phase transitions are concerned. In model A, although segregation can be achieved, the cluster sizes are rather small. Also, a frozen state is obtained in which steady states comprise many unsatisfied agents. In model B, segregated states with much larger cluster sizes are obtained. The correlation function is calculated to show quantitatively that larger clusters occur in model B. Moreover for model B, no frozen states exist even for very low dilution and small tolerance parameter. This is in contrast to the unconstrained discrete model considered earlier where agents can move even when utility remains the same. In addition, we also consider a few other dynamical aspects which have not been studied in segregation models earlier.

  6. Prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Utilization in Japan has been positioned, together with nuclear power generation, as one of the important cornerstones, and research and development and practical usage of it has been proceeded with steadily in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and so on. In the field of medicine, SPECT and PET facilities, radio-immunoassay, radiotherapy has come widely to practical use. In the field of agriculture and fisheries, improvement of breed, sterile insect technique have been implemented, and eradication of melon fly has been achieved. In the field of industry, it is expected that the practical use of neutron radiography technique and research and development of synthesizing high performance, high function materials are progressed. In the environment preservation area, a pilot test using electron beam to treat the exhaust gases out of coal fired power plants, city garbages combustion facilities, city high way tunnels in order to establish de- sulphur/de-nitrogen technique is carried out. As the international contribution in the field of radiation utilization, the cooperation with developing countries and the cooperation among advanced countries are reported. In this paper, a prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization is described. (J.P.N.)

  7. Utilization of thermal effects for silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; Yu, Longhai; Chen, Sitao; Wu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Thermal effect plays a key role and has been utilized for various photonic devices. For silicon photonics, the thermal effect is usually important because of the large thermo-optical coefficient of silicon material. This paper gives a review for the utilization of thermal effects for silicon photonics. First, the thermal effect is very beneficial to realize energy-efficient silicon photonic devices with tunability/switchability (including switches, variable optical attenuators, etc). Traditionally metal micro-heater sitting on a buried silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire is used to introduce a phase shift for thermal tunability by injecting a electrical current. An effective way to improve the energy-efficiency of thermal tuning is reducing the volume of the optical waveguide as well as the micro-heater. Our recent work on silicon nanophotonic waveguides with novel nano-heaters based on metal wires as well as graphene ribbons will be summarized. Second, the thermal resistance effect of the metal strip on a hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure can be utilized to realize an ultra-small on-chip photodetector available for an ultra-broad band of wavelength, which will also be discussed.

  8. Experiments utilizing ICRF heating on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Boivin, R.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Greene, G.J.; Hammett, G.W.; Hill, K.W.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Phillips, C.K.; Mansfield, D.K.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schmidt, G.L.; Scott, S.D.; Stevens, J.E.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.; Taylor, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Wong, K.L.; Zarns

    1990-01-01

    A variety of experiments have been performed on the TFTR tokamak utilizing ICFR heating. Of special interest has been the insight into plasma performance gained by utilizing a different heating scheme other than the usual NBI. Utilizing ICRF heating allows control over the power deposition profile independent of the plasma fueling profile. In addition, by varying the minority concentration the power split between ion and electron heating can be varied. Confinement has been examined in high recycling gas fueled discharges, low recycling supershot plasmas, and peaked density pellet fueled discharges. Global confinement is found not to be affected by the method or localization of plasma heating, but the calculated local diffusivities vary with the power deposition profile to yield similar local values. In addition, sawtooth stabilization observed with ICRF heating has been investigated and found to occur in qualitative agreement with theory. ICRF sawtooth stabilized discharges exhibit peaked temperature and density profiles and have a safety factor q which appears to fall well below unity on axis. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Web users’ language utilization behaviors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI; Maosheng; QU; Peng; ZHAO; Kang

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on the habits of China Web users’language utilization behaviors in accessing the Web.It also seeks to make a general study on the basic nature of language phenomenon with regard to digital accessing.A questionnaire survey was formulated and distributed online for these research purposes.There were 1,267 responses collected.The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics,Chi-square testing and contingency table analyses.Results revealed the following findings.Tagging has already played an important role in Web2.0 communication for China’s Web users.China users rely greatly on all kinds of taxonomies in browsing and have also an awareness of them in effective searching.These imply that the classified languages in digital environment may aid Chinese Web users in a more satisfying manner.Highly subject-specific words,especially those from authorized tools,yielded better results in searching.Chinese users have high recognition for related terms.As to the demographic aspect,there is little difference between different genders in the utilization of information retrieval languages.Age may constitute a variable element to a certain degree.Educational background has a complex effect on language utilizations in searching.These research findings characterize China Web users’behaviors in digital information accessing.They also can be potentially valuable for the modeling and further refinement of digital accessing services.

  10. Mechanisms of heme utilization by Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lindgren

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent facultative intracellular pathogen causing the severe disease tularemia in mammals. As for other bacteria, iron is essential for its growth but very few mechanisms for iron acquisition have been identified. Here, we analyzed if and how F. tularensis can utilize heme, a major source of iron in vivo. This is by no means obvious since the bacterium lacks components of traditional heme-uptake systems. We show that SCHU S4, the prototypic strain of subspecies tularensis, grew in vitro with heme as the sole iron source. By screening a SCHU S4 transposon insertion library, 16 genes were identified as important to efficiently utilize heme, two of which were required to avoid heme toxicity. None of the identified genes appeared to encode components of a potential heme-uptake apparatus. Analysis of SCHU S4 deletion mutants revealed that each of the components FeoB, the siderophore system, and FupA, contributed to the heme-dependent growth. In the case of the former two systems, iron acquisition was impaired, whereas the absence of FupA did not affect iron uptake but led to abnormally high binding of iron to macromolecules. Overall, the present study demonstrates that heme supports growth of F. tularensis and that the requirements for the utilization are highly complex and to some extent novel.

  11. How do utilities respond to emergencies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, B. [BC Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Distribution Vegetation Management

    2006-07-01

    Trees can become problematic to utilities during storms as power companies can be held liable for injuries or damage resulting from power line contact. In addition, fallen trees and branches can impact on the reliable supply of electricity. This paper outlined BC Hydro's emergency response plan with reference to vegetation management. During severe wind, snow or ice storms, vegetation coordinators and contractor crews are mobilized to assist with the removal of trees that have fallen on power lines. Circuits are prioritized according to their essential services such as hospitals, followed by areas where there are the largest numbers of customers without services. Trees accounted for 9,733 of the 18, 122 outages over the last 4.5 years in BC Hydro's distribution system alone. Estimated costs of repair for tree-caused damages were approximately $15 million. Trees can bring power lines down, break poles or cross arms, and fall across roads, blocking access to response crews. Recovery from storm damage can go on for many years following the event. Trees contacting power lines can also be a source of ignition, creating the potential for wildfires caused by line contact. Protection of the public from power line hazards is the responsibility of every utility, which is why utilities often press for adequate clearances and hazard tree removals as part of their basic programs. It was concluded that appropriate planting can be a huge factor in mitigating risks for power line contact.

  12. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  13. TransAlta: More than a utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TransAlta Utilities Corporation is Canada's largest privately owned utility and is also a major coal mining company. In 1989, TransAlta produced 20.9% of all coal mined in Canada. A brief history of TransAlta is presented along with TransAlta's present coal operations and plans for the next three years. An overview is presented of how TransAlta Fuel Supply is organized to utilize contracted mining operation, engineering and environmental services and in-house capabilities. Recent strategic initiatives to improve organizational efficiency and the mining operations are discussed. These range from developing a common departmental vision to modifying major mining equipment. TransAlta's proactive role in clean coal combustion such as low NOx-SOx burner, integrated combined cycle gasification, and other energy research projects is reviewed. A summary is provided of recent participation of TransAlta in environmental management initiatives. Recent successes of TransAlta's unregulated subsidiary in the development of cogeneration facilities and the future of this area of business are discussed. 8 refs., 4 figs

  14. Adaptable formations utilizing heterogeneous unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Laura E.; Garcia, Richard; Fields, MaryAnne; Valavanis, Kimon

    2009-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling and coordinating heterogeneous unmanned systems required to move as a group while maintaining formation. We propose a strategy to coordinate groups of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) with one or more unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs can be utilized in one of two ways: (1) as alpha robots to guide the UGVs; and (2) as beta robots to surround the UGVs and adapt accordingly. In the first approach, the UAV guides a swarm of UGVs controlling their overall formation. In the second approach, the UGVs guide the UAVs controlling their formation. The unmanned systems are brought into a formation utilizing artificial potential fields generated from normal and sigmoid functions. These functions control the overall swarm geometry. Nonlinear limiting functions are defined to provide tighter swarm control by modifying and adjusting a set of control variables forcing the swarm to behave according to set constraints. Formations derived are subsets of elliptical curves but can be generalized to any curvilinear shape. Both approaches are demonstrated in simulation and experimentally. To demonstrate the second approach in simulation, a swarm of forty UAVs is utilized in a convoy protection mission. As a convoy of UGVs travels, UAVs dynamically and intelligently adapt their formation in order to protect the convoy of vehicles as it moves. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the approach using a fully autonomous group of three UGVs and a single UAV helicopter for coordination.

  15. Development of technologies for utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In verifying the effectiveness of the deep geothermal resource exploration technology, development is being carried out on a fracture-type reservoir exploration method. The seismic exploration method investigates detailed structures of underground fracture systems by using seismic waves generated on the ground surface. Verification experiments for fiscal 1994 were carried out by selecting the Kakkonda area in which small fracture networks form reservoir beds. Geothermal resources in deep sections (deeper than 2000 m with temperatures higher than 350{degree}C) are promising in terms of amount of the resources, but anticipated with difficulty in exploration and impediments in drilling. To avoid these risks, studies are being progressed on the availability of resources in deep sections, their utilization possibility, and technologies of effective exploration and drilling. This paper summarizes the results of deep resource investigations during fiscal 1994. It also describes such technological development as hot water utilizing power generation. Development is performed on a binary cycle power generation plant which pumps and utilizes hot water of 150 to 200{degree}C by using a downhole pump. The paper also reports development on element technologies for hot rock power generation systems. It also dwells on development of safe and effective drilling and production technologies for deep geothermal resources.

  16. Coupling hydrogen fuel and carbonless utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A number of previous analyses have focused on comparisons of single hydrogen vehicles to petroleum and alternative fuel vehicles or of stationary hydrogen storage for utility or local power applications. LLNL`s approach is to compare combined transportation/utility storage systems using hydrogen and fossil fuels. Computer models have been constructed to test the hypothesis that combining carbonless electricity sources and vehicles fueled by electrolytic hydrogen can reduce carbon emissions more cost effectively than either approach alone. Three scenarios have been developed and compared using computer simulations, hourly utility demand data, representative data for solar and wind energy sites, and the latest available EIA projections for transportation and energy demand in the US in 2020. Cost projections were based on estimates from GRI, EIA, and a recent DOE/EPRI report on renewable energy technologies. The key question guiding this analysis was: what can be gained by combining hydrogen fuel production and renewable electricity? Bounding scenarios were chosen to analyze three carbon conscious options for the US transportation fuel and electricity supply system beyond 2020: Reference Case -- petroleum transportation and natural gas electric sector; Benchmark Case -- petroleum transportation and carbonless electric sector; and Target Case -- hydrogen transportation and carbonless electric sector.

  17. Utilities and energy efficiency Denmark report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Lyck, N.C.

    1996-11-01

    The report is the Danish contribution to the project `Utilities and Energy Efficiency` produced for the European Commission by IET, Nikkel straat 15, 4823 AE Breda, The Netherlands. Information is given under the headings of existing situation and desired situation. Recommendations are also given under the headings of legislation concerning the objectives of the utilities, of government programs and targets, of organizational structure, required market dependence and internal objectives of the utilities, for regulation and standardization, and of tariff structure. Flow diagrams are presented for the Danish energy system 1990, 1993. The 1993 follow up of the energy plan `Energy 2000` points out that the goals set up at that time, first and foremost the 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 2005 compared to the 1988 level, will not be reached without changes in policy, such as an increase in the use of renewable energy, more transparent and consistent tariff systems as a greater incentive for energy conservation, regulations on thermal insulation of houses, increase in public information activities,a new subsidy scheme to stimulate improvements of energy efficiency in buildings and regulations on energy supply to large buildings. (ARW) 55 refs.

  18. Integrated concurrent utilization quality review, Part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterinicchio, R P

    1987-01-01

    This article is the first of a two-part series which argues for the concurrent management of the appropriateness, necessity, and quality of patient care. Intensifying scrutiny by the credentialing groups, the PROs and all third-party payors underscores the vital need to implement cost-effective information systems which integrate the departmentalized functions of patient-physician profiling, DRG case-mix analyses, length of stay monitoring, pre-admission/admission and continued stay review, discharge planning, risk management, incident reporting and quality review. In the domain of physician performance regarding admitting and practice patterns, the ability to exercise concurrent utilization-quality review means early detection and prevention of events which would otherwise result in denials of payment and/or compromised patient care. Concurrent utilization-quality review must, by definition, be managerially invasive and focused; hence, it is integral to maintaining the integrity of the services and product lines offered by the provider. In fact, if PPO status is a marketing agenda, then the institutional objectives of cost-effectiveness, productivity, value, and competitiveness can only be achieved through concurrent utilization-quality review.

  19. The Efficient Utilization of Open Source Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Intelligence and Systems Analysis

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the efficient utilization of open source information. Open source information consists of a vast set of information from a variety of sources. Not only does the quantity of open source information pose a problem, the quality of such information can hinder efforts. To show this, two case studies are mentioned: Iran and North Korea, in order to see how open source information can be utilized. The huge breadth and depth of open source information can complicate an analysis, especially because open information has no guarantee of accuracy. Open source information can provide key insights either directly or indirectly: looking at supporting factors (flow of scientists, products and waste from mines, government budgets, etc.); direct factors (statements, tests, deployments). Fundamentally, it is the independent verification of information that allows for a more complete picture to be formed. Overlapping sources allow for more precise bounds on times, weights, temperatures, yields or other issues of interest in order to determine capability. Ultimately, a "good" answer almost never comes from an individual, but rather requires the utilization of a wide range of skill sets held by a team of people.

  20. Utilities:Other:Telephone Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:telephone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represent telephone lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utility pipelines were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit with...

  1. Utilizing Repurposed Materials to Construct Utility Buildings and Small Animal Shelters

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, C. Kim

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet describes how to use repurposed materials such as shipping pallets, scraps from construction sites or other building projects, to construct utility buildings and small animal shelters.

  2. Realistic utility versus game utility: a proposal for dealing with the spread of uncertain prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Vittorio Frosini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The author develops the properties and implications of a proposal, concerning a summary statistic of the random prospect of utilities. Following a suggestion of Allais, such a statistic is increasing with expected utility, and decreasing – for most people, who are risk averse – with the mean absolute deviation of utilities; a parameter multiplying this disper sion measure allows for risk averse or risk prone behaviour, according to its sign, and also for more or less departure from a certain prospect. It is demonstrated that this statistic (a satisfies the first stochastic dominance, (b satisfies the independence condition, (c satisfies the so called “problem of probabilistic insurance”, (d resolves the paradoxes of Allais, Ellsberg and Kahneman-Tversky (paradox of the substitution axiom, (e is compatible with Quiggin’s approach of rank-dependent expected utility models, (f the mean absolute deviation cannot be replaced by the standard deviation

  3. Utilities:Power:Underground Powerlines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Power:powerln)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents the powerlines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utility pipelines were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit with...

  4. Exploring utility function in utility management: an evaluating method of library preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bin; Shi, Feng; Yu, Rui-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to seek a new method of book evaluation and realize book resources sharing among the regional university libraries, we think that library should collect books of the high utility value in the case of limited funds. We proposed a changing Bellman equation as a utility function and used the explicit functions of the book usage factor and the book usage half-life derived from the utility function as an evaluating method of the collecting books. The results from empirical data given some conclusions such as the varieties diversity, the collected risk, the tendencies of reading varieties, species continuity and so on and a librarian can use the utility management to supplement the collections management. PMID:23607083

  5. The Flexible Solar Utility. Preparing for Solar's Impacts to Utility Planning and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, John [Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), Washington, DC (United States); Davidovich, Ted [Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), Washington, DC (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This paper seeks to provide a flexible utility roadmap for identifying the steps that need to be taken to place the utility in the best position for addressing solar in the future. Solar growth and the emergence of new technologies will change the electric utility of tomorrow. Although not every utility, region, or market will change in the same way or magnitude, developing a path forward will be needed to reach the Electric System of the Future in the coming decades. In this report, a series of potential future states are identified that could result in drastically different energy mixes and profiles: 1) Business as Usual, 2) Low Carbon, Centralized Generation, 3) Rapid Distributed Energy Resource Growth, 4) Interactivity of Both the Grid and Demand, and 5) Grid or Load Defection. Complicating this process are a series of emerging disruptions; decisions or events that will cause the electric sector to change. Understanding and preparing for these items is critical for the transformation to any of the future states to be successful. Predicting which future state will predominate 15 years from now is not possible; however, utilities still will need to look ahead and try to anticipate how factors will impact their planning, operations, and business models. In order to dig into the potential transformations facing the utility industry, the authors conducted a series of utility interviews, held a working session at a major industry solar conference, and conducted a quantitative survey. To focus conversations, the authors leveraged the Rapid Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Growth future to draw out how utilities would have to adapt from current processes and procedures in order to manage and thrive in that new environment. Distributed solar was investigated specifically, and could serve as a proxy resource for all distributed generation (DG). It can also provide the foundation for all DERs.

  6. 48 CFR 41.601 - Utility services forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utility services forms. 41... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF UTILITY SERVICES Forms 41.601 Utility services forms. (a) If acquiring utility services under other than an areawide contract, a purchase order, or an...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.202 - Establishing rents and utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing rents and utility allowances. 3560.202... Establishing rents and utility allowances. (a) General. Rents and utility allowances for rental units in Agency... Agency. (b) Agency approval. All rents and utility allowances set by borrowers are subject to...

  8. 24 CFR 891.440 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Project Management § 891.440 Adjustment of utility allowances. This section shall apply to projects funded... submit an analysis of any utility allowances applicable. Such data as changes in utility rates and...

  9. 48 CFR 552.241-71 - Disputes (Utility Contracts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disputes (Utility....241-71 Disputes (Utility Contracts). As prescribed in 541.501, insert clause 552.241-71, Disputes (Utility Contracts), in solicitations and contracts for utility services subject to the jurisdiction...

  10. 32 CFR 643.38 - Policy-Utility rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Utility rates. 643.38 Section 643.38... ESTATE Policy § 643.38 Policy—Utility rates. (a) Rates for utilities furnished by the Army will be in accordance with AR 420-41. (b) Payments for utilities or services furnished will be deposited to...

  11. 24 CFR 884.220 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Adjustment of utility allowances. In connection with annual and special adjustments of contract rents, the owner must submit an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances. Such data as changes in utility...

  12. Rank dependent expected utility models of tax evasion.

    OpenAIRE

    Erling Eide

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the rank-dependent expected utility theory is substituted for the expected utility theory in models of tax evasion. It is demonstrated that the comparative statics results of the expected utility, portfolio choice model of tax evasion carry over to the more general rank dependent expected utility model.

  13. Strategic Risk Management Behavior: What Can Utility Functions Tell Us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The validity of the utility concept, particularly in an expected utility framework, has been questioned because of its inability to predict revealed behavior. In this paper we focus on the global shape of the utility function instead of the local shape of the utility function. We examine th

  14. Electric utility deregulation - A nuclear opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of electric deregulation are and will continue to be pervasive and significant. Not only will the fundamental monopoly regulatory concepts of managing electric utilities change but deregulation will have a profound and dramatic impact on the way electric generating plants are managed and operated. In the past, under the various approaches to financial regulation, the economic benefits normally attributed to competition or that would have otherwise been derived from competitive or open market forces, were assumed to be embodied in and inherent to the various processes, methods and principles of financial oversight of utility companies by regional, state and municipal regulatory authorities. Traditionally, under the various forms of regulated monopolies, a utility company, in exchange for an exclusive franchise to produce and sell electricity in a particular region, was obligated to provide an adequate supply to all consumers wanting it, at a price that was 'just and reasonable'. The determination of adequate supply and reasonable price was a matter of interpretation by utility companies and their regulators. In essence, the ultimate economic benefits, normally attributed to price equilibrium, in balance with supply, demand and other market forces, were expected to be achieved through a complex, political process of financial regulatory oversight, in which utility companies were usually reimbursed for all annual expenses or their 'cost of service' and additionally allowed to earn a 'reasonable' rate of return on plant investments. The result was often escalating electric prices, over supplies of electric capacity, by justifying unnecessarily high reserve margins based on long planning horizons (typically 20 years or greater) with extrapolated demand requirements that were generally in excess of what actually occurred over time. Although the regulatory process varied from country or country and region-to-region, the fundamental principles, which

  15. Review of utility staff training and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) has reviewed the nuclear utility training programs in Canada and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) certification program, to determine their effectiveness in meeting current and future needs. It has also looked briefly at the practices in other countries and in the aviation industry in Canada, by way of comparison. While a quantitative measure of effectiveness was beyond the scope of this review, on a purely qualitative basis the ACNS concludes that the current training and certification regime produces qualified operators, but not necessarily in the most effective way. The report makes five recommendations. The thrust of these recommendations is towards a more effective and streamlined training and certification regime based on strict adherence to the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) methodology combined with independent verification through a peer review and accreditation process. The Committee believes that training and qualification of nuclear power plant operating staff is the complete responsibility of the utilities and that the role of the AECB is to audit the process to ensure that the utilities discharge their responsibility appropriately. In other words, the AECB should deal with operator training and certification in the same way that it deals with other aspects of nuclear power plant operation that are important to health, safety, security and the environment - by inspections and audits. The Committee believes that the proposed regulatory requirement for recertification of certain nuclear power plant operating staff, which would come into effect when the new Regulations are promulgated, is not consistent with the government's thrust and with how the AECB regulates other aspects of nuclear power plant operations. (author)

  16. Effective Utilization Of Tax Revenue In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Baghebo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to examine the effective utilization of tax revenue vis-à-vis the impact of Government expenditure on economic growth and development of Nigeria. Government intervenes in the economy through a variety of policies, of these policies, two are most important. They are fiscal and monetary policy. This work is on the expenditure component of fiscal policy. Until recently, Nigeria has been one of the most disappointing development stories of the modern era-a cautionary tale of the risk of huge revenue from taxation in an environment of weak governance. In recent years, the most conspicuous fact about Nigeria’s economy is that corruption and mismanagement of its post- colonial government has prevented the channeling of the country’s resources from taxation and other sources into lasting improvements in infrastructure and the construction of a sound base for self sustaining economic development. Thus despite increasing revenue base, the rate of poverty, unemployment, high rate of inflation, low capacity utilization in industry, debt overhang, deterioration or stagnation of economic activities still prevail. From the foregoing, it should be clear what need to be done to improve the effective utilization of government fiscal (spending operations by: improving the quantity and quality of resources available to the government for its activities and improve the ways in which the resources available to the government are managed through the application of cost benefit analysis, expenditure analysis, transparency and accountability in the conduct of government business and also ensuring at all times that people of doubtful character are not elected into government or are not entrusted with the management of public resources. Avoiding actions that induce government officials to behave in corrupt ways and been genuinely interested in what government is doing. That is been critical in the activities of government.

  17. Pentose utilization in yeasts: Physiology and biochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppson, H.

    1996-04-01

    The fermentive performance of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi was investigated in a pentose (xylose)-rich lignocellulosic hydrolyzate. The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum and the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis were found to be very sensitive to the inhibiting hydrolyzate. Recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed very poor ethanol formation from xylose; xylitol being the major product formed. The highest ethanol yields were obtained with recombinant Escherichia coli KO11, however, for maximal ethanol yield detoxification of the hydrolyzate was required. The influence of oxygen on the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in the xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis CBS 6054 was investigated. A low and well-controlled level of oxygenation has been found to be required for efficient ethanol formation from xylose by the xylose-fermenting yeasts. The requirement of oxygen is frequently ascribed to the apparent redox imbalance which develops under anaerobic conditions due to the difference in co-factor utilization of the two first enzymes in the xylose metabolism, further reflected in xylitol excretion. However, a low and well controlled level of oxygenation for maximal ethanol production from glucose was also demonstrated, suggesting that the oxygen requirement is not only due to the dual co-factor utilization, but also serves other purposes. Cyanide-insensitive and salicyl hydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration (CIR) was found in P. stipitis. CIR is suggested to act as a redox sink preventing xylitol formation in P. stipitis under oxygen-limited xylose fermentations. Xylitol metabolism by P. stipitis CBS 6054 was strictly respiratory and ethanol was not formed under any conditions. The absence of ethanol formation was not due to a lack of fermentative enzymes, since the addition of glucose to xylitol-pregrown cells resulted in ethanol formation. 277 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  18. Land use and energy utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.O.; Nathans, R.; Palmedo, P.F.

    1977-06-01

    Land use plays an important role in structuring the basic patterns in which energy is consumed in many areas of the U.S. Thus, in considering policies at a national or local level, which are aimed at either utilizing energy supplies in a more efficient manner, or in establishing the compatibility of new energy supply, conversion, and end use technologies with our existing social patterns of energy use, it is important to understand the interdependencies between land use and energy. The Land Use-Energy Utilization Project initiated in July 1974 was designed to explore the quantitative relationships between alternative regional land-use patterns and their resultant energy and fuel demands and the impacts of these demands on the regional and national energy supply-distribution systems. The project studies and analyses described briefly in this report provide a framework for delineating the energy system impacts of current and projected regional land-use development; a base of information dealing with the energy intensiveness of assorted land-use activities; models that enable Federal and regional planners to estimate the ranges of potential energy savings that could be derived from employing alternative land-use activity configurations; and a user manual for allowing local land use planners to carry out their own land use-energy impact evaluations. Much remains to be done to elucidate the complicated interdependencies between land use and energy utilization: what is accomplished here is an initial structuring of the problem. On the other hand, the recent increase in interest in establishing new ways for the U.S. to achieve energy conservation suggests that actions will be taken in the near future to tie land-use development to national and local targets for conservation.

  19. Physics Instruction Utilizing Culture-Based Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerrie E. Malaluan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research assessed topics in physics where culture-based pedagogy may be utilized and the applicability of Batangueño culture to these topics. It also determined the visual presentations which canbe prepared by teachers to incorporate Batangueñoculture in physics instruction. The end purpose of the study was to develop a teaching guide using culture-based pedagogy to reinforce the student’s learning, and help them achieve high academic performance. Descriptive method was adopted with questionnaire as tool in gathering data. Interviews and focus group discussions were also conducted. Thirty physics teachers in public secondary schools of the Division of Batangas City served as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied in determining the respondents. Frequency, percentage, ranking and weighted mean were statistical tools applied. Findings revealed that the culture-based pedagogy that could be utilized in teaching physics was on topics: Constant and Uniformly Acceleration; Work, Power and Energy; Laws of Motion; Projectile Motion; Heat and Light. Batangueño culture was found applicable in teaching physics. The visual presentations which could be used were pictures, powerpoint and video clips. Moreover, the proposed teaching guide utilizing culture-based pedagogy may be used by teachersto heighten students’ interest and motivation and to attain active participation and high achievement. It may be a reference of employing Batangueño culture in teaching the topics. It was recommended that the output be presented to the school heads and supervisors for their comments and suggestions for enrichment of content and application of culture-based pedagogy not only in science but in other learning areas.

  20. The Utilization of CRM in Small Business

    OpenAIRE

    Leimu, Santeri

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore how a small-size company could utilize Customer Relationship Management theories for being more successful in their business. The main objective was to create a model for the case company based on CRM theories itself as well as empirical observations. The case company’s field of business is in inspections of global import and export trade. The amount of employees is less than ten. Work in the company divides into two sections, i.e. office work and...

  1. Utility Indifference Pricing: A Time Consistent Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pirvu, Traian A

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal portfolio selection problem in a dynamic multi-period stochastic framework with regime switching. The risk preferences are of exponential (CARA) type with an absolute coefficient of risk aversion which changes with the regime. The market model is incomplete and there are two risky assets: one tradable and one non-tradable. In this context, the optimal investment strategies are time inconsistent. Consequently, the subgame perfect equilibrium strategies are considered. The utility indifference prices of a contingent claim written on the risky assets are computed via an indifference valuation algorithm. By running numerical experiments, we examine how these prices vary in response to changes in model parameters.

  2. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T. E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  3. Methanation process utilizing split cold gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbl, Daniel G.; Lee, Bernard S.; Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Lam, Henry W.

    1976-07-06

    In the methanation of feed gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen in multiple stages, the feed gas, cold recycle gas and hot product gas is mixed in such proportions that the mixture is at a temperature sufficiently high to avoid carbonyl formation and to initiate the reaction and, so that upon complete reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen, an excessive adiabatic temperature will not be reached. Catalyst damage by high or low temperatures is thereby avoided with a process that utilizes extraordinarily low recycle ratios and a minimum of investment in operating costs.

  4. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  5. Heavy metal utilization by locally available plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pallewad, Sushma; Mali, R P

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with removal of heavy metal namely Copper from polluted water using plant species oscimum and mint. The experiment was divided into 2 groups. Group one as control and group II treated as experimental which received 4ppm of Copper sulphate. In the experimental plants were exposed to 4ppm Cu  for 24 and 48 hrs. And the amount of Cu depleted from water was analyzed. From the experiment it is evident that the Cu from water was utilized by the plants was more during 48 hrs ...

  6. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date.

  7. Relative Efficiency Evaluation on Water Resource Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying

    2011-01-01

    Water resource allocation was defined as an input-output question in this paper, and a preliminary input-output index system was set up. Then GEM (group eigenvalue method)-MAUE (multi-attribute utility theory) model was applied to evaluate relative efficiency of water resource allocation plans. This model determined weights of indicators by GEM, and assessed the allocation schemes by MAUE. Compared with DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) or ANN (Artificial Neural Networks), the mode was more applicable in some cases where decision-makers had preference for certain indicators

  8. Pharmacy utilization and the Medicare Modernization Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Vittorio; Pizzi, Laura; Roumm, Adam R; Clarke, Janice; Goldfarb, Neil I; Nash, David B; Chess, David

    2005-01-01

    To control expenditures and use medications appropriately, the Medicare drug coverage program has established pharmacy utilization management (PUM) measures. This article assesses the effects of these strategies on the care of seniors. The literature suggests that although caps on drug benefits lower pharmaceutical costs, they may also increase the use of other health care services and hurt health outcomes. Our review raises concerns regarding the potential unintended effects of the Medicare drug program's PUM policies for beneficiaries. Therefore, the economic and clinical impact of PUM measures on seniors should be studied further to help policymakers design better drug benefit plans. PMID:15787955

  9. Utilization of Communication Robot in Patient Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Keitaro; Majima, Yukie

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the population is expected to decrease. Moreover, the proportion of elderly people living alone among the elderly population is expected to increase for both men and women. Therefore, the demand for elderly care is increasing year by year. In this paper, we aim at making environment in which elderly people can receive interactive guidance, and reducing the burden on medical staff such as caregivers and nurses. So, we design a patient education by ARCS model which classifies concepts related to learning motivation, and consider to utilize a communication robot "Pepper". PMID:27332406

  10. Framework for utilizing computational devices within simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mintál

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there exist several frameworks to utilize a computation power of graphics cards and other computational devices such as FPGA, ARM and multi-core processors. The best known are either low-level and need a lot of controlling code or are bounded only to special graphic cards. Furthermore there exist more specialized frameworks, mainly aimed to the mathematic field. Described framework is adjusted to use in a multi-agent simulations. Here it provides an option to accelerate computations when preparing simulation and mainly to accelerate a computation of simulation itself.

  11. Clean Processing and Utilization of Coal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如清; 王海峰

    2006-01-01

    The dominant status of coal on the energy production and consumption structure of China will not be changed in the middle period of this century. To realize highly efficient utilization of coal, low pollution and low cost are great and impendent tasks. These difficult problems can be almost resolved through establishing large-scale pithead power stations using two-stage highly efficient dry coal-cleaning system before coal burning, which is a highly efficient, clean and economical strategy considering the current energy and environmental status of China. All these will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  12. Preventive Health Services Utilization Among Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Casado, Banghwa Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the use of preventive health services among Korean American adults. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 212 Korean Americans in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. Guided by the Andersen's behavioral model, the authors examined whether predisposing (age, gender, marital status, household size, education), enabling (income, health insurance, English proficiency, citizenship, social network), and need (health status) factors are predictive of Korean Americans' preventive health services utilization. A binomial logistic regression showed that younger age, male, noncitizen, low income, no insurance, a larger family network, and better perceived health were associated with decreased odds of using preventive health services. PMID:27171558

  13. Utilization of dental care: An Indian outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Brar, Prabhleen; Singh, Gurminder; Sofat, Anjali; Kakar, Heena

    2013-01-01

    Oral health has a significant impact on the quality of life, appearance, and self-esteem of the people. Preventive dental visits help in the early detection and treatment of oral diseases. Dental care utilization can be defined as the percentage of the population who access dental services over a specified period of time. There are reports that dental patients only visit the dentist when in pain and never bother to return for follow-up in most cases. To improve oral health outcomes an adequat...

  14. Silicon Utilizing Microbial Bioactivities in the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, M. M.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Diatoms are unicellular eukaryotic algae and an important member of the silicon utilizing organisms, that generate ~20% of the ~100 billion metric tons of organic carbon produced through photosynthesis on Earth each year. Fragilariopsis is a dominating psychrophilic diatom genus in polar sea ice. The two species Fragilariopsis cylindrus and Fragilariopsis curta are able to grow and divide below freezing temperature. Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), involved in cold adaptation in several psychrophilic organisms, are widespread in this two polar species. Achanthes minutissima isolated as dominant diatom has degradable effects involving petroleum hydocarbons. Phaeodactylum tricornutum, have antibacterial activity and the fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has been identified as one compound responsible for this activity. Other antibacterial compounds are monounsaturated fatty acid (9Z)-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid; C16:1 n-7) and the relatively unusual polyunsaturated fatty acid (6Z, 9Z, 12Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (HTA; C16:3 n-4). Both are active against Gram-positive bacteria and many Gram-negative pathogen. Palmitoleic acid is active at micro-molar concentrations, kills bacteria rapidly, and is highly active against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Domoic acid -a neurotoxin produced by Pseudo-nitzschia accumulates in marine invertebrates. Evidences of sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and human poisoning following consumption of contaminated blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) is mainly due to this toxin. Among the most prominent features described in human beings was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Silicon utilizing organisms can act as a bioindicator of environmental contamination, thus a rapid change in phytochelatins to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress was found in Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii. Some of them also can produce biofuels particularly diatoms have significant

  15. EURO2008 - Informations utiles de la police

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    (English version next week) Durant le mois de juin, afin de garantir une proximité maximale, la Police cantonale genevoise répond à toutes les questions et sollicitations avec un numéro de téléphone vert gratuit du 2 au 30 juin 2008, de 08h00 à 02h00 au 0800 800 844 Vous trouverez toutes les informations utiles concernant la sécurité, match par match, sur le site http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite.asp

  16. Animal Models Utilized in HTLV-1 Research

    OpenAIRE

    Panfil, Amanda R.; Al-Saleem, Jacob J; Green, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    Since the isolation and discovery of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) over 30 years ago, researchers have utilized animal models to study HTLV-1 transmission, viral persistence, virus-elicited immune responses, and HTLV-1-associated disease development (ATL, HAM/TSP). Non-human primates, rabbits, rats, and mice have all been used to help understand HTLV-1 biology and disease progression. Non-human primates offer a model system that is phylogenetically similar to humans for examinin...

  17. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, Christopher J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Hurley, John P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Aulich, Ted R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Folkedahl, Bruce C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Strege, Joshua R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Patel, Nikhil [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Shockey, Richard E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2009-05-27

    The Center for Biomass Utilization® 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.

  18. Market oriented approach by public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantel, J.J.; Verkuil, J.M.

    1989-08-01

    Public utilities, especially the larger ones, have an image of being inefficient, technocratic and bureaucratic institutions, unresponsive to modern lifestyles, growing consumerism, differentiated customer needs and changing social values. Improving this image and increasing customer satisfaction requires the adoption of a systematic market oriented approach, based on an appropriate segmentation of the client and general public. This article gives the broad outline of such an approach followed by some generally applicable practical recommendations. Finally it stresses the importance of human aspects of organizational behaviour and, consequently, the crucial part of corporate culture. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Microbial degradation and utilization of cassava peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofuya, C O; Nwajiuba, C J

    1990-06-01

    Cassava peel was readily degraded and utilized by a strain ofRhizopus growing in a solid-state fermentation. Growth was maximal at 45°C and was proportional to the degree of hydrolysis of the peel. The yield of biomass, as weight of dry mycellum from the reducing sugars of the peel, was 51%. After 72 h fermentation, the peel contained 76% moisture, 6% cellulose, 7% hemicellulose and 0.4% ash and the protein content had increased from 5.6% to 16%. These results suggest a possible economic value of cassava peel in the production of fungal biomass and feedstock.

  20. Economical Utilization of Associated Gas in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Obayopo Alimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil production is often accompanied by associated natural gas as valuable by-product of oil processing. Large amount of this vital energy component is flared during these processes, mostly in developing countries. For a longer period of time more gas is flares in Nigeria than anywhere else in Africa and second to Russian in the world, with daily estimates of roughly 2.5 billion cubic feet. This is equivalent to around 40% of all Africa´s natural gas consumption, and annual financial loss to Nigeria is about 1.8 billion Euros. Gas flaring contributes to major environmental pollution problems, which affects oil producing areas of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. This research attempts to look into the environmental issues in the region and proposes possible solutions, with recommendations that will contribute to improve associated gas utilization. This study describes gas to liquid (GTL conversion technology as a sustainable option to utilize associated gas in Nigeria, and also evaluates the economic attractiveness of the process. This conversion technology could contribute to total elimination of gas flaring and reduces the overdependence on importation of refined products (petrol, diesel and kerosene from foreign countries into Nigeria.

  1. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Johnson, Devin S.; Alldredge, Mat W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: 1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error.

  2. KEIMS utility manual (edition 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeun Seung; Eom, Young Sam; Choi, Jin Yeup; Nam, Ji Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Since 1987 when KAERI had started Yonggwang 3 and 4 NSSS system design project, KAERI has carried out so many NSSS system design projects such as Ulchin 3 and 4, Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 and Yonggwang 5 and 6 with fixed members that necessity of increasing productivity has been raised. To improve design work efficiency, it was considered that computerization of workflow which took so much man-power and business time. As result of investigation of design workflow to reduce man-power loss. It was suggested that DDA (Document Distribution for Agreement) workflow, design document stored in DDCD (Document Distribution and Control Center), IOC (Interoffice Correspondence) document, Letter, PM Memo should be preferentially computerized. On the basis of these computerization requirements, MEDIS (Modular Engineering Document Imaging System) was selected. Prototype had been implemented during 1995.9 -1995.12, and from 1996.1 KEIMS (KAERI Engineering Information Management System) has been operated. This MEDIS system utility manual was composed of several technical memos which has been described on customization of MEDIS fit to KEIMS, program development for system check, and information control of database. Further edition would be released as utility technical memo added. (Author) .new.

  3. Imaging utilization commentary: a radiology perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Hospital, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg (Canada); Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    To adhere to the ALARA concept, imaging should be limited to studies that actually contribute to the management of the patient. For example, by applying the Ottawa Ankle Rule and the Ottawa Knee Rule, fewer radiographs are required to evaluate ankle and knee trauma in children. Chest radiographs usually do not contribute to the management of children presenting with typical acute bronchiolitis or asthma, and they can be detrimental because consolidation resulting from retained secretions is interpreted as pneumonia and the child is started on antibiotics unnecessarily. Moreover, a radiograph of the abdomen has poor validity and reproducibility for the diagnosis of constipation. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) and the Pediatric Emergency Research in Canada (PERC) are currently developing decision rules for the use of CT in the assessment of minor head injuries in children, which should reduce its utilization in this condition. PECARN is also developing a decision rule for the use of CT in the assessment of abdominal trauma in children. CT is frequently used for the diagnosis of appendicitis in children, but appendicitis can be diagnosed clinically. If imaging is required, appendicitis can often be diagnosed with US, and CT need only be used in the minority of cases where the diagnosis is still in doubt. Utilization guidelines for pediatric imaging studies obtained in children in the emergency setting can improve yield and help in the more efficient management of often scarce health care resources. (orig.)

  4. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  5. Hydrogen utilization potential in subsurface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Ram Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface microbial communities undertake many terminal electron-accepting processes, often simultaneously. Using a tritium-based assay, we measured the potential hydrogen oxidation catalyzed by hydrogenase enzymes in several subsurface sedimentary environments (Lake Van, Barents Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Gulf of Mexico with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen and allows qualitative detection of microbial activity irrespective of the predominant electron-accepting process. Because the method only requires samples frozen immediately after recovery, the assay can be used for identifying microbial activity in subsurface ecosystems without the need to preserve live material.We measured potential hydrogen oxidation rates in all samples from multiple depths at several sites that collectively span a wide range of environmental conditions and biogeochemical zones. Potential activity normalized to total cell abundance ranges over five orders of magnitude and varies, dependent upon the predominant terminal electron acceptor. Lowest per-cell potential rates characterize the zone of nitrate reduction and highest per-cell potential rates occur in the methanogenic zone. Possible reasons for this relationship to predominant electron acceptor include (i increasing importance of fermentation in successively deeper biogeochemical zones and (ii adaptation of H2ases to successively higher concentrations of H2 in successively deeper zones.

  6. INPO accreditation - product definition for utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of its responsibility to promote training excellence, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) initiated an accreditation program in 1982 on behalf of its member utilities. The purpose of the accreditation program is to assist INPO members in developing and maintaining training programs that produce well-qualified, competent personnel to operate the nation's nuclear power plants. Accreditation formally recognizes nuclear utility training as meeting the INPO accreditation objectives and criteria for initial and continuing training programs for operations, maintenance, and technical personnel. The ultimate objective to be achieved by accreditation is to maintain high-quality training and enhance the professionalism of the personnel who operate the nuclear power plants. While initial accreditation represents recognition that quality training programs have been put in place at the nuclear power plants, the renewal of accreditation represents recognition that quality training programs have been put in place at the nuclear power plants, the renewal of accreditation will keep the training programs vital, effective, and up to high standards. The nuclear power industry has accepted the responsibility of striving for excellence in training its personnel to safely operate the power plants. The full use of accreditation and the accrediting process is an important means to fulfilling this responsibility

  7. Magnetic field exposure among utility workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, T.D.; Senior, R.S. [T. Dan Bracken, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Rankin, R.F. [Applied Research Services, Inc., Lake Oswego, OR (United States); Alldredge, J.R. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Sussman, S.S. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Electric and Magnetic Field Measurement Project for Utilities -- the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Electric and Magnetic Field Digital Exposure (EMDEX) Project (the EPRI EMDEX Project) -- was a multifaceted project that entailed technology transfer, measurement protocol design, data management, and exposure assessment analyses. This paper addresses one specific objective of the project: the collection, analysis, and documentation of power-frequency magnetic filed exposures for a diverse population of utility employees at 59 sites in four countries between September, 1988, and September, 1989. Specially designed sampling procedures and data collection protocols were used to ensure uniform implementation across sites. Volunteers within 13 job classifications recorded which of eight work or three nonwork environments they occupied while wearing an EMDEX meter. Approximately 50,000 hours of magnetic field exposure records taken at 10 s intervals were obtained, about 70% of which were from work environments. Exposures and time spent in environments were analyzed by primary work environment, by occupied environment, and by job classification.

  8. Utilization of dental care: An Indian outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Brar, Prabhleen; Singh, Gurminder; Sofat, Anjali; Kakar, Heena

    2013-01-01

    Oral health has a significant impact on the quality of life, appearance, and self-esteem of the people. Preventive dental visits help in the early detection and treatment of oral diseases. Dental care utilization can be defined as the percentage of the population who access dental services over a specified period of time. There are reports that dental patients only visit the dentist when in pain and never bother to return for follow-up in most cases. To improve oral health outcomes an adequate knowledge of the way the individuals use health services and the factors predictive of this behavior is essential. The interest in developing models explaining the utilization of dental services has increased; issues like dental anxiety, price, income, the distance a person had to travel to get care, and preference for preservation of teeth are treated as barriers in regular dental care. Published materials which pertain to the use of dental services by Indian population have been reviewed and analyzed in depth in the present study. Dental surgeons and dental health workers have to play an adequate role in facilitating public enlightenment that people may appreciate the need for regular dental care and make adequate and proper use of the available dental care facilities. PMID:24082719

  9. Utilization of used oil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascetti, G.J.; White, H.M.

    1978-08-01

    This report assesses the potential impact of re-refining used automotive and industrial lubricating oils on the national petroleum consumption. The technical base for this assessment is derived from a comprehensive review of the processes utilized in re-refining used oil and those processes used to produce lube oil from crude. Both existing and recently proposed processes are considered. Additionally, an extensive review of processes described in the patent literature is provided. Re-refining processes are surveyed and evaluated. Process descriptions are provided; hardware is identified; and process energy and economic requirements are calculated. Factors affecting the profitability of a re-refining operation are discussed. Economic projections of the demand for lube oil and the ability to satisfy this demand from crude oil are made and the value of lube oil as a vital resource and the need for conservation are addressed. Other factors related to re-refining are discussed, including lube oil characteristics, degradation, lube oil quality and engine sequence testing, and legislative and institutional barriers. Finally, an energy assessment of used oil utilization is made. Two options are considered in this assessment: (1) all used oil is re-refined and recycled back to lube oil; (2) all used oil is burned to recover its heat content.

  10. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Impact Assessment and Utilization of Eastern Redcedar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Difei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The fast invasion of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L. has been considered a significant problem to the environment and rural communities. Approach: This study examined the adverse ecological and economic impacts of eastern redcedar and proposed the sustainable development of value-added panel products from such under-utilized invasive species. Also what economic sectors were mostly influenced was examined. Additionally experimental panels were manufactured from low quality eastern redcedar trees. Results: Both physical and mechanical characteristics of experimental panels were found to be satisfactory and comparable to those of typical commercial panels made from other species. It appears that average modulus of elasticity value of the samples with two density levels had 9% higher than that of a typical commercially produced panels. Conclusion: The importance of this study is expansion of the use of low quality eastern redcedar in value-added composite panel manufacture which seems an alternative solution in the development of an environmentally sound and economically effective way to utilize such resource.

  12. Utilization of postnatal care among Nepalese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Subas; Doku, David

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated risk factors associated with the type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care among a nationally representative sample of Nepalese women. The 2006 Nepalese Demographic and Health Survey on women age 15-49 years old who had delivered within 3 years prior to the survey (N = 4,136) was used. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the association between socio-demographic variables and type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care. Only 23 % deliveries were assisted by skilled attendants. A majority of Nepalese women did not have postnatal check-ups. Education (OR = 1.46, 95 % CI = 1.11-1.92), wealth (OR = 2.57, 95 % CI = 1.59-4.15) and sufficiency of advice during pregnancy (OR = 3.09, 95 % CI = 2.16-4.41), were all independently associated with having postnatal check-ups. Similarly, maternal age, education, parity, wealth, sufficiency of advice and place of delivery were associated with having delivery assisted by a skilled attendant. The utilization of postnatal services is still very low in Nepal. Public health interventions are needed to increase the utilization of postnatal care as well as delivery assisted by skilled attendants. Such interventions should target poor women, the less educated and those in rural areas in Nepal.

  13. Solar energy utilization by physical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M

    1974-04-19

    On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will

  14. Efficiency of lysine utilization by growing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E D; Hussein, A H; Detmann, E; Miesner, M D; Titgemeyer, E C

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of Lys utilization by growing steers. Five ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (165 ± 8 kg) housed in metabolism crates were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design; data from a sixth steer was excluded due to erratic feed intake. All steers were limit fed (2.46 kg DM/d), twice daily, diets low in RUP (81% soybean hulls, 8% wheat straw, 6% cane molasses, and 5% vitamins and minerals). Treatments were 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 g/d of Lys continuously abomasally infused. To prevent AA other than Lys from limiting performance, a mixture providing all essential AA to excess was continuously abomasally infused. Additional continuous infusions included 10 g urea/d, 200 g acetic acid/d, 200 g propionic acid/d, and 50 g butyric acid/d to the rumen and 300 g glucose/d to the abomasum. These infusions provided adequate ruminal ammonia and increased energy supply without increasing microbial protein supply. Each 6-d period included 2 d for adaptation and 4 d for total fecal and urinary collections for measuring N balance. Blood was collected on d 6 (10 h after feeding). Diet OM digestibility was not altered ( ≥ 0.66) by treatment and averaged 73.7%. Urinary N excretion was decreased from 32.3 to 24.3 g/d by increasing Lys supplementation to 9 g/d, with no further reduction when more than 9 g/d of Lys was supplied (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Changes in total urinary N excretion predominantly were due to changes in urinary urea N. Increasing Lys supply from 0 to 9 g/d increased N retention from 21.4 to 30.7 g/d, with no further increase beyond 9 g/d of Lys (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Break-point analysis estimated maximal N retention at 9 g/d supplemental Lys. Over the linear response surface of 0 to 9 g/d Lys, the efficiency of Lys utilization for protein deposition was 40%. Plasma urea N tended to be linearly decreased ( = 0.06) by Lys supplementation in agreement with the reduction in urinary urea N excretion. Plasma concentrations

  15. Synchronization Interfaces for Improving Moodle Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Arya Sasmita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many universities have applied e-learning on more than one LMS (Learning Management System platforms such as Wordpress and Moodle. In addition, difficulties implementations in developing countries have occurred. Those are mainly caused by limitations and expensive of Internet infrastructure. Therefore to increase Moodle application as an e-learning system, the paper proposed two synchronization interfaces. The first interface is for Moodle and Wordpress. This assists teachers to migrate their learning material in their blog in Wordpress into Moodle. Second interface is for Moodle portable performing offline LMS and Moodle performing online LMS. Moodle portable was installed in teachers and students notebooks. Moodle itself was installed and run in e-learning server. The aim is to improve Moodle utilization in the class. The results showed satisfied outcomes. Students and teachers could employ the interfaces easily and secure as they have to login using student/teacher ID, course ID, username and password.

  16. Truly trapped rainbow by utilizing nonreciprocal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a "trapped rainbow" has generated considerable interest for optical data storage and processing. It aims to trap different frequency components of the wave packet at different positions permanently. However, all the previously proposed structures cannot truly achieve this effect, due to the difficulties in suppressing the reflection caused by strong intermodal coupling and distinguishing different frequency components simultaneously. In this article, we found a physical mechanism to achieve a truly "trapped rainbow" storage of electromagnetic wave. We utilize nonreciprocal waveguides under a tapered magnetic field to achieve this and such a trapping effect is stable even under fabrication disorders. We also observe hot spots and relatively long duration time of the trapped wave around critical positions through frequency domain and time domain simulations. The physical mechanism we found has a variety of potential applications ranging from wave harvesting and storage to nonlinearity enhancement...

  17. Utilization of Frozen Semen of Wild Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎萍

    2005-01-01

    After domestication of wild yak and utilization of its frozen semen was successful in 1983, frozen semen of wild yak was used to improve domestic yak and local yellow cattle by artificial insemination(AI). Hybrid vigor of their F1 was obvious, i. e. , productive performance of F1 was significantly increased. Their offspring did not only have significant heterosis in performance but also can rejuvenate effectively their adaptability and survival, and can use alpine grassland more efficiently. This resulted in significant social and economic benefits.Compared with dairy cattle, beef cattle and yellow cattle, AI of yak was more difficult. Using AI to improve yak performance was difficult and significant in yak production areas of our country. It is necessary to invest more technique and fund to extend AI.

  18. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

    2002-04-24

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, and scheduling modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. Development will take place in four phases: Phase I results in a solid infrastructure; Phase II produces a functional but limited interactive job initiation capability without use of the interconnect/switch; Phase III provides switch support and documentation; Phase IV provides job status, fault-tolerance, and job queuing and control through Livermore's Distributed Production Control System (DPCS), a meta-batch and resource management system.

  19. The Simulation Utilization for the Bottleneck Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vegnerová

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advancing globalization increasingly leads to the creation of delivery systems. Increasing competition forces companies to reduce costs permanently. Both of these trends lead to the need to control material and information flows precisely. The target of this article is to describe and show one of ways of bottleneck determination in the supply system. This study deals with the computer simulation and its utilization for assessment of bottleneck. The foundation of the work is created a model of the supply system, it is used to compare the costs associated with the existence of stocks and stock levels in the individual partner of the system, depending on the location of the bottleneck. This article is published as a part of the research intention MSM 6046137306.

  20. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poe, Sarah [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  1. Utility challenges in a competitive power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allete, formerly Minnesota Power, is no longer an electric utility, but a broadly-diversified company operating in 39 states and 8 Canadian provinces. Allete provides retail services in their water and energy business. In addition, they provide wholesale services in their automotive service business, they sell land to developers and have entered into the telecommunications and paper making industry. Diversification has been successful for Allete, and has resulted in a strong balance sheet and cash flow. Graphs depicting the company's business earnings, assets and growth rates were included in this power point presentation. Allete plans to triple its size and continue to maintain its annual growth of 10 per cent or better. tabs., figs

  2. Energy utilization in fluctuating biological energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Szőke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have argued previously [Szoke et al., FEBS Lett. 553, 18–20 (2003; Curr. Chem. Biol. 1, 53–57 (2007] that energy utilization and evolution are emergent properties based on a small number of established laws of physics and chemistry. The relevant laws constitute a framework for biology on a level intermediate between quantum chemistry and cell biology. There are legitimate questions whether these concepts are valid at the mesoscopic level. Such systems fluctuate appreciably, so it is not clear what their efficiency is. Advances in fluctuation theorems allow the description of such systems on a molecular level. We attempt to clarify this topic and bridge the biochemical and physical descriptions of mesoscopic systems.

  3. Method and apparatus for faulty memory utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong; Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2016-04-19

    A method for faulty memory utilization in a memory system includes: obtaining information regarding memory health status of at least one memory page in the memory system; determining an error tolerance of the memory page when the information regarding memory health status indicates that a failure is predicted to occur in an area of the memory system affecting the memory page; initiating a migration of data stored in the memory page when it is determined that the data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant; notifying at least one application regarding a predicted operating system failure and/or a predicted application failure when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant and cannot be migrated; and notifying at least one application regarding the memory failure predicted to occur when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is error-tolerant.

  4. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF UTILIZATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SEDIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Nikovskaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of information on air-conditioning contaminated with heavy metals sludge municipal wastewater points to the actual ecological and chemical problem and its solution could be implemented within the framework of the biological process involving heterotrophic microorganisms. Information on the spread, toxicity, biochemistry, microbiology, colloidal and chemical properties of sludge sediments of municipal wastewater biological treatment is given in the review. These sediments contain vitamins, amino acids, organic matter, heavy metals (micro- and macroelements. Therefore the most rational approach to sludge wastes utilization is their use as an agricultural fertilizer after partial removal of heavy metals. Hence, the interaction of sludge components with heavy metals, modern methods of their removing from biocolloidal systems and biotechnologies of conversion of sludge wastes into fertilizer based on the enhancing of vital ability of sludge biocenoses are discussed.

  5. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  6. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROMOTED CATALYSIS: TOWARDS PRACTICAL UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMITRIOS TSIPLAKIDES

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical promotion (EP of catalysis has already been recognized as “a valuable development in catalytic research” (J. Pritchard, 1990 and as “one of the most remarkable advances in electrochemistry since 1950” (J. O’M. Bockris, 1996. Laboratory studies have clearly elucidated the phenomenology of electrochemical promotion and have proven that EP is a general phenomenon at the interface of catalysis and electrochemistry. The major progress toward practical utilization of EP is surveyed in this paper. The focus is given on the electropromotion of industrial ammonia synthesis catalyst, the bipolar EP and the development of a novel monolithic electropromoted reactor (MEPR in conjunction with the electropromotion of thin sputtered metal films. Future perspectives of electrochemical promotion applications in the field of hydrogen technologies are discussed.

  7. Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitelson, D.G., [Institute of Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (IsraelL); Jette, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date. PMID:26798020

  9. ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2005-04-01

    The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  10. Rating criteria and the Canadian utility sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point presentation provides a brief overview of Standard and Poor's, their rating process, rating methodology, symbols, and rating trends. Key industry issues are described as being deregulation within the electric power and petroleum industry, and a series of risks including regulatory, sovereign, political, event, and financial risks. The paper summarized by noting that transmission and distribution companies have the greatest potential for high credit quality, based on monopoly status, efficient operations and supportive regulation. However, they will be challenged by regulatory and integration issues. The greatest business risk will be faced by generation companies. It was also noted that outside of Alberta and Nova Scotia, provincially-owned utilities dominate the electric power industry. 6 tabs., 13 figs

  11. Utility Scale Wind turbine Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Fredericks

    2006-03-31

    The purpose of the Three Affiliated Tribes proposing to Department of Energy was nothing new to Denmark. National Meteorological Studies have proved that North Dakota has some of the most consistence wind resources in the world. The Three Affiliated Tribes wanted to assess their potential and become knowledgeable to developing this new and upcoming resource now valuable. By the Tribe implementing the Utility-scale Wind Turbine Project on Fort Berthold, the tribe has proven the ability to complete a project, and has already proceeded in a feasibility studies to developing a large-scale wind farm on the reservation due to tribal knowledge learned, public awareness, and growing support of a Nation wanting clean renewable energy. The tribe is working through the various measures and regulations with the want to be self-sufficient, independent, and marketable with 17,000 times the wind energy needed to service Fort Berthold alone.

  12. Utilities in UNIX; Programas de Utilidad UNIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, L.

    2002-07-01

    This manual goes to the users with some or much experience in the unix operating system. In such manner that they can get more efficiency using the unix of the most vendors. Include the majority of UNIX commands, shell built-in functions to create scripts, and a brief explication of the variables in several environments. In addition, other products are included, more and more integrated in the most of the unix operating systems. For example; the scanning and processing language awk, the print server LPRng, GNU utilities, batch subsystem, etc. The manual was initially based in an specific unix. But it had been written for use of the most unix that exist: Tru64 unix, aix, iris, hpux, solaris y linux. In this way, many examples in the chapter had been included. The purpose of this manual is to provide an UNIX reference for advanced users in any of the unix operating systems family. (Author)

  13. Opportunistic spectrum utilization in vehicular communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This brief examines current research on improving Vehicular Networks (VANETs), examining spectrum scarcity due to the dramatic growth of mobile data traffic and the limited bandwidth of dedicated vehicular communication bands and the use of opportunistic spectrum bands to mitigate congestion. It reviews existing literature on the use of opportunistic spectrum bands for VANETs, including licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands and a variety of related technologies, such as cognitive radio, WiFi and device-to-device communications. Focused on analyzing spectrum characteristics, designing efficient spectrum exploitation schemes, and evaluating the date delivery performance when utilizing different opportunistic spectrum bands, the results presented in this brief provide valuable insights on improving the design and deployment of future VANETs.

  14. Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M. [Energy Partners, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

  15. Utilization of Electronic Waste Plastic in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek S. Damal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In India, bitumen pavements are commonly used for highways. Due to the increasing traffic intensity, distress such as rutting and cracking of pavements are very common in Indian roads. Under varying seasonal temperature, flexible pavements tend to become soft in summer and brittle in winter. Investigations revealed that properties of concrete can be better than bitumen roads. But now a day‟s concrete roads are used commonly because concrete roads have more life span than the bitumen roads. In large cities now a day‟s concrete roads are used because concrete roads are more durable, strengthen and having more life span than bitumen roads. Waste plastics and E-waste (electronic waste both by domestic and industrial sectors can be used in the production of asphalt mix. Waste plastic, mainly used for packing are made up of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene. Electronic waste, abbreviated as e-waste, consists of discarded old computers, TVs, refrigerators; radios, etc are basically any electrical or electronic appliance that has reached its end of life. An experimental study is made on the utilization of E-waste particles as fine aggregates in concrete with a percentage replacement ranging from 0 % to 21.5% i.e. (7.5%, 15% and 21.5% on the strength criteria of M30 Concrete. Compressive strength Concrete with and without E- waste plastic as aggregates was observed which exhibits a good strength. The feasibility of utilizing E-waste plastic particles as partial replacement of fine aggregate has been presented. In the present study, compressive strength was investigated for Optimum Cement Content and 7.5% E-plastic content in mix yielded stability and very good in compressive strength of 43 grade cement.

  16. Smile makeover utilizing direct composite resin veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczarski, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Creating a beautiful smile is more than restoring a single tooth back to its proper form. One must take into account the entire aesthetic zone, along with the mechanics of restoring the teeth to proper form and function. To make this effort even more challenging, the clinician is in full control and completely accountable for making the direct composite resin restorations from which the smile is created. Patients usually won't critique the aesthetics of a posterior direct resin, but once we move into the visible smile (along with the fact that most cosmetic procedures are patient desire- and want-driven) we must be able to deliver what the patient expects. Preplanning the case and avoiding the "prep and pray" approach to the smile-design process is the cornerstone of success. Utilizing tools for the creation of the restorations, such as a preoperative wax-up and silicone putty matrix, help the clinician break the procedure down to individual restorations that when created in harmony with the pre-operative design or wax-up, will allow a final "smile design" to emerge with predictability without getting lost in the daunting task of creating the entire smile all at once. Proper use of ideal composite materials adds the final touch on creating realistic results that even the most discerning patients demand. Layering colors, utilizing differing opacities and translucencies within the restorative process, is a must. Having a "recipe" to follow simplifies the process and gives the clinician confidence that the final result will have that realistic look. All in all, the easiest way to handle a challenging case is to break it down into smaller and more manageable increments in order to ensure a predictable outcome.

  17. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  18. ALOS satellite imagery utilization for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces examples of satellite imageries analysis and utilizations for safeguards activities. Recently, many kinds of satellite imageries are available in the world i.e., high-spatial resolution, multi- and hyper-spectral, multi-function, and multi-polarization radars. The problem is that how to obtain the required information from these digital images. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has successfully launched the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed 'Daichi') on 24 January, 2006. The mission objectives are cartography, regional observation, disaster monitoring etc. ALOS has three instruments, PRISM, AVNIR-2, and PALSAR, to achieve these objectives. The ALOS research program can be categorized into two main parts of the ALOS mission: calibration and validation (Cal/Val), and application and science. We are presently carrying out the initial calibration and validation works for each instrument. It is very important to improve the absolute accuracy and image quality of the products. We establish and organize the international ALOS Cal/Val and science team (CVST) to do these works effectively. Based on the CVST activities, we are setting test sites and reference facilities in the world, and considering mission operation plans of each instrument to observe the test sites. The application and scientific results will demonstrate the ALOS data utilization capability. We define the digital surface model (DSM), ortho-rectified images for each sensor, and the surface deformation map as high-level and research products. In particular, geographical information such as elevation, topography, land use and land cover maps are necessary as basic information in many fields of practical applications and research areas. This paper describes our research and scientific activities including some preliminary results of calibration and validation, and examples of acquired images and high-level products related to geographical information. (author)

  19. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Harold Schobert

    2006-02-01

    With the recent passing of new legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  20. Case History of Assessment, Development and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.; Culver, Gene; Lund, John W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230oF (38 to 110oC) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppm dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. The development of the city district heating system in 1981, resulted in perhaps the most extensive and, in some ways, the most complete aquifer tests ever conducted in the United States. Hundreds of private well owners using downhole heat exchangers were concerned that pumping the reservoir would impact the performance of their wells. The geological setting, historical development, and reservoir testing that led up to this major aquifer stress test in 1983 are presented. The institutional and legal problems that resulted in the establishment of a city ordinance controlling the use of the resource and a Geothermal Advisory Committee to oversee future utilization and development are also discussed.