A VIEW OF THE BERTH ALLOCATION PROBLEM
Vanina Macowski Durski Silva; Antônio Sérgio Coelho
2007-01-01
The purpose of this article is to verify the available scientific research in one of the prevalent problems associated with port services. Most of the studies about ports focus on strategic and tactical problems, thus, there exists a large volume of papers with operational research applications about container operations. Since the majority of the berths are managed and operated by private shipping companies, few studies have been conducted on berth allocation. Therefore, the m...
The Tactical Berth Allocation Problem: integrated optimization in container terminals
Vacca, Ilaria; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel
2010-01-01
In the context of container terminal operations, the simultaneous optimization of decision problems that are usually solved hierarchically by terminal's planners represents nowadays a promising research trend. In this talk we introduce the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem (TBAP), that deals with the integration of the berth allocation problem (BAP) and the quay crane assignment problem (QCAP). The objective is to schedule incoming ships over a time horizon, assigning them a berthing position...
Hybrid Heuristic Approaches for Tactical Berth Allocation Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iris, Cagatay; Larsen, Allan; Pacino, Dario;
Tactical berth allocation problem deals with: the berth allocation (as- signs and schedules vessels to berth-positions), and the quay crane (QC) assignment (finds number of QCs that will serve). In this work, we strengthen the current mathematical models (MM) with novel lower bounds and valid...... inequalities. And, we propose a hybrid heuristic which combines MM with greedy and search heuristics. Results show that problem can be solved efficiently respect to optimality and computational time....
Models for the discrete berth allocation problem: A computational comparison
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buhrkal, Katja Frederik; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan;
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...
Models for the Discrete Berth Allocation Problem: A Computational Comparison
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buhrkal, Katja; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan;
In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe the three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...
Models for the Discrete Berth Allocation Problem: A Computational Comparison
Buhrkal, Katja; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe the three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem, improve the performance of one model, and, through extensive numerical tests, compare all models from a computational perspective. The results indicate that a generalized setpartitioning mo...
Solving the dynamic berth allocation problem by simulated annealing
Lin, Shih-Wei; Ting, Ching-Jung
2014-03-01
Berth allocation, the first operation when vessels arrive at a port, is one of the major container port optimization problems. From both the port operator's and the ocean carriers' perspective, minimization of the time a ship spends at berth is a key goal of port operations. This article focuses on two versions of the dynamic berth allocation problem (DBAP): discrete and continuous cases. The first case assigns ships to a given set of berth positions; the second one permits them to be moored anywhere along the berth. Simulated annealing (SA) approaches are proposed to solve the DBAP. The proposed SAs are tested with numerical instances for different sizes from the literature. Experimental results show that the proposed SA can obtain the optimal solutions in all instances of discrete cases and update 27 best known solutions in the continuous case.
Modeling and Solving the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem
Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria
2009-01-01
In this paper we integrate at the tactical level two decision problems arising in container terminals: the berth allocation problem, which consists of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions, and the quay crane assignment problem, which assigns to incoming ships a certain QC profile (i.e. number of quay cranes per working shift). We present two formulations: a mixed integer quadratic program and a linearization which reduces to a mixed integer linear program. The objec...
Recursive column generation for the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem
Vacca, Ilaria; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel
2010-01-01
Seaport container terminals are source of many interesting large-scale optimization problems, that arise in the management of operations at several decision levels. In this work we study exact methods to solve the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem with Quay Crane Assignment, an integrated decision problem that occurs in the management of the quayside resources. We reformulate the problem via Dantzig-Wolfe and present an exact solution approach based on column generation that exploits the prob...
Shih-Wei Lin; Kuo-Ching Ying; Shu-Yen Wan
2014-01-01
Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem se...
The berth allocation problem: Optimizing vessel arrival time
Mihalis M Golias; Georgios K Saharidis; Maria Boile; Sotirios Theofanis; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.
2009-01-01
The berth scheduling problem deals with the assignment of vessels to berths in a marine terminal, with the objective to maximize the ocean carriers’ satisfaction (minimize delays) and/or minimize the terminal operator's costs. In the existing literature, two main assumptions are made regarding the status of a vessel: (a) either all vessels to be served are already in the port before the planning period starts, or (b) they are scheduled to arrive after the planning period starts. The latter ca...
Robust Scheduling for Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Rodriguez-Molins
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Decision makers must face the dynamism and uncertainty of real-world environments when they need to solve the scheduling problems. Different incidences or breakdowns, for example, initial data could change or some resources could become unavailable, may eventually cause the infeasibility of the obtained schedule. To overcome this issue, a robust model and a proactive approach are presented for scheduling problems without any previous knowledge about incidences. This paper is based on proportionally distributing operational buffers among the tasks. In this paper, we consider the berth allocation problem and the quay crane assignment problem as a representative example of scheduling problems. The dynamism and uncertainty are managed by assessing the robustness of the schedules. The robustness is introduced by means of operational buffer times to absorb those unknown incidences or breakdowns. Therefore, this problem becomes a multiobjective combinatorial optimization problem that aims to minimize the total service time, to maximize the buffer times, and to minimize the standard deviation of the buffer times. To this end, a mathematical model and a new hybrid multiobjective metaheuristic is presented and compared with two well-known multiobjective genetic algorithms: NSGAII and SPEA2+.
Salido, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Molins, Mario; Barber, Federico
The Container Stacking Problem and the Berth Allocation Problem are two important problems in maritime container terminal's management which are clearly related. Terminal operators normally demand all containers to be loaded into an incoming vessel should be ready and easily accessible in the terminal before vessel's arrival. Similarly, customers (i.e., vessel owners) expect prompt berthing of their vessels upon arrival. In this paper, we present an artificial intelligence based-integrated system to relate these problems. Firstly, we develop a metaheuristic algorithm for berth allocation which generates an optimized order of vessel to be served according to existing berth constraints. Secondly, we develop a domain-oriented heuristic planner for calculating the number of reshuffles needed to allocate containers in the appropriate place for a given berth ordering of vessels. By combining these optimized solutions, terminal operators can be assisted to decide the most appropriated solution in each particular case.
Lin, Shih-Wei; Ying, Kuo-Ching; Wan, Shu-Yen
2014-01-01
Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set. PMID:25295295
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shih-Wei Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP, which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set.
A Contribution to Berth Allocation Problem Solution with Draft Restrictions
Grubišić, Neven; Vilke, Siniša; Barić, Mate
2015-01-01
Models for berth assignments help to solve logistic problems in container terminals and are important decision making tools. This is particularly so where, because of the system complexity and vessels arrival rate, problems cannot be solved empirically. Another issue concerns potential infrastructure and equipment shortcomings, where high utilization of the existing system components is required. In this paper, the authors focus on draft or depth restrictions that may occur alongside a ...
The Tactical Berth Allocation Problem with QC Assignment and Transshipment Costs
Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria
2009-01-01
In this work we integrate at the tactical level two decision problems arising in container terminals: the berth allocation problem, which consists of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions, and the quay crane assignment problem, which assigns to incoming ships a certain QC profile (i.e. number of quay cranes per working shift). We present two formulations: a mixed integer quadratic program and a linearization which reduces to a mixed integer linear program. The objectiv...
The Berth Allocation Problem with Service Time and Delay Time Objectives
Akio Imai; Jin-Tao Zhang; Etsuko Nishimura; Stratos Papadimitriou
2007-01-01
This study addresses a two-objective berth allocation problem: ship service quality expressed by the minimisation of delay in ships' departure and berth utilisation expressed by the minimisation of the total service time. In this problem, noninferior solutions are expected to be identified. Two heuristics, which are implemented based on two existing procedures of the subgradient optimisation and genetic algorithm, are proposed for solving this problem. Through numerical experiments, it was fo...
An enriched model for the integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem
B. RAA; Dullaert, W.; R. VAN SCHAEREN
2009-01-01
Given the increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of container terminals, a lot of research efforts have been devoted to optimizing container terminal operations. Most papers deal with either the Berth Allocation Problem (BAP) or the (Quay) Crane Assignment Problem (CAP). In the literature, handling times are often simplified to be berth dependent or proportional to vessel size to ignore the CAP when scheduling vessels. This is unsatisfactory for real-life applications because the handl...
A two-phase genetic algorithm for the berth and quay crane allocation and scheduling problem
A. PONOMAREV; Dullaert, W.; B. RAA
2010-01-01
This paper presents a hybrid genetic algorithm for a dynamic continuous berth allocation and quay crane scheduling problem. In the first phase of the algorithm, vessels are positioned at berthing locations and quay cranes are assigned to vessels using novel crane assignment heuristics. In the second phase, cranes are scheduled to minimize the distance travelled in repositioning the cranes. The solution approach is tested on benchmarks derived from real-life data, with varying levels of capaci...
The berth allocation problem: a formulation reflecting time Window service deadlines
Golias, Mihalis; Boile, Maria; Theofanis, Sotirios
2007-01-01
The berth-allocation problem (BAP) aims to optimally schedule and assign vessels to berthing areas along a quay. The vessels arrive at the port over a period of time and normally request service and departure within a time window. These time windows are usually determined through contractual agreements between the port operator and the carrier, in terms of time of departure after the vessel’s arrival at the port. Formulations presented in the current literature, reduce the time window to a po...
Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan; Larsen, Allan
2015-01-01
Most of the operational problems in container terminals are strongly interconnected. In this paper, we study the integrated Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem in seaport container terminals. We will extend the current state-of-the-art by proposing novel set partitioning models. To improve the performance of the set partitioning formulations, a number of variable reduction techniques are proposed. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of different discretization schemes and the i...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan;
heavily relies on the efficiency of quay cranes operations, and the usage of the berthing area. Optimizing the allocation of ships to berth and the related assignment of cranes are important problems that are mostly covered as two separate cases in the literature. However, since the handling time of the...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan;
2015-01-01
Most of the operational problems in container terminals are strongly interconnected. In this paper, we study the integrated Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem in seaport container terminals. We will extend the current state-of-the-art by proposing novel set partitioning models. To...... improve the performance of the set partitioning formulations, a number of variable reduction techniques are proposed. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of different discretization schemes and the impact of using a time-variant/invariant quay crane allocation policy. Computational experiments show that...
Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria
2009-01-01
In this work, we focus on the integration of two problems arising in the management of transshipment container terminals: the problem of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions (berth allocation problem), and the problem of assigning quay cranes to incoming ships (quay crane assignment problem). In particular, motivated by the practice in the negotiation process between the terminal management and the shipping liner, the model is based on the concept of quay-crane assign...
Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria
2009-01-01
In the context of international sea-freight container transport, we study an integrated decision problem arising in container terminal management. We consider the integration of the Berth Allocation Problem (BAP), which consists of assigning and scheduling incoming ships to berthing positions, and the Quay Crane Assignment Problem (QCAP), which assigns to incoming ships a certain QC profile (i.e. number of quay cranes per working shift). BAP and QCAP are strictly correlated, since the QC prof...
Robust Scheduling for Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Assignment Problem
2014-01-01
Decision makers must face the dynamism and uncertainty of real-world environments when they need to solve the scheduling problems. Different incidences or breakdowns, for example, initial data could change or some resources could become unavailable, may eventually cause the infeasibility of the obtained schedule. To overcome this issue, a robust model and a proactive approach are presented for scheduling problems without any previous knowledge about incidences. This paper is based on proporti...
Basri, Azyanzuhaila Hasan; Zainuddin, Zaitul Marlizawati
2014-09-01
High efficiency of port operation is required to succeed in the competition between port container terminals. Berth Allocation and Quay Crane Scheduling are the most important part in container terminal operations. The integrated model is formulated as a MIP problem with the objective to minimize the sum of the dwell times, where a vessel's dwell time is measured between arrival and departure including both times waiting to be berthed and servicing time while berthed. The construction of suitable mathematical model is formulated by considering various practical constraints.
2014-01-01
In order to solve the large-scale integral dynamic scheduling of continuous berths and quay cranes problem, a method based on rolling-horizon strategy is proposed. A multiobjective optimization model that is established minimizes the total penalty costs considering vessels’ deviations to their preferred berthing positions, delayed times for berthing comparing to their estimated arrival times, and delayed times for departure comparing to their estimated departure times. Then, the scheduling pr...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Robenek, Tomáš; Umang, Nitish; Bierlaire, Michel;
2014-01-01
In this research, two crucial optimization problems of berth allocation and yard assignment in the context of bulk ports are studied. We discuss how these problems are interrelated and can be combined and solved as a single large scale optimization problem. More importantly we highlight the...... differences in operations between bulk ports and container terminals which highlights the need to devise specific solutions for bulk ports. The objective is to minimize the total service time of vessels berthing at the port. We propose an exact solution algorithm based on a branch and price framework to solve......-shaking neighborhood search is presented. The proposed algorithms are tested and validated through numerical experiments based on instances inspired from real bulk port data. The results indicate that the algorithms can be successfully used to solve instances containing up to 40 vessels within reasonable computational...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ling Xiao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In order to solve the large-scale integral dynamic scheduling of continuous berths and quay cranes problem, a method based on rolling-horizon strategy is proposed. A multiobjective optimization model that is established minimizes the total penalty costs considering vessels’ deviations to their preferred berthing positions, delayed times for berthing comparing to their estimated arrival times, and delayed times for departure comparing to their estimated departure times. Then, the scheduling process was divided into a set of continual scheduling interval according to the dynamic arrival sequences. Meanwhile, rolling-horizon strategies for setting rolling and frozen windows and the parameter updating strategy are designed. The input parameters of the model in the next rolling window are updated according to the optimal results of each time window which have been obtained. The model is solved by choosing appropriate rolling and freezing window lengths that represents the numbers of adjacent vessels in the sequence of calling vessels. The holistic optimal solution is obtained by gradually rolling and combining the results of each window. Finally, a case study indicated that the rolling schedule can solve large-scale scheduling problems, and the efficiency of the proposed approach relates to the size of rolling window, freeze ship quantity, and rolling frequency.
A Simulation based model for the berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem
Abdel Hafez, M.A.; Hubbard, Nick J.; Tipi, Nicoleta S.; Eltawil, A.B.
2013-01-01
With the global development of container transport, container terminals have become important nodes in transport networks which serve as hubs for the transshipment of containerized goods from ship to ship or from ship to other transport modes. As the container transport system is capital intensive, the turnaround time of ships at container terminals is an important factor for liner shipping companies to consider in order to decrease their costs. The turnaround time includes berthing, unloadin...
Using Simulation in Evaluating Berth Allocation at a Container Terminal
Henesey, Lawrence; Davidsson, Paul; Persson, Jan A.
2004-01-01
The operations and decision making at a container terminal have been simulated. A Berth Allocation Management System – (BAMS) has been built which consists of two parts: a container terminal simulator modelling the operations and a management simulator modelling the various actors involved in the allocation of container ships to berths. Together these two parts generate berth schedules for arriving container ships. Two berth assignment policies are evaluated in different scenarios, with vario...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iris, Cagatay; Røpke, Stefan; Pacino, Dario;
Nowadays, large container terminals can process more than 30 million containers a year, and are constantly in search for the best ways to optimize processing time and deliver high quality, and profitable, services. Most of the operational problems on a container terminal are interconnected. The p...
Berth allocation planning in Seville inland port by simulation and optimisation
Arango Pastrana, Carlos Alberto; Cortés Achedad, Pablo Fabio; Muñuzuri Sanz, Jesús; Onieva Giménez, Luis Gerardo
2011-01-01
We study the problems associated with allocating berths for containerships in the port of Seville. It is the only inland port in Spain and it is located on the Guadalquivir River. This paper addresses the berth allocation planning problems using simulation and optimisation with Arena software. We propose a mathematical model and develop a heuristic procedure based on genetic algorithm to solve non-linear problems. Allocation planning aims to minimise the total service time for ...
A bi-objective berth allocation formulation to account for vessel handling time uncertainty
Mihalis M Golias
2011-01-01
In this article we formulate the berth allocation problem as a bi-objective mixed-integer programming problem with the objective to maximize berth throughput and reliability of the schedule under the assumption that vessel handling times are stochastic parameters, being a function of other stochastic parameters (that is, quay crane breakdowns, quay-to-yard transport vehicle productivity, yard congestion, and so on). A combination of an exact algorithm, a Genetic Algorithms-based heuristic and...
Giallombardo, Giovanni; Moccia, Luigi; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria
2008-01-01
International sea-freight container transport has grown dramatically over the last years and container terminals play nowadays a key-role in the global shipping network. Increasing competition and competitiveness among terminals require more and more efficiency in container handling operations, both in the quayside and the landside, in order to better utilize limited resources (such as cranes, trucks, berths, storage space, etc.) as well as minimize ship's turnaround time. Operations research...
A genetic algorithm for robust berth allocation and quay crane assignment
Rodríguez Molins, Mario; Ingolotti Hetter, Laura Paola; Barber Sanchís, Federico; Salido Gregorio, Miguel Angel; R. Sierra, María; Puente, Jorge
2014-01-01
Scheduling problems usually obtain the optimal solutions assuming that the environment is deterministic. However, actually the environment is dynamic and uncertain. Thus, the initial data could change and the initial schedule obtained might be unfeasible. To overcome this issue, a proactive approach is presented for scheduling problems without any previous knowledge about the incidences that can occur. In this paper, we consider the berth allocation problem and the quay crane assignment probl...
Integrated discrete berth allocation and quay crane scheduling in port container terminals
Lee, Der-Horng; Qiu Wang, Hui
2010-08-01
The integrated discrete berth allocation and quay crane scheduling problem studied in this article considers the relationship between them. This article provides a mixed integer programming model for the studied problem that is ?-complete in nature. A genetic algorithm is proposed to obtain near optimal solutions. Computational experiments are conducted to examine the proposed solution algorithm. The computational results show that the proposed genetic algorithm is effective and efficient in solving the studied problem.
Research on bulk-cargo-port berth assignment based on priority of resource allocation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunfang Guo
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a Priority of Resource Allocation model about how to utilize the resources of the port efficiently, through the improvement of traditional ant colony algorithm, the ship-berth matching relation constraint matrix formed by ontology reasoning. Design/methodology/approach: Through questionnaires?Explore factor analysis (EFA and principal component analysis, the authors extract the importance of the goods, the importance of customers, and type of trade as the main factors of the ship operating priority. Then the authors combine berth assignment problem with the improved ant colony algorithm, and use the model to improve ship scheduling quality. Finally, the authors verify the model with physical data in a bulk-cargo-port in China. Findings: Test by the real data of bulk cargo port, it show that ships’ resource using priority and the length of waiting time are consistent; it indicates that the priority of resource allocation play a prominent role in improving ship scheduling quality. Research limitations: The questionnaires is limited in only one port group, more related Influence factors should be considered to extend the conclusion. Practical implications: The Priority of Resource Allocation model in this paper can be used to improve the efficiency of the dynamic berth assignment. Originality: This paper makes the time of ship in port minimized as the optimization of key indicators and establishes a dynamic berth assignment model based on improved ant colony algorithm and the ontology reasoning model.
A Knowledge-based System for Berth Allocation in a Container Terminal
Junliang He; Youfang Huang; Daofang Chang; Weimin Zhang
2013-01-01
Both of berth allocation and quay crane assignment are one of the most complex parts in container terminal operations, which significantly affect the operational efficiency, energy consumption and operational cost of the entire container terminal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient strategy for integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment (BACP) from the perspective of knowledge, which aims at energy-saving and improving operational efficiency. In this paper, knowledg...
Peter Wanke
2011-01-01
The ship-berth link is one of the most critical aspects to be managed at port operations. Until now, simulation models have considered the impact of queue priorities, such as size and type of ships, on waiting times. This research differentiates from previous studies not only by considering another variable - the demurrage cost for each type of ship -, but also by considering the possibility of different berth allocation policies. It reports on a simulation study on small Brazilian private co...
Aheuristic Algorithm for Berth Scheduling Problem in Container Ports
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张海滨
2011-01-01
In this paper,the berth scheduling problem is transformed into a special two-dimensional packing problem with some constraints.A nonlinear programming model for the problem is established,and a heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the model.Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Wanke
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The ship-berth link is one of the most critical aspects to be managed at port operations. Until now, simulation models have considered the impact of queue priorities, such as size and type of ships, on waiting times. This research differentiates from previous studies not only by considering another variable - the demurrage cost for each type of ship -, but also by considering the possibility of different berth allocation policies. It reports on a simulation study on small Brazilian private container terminal, where different berth allocation policies and queue priorities have been tested. Results and further analyses conducted via MANOVA indicate that the demurrage cost ratio between large and small ships and the critical waiting time in queue, after which demurrage costs are charged, impact on the choice of most adequate combination of policies and priorities. The analysis presented in this paper may help port authorities in determining a more precise figure for total demurrage costs
Simulation-based evaluation of berth allocation policies of container terminals
Chervyakov, Anatoly
2003-01-01
The aim of this investigation is to test and verify a hypothesis concerning policies for berth allocation to ships in a container terminal. The chosen domain is a rich research area where simulation could be used. Because of the high amount of variables involved and demand for optimal usage of available resources management of a container terminal is a great challenge.
A Knowledge-based System for Berth Allocation in a Container Terminal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junliang He
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Both of berth allocation and quay crane assignment are one of the most complex parts in container terminal operations, which significantly affect the operational efficiency, energy consumption and operational cost of the entire container terminal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient strategy for integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment (BACP from the perspective of knowledge, which aims at energy-saving and improving operational efficiency. In this paper, knowledge acquisition for BACP is initially conducted. And then, knowledge sorting process for BACP, including taxonomic tree generation and organization of acquired knowledge, is performed. After that, rules for BACP are extracted using the IF and THEN clause. Furthermore, a knowledge reasoning mechanism is designed. Finally, numerical experiments are used to illustrate the proposed knowledge-based system and verify the effectiveness and reliability.
Research on bulk-cargo-port berth assignment based on priority of resource allocation
Chunfang Guo; Zhongliang Guan; Yan Song
2013-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a Priority of Resource Allocation model about how to utilize the resources of the port efficiently, through the improvement of traditional ant colony algorithm, the ship-berth matching relation constraint matrix formed by ontology reasoning. Design/methodology/approach: Through questionnaires?Explore factor analysis (EFA) and principal component analysis, the authors extract the importance of the goods, the importance of customers, and type of ...
The liner shipping berth scheduling problem with transit times
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reinhardt, Line Blander; Plum, Christian E.M.; Pisinger, David;
2016-01-01
berth times are only accepted if they lead to savings above a threshold value. Since the fuel consumption of a vessel is a non-linear convex function of the speed, it is approximated by a piecewise linear function. The developed model is solved using exact methods in less than two minutes for large......In this paper speed optimization of an existing liner shipping network is solved by adjusting the port berth times. The objective is to minimize fuel consumption while retaining the customer transit times including the transhipment times. To avoid too many changes to the time table, changes of port...
Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal
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Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.
A Simulation-Based Optimization Approach for Integrated Port Resource Allocation Problem
Ilati, Gholamreza; Sheikholeslami, Abdorreza; Hassannayebi, Erfan
2014-01-01
Todays, due to the rapid increase in shipping volumes, the container terminals are faced with the challenge to cope with these increasing demands. To handle this challenge, it is crucial to use flexible and efficient optimization approach in order to decrease operating cost. In this paper, a simulation-based optimization approach is proposed to construct a near-optimal berth allocation plan integrated with a plan for tug assignment and for resolution of the quay crane re-allocation problem. ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
乐美龙; 刘秀玲
2014-01-01
Berth and quay crane ( QC) are the most important scarce resource in the container terminal .Reasona-ble berth allocation and quay crane scheduling can improve utilization of the resources and port operation effec -tiveness and efficiency .The paper firstly presents the integrated MILP model of both berth allocation and QC scheduling based on the deviation from the berth preference position and capacity loss of the QC .Then, using the data from a container terminal in Ningbo and Gurobi optimization solver , we solve the model .Finally the computational result is economically analyzed .The computational results show that the mean utilization rate of berth line of this port is 46%.Among them , the berth line from 1000 to 1600 meter is hardly used , and deplo-ying 18 QCs is better than deploying 16 QCs in the terminal .The mean utilization rate of deploying 18 QCs is 80%, so the paper suggests the port should have two more QCs .Meanwhile we find that as vessels increase , the solving time by Gurobi increases quickly .At the same time , our method , so called two stage heuristic method , can still give the quasi-optimal solution in very short time .%泊位和岸桥是集装箱港口资源中最紧缺的资源，合理的泊位分配和岸桥调度可以提高集装箱港口的资源利用率和港口的运作效率和效益。针对泊位偏离和岸桥工作损失两个因素，文章建立了集装箱港口泊位和岸桥的混合整数线性规划模型；运用采集自宁波某典型集装箱港口的数据，用Gurobi优化软件和两阶段启发式算法对模型进行了求解；对计算结果进行了经济性分析。计算结果表明：该港口的岸线资源利用率为46％时，1000m～1600m基本没被利用；18台岸桥要比16台岸桥的目标值更优，求解时间更短，而且18台岸桥的平均利用率为80％，为此，建议该港口再增加两台岸桥。同时发现：随着船舶规模的增加，Gurobi优化求解的时间增长
Allocation Problems and Market Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smilgins, Aleksandrs
The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk...... capital has to be shared among the subunits. The problem is modeled as a TU game based on suitable measures of risk, which are applied to estimate the associated value of any possible coalition. The paper suggests the use of Lorenz undominated core selections for allocation of risk capital. It is argued...... that such a solution satisfies a number of desirable properties violated by the conventional alternatives. The second paper is concerned with computational aspects of determining the set of Lorenz undominated core selections. The paper develops an algorithm. The third paper uses the cooperative game...
Berth Allocation with Service Priority for Container Terminal of Hub Port%集装箱枢纽港泊位分配问题优化研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
代丽利
2014-01-01
通过分析船舶大型化对船公司和码头运营商的影响，文中提出在泊位分配的过程中，码头需站在共赢的角度，箱位大的船舶的服务优先级高于箱位小的船舶。建立了具有优先权的动态泊位分配模型，采用改进的广义遗传算法对模型求解。算例结果证明模型和算法正确有效。%Through analyzing the effects of container ships with larger size to the shipping companies and terminal operators,this paper put forward a view,from a win-win perspective,that container ships with larger Twenty-foot Equivalent Units (TEUs)capacity should be given the higher priority in the process of berth allocation.Following the above view,a dynamic berth allocation model considering the service priority was developed and an improved generalized genetic algorithms was used to solve the model.Example application results show that the model and the algorithm are correct and effective.
Game theory and cost allocation problems
Tijs, S.H.; Driessen, T.S.H.
1986-01-01
Problems of allocating joint costs in a reasonable way arise in many practical situations where people decide to work together to save costs. Cost allocation methods based on game theoretical concepts take into account the strategic aspects of cost allocation situations. We give a survey of cost all
On the Ramified Optimal Allocation Problem
Xia, Qinglan
2011-01-01
This paper proposes an optimal allocation problem with ramified transport technology in a spatial economy. Ramified transportation is used to model the transport economy of scale in group transportation observed widely in both nature and efficiently designed transport systems of branching structures. The ramified allocation problem aims at finding an optimal allocation plan as well as an associated optimal allocation path to minimize overall cost of transporting commodity from factories to households. This problem differentiates itself from existing ramified transportation literature in that the distribution of production among factories is not fixed but endogenously determined as observed in many allocation practices. It's shown that due to the transport economy of scale in ramified transportation, each optimal allocation plan corresponds equivalently to an optimal assignment map from households to factories. This optimal assignment map provides a natural partition of both households and allocation paths. We...
Game Theory and Cost Allocation Problems
Tijs, S.H.; Driessen, T.S.H.
1986-01-01
Problems of allocating joint costs in a reasonable way arise in many practical situations where people decide to work together to save costs. Cost allocation methods based on game theoretical concepts take into account the strategic aspects of cost allocation situations. We give a survey of cost allocation methods based on the nucleolus and the Shapley value, and introduce also a new one, the so-called cost gap allocation method which is based on the \\tau -value. It is shown that for some lar...
Additivity in bankruptcy problems and in allocation problems
Gustavo Bergantiños; Luciano Méndez-Naya
2001-01-01
We study the property of additivity in bankruptcy problems and in allocation problems. In bankruptcy problems we use this property to characterize the Talmudic rule proposed by Rabbi Ibn Ezra. Moreover we generalize this rule to every bankruptcy problem. Again, using additivity we characterize the rights egalitarian solution in allocation problems.
Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem
Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina
2014-09-01
In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.
Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal
Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini; K. Khalili Damghani
2009-01-01
Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between ber...
Quay crane scheduling for an indented berth
Lee, Der-Horng; Chen, Jiang Hang; Cao, Jin Xin
2011-09-01
This article explores the quay crane scheduling problem at an indented berth. The indented berth is known as an innovative implementation in the container terminals to tackle the challenge from the emergence of more and more mega-containerships. A mixed integer programming model by considering the non-crossing and safety distance constraints is formulated. A Tabu search heuristic is developed to solve the proposed problem. The computational results from this research indicate that the designed Tabu search is an effective method to handle the quay crane scheduling problem at an indented berth.
Submodular Cost Allocation Problem and Applications
Chekuri, Chandra; Ene, Alina
2011-01-01
We study the Minimum Submodular-Cost Allocation problem (MSCA). In this problem we are given a finite ground set $V$ and $k$ non-negative submodular set functions $f_1 ,..., f_k$ on $V$. The objective is to partition $V$ into $k$ (possibly empty) sets $A_1 ,..., A_k$ such that the sum $\\sum_{i=1}^k f_i(A_i)$ is minimized. Several well-studied problems such as the non-metric facility location problem, multiway-cut in graphs and hypergraphs, and uniform metric labeling and its generalizations c...
Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation
Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail
2013-04-01
Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.
Lorenz and lexicographic maximal allocations for bankruptcy problems
Arin, Javier; Benito Ostolaza, Juan Miguel
2012-01-01
This paper investigates the use of egalitarian criteria to select allocations in bankruptcy problems. In our work, we characterize the sets of Lorenz maximal elements for these problems. We show that the allocation selected by the Proportional Rule is the only allocation that belongs to all these Lorenz maximal sets. We prove that the Talmud Rule selects the lexicographic maximal element within a certain set. We introduce and analyze a new sharing rule for bankruptcy problems that shares stro...
An interactive approach to the stochastic multiobjective allocation problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maciej Nowak
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the stochastic multiobjective allocation problem. An assumption is made that a particular resource should be allocated to T projects. The specified level of each goal (along with the known probabilities can be obtained based on the amount of the resources allocated. We will propose an identification strategy procedure that the decision maker can implement. Our technique combines multiobjective dynamic programming and an interactive approach. First, efficient strategies are identified using Bellman's principle applied to the multiobjective problem. Next, a dialog procedure is used to find a solution that is satisfactory for the decision maker. A numerical example is presented to show how the procedure can be applied.
Evolutionary local search for solving the office space allocation problem
Ulker, Ozgur; Landa-Silva, Dario
2012-01-01
Office Space Allocation (OSA) is the task of correctly allocating the spatial resources of an institution to a set of entities by minimising the wastage of space and the violation of additional constraints. In this paper, an evolutionary local search algorithm is presented to tackle this problem. The evolutionary components of the algorithm include standard crossover and mutation operators and a relatively small population of individuals. The offspring produced by the evolutionary operators a...
Optimizing investment fund allocation using vehicle routing problem framework
Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita
2014-07-01
The objective of investment is to maximize total returns or minimize total risks. To determine the optimum order of investment, vehicle routing problem method is used. The method which is widely used in the field of resource distribution shares almost similar characteristics with the problem of investment fund allocation. In this paper we describe and elucidate the concept of using vehicle routing problem framework in optimizing the allocation of investment fund. To better illustrate these similarities, sectorial data from FTSE Bursa Malaysia is used. Results show that different values of utility for risk-averse investors generate the same investment routes.
The Transport Problem utilized for Machines Optimal Allocation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga-Ioana Amariei
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The present paper presents an optimal allocation mode of the machines in a manner to maximize the profit. Starting from provided data – time standard, technical itineraries, production volume, working regime and continuing with the determined ones – duration, necessary number of machines, unit profit, the problem became a maximization transport problem
Golias, Mihalis M.
2011-01-01
Berth scheduling is a critical function at marine container terminals and determining the best berth schedule depends on several factors including the type and function of the port, size of the port, location, nearby competition, and type of contractual agreement between the terminal and the carriers. In this paper we formulate the berth scheduling problem as a bi-objective mixed-integer problem with the objective to maximize customer satisfaction and reliability of the berth schedule under the assumption that vessel handling times are stochastic parameters following a discrete and known probability distribution. A combination of an exact algorithm, a Genetic Algorithms based heuristic and a simulation post-Pareto analysis is proposed as the solution approach to the resulting problem. Based on a number of experiments it is concluded that the proposed berth scheduling policy outperforms the berth scheduling policy where reliability is not considered.
Bankruptcy Problem Allocations and the Core of Convex Games
William Olvera-Lopez; Francisco Sanchez-Sanchez; Iván Tellez-Tellez
2014-01-01
A well-known result related to bankruptcy problems establishes that a vector is a bankruptcy allocation if and only if it belongs to the core of the associated O’Neill’s bankruptcy game. In this paper we show that this game is precisely the unique TU-game based on convex functions that satisfies the previous result. In addition, given a bankruptcy problem, we show a way for constructing bankruptcy games such that the set of bankruptcy allocations is a subset of their core or their core is a s...
Resource allocation and performance analysis problems in optical networks
Hyytiä, Esa
2004-01-01
Optical networks pose a rich variety of new design and performance analysis problems. Typically, the static design problems belong to the field of combinatorial optimisation, whereas decision-making and performance analysis problems are best treated using appropriate stochastic models. This dissertation focuses on certain issues in resource allocation and performance evaluation of backbone wavelength-routed (WR) networks and metropolitan area optical burst switching (OBS) networks. The fi...
Convalesce Optimization for Input Allocation Problem Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
Mamta Madan; Sushila Madan
2010-01-01
Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to describe categories of hybrid genetic algorithm and validate that the hybrid genetic algorithm converges to the optimal solution rather than a near optimal solution so that Hybrid Genetic algorithms can be used to solve real world problems and receive significant interest. Approach: We implemented the input allocation problem for a manufacturing unit firstly with pure genetic algorithm using Matlab's GA tool and then compared the results wit...
A bat algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem
Talafuse, T. P.; Pohl, E. A.
2016-05-01
This article uses a recently developed bat algorithm (BA) meta-heuristic optimization method to solve the reliability redundancy allocation problem (RAP). The RAP is a well-known NP-hard problem which has been the subject of much prior work, generally of a restricted form where each component must consist of identical components in parallel to make computations tractable. Meta-heuristic methods overcome this limitation and allow for larger instances to be solved for a more general case where different components can be placed in parallel. The BA has not yet been used in reliability design, as it was a method initially designed for continuous problems. A BA is devised and tested on a well-known suite of problems from the literature. It is shown that the BA is competitive with the best known heuristics for redundancy allocation.
Bandwidth allocation and pricing problem for a duopoly market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
You Peng-Sheng
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This research discusses the Internet service provider (ISP bandwidth allocation and pricing problems for a duopoly bandwidth market with two competitive ISPs. According to the contracts between Internet subscribers and ISPs, Internet subscribers can enjoy their services up to their contracted bandwidth limits. However, in reality, many subscribers may experience the facts that their on-line requests are denied or their connection speeds are far below their contracted speed limits. One of the reasons is that ISPs accept too many subscribers as their subscribers. To avoid this problem, ISPs can set limits for their subscribers to enhance their service qualities. This paper develops constrained nonlinear programming to deal with this problem for two competitive ISPs. The condition for reaching the equilibrium between the two competitive firms is derived. The market equilibrium price and bandwidth resource allocations are derived as closed form solutions.
Problems of priority change in kidney allocation and beyond.
Ahlert, Marlies; Kliemt, Hartmut
2013-06-01
Standardized and transparent priority setting in medicine, desirable as it is, will generally exacerbate inter-temporal equity problems arising from changes in treatment priorities: when can it be fair that the treatment of already waiting patients who would have had priority under an established system should be postponed (withheld) for an extended period of time to advance the treatment of others under a reformed system? The reform of the Eurotransplant system of priority setting in kidney allocation (ETKAS), which is in many respects ideal, is a case in point. To give due weight to new medical knowledge, waiting time after the onset of end state renal failure should change from a priority-enhancing to a priority-reducing factor. Since those who have gained in priority by waiting under the present system would be set back under the new, severe problems of transitional justice must be overcome when responding to advances in medical knowledge. The paper explores conceptually some possible ways of rule change and indicates their general relevance from an ethical and a practical point of view for future problems of medical resource allocation under transparent, standardized priority-setting rules. PMID:22358456
Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Park Jong-Yong
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.
Design of an adaptive backstepping controller for auto-berthing a cruise ship under wind loads
Park, Jong-Yong; Kim, Nakwan
2014-06-01
The auto-berthing of a ship requires excellent control for safe accomplishment. Crabbing, which is the pure sway motion of a ship without surge velocity, can be used for this purpose. Crabbing is induced by a peculiar operation procedure known as the push-pull mode. When a ship is in the push-pull mode, an interacting force is induced by complex turbulent flow around the ship generated by the propellers and side thrusters. In this paper, three degrees of freedom equations of the motions of crabbing are derived. The equations are used to apply the adaptive backstepping control method to the auto-berthing controller of a cruise ship. The controller is capable of handling the system nonlinearity and uncertainty of the berthing process. A control allocation algorithm for a ship equipped with two propellers and two side thrusters is also developed, the performance of which is validated by simulation of auto-berthing.
Extreme waves impact on the ship mooring near berth
Leont'ev, Victor; Nudner, Igor; Semenov, Konstantin; Pelinovsky, Efim
2013-04-01
Ensuring safe ships berthing and loading-unloading operations at berths need reliable mooring systems. The choice of its parameters corresponds to calculating of the maximum displacements of the boat, which are caused by external impact of extreme waves, winds, and currents. Ship motions are described by system of differential equations, which contain disturbing, inertia, damping, and restoring forces, which magnitude strongly depends on the berth design and configuration of its elements. The major impact on the boat movements is caused by sea waves. In the given paper, an interaction between sea waves and ship located near the berth is studied. The cross-sectional shape of the boat is assumed to be rectangular and under-berth slope profile is approximated by finite number of steps. Different types of berth constructions are taken into account: containing impermeable or partially permeable front vertical wall, wave attenuation camera behind it with or without under-berth slope. The fluid is assumed ideal and incompressible, and its motion is potential. The stated problem is reduced to the determination of the velocity potential that satisfies the Laplace equation; the boundary condition on the free surface; the condition of non-flux through the impermeable bottom, the ship and berth elements; the condition on the surface of the permeable wall that is in proportionality between the wave flow velocity through the wall and pressure drop from its front to back faces. The problem is solved by dividing of the region into sub-domains with conditions of the hydrodynamic pressure and velocity continuity on its boundaries. In each sub-domain the solution is found using Fourier method in the form of functional series with unknown coefficients which are found from the system of linear algebraic equations. Calculated velocity potentials are used to determine different hydrodynamic characteristics of ship motions, such as horizontal and vertical components of disturbing force
46 CFR 108.203 - Berths and lockers.
2010-10-01
... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.203 Berths and lockers. (a) Each sleeping... pipe, ventilating duct, or other overhead installation. (i) Each berth must have a berth light....
ALLOCATION PROBLEM WITH RANDOM RIGHT TO ACCEPT OFFERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Krasnosielska-Kobos
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In the paper, we analyze a modifi cation of the allocation problem. The problem can be formulated as follows: sellers in trading agency have a right to sell goods at price offered by the buyer. To this aim, they observe offers which appear at jump times of a Poisson process which are at the same time the decision moments. A reward of the seller who accepted the offer is equal to the discounted value of the selected offer. The right to accept or reject the presented offer is given only to one of the sellers at the moment of appearance of the offer. Once rejected, offer cannot be considered again nor can it be considered by other sellers. The right to make the decision concerning the acceptance or rejection of a presented offer is assigned in random way, such that the probability of obtaining this right by each of the sellers is equal. The aim is to fi nd the strategy which allows to maximize the sum of expected rewards of the sellers under the condition that each of them should earn the same amount of money on average
Neural network models for a resource allocation problem.
Walczak, S
1998-01-01
University admissions and business personnel offices use a limited number of resources to process an ever-increasing quantity of student and employment applications. Application systems are further constrained to identify and acquire, in a limited time period, those candidates who are most likely to accept an offer of enrolment or employment. Neural networks are a new methodology to this particular domain. Various neural network architectures and learning algorithms are analyzed comparatively to determine the applicability of supervised learning neural networks to the domain problem of personnel resource allocation and to identify optimal learning strategies in this domain. This paper focuses on multilayer perceptron backpropagation, radial basis function, counterpropagation, general regression, fuzzy ARTMAP, and linear vector quantization neural networks. Each neural network predicts the probability of enrolment and nonenrolment for individual student applicants. Backpropagation networks produced the best overall performance. Network performance results are measured by the reduction in counsellors student case load and corresponding increases in student enrolment. The backpropagation neural networks achieve a 56% reduction in counsellor case load. PMID:18255946
A cuckoo search algorithm by Lévy flights for solving reliability redundancy allocation problems
Valian, Ehsan; Valian, Elham
2013-11-01
A new metaheuristic optimization algorithm, called cuckoo search (CS), was recently developed by Yang and Deb (2009, 2010). This article uses CS and Lévy flights to solve the reliability redundancy allocation problem. The redundancy allocation problem involves setting reliability objectives for components or subsystems in order to meet the resource consumption constraint, e.g. the total cost. The difficulties facing the redundancy allocation problem are to maintain feasibility with respect to three nonlinear constraints, namely, cost, weight and volume-related constraints. The redundancy allocation problems have been studied in the literature for decades, usually using mathematical programming or metaheuristic optimization algorithms. The performance of the algorithm is tested on five well-known reliability redundancy allocation problems and is compared with several well-known methods. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimal solutions obtained by CS are better than the best solutions obtained by other methods.
Migrating Birds Optimization for the Seaside Problems at Maritime Container Terminals
Eduardo Lalla-Ruiz; Christopher Expósito-Izquierdo; Jesica de Armas; Belén Melián-Batista; J. Marcos Moreno-Vega
2015-01-01
Sea freight transportation involves moving huge amounts of freights among maritime locations widely spaced by means of container vessels. The time required to serve container vessels is the most relevant indicator when assessing the competitiveness of a maritime container terminal. In this paper, two main logistic problems stemming from the transshipment of containers in the seaside of a maritime container terminal are addressed, namely, the Berth Allocation Problem aimed at allocating and sc...
Harish Garg
2015-01-01
The main goal of the present paper is to present a penalty based cuckoo search (CS) algorithm to get the optimal solution of reliability – redundancy allocation problems (RRAP) with nonlinear resource constraints. The reliability – redundancy allocation problem involves the selection of components' reliability in each subsystem and the corresponding redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits subject to the system's cost, weight, volume and reliability constraints. Numerical results of fi...
Allocating conference delegates to workshops: A special timetabling problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sinclair
2003-12-01
Full Text Available The problem of assigning delegates to workshops at a conference can be formulated as a timetabling problem. Such an assignment must take into account the preferences of the delegates, as well as the number of participants each workshop can accommodate. This paper will report on a heuristic solution technique for a special case of such a problem. An implementation of the method for the solution of a real world problem will also be reported.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
This paper is concerned with the resource allocation problem based on data envelopment analysis(DEA)which is generally found in practice such as in public services and in production process.In management context,the resource allocation has to achieve the effective-efficient-equality aim and tries to balance the different desires of two management layers:central manager and each sector.In mathematical programming context,to solve the resource allocation asks for introducing many optimization techniques such as multiple-objective programming and goal programming.We construct an algorithm framework by using comprehensive DEA tools including CCR,BCC models,inverse DEA model,the most compromising common weights analysis model,and extra resource allocation algorithm.Returns to scale characteristic is put major place for analyzing DMUs' scale economies and used to select DMU candidates before resource allocation.By combining extra resource allocation algorithm with scale economies target,we propose a resource allocation solution,which can achieve the effective-efficient-equality target and also provide information for future resource allocation.Many numerical examples are discussed in this paper,which also verify our work.
A two-phase linear programming approach for redundancy allocation problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hsieh Yi-Chih
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Provision of redundant components in parallel is an efficient way to increase the system reliability, however, the weight, volume and cost of the system will increase simultaneously. This paper proposes a new two-phase linear programming approach for solving the nonlinear redundancy allocation problems subject to multiple linear constraints. The first phase is used to approximately allocate the resource by using a general linear programming, while the second phase is used to re-allocate the slacks of resource by using a 0-1 integer linear programming. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.
Diamantidis A. C.; Papadopoulos C. T.
2004-01-01
In this study, the buffer allocation problem (BAP) in homogeneous, asymptotically reliable serial production lines is considered. A known aggregation method, given by Lim, Meerkov, and Top (1990), for the performance evaluation (i.e., estimation of throughput) of this type of production lines when the buffer allocation is known, is used as an evaluative method in conjunction with a newly developed dynamic programming (DP) algorithm for the BAP. The proposed algorithm is applied to production ...
A dynamic programming algorithm for the space allocation and aisle positioning problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bodnar, Peter; Lysgaard, Jens
2014-01-01
The space allocation and aisle positioning problem (SAAPP) in a material handling system with gravity flow racks is the problem of minimizing the total number of replenishments over a period subject to practical constraints related to the need for aisles granting safe and easy access to storage...
Emergence of heterogeneity in a noncompetitive resource allocation problem
Matzke, Christina; Challet, Damien
2011-01-01
Tuning one’s shower in some hotels may turn into a challenging coordination game with imperfect information. The temperature sensitivity increases with the number of agents, making the problem possibly unlearnable. Because there is in practice a finite number of possible tap positions, identical agents are unlikely to reach even approximately their favorite water temperature. We show that a population of agents with homogeneous strategies is evolutionary unstable, which gives insights into th...
Emergence of heterogeneity in a noncompetitive resource allocation problem
Matzke, Christina; Challet, Damien
2011-07-01
Tuning one’s shower in some hotels may turn into a challenging coordination game with imperfect information. The temperature sensitivity increases with the number of agents, making the problem possibly unlearnable. Because there is in practice a finite number of possible tap positions, identical agents are unlikely to reach even approximately their favorite water temperature. We show that a population of agents with homogeneous strategies is evolutionary unstable, which gives insights into the emergence of heterogeneity, the latter being tempting but risky.
Kazemian, Iman; Aref, Samin
2015-01-01
In this paper the capacitated hub location problem is formulated by a minimax regret model, which takes into account uncertain setup cost and demand. We focus on capacitated hub location with multiple allocations as a strategic problem requiring one definite solution. Investigating how deterministic models may lead to sub-optimal solutions, we provide an efficient formulation method for the problem. A computational analysis is performed to investigate the impact of uncertainty on the location...
The Fighter Problem: Optimal Allocation of a Discrete Commodity
Bartroff, Jay
2011-01-01
The Fighter problem with discrete ammunition is studied. An aircraft (fighter) equipped with $n$ anti-aircraft missiles is intercepted by enemy airplanes, the appearance of which follows a homogeneous Poisson process with known intensity. If $j$ of the $n$ missiles are spent at an encounter they destroy an enemy plane with probability $a(j)$, where $a(0) = 0 $ and $\\{a(j)\\}$ is a known, strictly increasing concave sequence, e.g., $a(j) = 1-q^j, \\; \\, 0 < q < 1$. If the enemy is not destroyed, the enemy shoots the fighter down with known probability $1-u$, where $0 \\le u \\le 1$. The goal of the fighter is to shoot down as many enemy airplanes as possible during a given time period $[0, T]$. Let $K (n, t)$ be the smallest optimal number of missiles to be used at a present encounter, when the fighter has flying time $t$ remaining and $n$ missiles remaining. Three seemingly obvious properties of $K(n, t)$ have been conjectured: [A] The closer to the destination, the more of the $n$ missiles one should use, ...
On Some Properties of Cost Allocation Rules in Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Problems
BERGANTINOS, Gustavo; Vidal-Puga, Juan
2008-01-01
We consider four cost allocation rules in minimum cost spanning tree problems. These rules were introduced by Bird (1976), Dutta and Kar (2004), Kar (2002), and Feltkamp, Tijs and Muto (1994), respectively. We give a list of desirable properties and we study which properties are satisfied by these rules.
A Decision Support Method for Truck Scheduling and Storage Allocation Problem at Container
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Jinxin; SHI Oixin; Der-Horng Lee
2008-01-01
Truck scheduling and storage allocation, as two separate subproblems in port operations, have been deeply studied in past decades. However, from the operational point of view, they are highly interde-pendent. Storage allocation for import containers has to balance the travel time and queuing time of each container in yard. This paper proposed an integer programming model handling these two problems as a whole. The objective of this model is to reduce congestion and waiting time of container trucks in the termi-nal so as to decrease the makespan of discharging containers. Due to the inherent complexity of the prob-lem, a genetic algorithm and a greedy heuristic algorithm are designed to attain near optimal solutions. It shows that the heuristic algorithm can achieve the optimal solution for small-scale problems. The solutions of small- and large-scale problems obtained from the heuristic algorithm are better than those from the ge-netic algorithm.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guo Jiansheng; Wang Zutong; Zheng Mingfa; Wang Ying
2014-01-01
Based on the uncertainty theory, this paper is devoted to the redundancy allocation problem in repairable parallel-series systems with uncertain factors, where the failure rate, repair rate and other relative coefficients involved are considered as uncertain variables. The availability of the system and the corresponding designing cost are considered as two optimization objectives. A crisp multiobjective optimization formulation is presented on the basis of uncertainty theory to solve this resultant problem. For solving this problem efficiently, a new multiobjective artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed to search the Pareto efficient set, which introduces rank value and crowding distance in the greedy selection strategy, applies fast non-dominated sort procedure in the exploitation search and inserts tournament selection in the onlooker bee phase. It shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms NSGA-II greatly and can solve multiobjective redundancy allocation problem efficiently. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate this approach.
A dynamic programming algorithm for the space allocation and aisle positioning problem
Peter Bodnar; Jens Lysgaard
2014-01-01
The space allocation and aisle positioning problem (SAAPP) in a material handling system with gravity flow racks is the problem of minimizing the total number of replenishments over a period subject to practical constraints related to the need for aisles granting safe and easy access to storage locations. In this paper, we develop an exact dynamic programming algorithm for the SAAPP. The computational study shows that our exact algorithm can be used to find optimal solutions for numerous SAAP...
2014-01-01
Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units), satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different respo...
Inexact rough-interval two-stage stochastic programming for conjunctive water allocation problems.
Lu, Hongwei; Huang, Guohe; He, Li
2009-10-01
An inexact rough-interval two-stage stochastic programming (IRTSP) method is developed for conjunctive water allocation problems. Rough intervals (RIs), as a particular case of rough sets, are introduced into the modeling framework to tackle dual-layer information provided by decision makers. Through embeding upper and lower approximation intervals, rough intervals are capable of reflecting complex parameters with the most reliable and possible variation ranges being identified. An interactive solution method is also derived. A conjunctive water-allocation system is then structured for characterizing the proposed model. Solutions indicate a detailed optimal allocation scheme with a rough-interval form; a total of [[1048.83, 2078.29]:[1482.26, 2020.60
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diamantidis A. C.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the buffer allocation problem (BAP in homogeneous, asymptotically reliable serial production lines is considered. A known aggregation method, given by Lim, Meerkov, and Top (1990, for the performance evaluation (i.e., estimation of throughput of this type of production lines when the buffer allocation is known, is used as an evaluative method in conjunction with a newly developed dynamic programming (DP algorithm for the BAP. The proposed algorithm is applied to production lines where the number of machines is varying from four up to a hundred machines. The proposed algorithm is fast because it reduces the volume of computations by rejecting allocations that do not lead to maximization of the line's throughput. Numerical results are also given for large production lines.
Artificial Fish School Algorithm Applied in a Combinatorial Optimization Problem
Yun Cai
2010-01-01
An improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) for solving a combinatorial optimization problem—a berth allocation problem (BAP), which was formulated. Its objective is to minimize the turnaround time of vessels at container terminals so as to improve operation efficiency customer satisfaction. An adaptive artificial fish swarm algorithm was proposed to solve it. Firstly, the basic principle and the algorithm design of the AFSA were introduced. Then, for a test case, computational experim...
Application of goal programming to decision problem on optimal allocation of radiation workers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is concerned with an optimal planning in a multiple objective decision-making problem of allocating radiation workers to workplaces associated with occupational exposure. The model problem is formulated with the application of goal programming which effectively followed up diverse and conflicting factors influencing the optimal decision. The formulation is based on the data simulating the typical situations encountered at the operating facilities such as nuclear power plants where exposure control is critical to the management. Multiple goals set by the decision-maker/manager who has the operational responsibilities for radiological protection are illustrated in terms of work requirements, exposure constraints of the places, desired allocation of specific personnel and so on. Test results of the model are considered to indicate that the model structure and its solution process can provide the manager with a good set of analysis of his problems in implementing the optimization review of radiation protection during normal operation. (author)
Müller, Stefan; Regensburger, Georg; Steuer, Ralf
2014-04-21
The survival and proliferation of cells and organisms require a highly coordinated allocation of cellular resources to ensure the efficient synthesis of cellular components. In particular, the total enzymatic capacity for cellular metabolism is limited by finite resources that are shared between all enzymes, such as cytosolic space, energy expenditure for amino-acid synthesis, or micro-nutrients. While extensive work has been done to study constrained optimization problems based only on stoichiometric information, mathematical results that characterize the optimal flux in kinetic metabolic networks are still scarce. Here, we study constrained enzyme allocation problems with general kinetics, using the theory of oriented matroids. We give a rigorous proof for the fact that optimal solutions of the non-linear optimization problem are elementary flux modes. This finding has significant consequences for our understanding of optimality in metabolic networks as well as for the identification of metabolic switches and the computation of optimal flux distributions in kinetic metabolic networks. PMID:24295962
Berth Operability Estimation Related to Ship Motion
Prpić-Oršić, Jasna; Slapničar, Vedran; Turk, Anton
2014-01-01
The method of exposed berth operability estimation based on moored ship criteria for safe working and mooring is presented. The solution methodology consists of modelling a ship as a panel model used to calculate the hydrodynamic loads and responses from the potential theory. The mooring lines are modelled by ship-to-ground spring elements. The stiffness of those elements is accumulated in the global restoring matrix of the rigid body equations of motion. The obtained system of differential e...
Lombardi, Michele
2010-01-01
This work presents exact, hybrid algorithms for mixed resource Allocation and Scheduling problems; in general terms, those consist into assigning over time finite capacity resources to a set of precedence connected activities. The proposed methods have broad applicability, but are mainly motivated by applications in the field of Embedded System Design. In particular, high-performance embedded computing recently witnessed the shift from single CPU platforms with application-specific accele...
A methodology to assess vessel berthing and speed optimization policies
J Fernando Alvarez; Tore Longva; Erna S Engebrethsen
2010-01-01
Standard ocean shipping contracts stipulate that a chartered vessel must sail at ‘utmost despatch’, with no consideration for the availability of berths at the destination port. The berthing policies used at many ports, which admit vessels on a first-come, first-served basis, provide an additional incentive for the master to sail at full speed. These legacy contracts and berthing policies constitute a major driver of harbour congestion and marine fuel consumption, with adverse economic, safet...
A genetic algorithm approach to optimization for the radiological worker allocation problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The worker allocation optimization problem in radiological facilities inevitably involves various types of requirements and constraints relevant to radiological protection and labor management. Some of these goals and constraints are not amenable to a rigorous mathematical formulation. Conventional methods for this problem rely heavily on sophisticated algebraic or numerical algorithms, which cause difficulties in the search for optimal solutions in the search space of worker allocation optimization problems. Genetic algorithms (GAB) are stochastic search algorithms introduced by J. Holland in the 1970s based on ideas and techniques from genetic and evolutionary theories. The most striking characteristic of GAs is the large flexibility allowed in the formulation of the optimal problem and the process of the search for the optimal solution. In the formulation, it is not necessary to define the optimal problem in rigorous mathematical terms, as required in the conventional methods. Furthermore, by designing a model of evolution for the optimal search problem, the optimal solution can be sought efficiently with computational simple manipulations without highly complex mathematical algorithms. We reported a GA approach to the worker allocation problem in radiological facilities in the previous study. In this study, two types of hard constraints were employed to reduce the huge search space, where the optimal solution is sought in such a way as to satisfy as many of soft constraints as possible. It was demonstrated that the proposed evolutionary method could provide the optimal solution efficiently compared with conventional methods. However, although the employed hard constraints could localize the search space into a very small region, it brought some complexities in the designed genetic operators and demanded additional computational burdens. In this paper, we propose a simplified evolutionary model with less restrictive hard constraints and make comparisons between
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carrie Ka Yuk Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units, satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different response time service level. An initial solution is obtained from solving static location-allocation models, followed by iterative improvement of the three levels of decisions by ejection, reinsertion procedure with memory of feasible and infeasible service regions. Results indicate that a higher response time service level could be achieved by allocating a given resource under an appropriate decentralized policy. Given a response time requirement, the general trend is that the minimum total capacity initially decreases with more facilities. During this stage, variability in travel time has more impact on capacity than variability in demand arrivals. Thereafter, the total capacity remains stable and then gradually increases. When service level requirement is high, the dynamic dispatch based on first-come-first-serve rule requires smaller capacity than the one by nearest-neighbour rule.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is an important reliability optimization problem. This paper studies a specific RAP in which redundancy strategies are chosen. To do so, the choice of the redundancy strategies among active and cold standby is considered as decision variables. The goal is to select the redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem such that the system reliability is maximized. Since RAP is a NP-hard problem, we propose an efficient simulated annealing algorithm (SA) to solve it. In addition, to evaluating the performance of the proposed algorithm, it is compared with well-known algorithms in the literature for different test problems. The results of the performance analysis show a relatively satisfactory efficiency of the proposed SA algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a new dynamic self-adaptive multi-objective particle swarm optimization (DSAMOPSO) method is proposed to solve binary-state multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation problems (MORAPs). A combination of penalty function and modification strategies is used to handle the constraints in the MORAPs. A dynamic self-adaptive penalty function strategy is utilized to handle the constraints. A heuristic cost-benefit ratio is also supplied to modify the structure of violated swarms. An adaptive survey is conducted using several test problems to illustrate the performance of the proposed DSAMOPSO method. An efficient version of the epsilon-constraint (AUGMECON) method, a modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) method, and a customized time-variant multi-objective particle swarm optimization (cTV-MOPSO) method are used to generate non-dominated solutions for the test problems. Several properties of the DSAMOPSO method, such as fast-ranking, evolutionary-based operators, elitism, crowding distance, dynamic parameter tuning, and tournament global best selection, improved the best known solutions of the benchmark cases of the MORAP. Moreover, different accuracy and diversity metrics illustrated the relative preference of the DSAMOPSO method over the competing approaches in the literature. - Highlights: ► A meta-heuristic method is proposed to solve the redundancy allocation problems. ► The proposed method is statistically evaluated using multi-objective metrics. ► The proposed method outperforms the selected competing methods in the literature.
Genetic Algorithm Based Optimal Testing Effort Allocation Problem for Modular Software
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Gurjeet Kaur
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Software reliability growth models (SRGM are used to assess modular software quantitatively and predict the reliability of each of the modules during module testing phase. In the last few decades various SRGM’s have been proposed in literature. However, it is difficult to select the best model from a plethora of models available. To reduce this difficulty, unified modeling approaches have been proposed by many researchers. In this paper we present a generalized framework for software reliability growth modeling with respect to testing effort expenditure and incorporate the faults of different severity. We have used different standard probability distribution functions for representing failure observation and fault detection/ correction times. The faults in the software are labeled as simple, hard and complex faults. Developing reliable modular software is necessary. But, at the same time the testing effort available during the testing time is limited. Consequently, it is important for the project manager to allocate these limited resources among the modules optimally during the testing process. In this paper we have formulated an optimization problem in which the total number of faults removed from modular software is (which include simple, hard and complex faults maximized subject to budgetary and reliability constraints. To solve the optimization problem we have used genetic algorithm. One numerical example has been discussed to illustrate the solution of the formulated optimal effort allocation problem.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meier, P.M.; Mubayi, V.
1979-01-04
The interregional allocation of, and competition for, natural resources for energy development is assuming increasing importance in many large developing countries, particularly in countries such as India that are in the more advanced stages of industrialization, and where state governments and regional agencies have significant planning powers. This paper explores the applicability of optimal resource allocation models designed primarily for already-developed economies, such as that of the U.S., Canada, and Western Europe, to the emerging problems of such developing countries. In particular, the potential application of electric-utility-siting models is discussed in the context of electric grid expansion in the State of Andhra Pradesh in Southern India. Specific topics addressed include the degree to which models can be effectively used in the rather different conditions and priorities of industrializing countries; the requirements for basic-model reformulations to account for unique factors of geography (climate, hyydrology, the extant conditions of the infrastructure within which any development must occur); and the ability to include and quantify environmental impacts of energy deveelopment as well as policy considerations relevant in the context of developing countries. The paper identifies desirable research directions, indicates data needs, and assesses those aspects of subnational energy-planning problems that should receive better emphasis in national and international energy-plannng efforts.
Fuzzy bicriteria multi-index transportation problems for coal allocation planning of Taipower
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taipower, the official electricity authority of Taiwan, encounters several difficulties in planning annual coal purchase and allocation schedule, e.g. with multiple sources, multiple destinations, multiple coal types, different shipping vessels, and even an uncertain demand and supply. In this study, these concerns are formulated as a fuzzy bicriteria multi-index transportation problem. Furthermore, an effective and interactive algorithm is proposed which combines reducing index method and interactive fuzzy multi-objective linear programming technique to cope with a complicated problem which may be prevalent in other industries. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate that this model can not only satisfy more of the actual requirements of the integral system but also offer more information to the decision makers (DMs) for reference in favor of exalting decision making quality. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Ashraful Babu,
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Basic feasible solution is the initial solution of transportation problem. There are several transportation algorithms to determine feasible solution. These algorithms are only way to get optimal solution because optimal solution obtains from the initial basic feasible solution using some optimality test methods such as MODIModified Distribution Method and Stepping Stone Method where MODI is the most efficient method to determine optimal solution. Before applying MODI on feasible solution we have to resolve degeneracy if it occurs and also make sure that allocations (non-negative basic variable are should not form a closed loop when we draw horizontal and vertical paths from allocated cells to allocated cells. Degeneracy occurs when supply and demand are satisfied simultaneously it can be resolved if one row or column of them is crossed out and another remains with zero supply or demand. Difficulty arise when if all uncrossed out rows or column have (remaining zero supply or demand. In that case, Vogel‟s Approximation Method (VAM and some other methods solve that by allocating these zero supply or demand using Least Cost Method (LCM. But in some problem when we make allocation by LCM in that particular case then closed loop is formed and not possible to apply any optimality test method. So that optimal solution is not possible to determine in that case. In this paper we resolve this particular problem and find a new approach to allocate zero supply or demand so that closed loop will not be formed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. E. Tsiropoulou
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper a joint resource allocation problem is studied in a multi-service Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA wireless network. Mobile users request various services with different Quality of Service (QoS characteristics and they determine in a distributed and non-cooperative manner a joint subcarrier and power allocation towards fulfilling their QoS prerequisites. Initially, a well-designed utility function is formulated to appropriately represent users’ diverse QoS prerequisites with respect to their requested service. The subcarriers allocation problem is solved based on a multilateral bargaining model, where users are able to select different discount factors to enter the bargaining game, thus better expressing their different needs in system resources with respect to their requested service. The subcarriers mapping is realized based either on the localized SC-FDMA method where the subcarriers are sequentially allocated to the users or the distributed SC-FDMA via considering the maximum channel gain policy, where each subcarrier is allocated to the user with the maximum channel gain. Given the subcarriers assignment, an optimization problem with respect to users’ uplink transmission power is formulated and solved, in order to determine the optimal power allocation per subcarrier assigned to each user. Finally, the performance of the proposed framework is evaluated via modeling and simulation and extensive numerical results are presented.
Tabu search for the redundancy allocation problem of homogenous series-parallel multi-state systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ouzineb, Mohamed [Interuniversity Research Center on Entreprise Networks, Logistics and Transportation (CIRRELT), Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Departement d' informatique et derecherche operationnelle, Montreal, QC (Canada)], E-mail: ouzineb@crt.umontreal.ca; Nourelfath, Mustapha [Interuniversity Research Center on Entreprise Networks, Logistics and Transportation (CIRRELT), Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite Laval, Mechanical Engineering Department, QC (Canada)], E-mail: Mustapha.Nourelfath@gmc.ulaval.ca; Gendreau, Michel [Interuniversity Research Center on Entreprise Networks, Logistics and Transportation (CIRRELT), Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Departement d' informatique et derecherche operationnelle, Montreal, QC (Canada)], E-mail: michelg@crt.umontreal.ca
2008-08-15
This paper develops an efficient tabu search (TS) heuristic to solve the redundancy allocation problem for multi-state series-parallel systems. The system has a range of performance levels from perfect functioning to complete failure. Identical redundant elements are included in order to achieve a desirable level of availability. The elements of the system are characterized by their cost, performance and availability. These elements are chosen from a list of products available in the market. System availability is defined as the ability to satisfy consumer demand, which is represented as a piecewise cumulative load curve. A universal generating function technique is applied to evaluate system availability. The proposed TS heuristic determines the minimal cost system configuration under availability constraints. An originality of our approach is that it proceeds by dividing the search space into a set of disjoint subsets, and then by applying TS to each subset. The design problem, solved in this study, has been previously analyzed using genetic algorithms (GAs). Numerical results for the test problems from previous research are reported, and larger test problems are randomly generated. Comparisons show that the proposed TS out-performs GA solutions, in terms of both the solution quality and the execution time.
Tabu search for the redundancy allocation problem of homogenous series-parallel multi-state systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper develops an efficient tabu search (TS) heuristic to solve the redundancy allocation problem for multi-state series-parallel systems. The system has a range of performance levels from perfect functioning to complete failure. Identical redundant elements are included in order to achieve a desirable level of availability. The elements of the system are characterized by their cost, performance and availability. These elements are chosen from a list of products available in the market. System availability is defined as the ability to satisfy consumer demand, which is represented as a piecewise cumulative load curve. A universal generating function technique is applied to evaluate system availability. The proposed TS heuristic determines the minimal cost system configuration under availability constraints. An originality of our approach is that it proceeds by dividing the search space into a set of disjoint subsets, and then by applying TS to each subset. The design problem, solved in this study, has been previously analyzed using genetic algorithms (GAs). Numerical results for the test problems from previous research are reported, and larger test problems are randomly generated. Comparisons show that the proposed TS out-performs GA solutions, in terms of both the solution quality and the execution time
Heuristic for solving capacitor allocation problems in electric energy radial distribution networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria A. Biagio
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The goal of the capacitor allocation problem in radial distribution networks is to minimize technical losses with consequential positive impacts on economic and environmental areas. The main objective is to define the size and location of the capacitors while considering load variations in a given horizon. The mathematical formulation for this planning problem is given by an integer nonlinear mathematical programming model that demands great computational effort to be solved. With the goal of solving this problem, this paper proposes a methodology that is composed of heuristics and Tabu Search procedures. The methodology presented explores network system characteristics of the network system reactive loads for identifying regions where procedures of local and intensive searches should be performed. A description of the proposed methodology and an analysis of computational results obtained which are based on several test systems including actual systems are presented. The solutions reached are as good as or better than those indicated by well referenced methodologies. The technique proposed is simple in its use and does not require calibrating an excessive amount of parameters, making it an attractive alternative for companies involved in the planning of radial distribution networks.
Allocation of resources in the presence of indivisibilities: Scarf's problem revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In his article ''The Allocation of Resources in the Presence of Indivisibilities,'' Scarf points out that the major problem presented to economic theory by the presence of indivisibilities is the impossibility of detecting optimality at the level of the firm, or the economy as a whole, using the creation of profitability based on competitive linear prices. In the absence of such competitive prices, Scarf instead introduces a quantity test. Further development of the quantity test idea has lead to algorithms that are used to solve parametric integer programming problems. However, the quantity test is not a fully acceptable replacement of prices to analyse markets with indivisibilities. Recently, O'Neill et al. have suggested a new scheme that generates discriminatory equilibrium prices in markets with non-convexities- In this paper we elaborate this idea even further and use it to generate non-linear price functions that can be interpreted as a non-linear pricing scheme for markets with non-convexities. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes a new swarm intelligence method known as the Particle-based Simplified Swarm Optimization (PSSO) algorithm while undertaking a modification of the Updating Mechanism (UM), called N-UM and R-UM, and simultaneously applying an Orthogonal Array Test (OA) to solve reliability–redundancy allocation problems (RRAPs) successfully. One difficulty of RRAP is the need to maximize system reliability in cases where the number of redundant components and the reliability of corresponding components in each subsystem are simultaneously decided with nonlinear constraints. In this paper, four RRAP benchmarks are used to display the applicability of the proposed PSSO that advances the strengths of both PSO and SSO to enable optimizing the RRAP that belongs to mixed-integer nonlinear programming. When the computational results are compared with those of previously developed algorithms in existing literature, the findings indicate that the proposed PSSO is highly competitive and performs well. - Highlights: • This paper proposes a particle-based simplified swarm optimization algorithm (PSSO) to optimize RRAP. • Furthermore, the UM and an OA are adapted to advance in optimizing RRAP. • Four systems are introduced and the results demonstrate the PSSO performs particularly well
Giordano, Nils; Mairet, Francis; Gouzé, Jean-Luc
2016-01-01
Microbial physiology exhibits growth laws that relate the macromolecular composition of the cell to the growth rate. Recent work has shown that these empirical regularities can be derived from coarse-grained models of resource allocation. While these studies focus on steady-state growth, such conditions are rarely found in natural habitats, where microorganisms are continually challenged by environmental fluctuations. The aim of this paper is to extend the study of microbial growth strategies to dynamical environments, using a self-replicator model. We formulate dynamical growth maximization as an optimal control problem that can be solved using Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. We compare this theoretical gold standard with different possible implementations of growth control in bacterial cells. We find that simple control strategies enabling growth-rate maximization at steady state are suboptimal for transitions from one growth regime to another, for example when shifting bacterial cells to a medium supporting a higher growth rate. A near-optimal control strategy in dynamical conditions is shown to require information on several, rather than a single physiological variable. Interestingly, this strategy has structural analogies with the regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis by ppGpp in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli. It involves sensing a mismatch between precursor and ribosome concentrations, as well as the adjustment of ribosome synthesis in a switch-like manner. Our results show how the capability of regulatory systems to integrate information about several physiological variables is critical for optimizing growth in a changing environment. PMID:26958858
Liu, Chun; Kroll, Andreas
2016-01-01
Multi-robot task allocation determines the task sequence and distribution for a group of robots in multi-robot systems, which is one of constrained combinatorial optimization problems and more complex in case of cooperative tasks because they introduce additional spatial and temporal constraints. To solve multi-robot task allocation problems with cooperative tasks efficiently, a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm, a crossover-free genetic algorithm employing mutation operators and elitism selection in each subpopulation, is developed in this paper. Moreover, the impact of mutation operators (swap, insertion, inversion, displacement, and their various combinations) is analyzed when solving several industrial plant inspection problems. The experimental results show that: (1) the proposed genetic algorithm can obtain better solutions than the tested binary tournament genetic algorithm with partially mapped crossover; (2) inversion mutation performs better than other tested mutation operators when solving problems without cooperative tasks, and the swap-inversion combination performs better than other tested mutation operators/combinations when solving problems with cooperative tasks. As it is difficult to produce all desired effects with a single mutation operator, using multiple mutation operators (including both inversion and swap) is suggested when solving similar combinatorial optimization problems. PMID:27588254
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu-Kwun Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a one-dimensional cutting stock problem (CSP in which the stock widths are not used to fulfill the order but kept for use in the future for the industrial-use paper production. We present a new model based on the flexible stock allocation and trim loss control to determine the production quantity. We evaluate our approach using a real data and show that we are able to solve industrial-size problems, while also addressing common cutting considerations such as aggregation of orders, multiple stock widths, and cutting different patterns on the same machine. In addition, we compare our model with others, including trim loss minimization problem (TLMP and cutting stock problem (CSP. The results show that the proposed model outperforms the other two models regarding total flexibility and trim loss ratio.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is a well known NP-hard problem which involves the selection of elements and redundancy levels to maximize system reliability given various system-level constraints. As telecommunications and internet protocol networks, manufacturing and power systems are becoming more and more complex, while requiring short developments schedules and very high reliability, it is becoming increasingly important to develop efficient solutions to the RAP. This paper presents an efficient algorithm to solve this reliability optimization problem. The idea of a heuristic approach design is inspired from the ant colony meta-heuristic optimization method and the degraded ceiling local search technique. Our hybridization of the ant colony meta-heuristic with the degraded ceiling performs well and is competitive with the best-known heuristics for redundancy allocation. Numerical results for the 33 test problems from previous research are reported and compared. The solutions found by our approach are all better than or are in par with the well-known best solutions
Hydrodynamic loads of sea waves on horizontal elements of berths with wave quenching chambers
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Leshchenko Sergey Vladimirovich
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In the process of hydraulic structures design, in particular berths with wave cancelling structures, which serve to decrease the wave impact on structures, there appears a problem of vertical wave hydrodynamic loads calculation on floor slabs. In the existing normative documents there are no requirements on calculating vertical wave loads on the horizontal floor slabs of open-type structures (enveloping, mooring, approach trestles, etc. and stairs of sloping-staired open-type structures. A mathematical model is proposed for calculation of the vertical wave loads on the floor slab through moorings. The model is based on the theory of jet impact on a solid surface. The width of the wave crest, striking in the overlap of the pier, and its vertical velocity is determined by the linear wave theory. The coefficient of transmission of waves through wave quenching chambers is calculated according to the previously developed methods. Vertical wave loading is adjusted based on the ratio of the wave length and width of the overlay. Model validation is performed according to the hydraulic modelling interaction of waves with through berths in the port of Tuapse. 7 variants of their design were considered. Data mapping mathematical and hydraulic modeling showed them a close match.
Heuristics for the Buffer Allocation Problem with Collision Probability Using Computer Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eishi Chiba
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The standard manufacturing system for Flat Panel Displays (FPDs consists of a number of pieces of equipment in series. Each piece of equipment usually has a number of buffers to prevent collision between glass substrates. However, in reality, very few of these buffers seem to be used. This means that redundant buffers exist. In order to reduce cost and space necessary for manufacturing, the number of buffers should be minimized with consideration of possible collisions. In this paper, we focus on an in-line system in which each piece of equipment can have any number of buffers. In this in-line system, we present a computer simulation method for the computation of the probability of a collision occurring. Based on this method, we try to find a buffer allocation that achieves the smallest total number of buffers under an arbitrarily specified collision probability. We also implement our proposed method and present some computational results.
Migrating Birds Optimization for the Seaside Problems at Maritime Container Terminals
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Eduardo Lalla-Ruiz
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Sea freight transportation involves moving huge amounts of freights among maritime locations widely spaced by means of container vessels. The time required to serve container vessels is the most relevant indicator when assessing the competitiveness of a maritime container terminal. In this paper, two main logistic problems stemming from the transshipment of containers in the seaside of a maritime container terminal are addressed, namely, the Berth Allocation Problem aimed at allocating and scheduling incoming vessels into berthing positions along the quay and the Quay Crane Scheduling Problem, whose objective is to schedule the loading and unloading tasks associated with a container vessel. For solving them, two Migrating Birds Optimization (MBO approaches are proposed. The MBO is a recently proposed nature-inspired algorithm based on the V-formation flight of migrating birds. In this algorithm, a set of solutions of the problem at hand, called birds, cooperate among themselves during the search process by sharing information within a V-line formation. The computational experiments performed over well-known problem instances reported in the literature show that the performance of our proposed MBO approaches is highly competitive and presents a better performance in terms of running time than the best approximate approach proposed in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SCADA is an essential system to control critical facilities in big cities. SCADA is utilized in several sectors such as water resource management, power plants, electricity distribution centers, traffic control centers, and gas deputy. The failure of SCADA results in crisis. Hence, the design of SCADA system in order to serve a high reliability considering limited budget and other constraints is essential. In this paper, a bi-objective redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is proposed to design Tehran's SCADA water resource management control center. Reliability maximization and cost minimization are concurrently considered. Since the proposed RAP is a non-linear multi-objective mathematical programming so the exact methods cannot efficiently handle it. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is designed to solve it. Several features such as dynamic parameter tuning, efficient constraint handling and Pareto gridding are inserted in proposed MOPSO. The results of proposed MOPSO are compared with an efficient ε-constraint method. Several non-dominated designs of SCADA system are generated using both methods. Comparison metrics based on accuracy and diversity of Pareto front are calculated for both methods. The proposed MOPSO algorithm reports better performance. Finally, in order to choose the practical design, the TOPSIS algorithm is used to prune the Pareto front. - Highlights: • Multi-objective redundancy allocation problem (MORAP) is proposed to design SCADA system. • Multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) is proposed to solve MORAP. • Efficient epsilon-constraint method is adapted to solve MORAP. • Non-dominated solutions are generated on Pareto front of MORAP by both methods. • Several multi-objective metrics are calculated to compare the performance of methods
Application of multi attribute decision making methods to resources allocation problems
Mianabadi, H.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Mostert, E.; Sheikhmohammady, M.
2012-01-01
Operation of over shared resources (water, gas, oil, and mineral reserves) has been one the most significant challenges of states. “Fair” and “efficient” national resources reallocation among stakeholders and states is a complex conflict problem that faces this fundamental question: which criteria a
2011-06-29
... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in... context of section 209(b) motor vehicle waivers).\\11\\ \\11\\ See 59 FR 36969 (July 20, 1994). In order to be... operated on ocean-going vessels at-berth in California ports (``At-Berth Regulation''). The...
Zoulfaghari, Hossein; Zeinal Hamadani, Ali; Abouei Ardakan, Mostafa
2014-01-01
Traditionally, in the redundancy allocation problem (RAP), two general classes of optimization problems are considered; reliability optimization and availability optimization. Contrary to reliability optimization, fewer researchers have studied availability optimization to find out the optimal combination of components type and redundancy levels for each subsystem in a system for maximizing (or minimizing) the objectives. In each problem it is assumed that either the entire components are repairable or they are non-repairable. However, in real world situations, systems usually consist of both repairable and non-repairable components. In this paper a new Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model is presented to analyze the availability optimization of a system with a given structure, using both repairable and non-repairable components, simultaneously. To find the solution of the introduced MINLP, an efficient Genetic Algorithm (GA) is also developed. Furthermore, to show the efficiency of the proposed GA, a numerical example is presented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed GA has a better performance compared to one of the most recommended algorithm in the literature. PMID:23998944
Allocating operating funding in the public sector and the newsvendor problem
Jack Brimberg; William J Hurley
2015-01-01
Public sector managers, particularly those at the highest level of government, tend to view lapsed (or unused) funds at the end of a fiscal year as a consequence of poor management and/or inadequate financial controls. The aim of this paper is to challenge this view. We show that the planning environment in the public sector is in essence the classical Newsvendor Problem. This simple model argues that lapsed funds are a direct consequence of a manager doing his job properly; that is, lapsed f...
A Multi-Objective Model to Single-Allocation Ordered Hub Location Problems by Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Tajbakhsh
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Most of supply chain and Hub location problems involve several conflicting objectives hence requiring a multi-objective formulation. Normally, Multi-objective approaches lead to the maximization of a weighted sum of score functions. Since normalizing these functions and quantifying the weights is not a straightforward process, such approaches are poor in practice. In this research, this difficulty is overcome by using a modified genetic algorithm for evaluation of solutions. Several qualitative and quantitative objectives are considered referring to layout model that also allows practical constraints take into account. Due to these constraints, many of strings in the population resulting from this model may be in infeasible reigns; the common approach to solve such problems is to omit infusible solutions. However, as these solutions my have useful criteria that can improve the average fitness of the population, they can be used to achieve better solutions. The proposed model uses a graded penalty term to penalize infeasible solutions to pressure the search towards feasible regions and subsequently uses their useful criteria.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Zoulfaghari
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Reliability is one of the most important characteristics of the electrical and mechanical systems with applications in the space communication industries, internet networks, telecommunication systems, power generation systems, and productive facilities. What adds to the importance of reliability in these systems are system complications, nature of competitive markets, and increasing production costs due to failures. This paper investigates availability optimization of a system using both repairable and non-repairable components, simultaneously. The availability-redundancy allocation problems involve the determination of component availability (i.e., life time and repair time of the components and the redundancy levels that produce maximum system availability. These problems are often subject to some constraints on their components such as cost, weight, and volume. To maximize the availability and to minimize the total cost of the system, a new Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP model is presented. To solve the proposed model, an improved version of the genetic algorithm is designed as an efficient meta-heuristic algorithm. Finally, in order to verify the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, a numerical example of a system is presented that consists of both repairable and non-repairable components.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes a practical approach, combining bare-bones particle swarm optimization and sensitivity-based clustering for solving multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation problems (RAPs). A two-stage process is performed to identify promising solutions. Specifically, a new bare-bones multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm (BBMOPSO) is developed and applied in the first stage to identify a Pareto-optimal set. This algorithm mainly differs from other multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithms in the parameter-free particle updating strategy, which is especially suitable for handling the complexity and nonlinearity of RAPs. Moreover, by utilizing an approach based on the adaptive grid to update the global particle leaders, a mutation operator to improve the exploration ability and an effective constraint handling strategy, the integrated BBMOPSO algorithm can generate excellent approximation of the true Pareto-optimal front for RAPs. This is followed by a data clustering technique based on difference sensitivity in the second stage to prune the obtained Pareto-optimal set and obtain a small, workable sized set of promising solutions for system implementation. Two illustrative examples are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach
Sea wave impact on a ship moored at the berth with a stilling pool
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.K. Semenov
2015-04-01
Full Text Available When designing berths and ship mooring systems near berths, it is necessary to protect ships from dangerous displacements. To make a well-reasoned choice, it is necessary to make estimates of the characteristics of sea wave impact on the ship (with respect to the steady-wave mode in the waters. The results of numeric calculations are better suited for engineering purposes. This paper presents a mathematical model to estimate hydrodynamic characteristics of wave impact on the ship moored at the berth with a stilling pool. To derive this mathematical model, the analytical method using eigenfunction expansion was employed. Also, the article shows the calculation data to demonstrate the influence of berth characteristics on loads experienced by the ship.
Sea wave impact on a ship moored at the berth with a stilling pool
K.K. Semenov; V.A. Leontiev; I.S. Nudner
2015-01-01
When designing berths and ship mooring systems near berths, it is necessary to protect ships from dangerous displacements. To make a well-reasoned choice, it is necessary to make estimates of the characteristics of sea wave impact on the ship (with respect to the steady-wave mode in the waters). The results of numeric calculations are better suited for engineering purposes. This paper presents a mathematical model to estimate hydrodynamic characteristics of wave impact on the ship moored...
Analysis of berth allocation and inspection operations in a container terminal
Yongpei Guan; Kang-hung Yang
2010-01-01
Nowadays, approximately 90 per cent of the world's cargoes are moved by vessels, and the majority of general cargoes are transported in containers. Accordingly, a container terminal becomes one of the important nodes in the global supply chain network and it is important to make container terminals operate efficiently. Meanwhile, after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, the US Government has proposed and implemented several approaches to improve security systems, including container ...
Experimental Study on Allowable Berthing and Mooring Conditions of An Oil Tanker
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张日向; 刘忠波; 张宁川; 韩丽华
2003-01-01
When an oil tanker under the combined action of wind, waves and tidal current and is berthed or moored to a platform, the impact forces on the fenders and the tensile force in the mooring lines are important factors in the studies of berthing and mooring conditions. Based on the experiment of a berthing and mooring tanker model under the action of wind, wave and tidal current in the same direction, this paper studies the allowable berthing and mooring conditions by considering the tensile forces of mooring lines and impact forces on the fenders, as well as the impact energy on the fenders. And a method has been proposed here for motion amplitude analysis. A successful method to decrease impact forces on the fenders is put forward. Blowing-in wind and blowing-off wind and different angles between waves and the fenders are considered in the experimental study. In the berthing tests of the tanker model, the impact forces are measured and the impact energy is calculated, then the berthing conditions are determined. In the mooring tests of the tanker model, the mooring line tensile forces and impact forces are measured, and the allowable mooring conditions are given that will be useful to engineering design.
Csóka, Péter; Herings, Jean-Jacques; Kóczy, László Á.
2007-01-01
The measurement and the allocation of risk are fundamental problems of portfolio management. Coherent measures of risk provide an axiomatic approach to the former problem. In an environment given by a coherent measure of risk and the various portfolios’ realization vectors, risk allocation games aim at solving the second problem: How to distribute the diversification benefits of the various portfolios? Understanding these cooperative games helps us to find stable, efficient, and fair allocati...
Apolinar Velarde Martinez; Eunice Ponce de León Sentí; Juan Antonio Nungaray Ornelas; Juan Alejandro Montañez de la Torre
2016-01-01
the use of Linux-based clusters is a strategy for the development of multiprocessor systems. These types of systems face the problem of efficiently executing the planning and allocation of tasks, for the efficient use of its resources. This paper addresses this as a multi-objective problem, carrying out an analysis of the objectives that are opposed during the planning of the tasks, which are waiting in the queue, before assigning tasks to processors. For this, we propose a method that avoids...
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths. 1999
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 1999. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but coordinated by DRPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programmes as reported in the Radioactivity in Food and the Environment (RIFE) annual reports. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1999 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths 1996
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 1996. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but coordinated by DRIPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programme undertaken by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food (MAFF). It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1996 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths 1993
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 1993. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1993 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (UK)
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths 2000
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 2000. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but coordinated by DRPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programmes as reported in the Radioactivity in Food and the Environment (RIFE) annual reports. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 2000 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)
HERMES docking/berthing system pilot study. Quantitative assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study falls within the framework of the incorporation of quantitative risk assessment to the activities planned for the ESA-HERMES project (ESA/ CNES). The main objective behind the study was the analysis and evaluation of the potential contribution of so-called probabilistic or quantitative safety analysis to the optimization of the safety development process for the systems carrying out the safety functions required by the new and complex HERMES Space Vehicle. For this purpose, a pilot study was considered a good start in quantitative safety assessments (QSA), as this approach has been frequently used in the past to establish a solid base in large-scale QSA application programs while avoiding considerable economic risks. It was finally decided to select the HERMES docking/berthing system with Man Tender Free Flyer as the case-study. This report describes the different steps followed in the study, along with the main insights obtained and the general conclusions drawn from the study results. (author)
Consistently Trained Artificial Neural Network for Automatic Ship Berthing Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y.A. Ahmed
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, consistently trained Artificial Neural Network controller for automatic ship berthing is discussed. Minimum time course changing manoeuvre is utilised to ensure such consistency and a new concept named ‘virtual window’ is introduced. Such consistent teaching data are then used to train two separate multi-layered feed forward neural networks for command rudder and propeller revolution output. After proper training, several known and unknown conditions are tested to judge the effectiveness of the proposed controller using Monte Carlo simulations. After getting acceptable percentages of success, the trained networks are implemented for the free running experiment system to judge the network’s real time response for Esso Osaka 3-m model ship. The network’s behaviour during such experiments is also investigated for possible effect of initial conditions as well as wind disturbances. Moreover, since the final goal point of the proposed controller is set at some distance from the actual pier to ensure safety, therefore a study on automatic tug assistance is also discussed for the final alignment of the ship with actual pier.
Artificial Fish School Algorithm Applied in a Combinatorial Optimization Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun Cai
2010-11-01
Full Text Available An improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA for solving a combinatorial optimization problem—a berth allocation problem (BAP, which was formulated. Its objective is to minimize the turnaround time of vessels at container terminals so as to improve operation efficiency customer satisfaction. An adaptive artificial fish swarm algorithm was proposed to solve it. Firstly, the basic principle and the algorithm design of the AFSA were introduced. Then, for a test case, computational experiments explored the effect of algorithm parameters on the convergence of the algorithm. Experimental results verified the validity and feasibility of the proposed algorithm with rational parameters, and show that the algorithm has better convergence performance than genetic algorithm (GA and ant colony optimization (ACO.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoud Rabbani
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In the existing literature, there are a huge number of studies focused on p-hub median problems and inventing heuristic or metaheuristic algorithms for solving them. But such analogous body of literature does not exist for its counterpart problem; p-hub center problem. In fact, since p-hub center has been lately introduced and has a particular objective function, minimizing the maximum cost between origin-destination nodes, there are few studies investigating the problem and the challenges for solving it. In this study, after presenting a complete definition of the uncapacitated multiple allocation p-hub center problem (UMApHCP two well-known metaheuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the problem for small scale and large scale standard data sets. These two algorithms are one single solution-based algorithm, Simulated Annealing (SA, and one population-based metaheuristic, Genetic Algorithm (GA. Because of the particular nature of the problem, Dijkstra’s algorithm has been incorporated in the fitness function calculation part of the proposed methods. The numerical results of running the GA and SA for standard test problems show that for smaller scale test problems, single solution-based SA shows greater performance versus GA but for larger scales of data sets the GA generally yield more desirable solutions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs
sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set of......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than the...... new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....
Kalsom Yusof, Umi; Nor Akmal Khalid, Mohd
2015-05-01
Semiconductor industries need to constantly adjust to the rapid pace of change in the market. Most manufactured products usually have a very short life cycle. These scenarios imply the need to improve the efficiency of capacity planning, an important aspect of the machine allocation plan known for its complexity. Various studies have been performed to balance productivity and flexibility in the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). Many approaches have been developed by the researchers to determine the suitable balance between exploration (global improvement) and exploitation (local improvement). However, not much work has been focused on the domain of machine allocation problem that considers the effects of machine breakdowns. This paper develops a model to minimize the effect of machine breakdowns, thus increasing the productivity. The objectives are to minimize system unbalance and makespan as well as increase throughput while satisfying the technological constraints such as machine time availability. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed model, results for throughput, system unbalance and makespan on real industrial datasets were performed with applications of intelligence techniques, that is, a hybrid of genetic algorithm and harmony search. The result aims to obtain a feasible solution to the domain problem.
Hulskotte, J. H. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.
2010-03-01
A methodology is presented to estimate the emissions of ships at berth based on their actual fuel consumption and the fuel quality. Accurate estimates of emissions from ships at berth demand reliable knowledge of the fuel consumption while at berth and associated fuel characteristics. However, assured information about energy use and fuel consumption of seagoing ships at berth is scarce. Proper estimation of ship emissions at berth is crucial for understanding the impact of shipping emissions on air quality and health in harbour cities as well as for a proper evaluation of the impact of abatement measures such as shore-side electricity and/or restrictions of sulphur content for shipping fuels to be used in ports. Therefore, a survey of energy consumption and fuel use on board of 89 seagoing ships was made in close cooperation with the Port of Rotterdam. Rotterdam is the major port of Europe ensuring that the results will have relevance for the larger European domain. On board of the ships at berth, a questionnaire was filled in by the chief engineer of that particular ship, assisted by two former mechanical shipping engineers employed at our organization. Survey results as well as the emission estimations are compared to the (scarce) information that is available and expert judgements in recent studies. The compiled survey data underlie the current Dutch emission estimation methodology for emissions of ships at berth.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuki Inoue
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Use of the ship maneuvering simulator (SMS is at the core of pilot trainees education and training, so it is desirable to have an evaluation method that can be completed shortly after each berthing training session. There are basically two methods of docking maneuvering that pilot trainees learn: one in which the ship enters from outside the port and is berthed directly at the target quay, and a second method in which the vessel carries out a turn in front of the target quay before berthing. The authors suggested an evaluation index in a previous study concerning the first docking method. In the present study, the authors propose an evaluation method for the case of berthing the vessel using the turning maneuver. Since the index obtained by this method offers a single numerical benchmark, it is an easy–to-understand result of the training exercise. The authors carried out experiments using a SMS and confirmed that the proposed evaluation method is effective and helpful to improve the effectiveness of SMS training.
Ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall: fender forces and ship motion
Fontijn, H.L.
1983-01-01
In this report a mathematical model is formulated which is sufficiently accurate to describe the typical behaviour of a ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall fitted with fenders as well as to determine the response of the fenders themselves. In order to achieve this a three-dimensional set of govern
14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.
2010-01-01
... shoulder harnesses. 23.785 Section 23.785 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... belts, and shoulder harnesses. There must be a seat or berth for each occupant that meets the following... and the attachment of— (1) Each seat to the structure; and (2) Each safety belt and shoulder...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...
Bolat, Berna; Cortés Achedad, Pablo Fabio
2011-01-01
The most common problem in vertical transportation using elevator group appears when a passenger wants to travel from a floor to other different floor in a building. The passenger makes a hall call by pressing a landing call button installed at the floor and located near the cars of the elevator group. After that, the elevator controller receives the call and identifies which one of the elevators in the group is most suitable to serve the person having issued the call. In this ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Dohn; Kolind, Esben; Clausen, Jens
2009-01-01
. The problem is solved by column generation in a Branch-and-Price framework. Simultaneous execution of tasks is enforced by the branching scheme. To test the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, 12 realistic test instances are introduced. The algorithm is able to find the optimal solution in 11 of the...... test instances. The main contribution of this article is the addition of synchronization between teams in an exact optimization context....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders Dohn; Kolind, Esben; Clausen, Jens
. The problem is solved by column generation in a Branch-and-Price framework. Simultaneous execution of tasks is enforced by the branching scheme. To test the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, 12 realistic test instances are introduced. The algorithm is able to find the optimal solution in 11 of the...... test instances. The main contribution of this article is the addition of synchronization between teams in an exact optimization context....
Cost allocation in distribution planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs
Cost allocation in distribution planning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engevall, S.
1996-12-31
This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李浩; 汪杰; 王公宝
2014-01-01
针对我国目前在地震现场搜索救援中存在的兵力配置问题，提出运用动态规划方法对其问题进行研究。简述建立动态规划模型的基本策略和步骤，建立地震现场搜索救援中兵力配置问题的静态数学与动态规划模型，并通过求解动态规划模型，得出地震现场搜索救援中兵力配置的最优策略。结果表明：该模型结构简单，计算难度小，优化配置能力强，易于电脑操作，可有效解决兵力配置等非线性数学问题。%In view of the search and rescue force allocation problems that exist currently in the earthquake site, put forwards the dynamic programming method to solve the problem. Briefly introduce the basic methods and steps of the dynamic programming model, establishes a static mathematical and dynamic programming model about the force allocation problem of rescue and search in earthquake site, and finds optimal strategy about rescue and search in earthquake site by solving the dynamic programming model. The results show that, the model has the advantages of simple structure, small computational difficulty, optimal allocation ability, easy computer operation, can effectively solve the force allocation problem and other nonlinear mathematical problems.
Resource Allocation using Virtual Clusters
Stillwell, Mark; Vivien, Frédéric; Casanova, Henri
2010-01-01
In this report we demonstrate the potential utility of resource allocation management systems that use virtual machine technology for sharing parallel computing resources among competing jobs. We formalize the resource allocation problem with a number of underlying assumptions, determine its complexity, propose several heuristic algorithms to find near-optimal solutions, and evaluate these algorithms in simulation. We find that among our algorithms one is very efficient and also leads to the best resource allocations. We then describe how our approach can be made more general by removing several of the underlying assumptions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs
2016-01-01
This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann......–Shapley prices. We suggest to overcome such problems by using lexicographic goal programing techniques. Moreover, cost allocation based on the cost function is unable to account for differences between efficient and actual cost. We suggest to employ the notion of rational inefficiency in order to supply a set of...... assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....
Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen
This paper considers allocation rules. First, we demonstrate that costs allocated by the Aumann-Shapley and the Friedman-Moulin cost allocation rules are easy to determine in practice using convex envelopment of registered cost data and parametric programming. Second, from the linear programming...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...
Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;
different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources to...
2011-12-13
... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Ocean-Going Vessels At-Berth in... increased risk of burn or fire) associated with compliance with the California standard. \\11\\ See 59 FR... EPA review of the State decision to be a narrow one.'' \\16\\ \\16\\ See, e.g., 40 FR 21102-103 (May...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Selcuk Nas
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Ever growing energy industry requires larger quantities of LNG to be transported by bigger ships between terminals. Every day, new kind of large vessels created by new technologies, and these are used to trade around the globe. This is the dynamic change in shipping industry. But on the other hand these new vessels need to safely berth to existing terminals which we may accept as more static part of the trade. Thus this study born by the request of Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal management to determine if it is safe to berth to the terminal by a new breed of large LNG carrier type named as Q-Flex and Q-Max. Transas Bridge Simulator NTPRO 5000 series was used in this study for extensive experiments which had been simulated by the use of hook function. During the study, every force applied to mooring hooks and dolphins by the ship lines were divided into 3 dimensions and then measured by simulation experiments. With analysis of the data, required hook and dolphins strengths were determined for the safe mooring arrangements. Upon the completion of the study Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal became the first safe berth for Q-Flex type vessels in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. And finally all experiments were confirmed with real life experience when the first Q-Flex type LNG carrier berthed to the Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal.
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...
Optimal allocation of inspection resources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allocation of inspection resources for international safeguards is considered as the problem of designing a complex system that is composed of individual inspection activities and that has the objective of detecting material loss. Optimization theory is applied in selecting those inspection activities that maximize a system performance measure within resource constraints. The method is applicable to a global allocation problem in which inspection resources are distributed throughout a hierarchy consisting of multiple countries, multiple facilities within each country, and multiple activities within each facility. 9 references
Telescope Time Allocation Tool
Alves, J.
2005-03-01
TaToo is ESO's new Time Allocation Tool. This software scheduler is a combination of a user-friendly graphical user interface and an intelligent constraint-programming engine fine-tuned to ESO's scheduling problem. TaToo is able to produce a high quality and reliable schedule taking into consideration all constraints of the recommended programs for all telescopes in about 15 minutes. This performance allows schedulers at ESO-VISAS to simulate and evaluate different scenarios, optimize the scheduling of engineering activities at the observatories, and in the end construct the most science efficient schedule possible.
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK 1988
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report presents results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, carried out by DRPS during 1988. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS, and as an Appendix a report by the US Navy detailing results of their environmental radioactivity monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1mSv). (author)
Nonlinear and Adaptive Dynamic Control Allocation
Tjønnås, Johannes
2008-01-01
This work addresses the control allocation problem for a nonlinear over-actuated time-varying system where parameters a¢ ne in the actuator dynamics and actuator force model may be assumed unknown. Instead of optimizing the control allocation at each time instant, a dynamic approach is considered by constructing update-laws that represent asymptotically optimal allocation search and adaptation. A previous result on uniform global asymptotic stability (UGAS) of the equilibrium of cascaded time...
Water allocation mechanisms : principles and examples
Dinar, Ariel; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth
1997-01-01
From the earliest times, water resources have been allocated on the basis of social criteria -maintaining the community by ensuring that water is available for human consumption, for sanitation, and for food production. Societies have invested capital in infrastructure to maintain this allocation. Yet social change, including changes in (and more understanding of) how goods are distributed, has produced new issues in water allocation. Population growth has made water scarcity a major problem ...
The allocation of attention: theory and evidence
Gabaix, Xavier; Laibson, David Isaac; Moloche, Guillermo; Stephen, Weinberg
2003-01-01
A host of recent studies show that attention allocation has important economic consequences. This paper reports the first empirical test of a cost-benefit model of the endogenous allocation of attention. The model assumes that economic agents have finite mental processing speeds and cannot analyze all of the elements in complex problems. The model makes tractable predictions about attention allocation, despite the high level of complexity in our environment. The model successfully predicts th...
Visualizing Dynamic Memory Allocations
Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru
2007-01-01
We present a visualization tool for dynamic memory allocation information obtained from instrumenting the runtime allocator used by C programs. The goal of the presented visualization techniques is to convey insight in the dynamic behavior of the allocator. The purpose is to help the allocator desig
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冯海荣; 李军; 曾银莲
2011-01-01
在激烈的市场竞争中,如何降低成本以及保证产品的新鲜度对于销售易腐性产品的零售商来说具有至关重要的意义.企业间通过实施联合采购可以降低采购成本,增加与供应商的谈判议价能力,因此联合采购受到越来越多的企业以及学者的关注.考虑了在非瞬时补货情况下多零售商向同一供应商联合采购某种易腐品的订货决策及费用分配问题.以易腐品联合采购过程中产生的订货费用作为分配的对象,应用合作博弈理论,将非瞬时补货情况下易腐品联合采购的费用分配问题构造成易腐品的联合采购博弈,证明了该博弈的核心非空且为子模博弈,并给出了核心中的一个分配方案,同时还讨论了补货速率对零售商分担的订货费用的影响.论文最后对几种典型的比例分配解的效率进行了模拟分析.%It is important for the retailer to reduce the operating cost and to keep the freshness of the product in the supply chain with perishable products under the fierce market competition. By means of placing their ordering simultaneously, the firms can reduce their cost and strengthen negotiation abilities to their supplier, hence it has received tremendous attention from enterprises and scholars. This paper studies the joint replenishment problem and cost allocation problem for multi-retailers when they form a purchasing alliance in the EPQ framework. The cost allocation problem for the ordering setup cost is considered, and formulated as the cost allocation game with perishable products. It is proved that the cost allocation game is submodular, and its core is nonempty, then an allocation rule is defined and proved to be a core allocation. We also discuss the effect of the replenishment rate on the allocation rule. Finally, the efficiency of several proportional rules is studied by simulation.
Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes
Wang, Shaowei
2014-01-01
This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off
Legitimate Allocation of Public Healthcare
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Sigurd
2009-01-01
Citizens' consent to political decisions is often regarded as a necessary condition of political legitimacy. Consequently, legitimate allocation of healthcare has seemed almost unattainable in contemporary pluralistic societies. The problem is that citizens do not agree on any single principle...... governing priorities among groups of patients. The Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework suggests an ingenious solution to this problem of moral disagreement. Rather than advocating any substantive distributive principle, its advocates propose a feasible set of conditions, which, if met by...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Associated Health Allocation Database is used to determine the allocation of positions and funds for VA Associated Health programs offered by Veterans Affairs...
Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK, 1990
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, which were carried out by Defence Radiological Protection Service (DRPS) during 1990. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but coordinated by DRPS and, as an Appendix, a report by the US Navy detailing the results of their environmental monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programme undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of cobalt-60, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1990 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)
Constrained control allocation for systems with redundant control effectors
Bordignon, Kenneth A
1996-01-01
Control allocation is examined for linear time-invariant problems that have more controls than degrees of freedom. The controls are part of a physical system and are subject to limits on their maximum positions. A control allocation scheme commands control deflections in response to some desired output. The ability of a control allocation scheme to produce the desired output without violating the physical position constraints is used to compare allocation schemes. Methods are develop...
Kaminsky, Andrew D.
2003-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) offers the possibility of capturing unused channel capacity by allocating unused resources between competing network nodes. This can reduce or possibly eliminate channels sitting idle while information awaits transmission. This holds potential for increasing throughput on bandwidth constrained networks. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the techniques used to allocate channels on demand and acc...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samie Amidou
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, is the most notified disease in the world. Development of resistance to first line drugs by MTB is a public health concern. As a result, there is the search for new and novel sources of antimycobacterial drugs for example from medicinal plants. In this study we determined the in vitro antimycobacterial activity of n-Hexane sub-fraction from Bridelia micrantha (Berth against MTB H37Ra and a clinical isolate resistant to all five first-line antituberculosis drugs. Methods The antimycobacterial activity of the n-Hexane sub-fraction of ethyl acetate fractions from acetone extracts of B. micrantha barks was evaluated using the resazurin microplate assay against two MTB isolates. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction was performed using 100% n-Hexane and Chloroform/Methanol (99:1 as solvents in order of increasing polarity by column chromatography and Resazurin microtiter plate assay for susceptibility tests. Results The n-Hexane fraction showed 20% inhibition of MTB H37Ra and almost 35% inhibition of an MTB isolate resistant to all first-line drugs at 10 μg/mL. GC/MS analysis of the fraction resulted in the identification of twenty-four constituents representing 60.5% of the fraction. Some of the 24 compounds detected included Benzene, 1.3-bis (3-phenoxyphenoxy (13.51%, 2-pinen-4-one (10.03%, N(b-benzyl-14-(carboxymethyl (6.35% and the least detected compound was linalool (0.2%. Conclusions The results show that the n-Hexane fraction of B. micrantha has antimycobacterial activity.
Selcuk Nas; Y. Zorba; E. Ucan
2014-01-01
Ever growing energy industry requires larger quantities of LNG to be transported by bigger ships between terminals. Every day, new kind of large vessels created by new technologies, and these are used to trade around the globe. This is the dynamic change in shipping industry. But on the other hand these new vessels need to safely berth to existing terminals which we may accept as more static part of the trade. Thus this study born by the request of Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal management t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inamura, H. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sritharan, S.; Villamor, N.
1991-07-15
This study describes methods for optimal crane allocation and the corresponding trailer allocation using dynamic programming with Lagrangian relaxation approach, taking the container terminal at Bangkok Port as an example. The developed system can be applied to any container terminal in any country regardless of number of berth, kind of container ship or kind of crane and trailer. This system may be used practically because the required solution can be derived from a personal computer operation for about ten minutes. The dynamic programming system relating to optimal crane allocation has been verified for its reasonability after 1000 repetitions of the simulation. Differences in the result were 1 TEU for the mean value, 12 TEU for the standard deviation, and {minus}30 to {plus}30 for the range. The standard deviation is sufficiently small at little less than 7% against a handling volume of 186 TEU. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.
A new analysis of a simple model of fair allocation
Juan D. Moreno-Ternero
2012-01-01
In a recent article, Fragnelli and Gagliardo [Cooperative models for allocating an object, Economics Letters 117 (2012) 227-229] propose several procedures to solve a basic problem of fair allocation. We scrutinize their proposal and contextualize it into recent developments of the literature on bankruptcy problems. Our analysis supports two of the procedures they propose; namely, the Shapley and Talmud rules.
Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.
Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh
2014-01-15
Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant...
Optimal dynamic allocation of conservation funding among priority regions.
Bode, Michael; Wilson, Kerrie; McBride, Marissa; Possingham, Hugh
2008-10-01
The optimal allocation of conservation resources between biodiverse conservation regions has generally been calculated using stochastic dynamic programming, or using myopic heuristics. These solutions are hard to interpret and may not be optimal. To overcome these two limitations, this paper approaches the optimal conservation resource allocation problem using optimal control theory. A solution using Pontryagin's maximum principle provides novel insight into the general properties of efficient conservation resource allocation strategies, and allows more extensive testing of the performance of myopic heuristics. We confirmed that a proposed heuristic (minimize short-term loss) yields near-optimal results in complex allocation situations, and found that a qualitative allocation feature observed in previous analyses (bang-bang allocation) is a general property of the optimal allocation strategy. PMID:18712571
Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems
Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.
2011-12-01
Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.
Risk capital allocation with autonomous subunits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs
2016-01-01
Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller tha...... fairness tests related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies all three tests in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set.......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual subunits. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the group among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose three...
Supplier asset allocation in a pool-based electricity market
Zhong, J.; Ni, Y; Feng, D.; Gan, D
2007-01-01
A power supplier in a pool-based market needs to allocate his generation capacities to participate in contract and spot markets. In this paper, the optimal portfolio selection theory is introduced for this purpose. A model applying this theory is proposed to solve the supplier asset allocation problem. Real market data are used in a numerical study to test the proposed model. The results show that different asset allocation solutions can yield very different risk-return tradeoffs for a suppli...
Online Stochastic Packing Applied to Display Ad Allocation
Feldman, Jon; Henzinger, Monika; Korula, Nitish; Mirrokni, Vahab S.; Stein, Cliff
2010-01-01
Inspired by online ad allocation, we study online stochastic packing linear programs from theoretical and practical standpoints. We first present a near-optimal online algorithm for a general class of packing linear programs which model various online resource allocation problems including online variants of routing, ad allocations, generalized assignment, and combinatorial auctions. As our main theoretical result, we prove that a simple primal-dual training-based algorithm achieves a (1 - o(...
Online Stochastic Ad Allocation: Efficiency and Fairness
Feldman, Jon; Korula, Nitish; Mirrokni, Vahab S; Stein, Cliff
2010-01-01
We study the efficiency and fairness of online stochastic display ad allocation algorithms from a theoretical and practical standpoint. In particular, we study the problem of maximizing efficiency in the presence of stochastic information. In this setting, each advertiser has a maximum demand for impressions of display ads that will arrive online. In our model, inspired by the concept of free disposal in economics, we assume that impressions that are given to an advertiser above her demand are given to her for free. Our main theoretical result is to present a training-based algorithm that achieves a (1-\\epsilon)-approximation guarantee in the random order stochastic model. In the corresponding online matching problem, we learn a dual variable for each advertiser, based on data obtained from a sample of impressions. We also discuss different fairness measures in online ad allocation, based on comparison to an ideal offline fair solution, and develop algorithms to compute "fair" allocations. We then discuss sev...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LiVecchi, Albert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2015-12-01
The Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC), headquartered at the Oregon State University, is establishing the capabilities to test prototype wave energy conversion devices in the ocean. This CRADA will leverage the technical expertise and resources at NREL in the wind industry and in ocean engineering to support and enhance the development of the NNMREC Mobile Ocean Test Berth (MOTB). This CRADA will provide direct support to NNMREC by providing design evaluation and review of the MOTB, developing effective protocols for testing of the MOTB and wave energy conversion devices in the ocean, assisting in the specification of appropriate instrumentation and data acquisition packages, and providing guidance on obtaining and maintaining A2LA (American Association for Laboratory Accreditation) accreditation.
Resource Allocation Using Metaheuristic Search
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andy M. Connor
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This research is focused on solving problems in the area of software project management using metaheuristic search algorithmsand as such is resea rch in the field of search based software engineering. The main aim of this research is to ev aluate the performance of different metaheuristic search techniques in resource allocat ion and scheduling problemsthat would be typical of software development projects.This paper reports a set of experiments which evaluate the performance of three algorithms, namely simulat ed annealing, tabu search and genetic algorithms. The experimental results indicate thata ll of themetaheuristics search techniques can be used to solve problems in resource allocation an d scheduling within a software project. Finally, a comparative analysis suggests that overa ll the genetic algorithm had performed better than simulated annealing and tabu search.
4G femtocells resource allocation and interference management
Zhang, Haijun; Wen, Xiangming
2013-01-01
This brief examines resource allocation and interference management for 4G femtocells. It introduces 4G femtocells in the context of 4G mobile networks and discusses related technical challenges in resource allocation and interference management. Topics include ant colony algorithm based downlink resource allocation, intelligent scheduling and power control, uplink and downlink for two-tier networks, quality of service (QoS) constraints and the cross-tier interference constraint. The authors present algorithms to alleviate common femtocell-related problems such as subchannel power allocation.
Allocation of Ground Handling Resources at Copenhagen Airport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Tor Fog
Operating an airport is a very complex task involving many stakeholders. The primary role of airport management is to ensure that the airport provides sufficient capacity in all operational areas and that all the companies carrying out business at the airport have the best possible working...... knowledge to generate appropriate initial variables, enabling the heuristic to efficiently find near-optimal and operationally valid solutions. The work described in this thesis was carried out in the context of an Industrial PhD project at Copenhagen Airport in collaboration with the Technical University...... processes give rise to. The primary focus is on ground handling resource allocation problems, it looks in detail at the following problems: the check-in counter allocation problem, the baggage make-up position problem, the tactical stand and gate allocation problem, the operational stand and gate allocation...
Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes
Slikker, M.
1999-01-01
A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This allo
Resource Allocation of Agricultural Science and Technology R&D
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
The status quo of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D(research and development)both at home and abroad,including the amount and function of agricultural science and technology research funds,human resources in the resources of agricultural science and technology R&D,the efficiency of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D,the management system of agricultural scientific innovation and the operation status of scientific funds,is analyzed.The problems in the current resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D are put forward,including unreasonable resource allocation;low efficiency,and low efficiency of the transformation of agricultural scientific achievements.The highly effective resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D is analyzed from the aspects of resource allocation structure,environment,channel,spatial layout and industrial chain.
Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias;
2011-01-01
Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...
Flexible resources allocation techniques: characteristics and modelling
Attia, El-Awady; Edi, Kouassi Hilaire; Duquenne, Philippe
2012-01-01
International audience At the interface between engineering, economics, social sciences and humanities, industrial engineering aims to provide answers to various sectors of business problems. One of these problems is the adjustment between the workload needed by the work to be realised and the availability of the company resources. The objective of this work is to help to find a methodology for the allocation of flexible human resources in industrial activities planning and scheduling. Thi...
Modeling Word Relatedness in Latent Dirichlet Allocation
Wang, Xun
2014-01-01
Standard LDA model suffers the problem that the topic assignment of each word is independent and word correlation hence is neglected. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a model called Word Related Latent Dirichlet Allocation (WR-LDA) by incorporating word correlation into LDA topic models. This leads to new capabilities that standard LDA model does not have such as estimating infrequently occurring words or multi-language topic modeling. Experimental results demonstrate the ef...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许新宜; 杨丽英; 王红瑞; 高媛媛
2011-01-01
As population and economy grow, demands for water will escalate.In most countries,demands for water are initially met by engineering, supply-side solutions.Based on reviewing international and domestic practices on water resources allocation within river basins, a comparison of a variety of methodologies and models of water resources allocation and documentation of the best practices were systematically performed.There are many general lessons and key issues that can be learned from the review.This review explains the relationship between water allocation schemes within river basins and policies regarding water resources management.There are many cases in China and around the world that water resources allocation only concentrates on surface water resources.Theoretically, the total demands for water within a river basin are generally supplied from a combination of surface water and groundwater resources, so reasonably integrated water resources allocation schemes are preferable.Once conditions are suitable, certain demands may be supplied from either surface water or groundwater resources, i.e., conjunctive use.Conjunctive use is advantageous over other utilization ways as it provides an opportunity to rely on surface water resources when conditions are good, resulting in renewal of the groundwater resources.When surface flows are below the average, groundwater resources can be drawn upon more heavily, even temporarily at rates greater than the sustainable yield.Prudent management is required to ensure that the long-term average rates of exploitation are within sustainable limits, and joint allocation of surface water and groundwater resources is desirable for these situations.The study integrates responsibility, entitlements, and benefits as the principles for water resources allocation in China.Two concepts of water use stocks and incremental water use were proposed to reflect the efficiency and equity of water allocation schemes.Assessment indicators for the
Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P. [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Ebbers, Johnathan [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Price, Nicholas W. [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Swank, Matthew [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Feer, Stefan P. [3M Health Information Systems, Inc., Wallingford, CT; Rhodes, Zachary D. [Allstate Corporation, Northbrook, IL
2013-02-01
This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.
Resource allocation for efficient environmental management.
McCarthy, Michael A; Thompson, Colin J; Hauser, Cindy; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Moir, Melinda L; Tiensin, Thanawat; Gilbert, Marius
2010-10-01
Environmental managers must decide how to invest available resources. Researchers have previously determined how to allocate conservation resources among regions, design nature reserves, allocate funding to species conservation programs, design biodiversity surveys and monitoring programs, manage species and invest in greenhouse gas mitigation schemes. However, these issues have not been addressed with a unified theory. Furthermore, uncertainty is prevalent in environmental management, and needs to be considered to manage risks. We present a theory for optimal environmental management, synthesizing previous approaches to the topic and incorporating uncertainty. We show that the theory solves a diverse range of important problems of resource allocation, including distributing conservation resources among the world's biodiversity hotspots; surveillance to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Thailand; and choosing survey methods for the insect order Hemiptera. Environmental management decisions are similar to decisions about financial investments, with trade-offs between risk and reward. PMID:20718844
A Framework for Optimal Control Allocation with Structural Load Constraints
Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.; Jutte, Christine V.; Burken, John J.; Trinh, Khanh V.; Bodson, Marc
2010-01-01
Conventional aircraft generally employ mixing algorithms or lookup tables to determine control surface deflections needed to achieve moments commanded by the flight control system. Control allocation is the problem of converting desired moments into control effector commands. Next generation aircraft may have many multipurpose, redundant control surfaces, adding considerable complexity to the control allocation problem. These issues can be addressed with optimal control allocation. Most optimal control allocation algorithms have control surface position and rate constraints. However, these constraints are insufficient to ensure that the aircraft's structural load limits will not be exceeded by commanded surface deflections. In this paper, a framework is proposed to enable a flight control system with optimal control allocation to incorporate real-time structural load feedback and structural load constraints. A proof of concept simulation that demonstrates the framework in a simulation of a generic transport aircraft is presented.
Cognitive allocation and the control room
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the weakest links in the design of nuclear power plants is the inattention to the needs and capabilities of the operators. This flaw causes decreased plant reliability and reduced plant safety. To solve this problem the designer must, in the earliest stages of the design process, consider the operator's abilities. After the system requirements have been established, the designer must consider what functions to allocate to each part of the system. The human must be considered as part of this system. The allocation of functions needs to consider not only the mechanical tasks to be performed, but also the control requirements and the overall control philosophy. In order for the designers to consider the control philosophy, they need to know what control decisions should be automated and what decisions should be made by an operator. They also need to know how these decisions will be implemented: by an operator or by automation. ''Cognitive Allocation'' is the allocation of the decision making process between operators and machines. It defines the operator's role in the system. When designing a power plant, a cognitive allocation starts the process of considering the operator's abilities. This is the first step to correcting the weakest link in the current plant design
Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas;
2016-01-01
Revenue Management Systems (RMS) traditionally solve the seat allocation problem separately from the overbooking problem. Overbooking is managed by inflating the authorization levels obtained from seat allocation by various heuristics. This approach although suboptimal, is necessitated because...... of the complexity and dimensionality of the Dynamic Program (DP), which prohibits computation for realistic size problems. We review several DP models developed for seat-allocation and overbooking over a time span of 40 years, reflecting changed business environments. In this report we link these models together...... by means of two transformations: The marginal revenue transformation of Fiig et al. [2010] and the equivalence charging scheme of Subramanian et al. [1999]. These transformations enable us to transform the joint seat allocation and overbooking problem for fare family fare structures into an equivalent...
Aid allocation and fragile states
McGillivray, Mark
2006-01-01
This paper summarises research on aid allocation and effectiveness, highlighting the current findings of recent research on aid allocation to fragile states. Fragile states are defined by the donor community as those with either critically poor policies or poorly performing institutions, or both. The paper examines the research findings in the broader context of research and analysis on how aid should and is being allocated across all developing countries. Various aid allocation models and th...
Operator allocation model and scheduling algorithm for flexible job-shop problem%柔性生产中人员配置模型及其调度算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高丽; 徐克林; 朱伟; 童科娜
2012-01-01
为减少柔性生产企业的劳务费用,提高运营效益,以合理的人工分配方案和最佳作业排序为目标建立了数学模型,并设计一种多目标混合算法.将作业分解为子作业层和父作业层,采用遗传算法和动态规划法获取最佳的人工分配方案.在人工优化模型的基础上利用模拟退火遗传算法,将搜索空间限制在第一工位工件投产序列的置换向量空间内,并采用交叉算子和变异算子对选择算子进行了重新设计,生成最优作业排序计划.一组测试问题的求解结果表明了所提出方法的有效性及鲁棒性.%To reduce crew expenses and raise operation profits of flexible production enterprises,a mathematical model was constructed on the basis of reasonable operator allocation scheme and optimal sequence of operations,and a multi-objective mixed algorithm was used for solving the problem.The operation is divided into two layers,and the man-hour optimization scheme can be acquired by genetic algorithm and dynamic programming method.A simulated annealing genetic algorithm was proposed to optimize the sequence of operations,in which the search was limited to the space of permutation vectors of the order,and a given set of jobs were performed in the first stage using a hybrid crossover operators and mutation operators to redesign the selection operators.A set of test results show that the proposed algorithm is effective.
Statistical Mechanics of Resource Allocation
Inoue, Jun-ichi
2014-01-01
We provide a mathematical model to investigate the resource allocation problem for agents, say, university graduates who are looking for their positions in labor markets. The basic model is described by the so-called Potts spin glass which is well-known in the research field of statistical physics. In the model, each Potts spin (a tiny magnet in atomic scale length) represents the action of each student, and it takes a discrete variable corresponding to the company he/she applies for. We construct the energy to include three distinct effects on the students' behavior, namely, collective effect, market history and international ranking of companies. In this model system, the correlations (the adjacent matrix) between students are taken into account through the pairwise spin-spin interactions. We carry out computer simulations to examine the efficiency of the model. We also show that some chiral representation of the Potts spin enables us to obtain some analytical insights into our labor markets.
Marty M; Toselli A; Vincke B
2000-01-01
The instauration of the PMSI and its subsequent use for partially allocating hospital budgets has raised a number of issues. The calculation of the cost of ISA points has uncovered great disparities among different health care facilities. This article studies the consequences of using diagnostic related groups (GHM) in the ISA scale as a classification tool. Normally, differences in patient populations among facilities should be averaged out by the ISA scale classification. However, a study...
Market-based task allocation in distributed satellite systems
van der Horst, Johannes
2012-01-01
This thesis addresses the problem of task allocation in a distributed satellite system. These spacecraft specialise in different functions, and must collaborate to complete the mission objectives. The energy available for task execution and communication is, however, extremely limited, which poses a challenging design problem. I propose the use of a market-based, multi-agent approach to achieve the necessary macro-level behaviour. The development and verification of this allocation mechanism ...
Tactical Assets Allocation: Evidence from the Nigerian Banking Industry
Adedoyin Isola Lawal
2014-01-01
The core of portfolio selection theory centers on striking a balance between risk-return trade-off of a given investment layout so as to maximize benefits. Literature reveals that portfolio selection or asset allocation problems often involve the use of mathematical programming in propounding solution. This paper uses a blend of simultaneous equation and graphical approach to linear programming algorithm to help solve investors‘ problem in allocating assets among various alternatives when fac...
Attention allocation before antisaccades.
Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner
2016-01-01
In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843
A new network losses allocation method in deregulated environment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Cheng-min; HOU Zhi-jian
2005-01-01
Network losses allocation is one of the major problems in the market environment. The quadric function of the injected nodal power is used in this paper as a representation for network losses, which are allocated fairly using the called market equilibrium principle while the bidding curves are corrected. The power market equilibrium is simulated as three different models that can be solved simply by the optimal power flow algorithm combining the generation scheduling problem with network losses allocation. The case study is made at an IEEE-30 nodes system and a perfect result is proved in this paper.
Cost allocation with limited information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen
This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...... information about some technical constraints in order to make the cost allocation....
Resource Allocation Among Agents with MDP-Induced Preferences
Dolgov, D A; 10.1613/jair.2102
2011-01-01
Allocating scarce resources among agents to maximize global utility is, in general, computationally challenging. We focus on problems where resources enable agents to execute actions in stochastic environments, modeled as Markov decision processes (MDPs), such that the value of a resource bundle is defined as the expected value of the optimal MDP policy realizable given these resources. We present an algorithm that simultaneously solves the resource-allocation and the policy-optimization problems. This allows us to avoid explicitly representing utilities over exponentially many resource bundles, leading to drastic (often exponential) reductions in computational complexity. We then use this algorithm in the context of self-interested agents to design a combinatorial auction for allocating resources. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by showing that it can, in minutes, optimally solve problems for which a straightforward combinatorial resource-allocation technique would require the ag...
[Organ allocation. Ethical issues].
Cattorini, P
2010-01-01
The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677
Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias;
Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains on a rai......Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...
Spectrum Allocation Based on Game Theory in Cognitive Radio Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiufen Ni
2013-03-01
Full Text Available As a kind of intelligent communication technology, the characteristic of dynamic spectrum allocation of cognitive radio provides feasible scheme for sharing with the spectrum resources among the primary user and secondary users, which solves the current spectrum resource scarcity problem. In this paper, we comprehensively explored the cognitive radio spectrum allocation models based on game theory from cooperative game and non-cooperative game, which provide detailed overview and analysis on the state of the art of spectrum allocation based on game theory. In order to provide flexible and efficient spectrum allocation in wireless networks, this paper also provides the general framework model based on game theory for cognitive radio spectrum allocation.
Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao;
2015-01-01
The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The...... progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...... resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management...
Function allocation in distributed safeguards and security systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Computerized distributed systems are being used to collect and manage data for activities such as nuclear materials accounting, process control, laboratory coordination, and security. Poor choices made in allocating functions to individual processors can make a system unusable by burdening machines with excessive network retrievals and updates. During system design phases, data allocation algorithms based on operation frequencies, field sizes, security information, and reliability requirements can be applied in sensitivity studies to mathematically ensure processor efficiency. The Los Alamos Network Design System (NDS) implements such an allocation algorithm. The authors analyzed a large, existing distributed system to test the cost functions and to compare actual network problems with NDS results. Several common configurations were also designed and studied using the software. From these studies, some basic principles for allocating functions emerged. In this paper recommendations for function allocation in generic systems and related design options are discussed
Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks
Sakander, Zeeshan
2006-01-01
Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...
Stability and resource allocation in project planning
Leus, Roel; Herroelen, Willy
2002-01-01
The majority of resource-constrained project scheduling efforts assumes perfect information about the scheduling problem to be solved and a static deterministic environment within which the pre-computed baseline schedule is executed. In reality, project activities are subject to considerable uncertainty, which generally leads to numerous schedule disruptions. In this paper, we present a resource allocation model that protects a given baseline schedule against activity duration variability. A ...
Allocation and Location of Transport Logistics Centres
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Mocková
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The facility allocation problem sets out to determine the optimal number of facilities to be opened. Based on multiple criteria evaluation, the optimal location of the facilities is usually solved subsequently. Several considerations, e.g. technical parameters, costs and finance must be taken into account. Economic analysis is carried out on the basis of the specific instance of the problem.Let us assume that the number of potentially located facilities is known. Then the problem of the optimal location of a given number of facilities in a network is referred to as the facility location problem. The solution to the problem is a set of facilities optimally located in an area such that this area is fully covered by the required services that the facilities provide. An example of a real-life problem of this type is the location of logistics centers.
Optimal allocation of trend following strategies
Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy
2015-09-01
We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.
Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)
Ground data systems resource allocation process
Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.
1989-01-01
The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.
How should INGOs allocate resources?
Wisor, Scott
2012-01-01
International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs) face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophe...
Dynamic Rate Allocation in Fading Multiple-access Channels
ParandehGheibi, Ali; Ozdaglar, Asuman; Medard, Muriel
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of rate allocation in a fading Gaussian multiple-access channel (MAC) with fixed transmission powers. Our goal is to maximize a general concave utility function of transmission rates over the throughput capacity region. In contrast to earlier works in this context that propose solutions where a potentially complex optimization problem must be solved in every decision instant, we propose a low-complexity approximate rate allocation policy and analyze the effect of temporal channel variations on its utility performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies the tracking capabilities of an approximate rate allocation scheme under fading channel conditions. We build on an earlier work to present a new rate allocation policy for a fading MAC that implements a low-complexity approximate gradient projection iteration for each channel measurement, and explicitly characterize the effect of the speed of temporal channel variations on the tracking neighborhood of our p...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marty M
2000-03-01
Full Text Available The instauration of the PMSI and its subsequent use for partially allocating hospital budgets has raised a number of issues. The calculation of the cost of ISA points has uncovered great disparities among different health care facilities. This article studies the consequences of using diagnostic related groups (GHM in the ISA scale as a classification tool. Normally, differences in patient populations among facilities should be averaged out by the ISA scale classification. However, a study of the numerous correlations between the cost of an ISA point and various calculated indicators in these structures proves that the scale does not succeed in adjusting this cost as a function of the patient population requesting care. The findings indicate that certain types of patients are more “profitable” than others. We must be careful not to allow this new method for determining budgets to induce patient selection or to a diverted use of PMSI data.
Multi-product allocation and distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.C. Currin
2003-12-01
Full Text Available This paper describes techniques used by a beer company to optimise the allocation and distribution of their beer. These techniques are also applicable to other manufacturing and distribution environments. Of particular interest is a two-phase model that allows a "look-ahead" to future sales, the decomposition of the problem into a large number of sub-problems (to reduce solution time, and the equitable distribution of material when stocks are over- or undersupplied. The optimisation is part of an interactive planning system, and the relationship between the optimisation module and the rest of the system is briefly described.
Resource allocation in multiuser multicarrier wireless systems
Wong, Ian C
2007-01-01
Many algorithms have already been proposed in the past to solve the problem of allocating resources in a multi-user multicarrier wireless system. Due to the difficulty of the problem, most of the previous work in this area has focused on developing suboptimal heuristics without performance guarantees. This book proposes a unified algorithmic framework based on dual optimization techniques that have complexities that are linear in the number of subcarriers and users, and that achieve negligible optimality gaps in standards-based numerical simulations. Adaptive algorithms based on stochastic app
Business Analytics for Flexible Resource Allocation Under Random Emergencies
Angalakudati, Mallik; Balwani, Siddharth; Calzada, Jorge; Chatterjee, Bikram; Perakis, Georgia; Raad, Nicolas; Uichanco, Joline
2012-01-01
In this paper, we describe both applied and analytical work in collaboration with a large multistate gas utility. The project addressed a major operational resource allocation challenge that is typical to the industry. We study the resource allocation problem in which some of the tasks are scheduled and known in advance, and some are unpredictable and have to be addressed as they appear. The utility has maintenance crews that perform both standard jobs (each must be done before a specified de...
On the Complexity of Buffer Allocation in Message Passing Systems
Brodsky, Alex; Pedersen, Jan B.; Wagner, Alan
2003-01-01
Message passing programs commonly use buffers to avoid unnecessary synchronizations and to improve performance by overlapping communication with computation. Unfortunately, using buffers makes the program no longer portable, potentially unable to complete on systems without a sufficient number of buffers. Effective buffer use entails that the minimum number needed for a safe execution be allocated. We explore a variety of problems related to buffer allocation for safe and efficient execution ...
Resource Allocation Algorithms for Virtualized Service Hosting Platforms
Stillwell, Mark; Schanzenbach, David; Vivien, Frédéric; Casanova, Henri
2010-01-01
Commodity clusters are used routinely for deploying service hosting platforms. Due to hardware and operation costs, clusters need to be shared among multiple services. Crucial for enabling such shared hosting platforms is virtual machine (VM) technology, which allows consolidation of hardware resources. A key challenge, however, is to make appropriate decisions when allocating hardware resources to service instances. In this work we propose a formulation of the resource allocation problem in ...
Dynamic asset allocation for bank under stochastic interest rates.
Chakroun, Fatma; Fathi ABID
2014-01-01
This paper considers the optimal asset allocation strategy for bank with stochastic interest rates when there are three types of asset: Bank account, loans and securities. The asset allocation problem is to maximize the expected utility from terminal wealth of a bank's shareholders over a finite time horizon. As a consequence, we apply a dynamic programming principle to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation explicitly in the case of the CRRA utility function. A case study is given ...
Ties matter: improving efficiency in course allocation by introducing ties
Chen, Ning; Li, Mengling
2013-01-01
We study the course allocation system at Nanyang Technological University, where students submit strict preferences for courses and courses have implicit preferences for students. This formulates a many-to-many matching problem. We show the inefficiencies of the current mechanism and propose new competing mechanisms called Pareto-improving draft and dictatorship mechanisms, which introduce ties into students' preferences. Our mechanisms generate (group) stable and Pareto-efficient allocations...
Zhu, Xiaoqing; Agrawal, Piyush; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Alpcan, Tansu; Girod, Bernd
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of rate allocation among multiple simultaneous video streams sharing multiple heterogeneous access networks. We develop and evaluate an analytical framework for optimal rate allocation based on observed available bit rate (ABR) and round-trip time (RTT) over each access network and video distortion-rate (DR) characteristics. The rate allocation is formulated as a convex optimization problem that minimizes the total expected distortion of all video streams. We present a...
A cross-layer resource allocation scheme for spatial multiplexing-based MIMO-OFDMA systems
Al-Shatri Hussein; Akbudak Tarik; Czylwik Andreas
2011-01-01
Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for the downlink of a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MIMO-OFDMA) system. The sum rate maximization itself cannot cope with fairness among users. Hence, we address this problem in the context of the utility-based resource allocation presented in earlier papers. This resource allocation method allows to enhance the efficiency and guarantee fairness among users by exploiting multiuser diversity...
Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Giacomelli
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.
Sensing Task Allocation for Heterogeneous Channels in Cooperative Spectrum Sensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qihui Wu
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In the traditional centralized cooperative spectrum sensing, all secondary users sense the same channel. But, for a given channel, there exists detection performance diversity among all the users, due to the different signal-fading process. Involving the user with poor performance in cooperative sensing will not only deteriorate the detection correctness but also waste the sensing time. In the heterogeneous channels, the problem is even severe. A novel idea is to allocate the secondary users to sense different channels. We analyze the allocation problem before formulate it to be an optimization problem, which is a NP-hard problem. Then we propose the declined complexity algorithm in equal secondary user case and the two-hierarchy approach algorithm in unequal case. With the simulation, we verify the near optimality of the proposed algorithms and the advantage of the task allocation.
Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions
Risk allocation under liquidity constraints
Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.
2013-01-01
Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that
Register-allocated paging for big data calculations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Thomas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Software to support the Monte Carlo method generates large vectors of pseudo-random numbers and uses these as operands in complex mathematical expressions. When such software is run on standard PC-based hardware, the volume of data involved often exceeds the physical RAM available. To address this problem, vectors must be paged out to disk and paged back in when required. This paging is often the performance bottleneck limiting the execution speed of the software. Because the mathematical expressions are specified in advance of execution, predictive solutions are possible – for instance, by treating the problem similarly to register allocation. The problem of allocating scalar variables to processor registers is a widely studied aspect of compiler implementation. A register allocation algorithm decides which variable is held in which register, when the value in a register can be overwritten, and when a value is stored in, or later retrieved from, main memory. In this paper, register allocation techniques are used to plan the paging of vectors in Monte Carlo software. Two register allocation algorithms are applied to invented vector programs written in a prototype low-level vector language and the results are compared. Keywords: Big Data, Compiler, Monte Carlo, Paging, Performance, Register Allocation.
Utility-based bandwidth allocation algorithm for heterogeneous wireless networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHAI Rong; WANG XiuJuan; CHEN QianBin; SVENSSON Tommy
2013-01-01
In next generation wireless network （NGWN）, mobile users are capable of connecting to the core network through various heterogeneous wireless access networks, such as cellular network, wireless metropolitan area network （WMAN）, wireless local area network （WLAN）, and ad hoc network. NGWN is expected to provide high-bandwidth connectivity with guaranteed quality-of-service to mobile users in a seamless manner; however, this desired function demands seamless coordination of the heterogeneous radio access network （RAN） technologies. In recent years, some researches have been conducted to design radio resource management （RRM） architectures and algorithms for NGWN; however, few studies stress the problem of joint network performance optimization, which is an essential goal for a cooperative service providing scenario. Furthermore, while some authors consider the competition among the service providers, the QoS requirements of users and the resource competition within access networks are not fully considered. In this paper, we present an interworking integrated network architecture, which is responsible for monitoring the status information of different radio access technologies （RATs） and executing the resource allocation algorithm. Within this architecture, the problem of joint bandwidth allocation for heterogeneous integrated networks is formulated based on utility function theory and bankruptcy game theory. The proposed bandwidth allocation scheme comprises two successive stages, i.e., service bandwidth allocation and user bandwidth allocation. At the service bandwidth allocation stage, the optimal amount of bandwidth for different types of services in each network is allocated based on the criterion of joint utility maximization. At the user bandwidth allocation stage, the service bandwidth in each network is optimally allocated among users in the network according to bankruptcy game theory. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of
On Allocation Policies for Power and Performance
Dyachuk, Dmytro; 10.1109/GRID.2010.5697986
2011-01-01
With the increasing popularity of Internet-based services and applications, power efficiency is becoming a major concern for data center operators, as high electricity consumption not only increases greenhouse gas emissions, but also increases the cost of running the server farm itself. In this paper we address the problem of maximizing the revenue of a service provider by means of dynamic allocation policies that run the minimum amount of servers necessary to meet user's requirements in terms of performance. The results of several experiments executed using Wikipedia traces are described, showing that the proposed schemes work well, even if the workload is non-stationary. Since any resource allocation policy requires the use of forecasting mechanisms, various schemes allowing compensating errors in the load forecasts are presented and evaluated.
24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD will provide allocations of funds in amounts determined...
ON OPTIMAL LOCAL BUFFER ALLOCATION IN FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
An optimal design problem of local buffer allocation in the FMS is discussed in order to maximize a reward earned from processed jobs at all workstations. Structural properties of the optimal design problem are analyzed for the model with two job routing policies. Based on these properties, approaches to optimal solutions are given.
Processor Allocation for Optimistic Parallelization of Irregular Programs
Versaci, Francesco
2012-01-01
Optimistic parallelization is a promising approach for the parallelization of irregular algorithms: potentially interfering tasks are launched dynamically, and the runtime system detects conflicts between concurrent activities, aborting and rolling back conflicting tasks. However, parallelism in irregular algorithms is very complex. In a regular algorithm like dense matrix multiplication, the amount of parallelism can usually be expressed as a function of the problem size, so it is reasonably straightforward to determine how many processors should be allocated to execute a regular algorithm of a certain size (this is called the processor allocation problem). In contrast, parallelism in irregular algorithms can be a function of input parameters, and the amount of parallelism can vary dramatically during the execution of the irregular algorithm. Therefore, the processor allocation problem for irregular algorithms is very difficult. In this paper, we describe the first systematic strategy for addressing this pro...
Collaborative Resource Allocation
Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester
2007-01-01
Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.
Dynamic Channel Allocation Management Using Agents Technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion BOGDAN
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Channel allocation schemes are management techniques meant to solve the radio access problem in the telecommunications area. There are several known schemes namely: static, dynamic, hybrid and flexible channel allocation schemes. In our work we developed the channel allocation scheme using a decentralized structure, based on software agents. In order to create such a structure, some functions must be carried out by some specialized functional entities. Each functional entity is implemented with an agent, having a specific role. Using this manner of implementation, different functions of the system can be implemented at different sites, located apart and also the structure can be modularized. In our work we have created the agents structure and the communications between agents, on the use of Multiagent Systems Engineering Technology. We also involved the AgentTool platform to automate the creation of the agents structure and the code resulted was in Java. In order to realize the test of our system we considered a shape of 21 radio areas, each including a number of users. Each wireless user can initiate a number of calls per hour and each call last a holding time. The communications between agents were realized for the TCP/IP protocol, based on socket connections.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 budget for the Department of Housing and Urban Development has been enacted. This spreadsheet provide full-year allocations for the Office...
Collective credit allocation in science
Shen, Hua-Wei
2014-01-01
Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, since the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability...
Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...
Loss Allocation in Securitization Transactions
Günter Franke; Markus Herrmann; Thomas Weber
2011-01-01
This paper analyses the loss allocation to First, Second and Third Loss Positions in European collateralized debt obligation transactions. The quality of the underlying asset pool plays a predominant role for the loss allocation. A lower asset pool quality induces the originator to take a higher First Loss Position, but, in a synthetic transaction, a smaller Third Loss Position. The share of expected default losses, borne by the First Loss Position, is largely independent of asset pool qualit...
Asset Allocation in Transition Economies.
Jondeau, E.; Rockinger, M.
2002-01-01
Designing an investment strategy in transition economies is a difficult task, because stock markets opened through time, time series are short, and there is little guidance how to obtain expected returns and covariance matrices necessary for mean-variance asset allocation. Moments of market returns can be expected to be time varying as structural changes occur in nascent market economies. We develop an ad-hoc optimal asset-allocation strategy with a flavor of Bayesian learning adapted to thes...
Advertising Budget Allocation under Uncertainty
Duncan M. Holthausen, Jr.; Gert Assmus
1982-01-01
This article presents a model for the allocation of an advertising budget to geographic market segments, or territories, when the sales response to advertising in each segment is characterized by a probability distribution. It is shown that allocation decisions that are based on the expected sales response may be associated with a relatively large degree of risk and, therefore, non-optimal to a risk-averse manager. The model derives an "efficient frontier" in terms of the expected profit and ...
Unconstrained and Constrained Fault-Tolerant Resource Allocation
Liao, Kewen
2011-01-01
First, we study the Unconstrained Fault-Tolerant Resource Allocation (UFTRA) problem (a.k.a. FTFA problem in \\cite{shihongftfa}). In the problem, we are given a set of sites equipped with an unconstrained number of facilities as resources, and a set of clients with set $\\mathcal{R}$ as corresponding connection requirements, where every facility belonging to the same site has an identical opening (operating) cost and every client-facility pair has a connection cost. The objective is to allocate facilities from sites to satisfy $\\mathcal{R}$ at a minimum total cost. Next, we introduce the Constrained Fault-Tolerant Resource Allocation (CFTRA) problem. It differs from UFTRA in that the number of resources available at each site $i$ is limited by $R_{i}$. Both problems are practical extensions of the classical Fault-Tolerant Facility Location (FTFL) problem \\cite{Jain00FTFL}. For instance, their solutions provide optimal resource allocation (w.r.t. enterprises) and leasing (w.r.t. clients) strategies for the cont...
Resource allocation for multichannel broadcasting visible light communication
Le, Nam-Tuan; Jang, Yeong Min
2015-11-01
Visible light communication (VLC), which offers the possibility of using light sources for both illumination and data communications simultaneously, will be a promising incorporation technique with lighting applications. However, it still remains some challenges especially coverage because of field-of-view limitation. In this paper, we focus on this issue by suggesting a resource allocation scheme for VLC broadcasting system. By using frame synchronization and a network calculus QoS approximation, as well as diversity technology, the proposed VLC architecture and QoS resource allocation for the multichannel-broadcasting MAC (medium access control) protocol can solve the coverage limitation problem and the link switching problem of exhibition service.
How should INGOs allocate resources?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scott Wisor
2012-02-01
Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.
Resource Allocation in Multiple Access Channels
ParandehGheibi, Ali; Ozdaglar, Asuman; Medard, Muriel
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of rate allocation in a Gaussian multiple-access channel, with the goal of maximizing a utility function over transmission rates. In contrast to the literature which focuses on linear utility functions, we study general concave utility functions. We present a gradient projection algorithm for this problem. Since the constraint set of the problem is described by exponentially many constraints, methods that use exact projections are computationally intractable. Therefore, we develop a new method that uses approximate projections. We use the polymatroid structure of the capacity region to show that the approximate projection can be implemented by a recursive algorithm in time polynomial in the number of users. We further propose another algorithm for implementing the approximate projections using rate-splitting and show improved bounds on its convergence time.
Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sinding, Knud
Even today, mineral property rights are allocated on what is essentially a first-come, first-serve or open access basis. Access to prospect and locate claims may be restricted in some areas such as national parks, but elsewhere a policy of open access is widely practised, albeit subject to a set of...... handle the other projects that are generated by the "gold rush" informational externalities created by the initial discovery. At the core of the problems of dealing with a gold rush situation is both the informational externality and an institutional framework which is not designed to deal with large...
A game-theoretical pricing mechanism for multiuser rate allocation for video over WiMAX
Chen, Chao-An; Lo, Chi-Wen; Lin, Chia-Wen; Chen, Yung-Chang
2010-07-01
In multiuser rate allocation in a wireless network, strategic users can bias the rate allocation by misrepresenting their bandwidth demands to a base station, leading to an unfair allocation. Game-theoretical approaches have been proposed to address the unfair allocation problems caused by the strategic users. However, existing approaches rely on a timeconsuming iterative negotiation process. Besides, they cannot completely prevent unfair allocations caused by inconsistent strategic behaviors. To address these problems, we propose a Search Based Pricing Mechanism to reduce the communication time and to capture a user's strategic behavior. Our simulation results show that the proposed method significantly reduce the communication time as well as converges stably to an optimal allocation.
Mathematical model for Quay Crane Scheduling Problem with spatial constraints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azza Lajjam
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In the last decades, competition between port container terminals, especially between geographically close one, is rapidly increasing. To improve this competitiveness, terminal managers try to achieve rapid container vessel loading and unloading, that corresponds to a reduction of the time in port for vessels. In this paper, we focus our attention on the operational decision problem related to the seaside area of maritime container terminals. In particular, we study The Quay Crane Scheduling Problem (QCSP which is considered as a core task of managing maritime container terminals and the optimization of these operations affects significantly the time spent by vessels at berth. The main goal behind this planning problem is to find the optimized sequence of loading and unloading tasks on a set of deployed quay cranes in order to exploit the full performances of port's resources while reducing the berth's total time occupation by vessels. In this paper, we provide a rich model for quay crane scheduling problem that covers important parameters such as ready time and due dates of Quay cranes (QCs, safety margin in order to avoid congestion between QCs and precedence relations among tasks. The proposed model seeks for a more compact mathematical formulation that can be easily solved by a standard optimization solver. Thus, we formulated the Quay Crane Scheduling Problem as a mixed-integer linear model that minimizes the sum of the QCs holding cost and tardiness penalty cost.
National equity of health resource allocation in China: data from 2009 to 2013
Liu, Wen; Liu, Ying; Twum, Peter; Li, Shixue
2016-01-01
Background The inequitable allocation of health resources is a worldwide problem, and it is also one of the obstacles facing for health services utilization in China. A new round of health care reform which contains the important aspect of improving the equity in health resource allocation was released by Chinese government in 2009. The aim of this study is to understand the changes of equity in health resource allocation from 2009 to 2013, and make a further inquiry of the main factors which...
OPTIMAL BUFFER ALLOCATION IN TANDEM CLOSED QUEUING NETWORK WITH MULTI SERVERS USING PSO
K.L.Narasimhamu; V.Venugopal Reddy; C.S.P.Rao
2014-01-01
Buffer Allocation Problem is an important research issue in manufacturing system design. Objective of this paper is to find optimum buffer allocation for closed queuing network with multi servers at each node. Sum of buffers in closed queuing network is constant. Attempt is made to find optimum number of pallets required to maximize throughput of manufacturing system which has pre specified space for allocating pallets. Expanded Mean Value Analysis is used to evaluate the perfo...
Burst Fragmentation Model Based on Sequential Burst Allocation Algorithm for Mobile WiMAX
Zaid G. Ali; Prof. R. B. Ahmad; Dr. Abid Yahya
2013-01-01
the downlink Bandwidth resources of WiMAX are allocated by the burst allocation algorithm. The algorithm is responsible for calculating the appropriate location of a number of the smallest unit of bandwidth which is called the slot for all users within the downlink subframe in the form of bursts. Resource wastage in the form of unused and unallocated slots is a real common problem accompanies resource management in the burst allocation algorithms. This paper investigates the Sequential Burst ...
Optimizing Power Allocation in Interference Channels Using D.C. Programming
Al-Shatri, Hussein; Weber, Tobias
2010-01-01
Power allocation is a promising approach for optimizing the performance of mobile radio systems in interference channels. In the present paper, the non-convex objective function of the power allocation problem aiming at maximizing the sum rate with a total power constraint is reformulated as a difference of two concave functions. A global optimum power allocation is found by applying a branch and bound based algorithm to the new formulation. The algorithm basically splits the feasible region ...
Weighted Max-Min Resource Allocation for Frequency Selective Channels
Zehavi, Ephi; Levanda, Ronny; Han, Zhu
2010-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the computation of weighted max-min rate allocation using joint TDM/FDM strategies under a PSD mask constraint. We show that the weighted max-min solution allocates the rates according to a predetermined rate ratio defined by the weights, a fact that is very valuable for telecommunication service providers. Furthermore, we show that the problem can be efficiently solved using linear programming. We also discuss the resource allocation problem in the mixed services scenario where certain users have a required rate, while the others have flexible rate requirements. The solution is relevant to many communication systems that are limited by a power spectral density mask constraint such as WiMax, Wi-Fi and UWB.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
叶青; 熊伟清; 江宝钏
2011-01-01
为了在最小化综合成本的同时尽量均衡企业的生产负荷以及为水平型制造协作联盟(HMCA)订单分配的管理工作提供依据,设计多种群混合行为二元蚁群算法,用于求解 HMCA 订单分配的多目标模型.该方法在二元蚁群算法的堆础上引入区域划分、环境评价与奖励策略,以弥补二元蚁群算法难以同时寻找多个解的缺陷,通过引入中心扰动行为,进一步提高求解质量.实验结果表明,该算法可以保证分布性,且求解质量较高.%In order to provide the basis for the management of allocating orders in Horizontal Manufacturing Collaborative Alliance(HMCA), this paper designs an algorithm named Multi-population Binary Ant Colony Algorithm with Hybrid Behaviors(MPBAHB) to minimize the comprehensive cost and balance the production loads among the selected manufacturing enterprises.Based on Binary Ant Colony Algorithm (BACA), two strategies of zoning and environmental evaluation/reward are introduced to conquer the drawback of original BACA of difficult to get multiple solutions.And a searching behavior named "central disturbing" is introduced to BACA, so as to strengthen the searching ability.Experimental results prove that the algorithm can get better solutions while keeping the distribution of Pareto front.
Optimal Constrained Resource Allocation Strategies under Low Risk Circumstances
Andreica, Mugurel Ionut; Visan, Costel
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider multiple constrained resource allocation problems, where the constraints can be specified by formulating activity dependency restrictions or by using game-theoretic models. All the problems are focused on generic resources, with a few exceptions which consider financial resources in particular. The problems consider low-risk circumstances and the values of the uncertain variables which are used by the algorithms are the expected values of the variables. For each of the considered problems we propose novel algorithmic solutions for computing optimal resource allocation strategies. The presented solutions are optimal or near-optimal from the perspective of their time complexity. The considered problems have applications in a broad range of domains, like workflow scheduling in industry (e.g. in the mining and metallurgical industry) or the financial sector, motion planning, facility location and data transfer or job scheduling and resource management in Grids, clouds or other distribute...
Location-Based Resource Allocation for OFDMA
Ghorbel, Mahdi
2011-05-01
Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. It has been proposed as a suitable solution for the spectrum scarcity caused by the increase in frequency demand. The concept is based on allowing unlicensed users, called cognitive or secondary users, to share the unoccupied frequency bands with their owners, called the primary users, under constraints on the interference they cause to them. In order to estimate this interference, the cognitive system usually uses the channel state information to the primary user, which is often impractical to obtain. However, we propose to use location information, which is easier to obtain, to estimate this interference. The purpose of this work is to propose a subchannel and power allocation method which maximizes the secondary users\\' total capacity under the constraints of limited budget power and total interference to the primary under certain threshold. We model the problem as a constrained optimization problem for both downlink and uplink cases. Then, we propose low-complexity resource allocation schemes based on the waterfilling algorithm. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method with comparison to the exhaustive search algorithm.
Security cost allocation under combined bilateral-pool market dispatch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most electricity markets around the world are a combination of bilateral and pool markets, such as NordPool and NYPOOL. In these models, market participants bid into the pool and also make bilateral contracts with each other. This paper addressed the issue of congestion management and security cost allocation in a power pool market model. The basic idea of security cost allocation is to divide the incurred security cost due to congestion relief into pool and bilateral market based on their flow contribution to the congested line. A newly proposed security cost allocation strategy of the combined bilateral-pool market was also presented along with case studies using IEEE-14 bus system that tested the proposed method. Using the proposed method, it was shown that security costs are allocated to market participants at different prices which reflect the load contribution to the security problem. This solves the problem of the uniform security cost allocation in a pure pool market system having uniform pricing, and provides a proper security signal to market participants. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs
Security cost allocation under combined bilateral-pool market dispatch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdullah, M.P.; Hassan, M.Y.; Hussin, F. [Technological Univ. of Malaysia (Malaysia). Dept. of Power Engineering
2008-07-01
Most electricity markets around the world are a combination of bilateral and pool markets, such as NordPool and NYPOOL. In these models, market participants bid into the pool and also make bilateral contracts with each other. This paper addressed the issue of congestion management and security cost allocation in a power pool market model. The basic idea of security cost allocation is to divide the incurred security cost due to congestion relief into pool and bilateral market based on their flow contribution to the congested line. A newly proposed security cost allocation strategy of the combined bilateral-pool market was also presented along with case studies using IEEE-14 bus system that tested the proposed method. Using the proposed method, it was shown that security costs are allocated to market participants at different prices which reflect the load contribution to the security problem. This solves the problem of the uniform security cost allocation in a pure pool market system having uniform pricing, and provides a proper security signal to market participants. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.
Dynamic asset allocation and latent variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Carsten; Trolle, Anders Bjerre
We derive an explicit solution to the portfolio problem of a power utility investorwith preferences for wealth at a ¯nite investment horizon. The investor can investin assets with return dynamics described as part of a general multivariate model.The modeling framework encompasses discrete-time VAR......-models where some ofthe state-variables (e.g. expected excess returns) may not be directly observable.A realistic multivariate model is estimated and applied to analyze the portfolioimplications of investment horizon and return predictability when real interest ratesand expected excess returns on stock and...... bonds are not directly observed but mustbe estimated as part of the problem faced by the investor. The solution exhibitssmall variability in portfolio allocations over time compared to the case when excessreturns are assumed observable.JEL Classification: G11Keywords: Portfolio choice, predictability...
Capital Allocation for Insurance Companies: Issues and Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Perch; Poulsen, Rolf; Mumford, Paul
2010-01-01
We address some key issues related to risk and capital allocation in insurance companies. We argue that the Froot-Stein approach to risk is relevant to a number of important problems in the daily management of an insurance portfolio and that – taken to its consequence – this approach will lead to...... underwriting does not harm the performance of any given business line....
Reserve-constrained economic dispatch: Cost and payment allocations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misraji, Jaime [Sistema Electrico Nacional Interconectado de la Republica Dominicana, Calle 3, No. 3, Arroyo Hondo 1, Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional (Dominican Republic); Conejo, Antonio J.; Morales, Juan M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)
2008-05-15
This paper extends basic economic dispatch analytical results to the reserve-constrained case. For this extended problem, a cost and payment allocation analysis is carried out and a detailed economic interpretation of the results is provided. Sensitivity values (Lagrange multipliers) are also analyzed. A case study is considered to illustrate the proposed analysis. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)
Three Essays on Time Allocation
Gonz??lez Chapela, Jorge
2004-01-01
This thesis studies from the theoretical and empirical points of view the allocation of time by part of rational individuals motivated by technological changes in the economy. Drawing upon the labor market viewpoint of Lucas and Rapping (1969), the first two chapters are respectively concerned with the life-cycle allocation of labor effort by part of prime-age males and females, and they seek to ask for the attention over a topic of research that seemed closed from the mid 1980's: the importa...
Application of an allocation methodology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Youngblood, R.; de Oliveira, L.F.S.
1989-01-01
This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrated performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Using linear integer programming for multi-site land-use allocation
Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Eisinger, E.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Stewart, Th.J.
2003-01-01
Research in the area of spatial decision support (SDS) and resource allocation has recently generated increased attention for integrating optimization techniques with GIS. In this paper we address the use of spatial optimization techniques for solving multi-site land-use allocation (MLUA) problems,
Yanuariadi, T.
1999-01-01
A land allocation model for sustainable industrial forest plantation (IFP) project establishment is developed in this research. The model provides the foundation for a spatial decision support system (DSS) that deals with analytical and practical problem solving in IFP land allocation in Indonesia.
OPTIMAL BUFFER ALLOCATION IN TANDEM CLOSED QUEUING NETWORK WITH MULTI SERVERS USING PSO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.L.Narasimhamu
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Buffer Allocation Problem is an important research issue in manufacturing system design. Objective of this paper is to find optimum buffer allocation for closed queuing network with multi servers at each node. Sum of buffers in closed queuing network is constant. Attempt is made to find optimum number of pallets required to maximize throughput of manufacturing system which has pre specified space for allocating pallets. Expanded Mean Value Analysis is used to evaluate the performance of closed queuing network. Particle Swarm Optimization is used as generative technique to optimize the buffer allocation. Numerical experiments are shown to explain effectiveness of procedure.
Optimal allocation in balanced sampling
Tillé, Yves; Favre, Anne-Catherine
2016-01-01
The development of new sampling methods allows the selection of large balanced samples. In this paper we propose a method for computing optimal inclusion probabilities for balanced samples. Next, we show that the optimal Neyman allocation is a particular case of this method.
Regulating nutrient allocation in plants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric
2014-12-09
The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.
The Discipline of Asset Allocation.
Petzel, Todd E.
2000-01-01
Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…
Operational risk economic capital allocation
Nikonov, Oleg I.; Vlasov, Vladimir E.; Medvedeva, Marina A.
2013-10-01
In the paper we describe a model of operational risk of economic capital estimation and allocation based on Loss Distribution Approach (LDA). Bank's total losses are modeled through Monte-Carlo simulations of its business units' losses. It allows to fairly distributing the corresponding capital between business units in order to assess and manage their risk adjusted performance.
Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation
Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.
2011-01-01
Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…
Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.
Reid, Alban E.
Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…
Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu
| generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient and...
Statistically robust resource allocation for distributed multi-carrier cooperative networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XING ChengWen; FEI ZeSong; LI Na; HAN YanTao; DANEV Danyo; KUANG JingMing
2013-01-01
In this paper, we investigate joint subcarrier and power allocation scheme for distributed multicarrier cooperative networks with imperfect channel state information. Using practical channel estimation algorithms, the statistic model of the channel estimation error is first derived. Then based on the channel error model, the resource allocation scheme aims at maximizing the sum rate of the overall network. Specifically, both subcarrier allocation and power allocation are taken into account. In the subcarrier allocation, a realistic problem of the power leakage between neighboring subcarriers is also addressed. Furthermore, based on Lagrange dual-decomposition algorithm, a practical power allocation algorithm is proposed. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the performance advantages of the proposed robust design.
Optimal Constrained Resource Allocation Strategies under Low Risk Circumstances
Andreica, Mugurel Ionut; Andreica, Madalina; Visan, Costel
2009-01-01
The computational geometry problems studied in this paper were inspired by tasks from the International Olympiad in Informatics (some of which were personally attended by the authors). The attached archive contains task descriptions, authors' solutions, as well as some official solutions of the tasks. International audience In this paper we consider multiple constrained resource allocation problems, where the constraints can be specified by formulating activity dependency restrictions o...
Nonlinear Mathematical Programming for Optimal Management of Container Terminals
Seyedalizadeh Ganji, S. R.; Javanshir, H.; Vaseghi, F.
Berth scheduling is the process of determining the time and position at which each arriving ship will berth. This paper attempts to minimize the serving time to ships, after introducing a proposed mathematical model, considers the berth allocation problem in form of mixed integer nonlinear programming. Then, to credit the proposed model, the results of Imai et al.'s model have been used. The results indicate that because the number of nonlinear variables in the proposed model is less than prior model, so by using the proposed model, we can obtain the results of model in less time rather than prior model.
Robust Control Allocation among Overactuated Spacecraft Thrusters under Ellipsoidal Uncertainty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenyang Duan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Spacecrafts with overactuated and redundant thrusters can work normally once some of them are out of work, which improves the reliability of spacecraft in orbit. In this way, the desired command of controller needs to be dynamically allocated among thrusters. Considering that uncertain factors may appear in forms of dynamics, installation errors, thrust deviations, or failures, this paper proposes a robust control allocation under ellipsoidal uncertainty. This method uses the uncertainty ellipsoid set to describe the uncertainty of the thrusters firstly and establish the thrust allocation robust reference model and then transforms it into a cone optimization model which can be solved as an optimized problem. Finally, this paper adopts the interior-point method for solving the optimization problem. In this way, difficulties of solving the problem caused by parameter uncertainties are avoided effectively. Finally, we take satellite rendezvous and docking as simulation scenarios; it is verified that the cumulative distribution error and maximum error can be reduced by more than 15% when the random error of control efficiency matrix is 5%–20%; also, precision of thruster allocation is improved.
Cross-Layer Optimal Rate Allocation for Heterogeneous Wireless Multicast
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amr Mohamed
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Heterogeneous multicast is an efficient communication scheme especially for multimedia applications running over multihop networks. The term heterogeneous refers to the phenomenon when multicast receivers in the same session require service at different rates commensurate with their capabilities. In this paper, we address the problem of resource allocation for a set of heterogeneous multicast sessions over multihop wireless networks. We propose an iterative algorithm that achieves the optimal rates for a set of heterogeneous multicast sessions such that the aggregate utility for all sessions is maximized. We present the formulation of the multicast resource allocation problem as a nonlinear optimization model and highlight the cross-layer framework that can solve this problem in a distributed ad hoc network environment with asynchronous computations. Our simulations show that the algorithm achieves optimal resource utilization, guarantees fairness among multicast sessions, provides flexibility in allocating rates over different parts of the multicast sessions, and adapts to changing conditions such as dynamic channel capacity and node mobility. Our results show that the proposed algorithm not only provides flexibility in allocating resources across multicast sessions, but also increases the aggregate system utility and improves the overall system throughput by almost 30% compared to homogeneous multicast.
Rate and Power Allocation in Fading Multiple Access Channels
ParandehGheibi, Ali; Ozdaglar, Asuman; Medard, Muriel
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of rate and power allocation in a fading multiple-access channel. Our objective is to obtain rate and power allocation policies that maximize a utility function defined over average transmission rates. In contrast with the literature, which focuses on the linear case, we present results for general concave utility functions. We consider two cases. In the first case, we assume that power control is possible and channel statistics are known. In this case, we show that the optimal policies can be obtained greedily by maximizing a linear utility function at each channel state. In the second case, we assume that power control is not possible and channel statistics are not available. In this case, we define a greedy rate allocation policy and provide upper bounds on the performance difference between the optimal and the greedy policy. Our bounds highlight the dependence of the performance difference on the channel variations and the structure of the utility function.
CAPACITY ALLOCATION IN A COMPETITIVE MULTI-CHANNEL SUPPLY CHAIN
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kaijun LIU; Zigang ZHANG
2007-01-01
This paper addresses the capacity allocation problem for a capacitated manufacturer who can distribute her product to the end customers through an independent retailer channel as well as through her direct channel. Demands of the channels are substitutable, which induces competition between them. We show that to avoid channel competition, it is possible for the manufacturer to deny the retailer of capacity. Specifically, if channel substitution rate is high, a retailer of low demand will never be allocated any capacity even when the available capacity is ample. While, if the channel substitution rate is low, capacity allocation strategy depends on the retailer's demand and the available capacity.Many other interesting managerial insights are provided and illustrated with numerical examples.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈香
2014-01-01
遗传算法GA (genetic algorithm)作为一种解决复杂问题的有效方法，是由美国密执安大学的John Holland教授于1975年首先提出来的，这种算法是以达尔文的生物进化论为启发而创建的，是基于生物进化中自然选择、适者生存和物种遗传思想的搜索算法。%Genetic algorithm (GA based algorithm), as a kind of effective method to solve complex problems, is by the university of Michigan professor John Holland in 1975, first of all, this algorithm is based on Darwinian evolution inspired, is based on natural selection, survival of the fittest in biological evolution and genetic search algorithm.
Zhu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Alpcan, Tansu; Girod, Bernd
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of rate allocation among multiple simultaneous video streams sharing multiple heterogeneous access networks. We develop and evaluate an analytical framework for optimal rate allocation based on observed available bit rate (ABR) and round-trip time (RTT) over each access network and video distortion-rate (DR) characteristics. The rate allocation is formulated as a convex optimization problem that minimizes the total expected distortion of all video streams. We present a distributed approximation of its solution and compare its performance against H-infinity optimal control and two heuristic schemes based on TCP-style additive-increase-multiplicative decrease (AIMD) principles. The various rate allocation schemes are evaluated in simulations of multiple high-definition (HD) video streams sharing multiple access networks. Our results demonstrate that, in comparison with heuristic AIMD-based schemes, both media-aware allocation and H-infinity optimal control benefit from proactive congesti...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youhua Ma
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the joint problem of relay selection and optimal power allocation for multi-relay amplify-and-forward (AF cooperative communication system over frequency selective fading channels. An optimization model combined relay selection and power allocation under a total transmission power budget is formulated. Then, this combinatorial problem is solved in a distributed strategy. Relay selection with a new threshold-based multiple-relay selection (MRS scheme is implemented at first, and then power is allocated between source and the selected relays in an optimized way to maximize channel capacity. Simulation result shows that the proposed joint scenario with relay selection and power allocation achieves better throughput performance than that of parallel-relay scenario (means that random relay is selected to forward data and allocated part of total power on average. Furthermore, the performances of the new MRS scheme and other relay selection strategies are also investigated.
Power allocation for non-orthogonal decode-and-forward cooperation protocol
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yong; XU YouYun; CAI YueMing
2009-01-01
This paper studies the power allocation problem for the non-orthogonal decode-and-forward (NDF) cooperation protocol with selection relaying. With the availability of the magnitudes of all channel gains at the source, the power allocation is explored that maximizes the mutual information between the source and destination subject to a total power constraint. The minimum power that avoids the outage of the relay is set as a condition, under which the power allocation problem becomes one of selecting the optimal one from several allocation factor triplets. It is shown that the power allocation scheme can provide considerable performance gain, and the non-orthogonal cooperation protocol is superior to the orthogonal protocol and direct transmission.
Ad Serving Using a Compact Allocation Plan
Chen, Peiji; Mandalapu, Srinath; Nagarajan, Chandrashekhar; Shanmugasundaram, Jayavel; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Vee, Erik; Yu, Manfai; Zien, Jason
2012-01-01
A large fraction of online display advertising is sold via guaranteed contracts: a publisher guarantees to the advertiser a certain number of user visits satisfying the targeting predicates of the contract. The publisher is then tasked with solving the ad serving problem - given a user visit, which of the thousands of matching contracts should be displayed, so that by the expiration time every contract has obtained the requisite number of user visits. The challenges of the problem come from (1) the sheer size of the problem being solved, with tens of thousands of contracts and billions of user visits, (2) the unpredictability of user behavior, since these contracts are sold months ahead of time, when only a forecast of user visits is available and (3) the minute amount of resources available online, as an ad server must respond with a matching contract in a fraction of a second. We present a solution to the guaranteed delivery ad serving problem using {\\em compact allocation plans}. These plans, computed offl...
An efficient approach to enhance capacity allocation over Bluetooth network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun
2002-01-01
With the current development of mobile devices, short range wireless communications have become more and more popular, and research on short range wireless communications, such as Bluetooth, has gained increasing in-terest, in industry as well as in academy. This paper analyzes capacity allocation...... issues in Bluetooth network as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. The hybrid distributed capacity allocation scheme HDICA is proposed as an approximated solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies...... quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in the Bluetooth network, such as node and link capacity limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation...
Hybrid Distributed Iterative Capacity Allocation over Bluetooth Network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun
2002-01-01
With the current development of mobile devices, short range wireless communications have become more and more popular, and many researches on short range wireless communications, such as Bluetooth, have gained special interests, in industry as well as in academy. This paper analyzes capacity...... allocation issues in Bluetooth network as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. The hybrid distributed capacity allocation scheme is proposed as an approximated solution of the formulated problem that satisfies quality...... of service requirements and constraints in Bluetooth network, such as limited capacity, decentralized, frequent changes of topology and of capacities assigned to nodes in the network. The simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth could be improved by applying the hybrid distributed iterative...
Hybrid Distributed Iterative Capacity Allocation over Bluetooth Network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun
With the current development of mobile devices, short range wireless communications have become more and more popular, and many researches on short range wireless communications, such as Bluetooth, have gained special interests, in industry as well as in academy. This paper analyzes capacity...... allocation issues in Bluetooth network as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. The hybrid distributed capacity allocation scheme is proposed as an approximated solution of the formulated problem that satisfies quality...... of service requirements and constraints in Bluetooth network, such as limited capacity, decentralized, frequent changes of topology and of capacities assigned to nodes in the network. The simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth could be improved by applying the hybrid distributed iterative...
Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.
15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.
2010-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make grants...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award...
10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy... Credit Program § 490.503 Credit allocation. (a) Based on annual credit activity report information, as described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...
24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements § 574.130 Formula allocations. (a) Data sources. HUD will allocate funds based on the number of cases...
Allocation decisions in network industries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, I want to propagate a new analytical tool: The usage of Menu Auctions for modelling complicated auctions, negotiations, rent seeking, etc. is advocated, because, contrary to 'normal' auctions and bargaining models, an arbitrary number of additional aspects can be taken into account. After concentrating on 'Truthful Equilibria' [Bernheim, B.D., Whinston, M.D., 1986. Menu auctions, resource allocation, and economic influence, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1-31.] a certain broad class of Menu Auctions show unique and efficient allocations. Under an additional concavity condition even the equilibrium bids are unique. Two examples are discussed: the privatisation of a state-owned industry and the buying of wholesale electricity (concluding contracts with a number of producers) by a utility. These examples also serve to trace the sources of 'non-concavities' which can prevent the uniqueness of bids and can provide the auctioneer with incentives to exclude bidders from the competition. (author)
Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis
Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo
2016-01-01
New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...
Portfolio Allocation Subject to Credit Risk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rogerio de Deus Oliveira
2003-12-01
Full Text Available Credit Risk is an important dimension to be considered in the risk management procedures of financial institutions. Is a particularly useful in emerging markets where default rates on bank loan products are usually high. It is usually calculated through highly costly Monte Carlo simulations which consider different stochastic factors driving the uncertainly associated to the borrowers liabilities. In this paper, under some restrictions, we drive closed form formulas for the probability distributions of default rates of bank loans products involving a big number of clients. This allows us to quickly obtain the credit risk of such products. Moreover, using these probability distributions, we solve the problem of optimal portfolio allocation under default risk.
Resources Allocation Schemas for Web Information Monitoring
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Kang; SHEN Meiming; ZHENG Weimin
2005-01-01
The web is an extremely dynamic world where information is updated even every second. A web information monitoring system fetches information from the web continuously and finds changes by comparing two versions of the same page. The updating of a specific web page is modeled as a Poisson process with parameter to indicate the change frequency. As the amount of computing resources is limited, it is necessary to find some policies for reducing the overall change-detection time. Different allocation schemas are evaluated experimentally to find out which one is the most suitable for the web information monitoring problem. The experimental data shows the runtime characteristics of the overall system performance and the relationship to the total amount of resources.
Intrahousehold allocation and gender relations
Quisumbing, Agnes R; Maluccio, John A.
2000-01-01
The paper reviews recent theory and empirical evidence testing unitary versus collective models of the household. In contrast to the unitary model, the collective model posits that individuals within households have different preferences and do not pool their income. Moreover, the collective model predicts that intrahousehold allocations reflect differences in preferences and "bargaining power" of individuals within the household. Using new household data sets from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethi...
Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks
Jordan, Scott
1996-01-01
Wireless services are one of the strongest growth areas in telecommunications today. Dynamic channel allocation schemes have garnered a considerable amount of attention as methods for achieving efficient use of system resources. Various combinations of permanent channel assignment, channel borrowing, shared pools of channels, channel ordering, channel reassignment, and dynamic adjustment of parameters have been suggested. In this paper, we suggest a categorization of dynamic channel allocatio...
The allocation of entrepreneurial effort and its implications on economic growth
Muñoz Pérez, Félix Fernando; Encinar del Pozo, María Isabel; Otamendi, Francisco Javier
2013-01-01
The problem to allocate effort to innovation activities is defined and modelled for any single entrepreneur according to its propensity to innovate, which combines pure innovation and rent-seeking strategies. The allocation problem is solved both analytically and via simulation. The individual decisions measured in units of innovation are then aggregated to calculate the innovation quantity for a given population based on the distribution of heterogeneous entrepreneurs. The ent...
Resource Allocation Model for Modelling Abstract RTOS on Multiprocessor System-on-Chip
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Virk, Kashif Munir; Madsen, Jan
2003-01-01
Resource Allocation is an important problem in RTOS's, and has been an active area of research. Numerous approaches have been developed and many different techniques have been combined for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we address the problem of resource allocation in the context of...... modelling an abstract RTOS on multiprocessor SoC platforms. We discuss the implementation details of a simplified basic priority inheritance protocol for our abstract system model in SystemC....
Optimum Allocation of Distributed Generation in Distribution Network using Cuckoo Search Algorigthm
NASAB, Farhad Naeimi; SIMAB, Mohsen; SIAHI, Mehdi
2015-01-01
Abstract. This work presents an intelligent methodology for the optimal distributed generation allocation associated with the optimal reconfiguration in radial distribution networks to minimize energy losses. The proposed solution to this problem is framed as a non-linear combinatorial optimization problem and status of switches is non-differentiable which is solved using Binary Cuckoo Search Algorigthm (BCSA). The results show that the optimal distributed generation allocation with the recon...
Stochastic Resource Allocation for Energy-Constrained Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sachs DanielGrobe
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Battery-powered wireless systems running media applications have tight constraints on energy, CPU, and network capacity, and therefore require the careful allocation of these limited resources to maximize the system's performance while avoiding resource overruns. Usually, resource-allocation problems are solved using standard knapsack-solving techniques. However, when allocating conservable resources like energy (which unlike CPU and network remain available for later use if they are not used immediately knapsack solutions suffer from excessive computational complexity, leading to the use of suboptimal heuristics. We show that use of Lagrangian optimization provides a fast, elegant, and, for convex problems, optimal solution to the allocation of energy across applications as they enter and leave the system, even if the exact sequence and timing of their entrances and exits is not known. This permits significant increases in achieved utility compared to heuristics in common use. As our framework requires only a stochastic description of future workloads, and not a full schedule, we also significantly expand the scope of systems that can be optimized.
Power Allocation over Two Identical Gilbert-Elliott Channels
Tang, Junhua
2012-01-01
We study the problem of power allocation over two identical Gilbert-Elliot communication channels. Our goal is to maximize the expected discounted number of bits transmitted over an infinite time horizon. This is achieved by choosing among three possible strategies: (1) betting on channel 1 by allocating all the power to this channel, which results in high data rate if channel 1 happens to be in good state, and zero bits transmitted if channel 1 is in bad state (even if channel 2 is in good state) (2) betting on channel 2 by allocating all the power to the second channel, and (3) a balanced strategy whereby each channel is allocated half the total power, with the effect that each channel can transmit a low data rate if it is in good state. We assume that each channel's state is only revealed upon transmission of data on that channel. We model this problem as a partially observable Markov decision processes (MDP), and derive key threshold properties of the optimal policy. Further, we show that by formulating a...
Optimization of Power Allocation for Multiusers in Multi-Spot-Beam Satellite Communication Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heng Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, multi-spot-beam satellite communication systems have played a key role in global seamless communication. However, satellite power resources are scarce and expensive, due to the limitations of satellite platform. Therefore, this paper proposes optimizing the power allocation of each user in order to improve the power utilization efficiency. Initially the capacity allocated to each user is calculated according to the satellite link budget equations, which can be achieved in the practical satellite communication systems. The problem of power allocation is then formulated as a convex optimization, taking account of a trade-off between the maximization of the total system capacity and the fairness of power allocation amongst the users. Finally, an iterative algorithm based on the duality theory is proposed to obtain the optimal solution to the optimization. Compared with the traditional uniform resource allocation or proportional resource allocation algorithms, the proposed optimal power allocation algorithm improves the fairness of power allocation amongst the users. Moreover, the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is linear with both the numbers of the spot beams and users. As a result, the proposed power allocation algorithm is easy to be implemented in practice.
Cost allocation review : staff discussion paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report addressed the need for updated cost allocation studies filed by local electricity distribution companies because they ensure that distribution rates for each customer class remain just and reasonable. According to the 2001 Electricity Distribution Rate Handbook, the Ontario Energy Board requires new cost allocation studies before implementing any future incentive regulation plans. A review of cost allocations allows the Board to consider the need for adjustments to the current share of distribution costs paid by different classes of ratepayers. This report included 14 sections to facilitate consultations with stakeholders on financial information requirements for cost allocation; directly assignable costs; functionalization; categorization; allocation methods; allocation of other costs; load data requirements; cost allocation implementation issues; addition of new rate class and rate design for scattered unmetered loads; addition of new rate class for larger users; rates to charge embedded distributors; treatment of the rate sub-classification identified as time-of-use; and, rate design implementation issues. 1 fig., 7 appendices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tadeu Junior Gross
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the method of power allocation for wireless communication networks, limited by multiple access interference under fading Rayleigh channels. The method takes into account the statistical variation of the desired and interfering signals power and optimally and dynamically allocates the power resources in the system. This allocation is made being taken into account the restrictions imposed by the outage probability for each receiver/transmitter pair. Based on the Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue and geometric programming (GP theories, some interesting results were found for the optimization problem analyzed. A GP is a special type of optimization problem that can be transformed in a non-linear convex optimization problem simply by the change of variables, and then to be globally solved. Also, an iterative method for fast convergence was shown to find the optimally power allocation seeking to minimize the outage probability in the communication.
The Study of Resource Allocation among Software Development Phases: An Economics-Based Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peleg Yiftachel
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an economics-based approach for studying the problem of resource allocation among software development phases. Our approach is structured along two parallel axes: theoretical and empirical. We developed a general economic model for analyzing the allocation problem as a constrained profit maximization problem. The model, based on a novel concept of software production function, considers the effects of different allocations of development resources on output measures of the resulting software product. An empirical environment for evaluating and refining the model is presented, and a first exploratory study for characterizing the model's components and developers' resource allocation decisions is described. The findings illustrate how the model can be applied and validate its underlying assumptions and usability. Future quantitative empirical studies can refine and substantiate various aspects of the proposed model and ultimately improve the productivity of software development processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Sathish Kumar
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Rapid development of wireless services, leads to ubiquitous personal connectivity in the world. The demand for multimedia interactivity is higher in the world which leads to the requirement of high data transmission rate. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM is a future wireless service which is used to overcome the existing service problems such as development of subscriber pool and higher throughput per user. Although it overcomes the problems in existing services, resource allocation becomes one of the major issues in the MIMO-OFDM systems. Resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM is the optimization of subcarrier and power allocation for the user. The overall performance of the system can be improved only with the efficient resource allocation approach. The user data rate is increased by efficient allocation of the subcarrier and power allocation for each user at the base station, which is subject to constraints on total power and bit error rate. In this study, the problem of resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM system is tackled using hybrid artificial bee colony optimization algorithm based on a crossover operation along with Poisson-Jensen in equation. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology is better than the existing techniques.
Routing and spectrum allocation in multi-ring based data center networks
Zhang, Zitian; Hu, Weisheng; Ye, Tong; Sun, Weiqiang; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Kuo
2016-02-01
Recently, we proposed a multi-ring based optical circuit switching (OCS) network following the principle of a Clos network. The network can provide connectivity to a large number of racks which may be distributed across a relatively large geographical space in a data center. However, property of the ring based switch in the central stage of the multi-ring based OCS network introduces a unique routing and spectrum allocation (RSA) problem which is more complex than the routing problem in a classical Clos switching network. In this paper, we extend our work to investigate the RSA problem. For a given set of inter-rack traffic requests, we consider two spectrum allocation schemes, namely fixed spectrum allocation and flexible spectrum allocation. For the fixed case, we show that the RSA problem degenerates into the traditional routing problem of the Clos network. As for the flexible case, property of spectrum division multiplexing technology and bandwidth limitation of the ring based switches should be taken into consideration during allocation of the central module, such that the system throughput can be maximized. This paper presents an integer linear program (ILP) formulation as well as a heuristic algorithm we developed to solve the flexible RSA problem. We evaluate the performance of both the two spectrum allocation schemes under different traffic patterns. Our results demonstrate that, to handle uneven inter-rack traffic pattern in general data center networks, flexible spectrum allocation can lead to an increase of about 120% in system throughput, although its computational complexity is slightly higher than that of the fixed spectrum allocation scheme.
SHALE: An Efficient Algorithm for Allocation of Guaranteed Display Advertising
Bharadwaj, Vijay; Ma, Wenjing; Nagarajan, Chandrashekhar; Tomlin, John; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Vee, Erik; Yang, Jian
2012-01-01
Motivated by the problem of optimizing allocation in guaranteed display advertising, we develop an efficient, lightweight method of generating a compact {\\em allocation plan} that can be used to guide ad server decisions. The plan itself uses just O(1) state per guaranteed contract, is robust to noise, and allows us to serve (provably) nearly optimally. The optimization method we develop is scalable, with a small in-memory footprint, and working in linear time per iteration. It is also "stop-anytime", meaning that time-critical applications can stop early and still get a good serving solution. Thus, it is particularly useful for optimizing the large problems arising in the context of display advertising. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm using actual Yahoo! data.
An Efficient Algorithm for Resource Allocation in Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.F. El-Zoghdy
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Resource allocation in heterogeneous parallel and distributed computing systems is the process of allocating user tasks to processing elements for execution such that some performance objective is optimized. In this paper, a new resource allocation algorithm for the computing grid environment is proposed. It takes into account the heterogeneity of the computational resources. It resolves the single point of failure problem which many of the current algorithms suffer from. In this algorithm, any site manager receives two kinds of tasks namely, remote tasks arriving from its associated local grid manager, and local tasks submitted directly to the site manager by local users in its domain. It allocates the grid workload based on the resources occupation ratio and the communication cost. The grid overall mean task response time is considered as the main performance metric that need to be minimized. The simulation results show that the proposed resource allocation algorithm improves the grid overall mean task response time. (Abstract
Distributed Learning Policies for Power Allocation in Multiple Access Channels
Mertikopoulos, Panayotis; Belmega, Elena V.; Moustakas, Aris L.; Lasaulce, Samson
2011-01-01
We analyze the problem of distributed power allocation for orthogonal multiple access channels by considering a continuous non-cooperative game whose strategy space represents the users' distribution of transmission power over the network's channels. When the channels are static, we find that this game admits an exact potential function and this allows us to show that it has a unique equilibrium almost surely. Furthermore, using the game's potential property, we derive a modified version of t...
How Compatible is Perfect Competition with Transmission Loss Allocation Methods?
Jing, Dai; Phulpin, Yannick; Rious, Vincent; Ernst, Damien
2008-01-01
International audience This paper addresses the problem of transmission loss allocation in a power system where the generators, the demands and the system operator are independent. We suppose that the transmission losses are exclusively charged to the generators, which are willing to adopt a perfectly competitive behavior. In this context, their offers must reflect their production costs and their transmission loss costs, the latter being unknown beforehand and having to be predicted. We a...
Optimal Resource Allocation Between Spot and Package Demands
Yoram Kinberg; Ambar G. Rao; Ephraim F Sudit
1980-01-01
This paper deals with the problem of allocating fixed resources between two types of demands; (a) spot demand; and (b) package (subscription) demand---demand that is satisfied by selling usage rights over a prespecified time period prior to actual consumption. In Model 1, a probabilistic spot demand for a single resource, stationary over time, is assumed together with externally determined spot and package pricing. It is shown that the optimal (profit maximizing) policy is to sell all the pac...
Sharing the cost of a network: Core and core allocations.
2001-01-01
This paper discusses the core of the game corresponding to the standard fixed tree problem. We consider the weighted adaptation of the constrained egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989). The core of the standard fixed tree game equals the set of all weighted constrained egalitarian solutions. Each weighted constrained egalitarian solution is determined (in polynomial time) as a home-down allocation, which creates further insight in the local behaviour of the weighted constrained egalita...
Optimal Asset Allocation for Sovereign Wealth Funds: Theory and Practice
Zvi Bodie; Marie Brière
2014-01-01
This paper addresses management of sovereign wealth from the perspective of the theory of contingent claims.Starting with the sovereign’s balance sheet, we frame sovereign fund management as an asset-liability management (ALM) problem, covering all public entities and taking explicit account of all sources of risks affecting government resources and expenditures. Real-life SWFs asset allocations differ strongly from theoretical ones. Financial management of the sovereign balance sheet is hamp...
The allocation of scarce resources in miscellaneous cases
Hamsvoort, van der, C.P.C.M.
2006-01-01
Key words: sustainable development, environmental utilization space (EUS), auctions, conservation contracting, information asymmetry, agricultural land market, Town and Country Planning Act,AMS, agricultural trade negotiations, PSE. This book presents a number of papers that address different allocation problems. Each of them applies to specific situations, defined by the conditions assumed in the model. The papers appeared previously in different outlets and are reprinted by permission ...
Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.
Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume
2015-02-01
We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244
Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis
Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.
2016-01-01
New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325
Optimising of resource utilisation at a university - an allocation problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.J. Scogings
2003-12-01
Full Text Available Student enrolment at the University of Natal has been increasing steadily over the years. Moreover additional new courses are introduced from time to time. Despite this State subsidies are declining in real terms. These factors imply escalating demands on physical resources. Historically, at this university, lecture rooms have been used only during the mornings and laboratories only during the afternoons. An obvious solution to meet the demand for accommodation is to double up on the number of timetabled periods so that the lecture rooms are in use the whole day. Since there are many classes which are in fact too large to be accommodated in any one room it is also necessary to split these classes into separate lecture groups. Likewise classes have to be divided up into several smaller groups for laboratory and tutorial sessions. The policy at this university is to encourage students to choose curricula including courses selected from as wide a range as possible. The above timetable strategy apparently facilitates this. In practice, however, to ensure that student numbers are evenly distributed across alternative sessions for a given course and to do this for all courses simultaneously while avoiding clashes is not a simple matter.
Defining and solving the energy allocation problem with continuous prosumers
Cerquides, Jesús; Picard, Gauthier; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Juan A.
2015-01-01
International audience Decentralized energy production is meant to reduce generation and distribution inefficiencies, leading to major economic and environmental benefits. This new model is meant to be supported by smart grids, electricity networks that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to them —generators, consumers, and prosumers (those that do both)— to efficiently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies. A major research challenge is t...
Efficient Subtorus Processor Allocation in a Multi-Dimensional Torus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weizhen Mao; Jie Chen; William Watson
2005-11-30
Processor allocation in a mesh or torus connected multicomputer system with up to three dimensions is a hard problem that has received some research attention in the past decade. With the recent deployment of multicomputer systems with a torus topology of dimensions higher than three, which are used to solve complex problems arising in scientific computing, it becomes imminent to study the problem of allocating processors of the configuration of a torus in a multi-dimensional torus connected system. In this paper, we first define the concept of a semitorus. We present two partition schemes, the Equal Partition (EP) and the Non-Equal Partition (NEP), that partition a multi-dimensional semitorus into a set of sub-semitori. We then propose two processor allocation algorithms based on these partition schemes. We evaluate our algorithms by incorporating them in commonly used FCFS and backfilling scheduling policies and conducting simulation using workload traces from the Parallel Workloads Archive. Specifically, our simulation experiments compare four algorithm combinations, FCFS/EP, FCFS/NEP, backfilling/EP, and backfilling/NEP, for two existing multi-dimensional torus connected systems. The simulation results show that our algorithms (especially the backfilling/NEP combination) are capable of producing schedules with system utilization and mean job bounded slowdowns comparable to those in a fully connected multicomputer.
Multidemand Multisource Order Quantity Allocation with Multiple Transportation Alternatives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Gang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on a multidemand multisource order quantity allocation problem with multiple transportation alternatives. To solve this problem, a bilevel multiobjective programming model under a mixed uncertain environment is proposed. Two levels of decision makers are considered in the model. On the upper level, the purchaser aims to allocate order quantity to multiple suppliers for each demand node with the consideration of three objectives: total purchase cost minimization, total delay risk minimization, and total defect risk minimization. On the lower level, each supplier attempts to optimize the transportation alternatives with total transportation and penalty costs minimization as the objective. In contrast to prior studies, considering the information asymmetry in the bilevel decision, random and fuzzy random variables are used to model uncertain parameters of the construction company and the suppliers. To solve the bilevel model, a solution method based on Kuhn-Tucker conditions, sectional genetic algorithm, and fuzzy random simulation is proposed. Finally, the applicability of the proposed model and algorithm is evaluated through a practical case from a large scale construction project. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are efficient in dealing with practical order quantity allocation problems.
Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten
2001-10-01
When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)
Software Operational Profile Based Test Case Allocation Using Fuzzy Logic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Software operational profile (SOP) is used in software reliability prediction, software quality assessment, performance analysis of software, test case allocation, determination of "when to stop testing," etc. Due to the limited data resources and large efforts required to collect and convert the gathered data into point estimates, reluctance is observed by the software professionals to develop the SOP. A framework is proposed to develop SOP using fuzzy logic, which requires usage data in the form of linguistics. The resulting profile is named fuzzy software operational profile (FSOP). Based on this work, this paper proposes a generalized approach for the allocation of test cases, in which occurrence probability of operations obtained from FSOP are combined with the criticality of the operations using fuzzy inference system (FIS). Traditional methods for the allocation of test cases do not consider the application in which software operates. This is intuitively incorrect. To solve this problem, allocation of test cases with respect to software application using the FIS model is also proposed in this paper.
Optimization of resource allocation in computational grids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debashreet Das
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The resource allocation in Grid computing system needs to be scalable, reliable and smart. It should also be adaptable to change its allocation mechanism depending upon the environment and user’s requirements. Therefore, a scalable and optimized approach for resource allocation where the system can adapt itself to the changing environment and the fluctuating resources is essentially needed. In this paper, a Teaching Learning based optimization approach for resource allocation in Computational Grids is proposed. The proposed algorithm is found to outperform the existing ones in terms of execution time and cost. The algorithm is simulated using GRIDSIM and the simulation results are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luman Zhao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A thrust allocation method was proposed based on a hybrid optimization algorithm to efficiently and dynamically position a semisubmersible drilling rig. That is, the thrust allocation was optimized to produce the generalized forces and moment required while at the same time minimizing the total power consumption under the premise that forbidden zones should be taken into account. An optimization problem was mathematically formulated to provide the optimal thrust allocation by introducing the corresponding design variables, objective function, and constraints. A hybrid optimization algorithm consisting of a genetic algorithm and a sequential quadratic programming (SQP algorithm was selected and used to solve this problem. The proposed method was evaluated by applying it to a thrust allocation problem for a semisubmersible drilling rig. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used as part of a cost-effective strategy for thrust allocation of the rig.
Huang, Kuo-Chan; Wu, Wei-Ya; Wang, Feng-Jian; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Hung, Chun-Hao
2016-01-01
Parallel computation has been widely applied in a variety of large-scale scientific and engineering applications. Many studies indicate that exploiting both task and data parallelisms, i.e. mixed-parallel workflows, to solve large computational problems can get better efficacy compared with either pure task parallelism or pure data parallelism. Scheduling traditional workflows of pure task parallelism on parallel systems has long been known to be an NP-complete problem. Mixed-parallel workflow scheduling has to deal with an additional challenging issue of processor allocation. In this paper, we explore the processor allocation issue in scheduling mixed-parallel workflows of moldable tasks, called M-task, and propose an Iterative Allocation Expanding and Shrinking (IAES) approach. Compared to previous approaches, our IAES has two distinguishing features. The first is allocating more processors to the tasks on allocated critical paths for effectively reducing the makespan of workflow execution. The second is allowing the processor allocation of an M-task to shrink during the iterative procedure, resulting in a more flexible and effective process for finding better allocation. The proposed IAES approach has been evaluated with a series of simulation experiments and compared to several well-known previous methods, including CPR, CPA, MCPA, and MCPA2. The experimental results indicate that our IAES approach outperforms those previous methods significantly in most situations, especially when nodes of the same layer in a workflow might have unequal workloads. PMID:27504236
Power-Rate Allocation in DS/CDMA Based on Discretized Verhulst Equilibrium
Sampaio, Lucas Dias H; Proença, Mario Lemes; Abrão, Taufik
2010-01-01
This paper proposes to extend the discrete Verhulst power equilibrium approach, previously suggested in [1], to the power-rate optimal allocation problem. Multirate users associated to different types of traffic are aggregated to distinct user' classes, with the assurance of minimum rate allocation per user and QoS. Herein, Verhulst power allocation algorithm was adapted to the single-input-single-output DS/CDMA jointly power-rate control problem. The analysis was carried out taking into account the convergence time, quality of solution, in terms of the normalized squared error (NSE), when compared with the analytical solution based on interference matrix inverse, and computational complexity. Numerical results demonstrate the validity of the proposed resource allocation methodology.
ParandehGheibi, Ali; Ozdaglar, Asuman; Medard, Muriel
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of rate and power allocation in a multiple-access channel. Our objective is to obtain rate and power allocation policies that maximize a general concave utility function of average transmission rates on the information theoretic capacity region of the multiple-access channel. Our policies does not require queue-length information. We consider several different scenarios. First, we address the utility maximization problem in a nonfading channel to obtain the optimal operating rates, and present an iterative gradient projection algorithm that uses approximate projection. By exploiting the polymatroid structure of the capacity region, we show that the approximate projection can be implemented in time polynomial in the number of users. Second, we consider resource allocation in a fading channel. Optimal rate and power allocation policies are presented for the case that power control is possible and channel statistics are available. For the case that transmission power is fixed and channel ...
Methodology for reliability allocation based on fault tree analysis and dualistic contrast
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TONG Lili; CAO Xuewu
2008-01-01
Reliability allocation is a difficult multi-objective optimization problem.This paper presents a methodology for reliability allocation that can be applied to determine the reliability characteristics of reactor systems or subsystems.The dualistic contrast,known as one of the most powerful tools for optimization problems,is applied to the reliability allocation model of a typical system in this article.And the fault tree analysis,deemed to be one of the effective methods of reliability analysis,is also adopted.Thus a failure rate allocation model based on the fault tree analysis and dualistic contrast is achieved.An application on the emergency diesel generator in the nuclear power plant is given to illustrate the proposed method.
Resource allocation in cellular networks employing mobile femtocells with deterministic mobility
Jangsher, S; Li, VOK
2013-01-01
Improvement in signal quality and service quality by femtocells offers a natural opportunity for them to be deployed in vehicles. However, resource allocation with mobile femtocells becomes challenging due to the dynamic interference patterns as the mobile femtocells move. In this paper, we introduce the problem of allocating resources in a cellular network with mobile femtocells. We consider two types of femtocells in the scenario, a) fixed femtocells (deployed in stationary location e.g tra...
Marc Fischer; Sönke Albers; Nils Wagner; Monika Frie
2011-01-01
Previous research on marketing budget decisions has shown that profit improvement from better allocation across products or regions is much higher than from improving the overall budget. However, despite its high managerial relevance, contributions by marketing scholars are rare. In this paper, we introduce an innovative and feasible solution to the dynamic marketing budget allocation problem for multiproduct, multicountry firms. Specifically, our decision support model allows determining nea...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
A spatial orthogonal allocation method is devised for multirobot tasks allocation.A 3D space model is adopted to describe exploration mission;meanwhile spatial orthogonal tentative technology is utilized to update the attractor position for load balance.Heterogeneous interactive cultural hybrid architecture is proposed to solve a robot route planning problem;it utilizes good-point-set to initialize population spaces,redefine novel evolution model and particle evolution ability,and introduce near-neighbor lo...
Egalitarian-equivalent Groves Mechanisms in the Allocation of Heterogeneous Objects
Duygu Yengin
2010-01-01
We study the problem of allocating objects when monetary transfers are possible. We are interested in mechanisms that allocate the objects in an efficient way and induce the agents to report their true preferences. Within the class of such mechanisms, first we characterize egalitarian-equivalent mechanisms. Then, we add a bounded-deficit condition and characterize the corresponding class. Finally, we investigate the relations between egalitarian-equivalence and other fairness notions such as ...
Bodie, Zvi; Brière, Marie
2013-01-01
This paper sets out a new analytical framework for optimal asset allocation of sovereign wealth, based on the theory of contingent claim ana lysis (CCA) applied to the sovereign’s economic balance sheet. A country solves an asset-l iability management (ALM) problem between its sources of income and its expenditures. We derive analytically the optimal asset allocation of sovereign wealth, taking explic it account of all sources of risks affecting the sovereign’s balance sheet. The optima l com...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐国磊; 王文渊; 郭子坚; 宋向群; 于旭会; 张冉
2016-01-01
The approach channel has become a key factor constraining the trafficability of seaports, and the impact of channel dimensions on the effective utilization ratio of berths needs to be considered when planning a container terminal. Using a container terminal as an example, this study integrated ship navigation and operation into a simu⁃lation of port construction and operation. Applying related industrial standards, we designed a series of simulation plans and determined the parameters of the simulation model. We then quantitatively analyzed the relationship be⁃tween the effective utilization ratio of the container terminal berths, and the quantity of berths and channel lines and the duration of navigation, to provide a theoretical basis on which to determine the effective utilization ratio of con⁃tainer terminal berths and to estimate the annual trafficability of berths. The results demonstrated that the dimen⁃sions of the approach channel are important in achieving a satisfactory effective utilization ratio of berths, especially with a single⁃line long channel. This study recommends using computer simulation technology when assessing the general port plane layout of real engineering projects to ensure the efficient operation of the port.%进港航道已经成为制约港口通过能力发挥的因素之一，在港口规划时应考虑航道尺度对泊位有效利用率的影响。本文以集装箱码头为例，将船舶航行作业过程引入港口生产作业仿真模型；根据相关行业规范，设计一系列仿真试验方案并确定仿真模型参数；定量分析集装箱码头泊位有效利用率与泊位数、航道线数和航行历时之间的影响关系，为合理确定集装箱码头泊位有效利用率、估算年泊位通过能力提供理论依据。结果表明，在选取合理泊位有效利用率时，进港航道尺度不可忽略，尤其是单线长航道。同时，建议在实际工程中采用计算机仿真技术
Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhua Wang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.
Practical Solutions for Reducing Container Ships’ Waiting Times at Ports Using Simulation Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Abdorreza Sheikholeslami; Gholamreza Ilati; Yones Eftekhari Yeganeh
2013-01-01
The main challenge for container ports is the planning required for berthing container ships while docked in port. Growth of containerization is creating problems for ports and container terminals as they reach their capacity limits of various resources which increasingly leads to traffic and port congestion. Good planning and management of container terminal operations reduces waiting time for liner ships. Reducing the waiting time improves the terminal’s productivity and decreases the port difficulties. Two important keys to reducing waiting time with berth allocation are determining suitable access channel depths and increasing the number of berths which in this paper are studied and analyzed as practical solutions. Simulation based analysis is the only way to understand how various resources interact with each other and how they are affected in the berthing time of ships. We used the Enterprise Dynamics software to produce simulation models due to the complexity and nature of the problems. We further present case study for berth allocation simulation of the biggest container terminal in Iran and the optimum access channel depth and the number of berths are obtained from simulation results. The results show a significant reduction in the waiting time for container ships and can be useful for major functions in operations and development of container ship terminals.
Practical solutions for reducing container ships' waiting times at ports using simulation model
Sheikholeslami, Abdorreza; Ilati, Gholamreza; Yeganeh, Yones Eftekhari
2013-12-01
The main challenge for container ports is the planning required for berthing container ships while docked in port. Growth of containerization is creating problems for ports and container terminals as they reach their capacity limits of various resources which increasingly leads to traffic and port congestion. Good planning and management of container terminal operations reduces waiting time for liner ships. Reducing the waiting time improves the terminal's productivity and decreases the port difficulties. Two important keys to reducing waiting time with berth allocation are determining suitable access channel depths and increasing the number of berths which in this paper are studied and analyzed as practical solutions. Simulation based analysis is the only way to understand how various resources interact with each other and how they are affected in the berthing time of ships. We used the Enterprise Dynamics software to produce simulation models due to the complexity and nature of the problems. We further present case study for berth allocation simulation of the biggest container terminal in Iran and the optimum access channel depth and the number of berths are obtained from simulation results. The results show a significant reduction in the waiting time for container ships and can be useful for major functions in operations and development of container ship terminals.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Zhou; ZHU Yunpeng; REN Hongrui; ZHANG Yimin
2015-01-01
Reliability allocation of computerized numerical controlled(CNC) lathes is very important in industry. Traditional allocation methods only focus on high-failure rate components rather than moderate failure rate components, which is not applicable in some conditions. Aiming at solving the problem of CNC lathes reliability allocating, a comprehensive reliability allocation method based on cubic transformed functions of failure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) is presented. Firstly, conventional reliability allocation methods are introduced. Then the limitations of direct combination of comprehensive allocation method with the exponential transformed FMEA method are investigated. Subsequently, a cubic transformed function is established in order to overcome these limitations. Properties of the new transformed functions are discussed by considering the failure severity and the failure occurrence. Designers can choose appropriate transform amplitudes according to their requirements. Finally, a CNC lathe and a spindle system are used as an example to verify the new allocation method. Seven criteria are considered to compare the results of the new method with traditional methods. The allocation results indicate that the new method is more flexible than traditional methods. By employing the new cubic transformed function, the method covers a wider range of problems in CNC reliability allocation without losing the advantages of traditional methods.
User Equilibrium Exchange Allocation Algorithm Based on Super Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peiyi Dong
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The theory of super network is an effective method to various traffic networks with means of multiple decision-making. It provides us with a favorable pricing decision tool for it combines a practical transport network with the space pricing decision. Spatial price equilibrium problem has always been the important research direction of the Transport Economics and regional transportation planning. As to how to combine the two, this paper presents the user equilibrium exchange allocation algorithm based on super network, which successfully keep the classical spatial price equilibrium problems (SPE into a super-network analysis framework. Through super-network analysis, we can add two virtual nodes in the network, which correspond to the virtual supply node and the super-super-demand virtual node, analysis the user equivalence with the SPE equilibrium and find the concrete steps of users exchange allocation algorithm based on super-network equilibrium. Finally, we carried out experiments to verify. The experiments show that: through the user equilibrium exchange SPE allocation algorithm based on super-network, we can get the steady-state equilibrium solution, which demonstrate that the algorithm is reasonable.
Efficient power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relaying in rayleigh fading
Zafar, Ammar
2013-06-01
In this paper, we study power allocation strategies for a fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay network employing multiple relays. We consider two optimization problems for the relay network: 1) optimal power allocation to maximize the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and 2) minimizing the total consumed power while maintaining the end-to-end SNR over a threshold value. We assume that the relays have knowledge of only the channel statistics of all the links. We show that the SNR maximization problem is concave and the power minimization problem is convex. Hence, we solve the problems through convex programming. Numerical results show the benefit of allocating power optimally rather than uniformly. © 2013 IEEE.
40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section 74.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a)...
Optimal Allocation in Stratified Randomized Response Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javid Shabbir
2005-07-01
Full Text Available A Warner (1965 randomized response model based on stratification is used to determine the allocation of samples. Both linear and log-linear cost functions are discussed under uni and double stratification. It observed that by using a log-linear cost function, one can get better allocations.
Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation
Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.
1993-01-01
A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.
39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.
2010-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for...
Adaptive Subcarrier and Bit Allocation for Downlink OFDMA System with Proportional Fairness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudhir B. Lande
2011-11-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the adaptive subcarrier and bit allocation algorithm for OFDMA systems. To minimize overall transmitted power, we propose a novel adaptive subcarrier and bit allocation algorithm based on channel state information (CSI and quality state information (QSI. A suboptimal approach that separately performs subcarrier allocation and bit loading is proposed. It is shown that a near optimal solution is obtained by the proposed algorithm which has low complexity compared to that of other conventional algorithm. We will study the problem of finding an optimal sub-carrier and power allocation strategy for downlink communication to multiple users in an OFDMA based wireless system.Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all users, we propose a multiuser OFDMA subcarrier, and bit allocation algorithm to minimize the total transmit power. This is done by assigning each user a set of subcarriers and by determining the number of bits and the transmit power level for each subcarrier. The objective is to minimize the total transmitted power over the entire network to satisfy the application layer and physical layer. We formulate this problem as a constrained optimization problem and present centralized algorithms. The simulation results will show that our approach results in an efficient assignment of subcarriers and transmitter power levels in terms of the energy required for transmitting each bit of information, to address this need, we also present a bit loading algorithm for allocating subcarriers and bits in order to satisfy the rate requirements of the links.
Adaptive computational resource allocation for sensor networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-hong; FEI E; YAN Yu-jie
2008-01-01
To efficiently utilize the limited computational resource in real-time sensor networks, this paper focu-ses on the challenge of computational resource allocation in sensor networks and provides a solution with the method of economies. It designs a mieroeconomic system in which the applications distribute their computational resource consumption across sensor networks by virtue of mobile agent. Further, it proposes the market-based computational resource allocation policy named MCRA which satisfies the uniform consumption of computational energy in network and the optimal division of the single computational capacity for multiple tasks. The simula-tion in the scenario of target tracing demonstrates that MCRA realizes an efficient allocation of computational re-sources according to the priority of tasks, achieves the superior allocation performance and equilibrium perform-ance compared to traditional allocation policies, and ultimately prolongs the system lifetime.
Power Efficient Resource Allocation for Clouds Using Ant Colony Framework
Chimakurthi, Lskrao
2011-01-01
Cloud computing is one of the rapidly improving technologies. It provides scalable resources needed for the ap- plications hosted on it. As cloud-based services become more dynamic, resource provisioning becomes more challenging. The QoS constrained resource allocation problem is considered in this paper, in which customers are willing to host their applications on the provider's cloud with a given SLA requirements for performance such as throughput and response time. Since, the data centers hosting the applications consume huge amounts of energy and cause huge operational costs, solutions that reduce energy consumption as well as operational costs are gaining importance. In this work, we propose an energy efficient mechanism that allocates the cloud resources to the applications without violating the given service level agreements(SLA) using Ant colony framework.
Quantitative prediction of genome-wide resource allocation in bacteria.
Goelzer, Anne; Muntel, Jan; Chubukov, Victor; Jules, Matthieu; Prestel, Eric; Nölker, Rolf; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Aymerich, Stéphane; Hecker, Michael; Noirot, Philippe; Becher, Dörte; Fromion, Vincent
2015-11-01
Predicting resource allocation between cell processes is the primary step towards decoding the evolutionary constraints governing bacterial growth under various conditions. Quantitative prediction at genome-scale remains a computational challenge as current methods are limited by the tractability of the problem or by simplifying hypotheses. Here, we show that the constraint-based modeling method Resource Balance Analysis (RBA), calibrated using genome-wide absolute protein quantification data, accurately predicts resource allocation in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis for a wide range of growth conditions. The regulation of most cellular processes is consistent with the objective of growth rate maximization except for a few suboptimal processes which likely integrate more complex objectives such as coping with stressful conditions and survival. As a proof of principle by using simulations, we illustrated how calibrated RBA could aid rational design of strains for maximizing protein production, offering new opportunities to investigate design principles in prokaryotes and to exploit them for biotechnological applications. PMID:26498510
Addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Saraiva de Camargo
2012-12-01
Full Text Available When considering hub-and-spoke networks with single allocation, the absence of alternative routes makes this kind of systems specially vulnerable to congestion effects. In order to improve the design of such networks, congestion costs must be addressed. This article deploys two different techniques for addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks: the Generalized Benders Decomposition and the Outer Approximation method. Both methods are able to solve large scale instances. Computational experiments show how the adoption of advanced solution strategies, such as Pareto-optimal cut generation on the Master Problem branch-and-bound tree, may be decisive. They also demonstrate that the solution effort is not only associated with the size of the instances, but also with their combination of the installation and congestion costs.
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO or... program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...
Dynamic Channel Allocation in Sectored Cellular Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
It is known that dynamic channel assignment(DCA) strategy outperforms the fixed channel assignment(FCA) strategy in omni-directional antenna cellular systems. One of the most important methods used in DCA was channel borrowing. But with the emergence of cell sectorization and spatial division multiple access(SDMA) which are used to increase the capacity of cellular systems, the channel assignment faces a series of new problems. In this paper, a dynamic channel allocation scheme based on sectored cellular systems is proposed. By introducing intra-cell channel borrowing (borrowing channels from neighboring sectors) and inter-cell channel borrowing (borrowing channels from neighboring cells) methods, previous DCA strategies, including compact pattern based channel borrowing(CPCB) and greedy based dynamic channel assignment(GDCA) schemes proposed by the author, are improved significantly. The computer simulation shows that either intra-cell borrowing scheme or inter-cell borrowing scheme is efficient enough to uniform and non-uniform traffic service distributions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco de Assis Corrêa
2009-06-01
Full Text Available O Problema Probabilístico de Localização-Alocação de Máxima Cobertura (PPLAMC consiste em localizar facilidades, maximizando a população atendida e fornecendo um bom nível de serviço para toda a população, ou seja, deve-se garantir que um usuário, ao chegar a um centro, não espere mais que um tempo máximo permitido ou não encontre uma fila de atendimento com um número de usuário maior que um valor máximo. Estes dois parâmetros dependem da taxa de chegada dos usuários e do atendimento, ambos probabilísticos. Devido às dificuldades intrínsecas do problema, neste artigo são discutidos limitantes lagrangeanos para o PPLAMC obtidos com a relaxação lagrangeana com clusters (LagClus. Na sua proposição inicial, a LagClus utilizou um grafo de conflitos, porém neste artigo esta relaxação foi aplicada em um grafo especial denominado grafo de cobertura.The Probabilistic Maximal Covering Location-Allocation Problem (PMCLAP aims to locate facilities maximizing the number of people served and providing a good level of service. This means that customers would not have to wait longer than the wait time established or to wait in long lines. These parameters are influenced by the number of the requests for service and service time, both probabilistic. The PMCLAP is NP-Complete and in this paper we study bounds with a Lagrangean Relaxation with Clusters (LagClus. Instead of using a conflict graph to represent a problem, in this paper another strategy for the use of LagClus using a special graph called covering graph is proposed. This approach provides interesting bounds.
Man-machine Function Allocation Based on Uncertain Linguistic Multiple Attribute Decision Making
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG An; TANG Zhili; ZHANG Chao
2011-01-01
Function allocation is one of the necessary stages in the design course of man-machine systems since appropriate function allocation makes the whole system more effective,reliable and inexpensive.Therefore,our research mainly focuses on the problems of function allocation between man and machine in man-machine systems,analyses each capability advantage of man and machine according to their respective inherent characteristics and makes a comparison between them.In view of highly uncertain characteristics of decision attribute value in the practical process,we introduce the uncertain linguistic multiple attribute decision making (ULMADM) method in the function allocation process.Meanwhile,we also use the uncertain extended weighted arithmetic averaging (UEWAA) method to determine the automation level range of the operator functions.Then,we eventually establish the automation level of man-machine function allocation by using the multi-attribute decision making algorithm,which is combined by UEWAA and uncertain linguistic hybrid aggregation (ULHA) operators.Finally,an example about function allocation is given,that is,fault diagnosis in the cockpit of civil aircraft.The final result of the example demonstrates that the proposed method about function allocation is feasible and effective.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: One of the most controversial changes to the EU ETS in Phase 3 (2013-2020) has been the introduction of emissions-performance benchmarks for determining free allocations to non-electricity producers. Phases 1 and 2 used National Allocation Plans (NAPs). For practical reasons NAPs were drawn up by each Member State, but this led to problems, including over-generous allowance allocation, insufficiently harmonised allocations across countries and distorted incentives to reduce emissions. Benchmarking tries to fix things by allocating the equivalent of 100% of allowances needed if every installation used the best available technology. But this is not universally popular and industries say that they might lose international competitiveness. So a new study by CDC Climat and the Climate Economics Chair examined the data from the preliminary Phase 3 free allocations of 20 EU Member States and asked: how much are free allocations actually going to change with benchmarking?
Development of a Joint-Cost-Allocation Manual for Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1978-09-01
The problem addressed is the determination of an appropriate-cost-allocation system for an ICES. The use of a central cogenerating facility at the heart of the ICES means that some portion of the system costs are ''joint'': that is, some system components, and their associated costs, are not clearly identifiable with any single system output. An allocated portion of the joint costs must be added to the costs that are clearly assignable to each ICES function to arrive at a reasonable estimate of the total costs of providing each type of energy output. This Phase 1 report examines technical factors; reviews and synthesizes the relevant economic theory; assesses three generic approaches to cost allocation (public projects, cost accounting, mathematical programming); and surveys current utility and regulatory allocation procedures. Based on these steps, conclusions to date are: (1) economic theory suggests that cost allocation is unnecessary for optimal feasibility, pricing, and output decisions; (2) reasonable and practicable allocations are required for regulatory purposes and cost-sharing arrangements; (3) no single approach to cost allocation in practice is wholly satisfactory; (4) the mathematical programming approach seems most promising at this juncture; and (5) implementation of any method is dependent on data availability.
Phenotypically flexible sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite
Brauer, Verena S.; Schaerer, Lukas; Michiels, Nico K.
2007-01-01
Previous studies on sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites have typically focused either on evolutionary or one-time, ontogenetic optimization of sex allocation, ignoring variation within an individual's lifetime. Here, we study whether hermaphrodites also possess facultative sex allocation,
Resource Allocation for Downlink Multi-Cell OFDMA Cognitive Radio Network Using Hungarian Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Forouzan
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of resource allocation for downlink part of an OFDM-based multi-cell cognitive radio network which consists of multiple secondary transmitters and receivers communicating simultaneously in the presence of multiple primary users. We present a new framework to maximize the total data throughput of secondary users by means of subchannel assignment, while ensuring interference leakage to PUs is below a threshold. In this framework, we first formulate the resource allocation problem as a nonlinear and non-convex optimization problem. Then we represent the problem as a maximum weighted matching in a bipartite graph and propose an iterative algorithm based on Hungarian method to solve it. The present contribution develops an efficient subchannel allocation algorithm that assigns subchannels to the secondary users without the perfect knowledge of fading channel gain between cognitive radio transmitter and primary receivers. The performance of the proposed subcarrier allocation algorithm is compared with a blind subchannel allocation as well as another scheme with the perfect knowledge of channel-state information. Simulation results reveal that a significant performance advantage can still be realized, even if the optimization at the secondary network is based on imperfect network information.
A cross-layer resource allocation scheme for spatial multiplexing-based MIMO-OFDMA systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Al-Shatri Hussein
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for the downlink of a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MIMO-OFDMA system. The sum rate maximization itself cannot cope with fairness among users. Hence, we address this problem in the context of the utility-based resource allocation presented in earlier papers. This resource allocation method allows to enhance the efficiency and guarantee fairness among users by exploiting multiuser diversity, frequency diversity, as well as time diversity. In this paper, we treat the overall utility as the quality of service indicator and design utility functions with respect to the average transmission rate in order to simultaneously provide two services, real-time and best-effort. Since the optimal solutions are extremely computationally complex to obtain, we propose a suboptimal joint subchannel and power control algorithm that converges very fast and simplifies the MIMO resource allocation problem into a single-input single-output resource allocation problem. Simulation results indicate that using the proposed method achieves near-optimum solutions, and the available resources are distributed more fairly among users.
Kidney allocation for transplantation: some aspects of ethics and comparative law.
Petrini, C
2012-09-01
The allocation of organs is a crucial ethical issue. The importance attached to different allocation criteria differs considerably among the various national and international organizations. The balance between justice-centered and utility-centered systems is shifting and there are signs of a possible swing away from systems centered mainly on waiting times to others centered mainly on criteria of utility. This evolution is very significant and seems to run counter to the main stream of modern bioethics. Examples from different national policies are given herein. Particular attention is given to Europe, where national bioethics committees have tended to ignore the aspect of organ allocation. By overemphasizing the issues related to informed consent, the ethical challenges arising from the problems of resource allocation are often relegated to second place. PMID:22974843
Draft regulatory analysis: notice of proposed rulemaking motor gasoline allocation revisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1980-06-01
The Draft Regulatory Analysis is prepared for those proposed regulations which either may have a major impact on the general economy, individual industries, or geographic regions and levels of government, or may be significant in that they affect important DOE policy concerns and are the object of public interest. The problems and proposed solutions for the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Hearings on the Motor Gasoline Allocation Program are examined. The ERA's mandate for this program is set out in the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973. Under this Act, the President is empowered to enforce, at his discretion, price and allocation controls on petroleum and petroleum products, including gasoline, through September 30, 1981. The Act sets the following allocation goals: protect public health; maintain public services and agricultural operations; foster competition in the petroleum industry; distribute petroleum among industry sectors and US regions equitably; and minimize economic disruption and unnecessary interference wth market mechanisms.
Adaptive Neural Network Control with Control Allocation for A Manned Submersible in Deep Sea
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Jian-cheng; ZHANG Ai-qun; WANG Xiao-hui; WU Bao-ju
2007-01-01
This paper thoroughly studies a control system with control allocation for a manned submersible in deep sea being developed in China. The proposed control system consists of a neural-network-based direct adaptive controller and a dynamic control allocation module. A control energy cost function is used as the optimization criteria of the control allocation module, and weighted pseudo-inverse is used to find the solution of the control allocation problem. In the presence of bounded unknown disturbance and neural networks approximation error, stability of the closed-loop control system of manned submersible is proved with Lyaponov theory. The feasibility and validity of the proposed control system is further verified through experiments conducted on a semi-physical simulation platform for the manned submersible in deep sea.
On optimal allocation in binary response trials; is adaptive design really necessary?
Azriel, David; Rinott, Yosef
2011-01-01
We consider the classical problem of selecting the best of two treatments in clinical trials with binary response. The target is to find the design that maximizes the power of the relevant test. Many papers use a normal approximation to the power function and claim that \\textit{Neyman allocation} that assigns subjects to treatment groups according to the ratio of the responses' standard deviations, should be used. As the standard deviations are unknown, an adaptive design is often recommended. The asymptotic justification of this approach is arguable, since it uses the normal approximation in tails where the error in the approximation is larger than the estimated quantity. We consider two different approaches for optimality of designs that are related to Pitman and Bahadur definitions of relative efficiency of tests. We prove that the optimal allocation according to the Pitman criterion is the balanced allocation and that the optimal allocation according to the Bahadur approach depends on the unknown paramete...
Dynamic versus static allocation policies in multipurpose multireservoir systems
Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.; van der Zaag, P.
2007-12-01
As the competition for water is likely to increase in the near future due to socioeconomic development and population growth, water resources managers will face hard choices when allocating water between competing users. Because water is a vital resource used in multiple sectors, including the environment, the allocation is inherently a political and social process, which is likely to become increasingly scrutinized as the competition grows between the different sectors. Since markets are usually absent or ineffective, the allocation of water between competing demands is achieved administratively taking into account key objectives such as economic efficiency, equity and maintaining the ecological integrity. When crop irrigation is involved, water is usually allocated by a system of annual rights to use a fixed, static, volume of water. In a fully-allocated basin, moving from a static to a dynamic allocation process, whereby the policies are regularly updated according to the hydrologic status of the river basin, is the first step towards the development of river basin management strategies that increase the productivity of water. More specifically, in a multipurpose multireservoir system, continuously adjusting release and withdrawal decisions based on the latest hydrologic information will increase the benefits derived from the system. However, the extent to which such an adjustment can be achieved results from complex spatial and temporal interactions between the physical characteristics of the water resources system (storage, natural flows), the economic and social consequences of rationing and the impacts on natural ecosystems. The complexity of the decision-making process, which requires the continuous evaluation of numerous trade-offs, calls for the use of integrated hydrologic-economic models. This paper compares static and dynamic management approaches for a cascade of hydropower-irrigation reservoirs using stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP
Practical Approaches to Adaptive Resource Allocation in OFDM Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Y. Ermolova
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Whenever a communication system operates in a time-frequency dispersive radio channel, the link adaptation provides a benefit in terms of any system performance metric by employing time, frequency, and, in case of multiple users, multiuser diversities. With respect to an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, link adaptation includes bit, power, and subcarrier allocations. While the well-known water-filling principle provides the optimal solution for both margin-maximization and rate-maximization problems, implementation complexity often makes difficult its application in practical systems. This paper presents a few suboptimal (low-complexity adaptive loading algorithms for both single- and multiuser OFDM systems. We show that the single-user system performance can be improved by suitable power loading and an algorithm based on the incomplete channel state information is derived. At the same time, the power loading in a multiuser system only slightly affects performance while the initial subcarrier allocation has a rather big impact. A number of subcarrier allocation algorithms are discussed and the best one is derived on the basis of the order statistics theory.
Practical Approaches to Adaptive Resource Allocation in OFDM Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ermolova NY
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Whenever a communication system operates in a time-frequency dispersive radio channel, the link adaptation provides a benefit in terms of any system performance metric by employing time, frequency, and, in case of multiple users, multiuser diversities. With respect to an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, link adaptation includes bit, power, and subcarrier allocations. While the well-known water-filling principle provides the optimal solution for both margin-maximization and rate-maximization problems, implementation complexity often makes difficult its application in practical systems. This paper presents a few suboptimal (low-complexity adaptive loading algorithms for both single- and multiuser OFDM systems. We show that the single-user system performance can be improved by suitable power loading and an algorithm based on the incomplete channel state information is derived. At the same time, the power loading in a multiuser system only slightly affects performance while the initial subcarrier allocation has a rather big impact. A number of subcarrier allocation algorithms are discussed and the best one is derived on the basis of the order statistics theory.
Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems
Rouse, William B.
1975-01-01
Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)
Worst-case analysis of heap allocations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Huber, Benedikt; Schoeberl, Martin
2010-01-01
worst-case heap allocations of tasks. The analysis builds upon techniques that are well established for worst-case execution time analysis. The difference is that the cost function is not the execution time of instructions in clock cycles, but the allocation in bytes. In contrast to worst-case execution......In object oriented languages, dynamic memory allocation is a fundamental concept. When using such a language in hard real-time systems, it becomes important to bound both the worst-case execution time and the worst-case memory consumption. In this paper, we present an analysis to determine the...... time analysis, worst-case heap allocation analysis is not processor dependent. However, the cost function depends on the object layout of the runtime system. The analysis is evaluated with several real-time benchmarks to establish the usefulness of the analysis, and to compare the memory consumption of...
Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)
Liability valuation and optimal asset allocation
Inkmann, Joachim; Blake, David
2004-01-01
Current approaches to asset-liability management employ a sequence of distinct procedures to value liabilities and determine the asset allocation. First, a discount rate that is usually dic-tated by accounting standards is used to value liabilities. Second, the asset allocation is determined by maximizing some objective function in the surplus of assets over liabilities, taken as given the valuation of liabilities. We introduce a model that allows for the joint valuation of liabilities and th...
Efficient and fair allocation of aid.
Patrick Guillaumont; Phu Nguyen-Van; Thi Kim Cuong Pham; Laurent Wagner
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a model of aid allocating which aims to equalize the opportunity between recipient countries to reduce the poverty, in particular the millennium development goal of reducing the poverty by half. The model also takes into account the natural deficit which is defined by the gap between the growth rate required to reach this millennium goal and the actual growth rate observed in the recipient country. The resulting optimal aid allocation is computed using the estimation of th...
Optimal Portfolio Allocation for Corporate Pension Funds
McCarthy, David; Miles, David K
2007-01-01
We model the asset allocation decision of a defined benefit pension fund using a stochastic dynamic programming approach. Our model recognizes the fact that asset allocation decisions are made by trustees who are mandated to act in the best interests of beneficiaries - not by sponsoring employers - and that trustees face payoffs that are linked in an indirect way to the value of the underlying assets. This is because of the presence of pension insurance - which may cover a portion of deficits...
Allocative Efficiency of Technically Inefficient Production Units
Bogetoft, Peter; Fare, Rolf
1999-01-01
We discuss how to measure allocative efficiency without presuming technical efficiency. This is relevant when it is easier to introduce reallocations than improvements of technical efficiency. We compare the approach to the traditional one of assuming technical efficiency before measuring allocative efficiency. In particular, we develop necessary and sufficient conditions on the technology to ensure consistent measures and we give dual organizational interpretations of the approaches.
On The Allocative Effects of Rent Seeking
Corchón, Luis C.
2000-01-01
We consider the effects of rent-seeking activities on resource allocation. Before rent-seeking activities take place, there are prior probabilities that an object will be given to one of several agents. The posterior probability depends on prior probabilities and the expenses incurred by all agents. In the case of two agents who equally value the object, prior and posterior probabilities coincide, and thus rent seeking has no effect on resource allocation. If there are two agents ...
Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.
Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam
2016-03-14
With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389
Efficient Algorithms for Renewable Energy Allocation to Delay Tolerant Consumers
Neely, Michael J; Dimakis, Alexandros G
2010-01-01
We investigate the problem of allocating energy from renewable sources to flexible consumers in electricity markets. We assume there is a renewable energy supplier that provides energy according to a time-varying (and possibly unpredictable) supply process. The plant must serve consumers within a specified delay window, and incurs a cost of drawing energy from other (possibly non-renewable) sources if its own supply is not sufficient to meet the deadlines. We formulate two stochastic optimization problems: The first seeks to minimize the time average cost of using the other sources (and hence strives for the most efficient utilization of the renewable source). The second allows the renewable source to dynamically set a price for its service, and seeks to maximize the resulting time average profit. These problems are solved via the Lyapunov optimization technique. Our resulting algorithms do not require knowledge of the statistics of the time-varying supply and demand processes and are robust to arbitrary samp...
Room Allocation Optimisation at the Technical University of Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger, Niels-Christian Fink; Larsen, Jesper; Stidsen, Thomas Riis
2014-01-01
literature. One of the major dierence is that the assignment of the courses to specic time slots are predetermined and cannot be subject to changes. This is a decision made by the administration since this takes away the issue of course collisions, e.g. when two courses sharing a student are allocated at...... overlapping time slots, since the students are to ensure by themselves that their courses do not overlap. The problem was rst considered in the masters' thesis [1] and the project here is an extension of the work done in that thesis.......As at many other universities the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) faces the challenge of solving a case of the curriculum based university course timetabling problem (CUCTT) multiple times a year. However, there are some slight modications to the CUCTT problem usually described in the...
Optimal Resource Allocation for Network Protection: A Geometric Programming Approach
Preciado, Victor M; Enyioha, Chinwendu; Jadbabaie, Ali; Pappas, George
2013-01-01
We study the problem of containing spreading processes in arbitrary directed networks by distributing protection resources throughout the nodes of the network. We consider two types of protection resources are available: (i) Preventive resources able to defend nodes against the spreading (such as vaccines in a viral infection process), and (ii) corrective resources able to neutralize the spreading after it has reached a node (such as antidotes). We assume that both preventive and corrective resources have an associated cost and study the problem of finding the cost-optimal distribution of resources throughout the nodes of the network. We analyze these questions in the context of viral spreading processes in directed networks. We study the following two problems: (i) Given a fixed budget, find the optimal allocation of preventive and corrective resources in the network to achieve the highest level of containment, and (ii) when a budget is not specified, find the minimum budget required to control the spreading...
Environmental risk allocation in the asset rationalization process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Public concern regarding the state of the environment has resulted in improved enforcement of existing laws related to protection of the environment. This has had an impact on oil and gas transactions. One of the factors which affects the nature of oil and gas acquisitions and dispositions is the risk associated with environmental conditions. For example, the purchaser of an oil or gas asset may acquire threats of prosecution under existing legislation, or may acquire significant costs associated with remediation or clean-up. Vendors may also be affected by environmental risks resulting from divestiture. Risks include increased liability, continuing liability, and a growing uncertainty over the potential extent and nature of environmental problems. These problems mean that lawyers must find adequate methods of allocating risk. The best approach is to place more emphasis on rigorous due diligence, disclosure and contractual accommodation of identifiable environmental problems at the time of the acquisition or disposition. 2 figs
Efficient and Fair Bandwidth Allocation AQM Scheme for Wireless Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafe Alasem
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Heterogeneous Wireless Networks are considered nowadays as one of the potential areas in research and development. The traffic management’s schemes that have been used at the fusion points between the different wireless networks are classical and conventional. This paper is focused on developing a novel scheme to overcome the problem of traffic congestion in the fusion point router interconnected the heterogeneous wireless networks. The paper proposed an EF-AQM algorithm which provides an efficient and fair allocation of bandwidth among different established flows. Finally, the proposed scheme developed, tested and validated through a set of experiments to demonstrate the relative merits and capabilities of a proposed scheme
RESSOURCES ALLOCATION POSSIBILITIES WITHIN HEALTH SERVICES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manea Liliana
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The state policy in the health care area must take into account the complexity and specificity of the domain. Health means not only “to treat”, but also “to prevent” and “to recover and rehabilitate the individual physically”. Regardless of the adopted health insurance system, the health system is facing a big problem and this is the insufficient funds necessary to function properly. The underfunding may have various causes, from a wrong health policy, based on “treating” instead of “preventing”, by the misuse of funds. This papers intended to formulate assumptions that underpin the research I am conducting within the Doctoral Research Program held at the Valahia University of Targoviste, which aims at using the management control in increasing the health services performance. The application of the accounting and management control methods in determining health costs can be a beginning to streamline the system. This is also a result of the fact that health care is a public service with specific characteristics: it can not be subject only to market requirements but at the same time he must undergo an administrative savings, representing a typical case of market failure. The increased cost of treatment, as well as the decline in their quality can be determined by the discrepancy between the funding and payment mechanisms. Different payment systems currently available do nothing but perpetuate the shortcomings in the system. Switching to the introduction of cost and budgets by cost centers or object (if solved can be a step forward for a better management of resources. In this context, we consider as a necessity to be imposed the cost analysis on responsibility centers, the definition of the cost object and cost center identification and determination of direct costs and those indirect services to choose the basis for the allocation of cost centers and the determination of each actual cost per diagnosis.
Revenue maximization in an optical router node - allocation of service windows
Abidini, Murtuza Ali; Boxma, Onno; Koonen, Ton; Resing, Jacques
2016-01-01
In this paper we study a revenue maximization problem for optical routing nodes. We model the routing node as a single server polling model with the aim to assign visit periods (service windows) to the different stations (ports) such that the mean profit per cycle is maximized. Under reasonable assumptions regarding retrial and dropping probabilities of packets the optimization problem becomes a separable concave resource allocation problem, which can be solved using existing algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Kapil Govil
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Distributed Computing Environment (DCE is one the appropriate network for providing the optimal solution in real-time applications problems. The systematic allocation of tasks needs to plays the key role to optimize the overall processing reliability of the DCE. DCE consists of multiple autonomous computers that communicate through a common communication channel. The computers interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal. A computer program that runs in a distributed system is called a distributed program, and distributed programming is the process of writing such programs. The allocation problems in any computer system play the key role for deciding the performance of the system. The allocation of tasks in DCE has an important role to the evaluation of the performance of the network. The problem of processing of “m” tasks to “n” processors (m > n in a distributed networks is addressed here through a new modified tasks allocation policy for the task processing in a DCE. The model, presented in this paper allocates the tasks to the processor to enhance the performance of the DCE.
A study on the optimization of the job allocation of radiological workers using goal programming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In nuclear power plant, it has been the important object to reduce the occupational radiation exposure (ORE) and a lot of efforts have been taken to solve this problem for a long time. The ultimate object of this study is to evaluate the ORE reduction through the optimal job allocation of the radiological workers. It is optimized the multi-objective problem that is considered such as collective dose, working time, individual dose and total number of worker in optimization of the worker allocation. In this study, these multiple objective problems were solved by a goal programming which is a kind of multi-objective linear programming. From a result of calculation with the goal programming, the total number of worker and collective dose of worker was obtained and the result varied as the priority order of system changed. If the ultimate objective of the decision maker is to reduce the ORE, the collective dose limit must have a high priority order. The decision maker can select more easily the result set of worker of each work. Therefore, the optimal job allocation of worker can be taken through this study. The goal programming methodology has capabilities to predict the optimal planning of the worker allocation and can be used to estimate the actual worker allocation results after overhaul period
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heng Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Multi-spot-beam technique has been widely applied in modern satellite communication systems. However, the satellite power and bandwidth resources in a multi-spot-beam satellite communication system are scarce and expensive; it is urgent to utilize the resources efficiently. To this end, dynamically allocating the power and bandwidth is an available way. This paper initially formulates the problem of resource joint allocation as a convex optimization problem, taking into account a compromise between the maximum total system capacity and the fairness among the spot beams. A joint bandwidth and power allocation iterative algorithm based on duality theory is then proposed to obtain the optimal solution of this optimization problem. Compared with the existing separate bandwidth or power optimal allocation algorithms, it is shown that the joint allocation algorithm improves both the total system capacity and the fairness among spot beams. Moreover, it is easy to be implemented in practice, as the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is linear with the number of spot beams.
An Enhanced OFDM Resource Allocation Algorithm in C-RAN Based 5G Public Safety Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Feng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Public Safety Network (PSN is the network for critical communication when disaster occurs. As a key technology in 5G, Cloud-Radio Access Network (C-RAN can play an important role in PSN instead of LTE-based RAN. This paper firstly introduces C-RAN based PSN architecture and models the OFDM resource allocation problem in C-RAN based PSN as an integer quadratic programming, which allows the trade-off between expected bitrates and allocating fairness of PSN Service User (PSU. However, C-RAN based PSN needs to improve the efficiency of allocating algorithm because of a mass of PSU-RRH associations when disaster occurs. To deal with it, the resources allocating problem with integer variables is relaxed into one with continuous variables in the first step and an algorithm based on Generalized Bender’s Decomposition (GBD is proposed to solve it. Then we use Feasible Pump (FP method to get a feasible integer solution on the original OFDM resources allocation problem. The final experiments show the total throughput achieved by C-RAN based PSN is at most higher by 19.17% than the LTE-based one. And the average computational time of the proposed GBD and FP algorithm is at most lower than Barrier by 51.5% and GBD with no relaxation by 30.1%, respectively.
Optimal allocation and adaptive VAR control of PV-DG in distribution networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • A methodology for optimal PV-DG allocation based on a combination of algorithms. • Dealing with the randomicity of solar power energy using CCSP. • Presenting a VAR control strategy to balance the technical demands. • Finding the Pareto solutions using MOPSO and SVM. • Evaluating the Pareto solutions using WRSR. - Abstract: The development of distributed generation (DG) has brought new challenges to power networks. One of them that catches extensive attention is the voltage regulation problem of distribution networks caused by DG. Optimal allocation of DG in distribution networks is another well-known problem being widely investigated. This paper proposes a new method for the optimal allocation of photovoltaic distributed generation (PV-DG) considering the non-dispatchable characteristics of PV units. An adaptive reactive power control model is introduced in PV-DG allocation as to balance the trade-off between the improvement of voltage quality and the minimization of power loss in a distribution network integrated with PV-DG units. The optimal allocation problem is formulated as a chance-constrained stochastic programming (CCSP) model for dealing with the randomness of solar power energy. A novel algorithm combining the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) with support vector machines (SVM) is proposed to find the Pareto front consisting of a set of possible solutions. The Pareto solutions are further evaluated using the weighted rank sum ratio (WRSR) method to help the decision-maker obtain the desired solution. Simulation results on a 33-bus radial distribution system show that the optimal allocation method can fully take into account the time-variant characteristics and probability distribution of PV-DG, and obtain the best allocation scheme
Resource allocation using metaheuristic search
Connor, Andy M.; Amit Shah
2016-01-01
This research is focused on solving problems in the area of software project management using metaheuristic search algorithmsand as such is resea rch in the field of search based software engineering. The main aim of this research is to ev aluate the performance of different metaheuristic search techniques in resource allocat ion and scheduling problemsthat would be typical of software development projects.This paper reports...
Canice J. Prendergast
2001-01-01
Consumers solve many agency problems, by pointing out when they believe that agents have made mistakes. This paper considers the role that consumers play in inducing efficient behavior by agents. I distinguish between two case: those where consumers have similar preferences to the principal, and those where consumer preferences diverge from those of the principal. In the former case, allowing consumer feedback improves allocations, and increasing consumer information is unambiguously benefici...
47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...
24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available...
49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...
Greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and allocation options
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report is part of the outcome of a project funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA). The project was initiated to update DEPA on ongoing developments in the field of air transport and environment. The background for starting up such a project is that aviation, due to the prospects for future growth in demand for air travel and freight volumes, may become a more significant source of emissions of greenhouse gases in the future. Another reason for DEPA to take up the subject is that DEPA needs an update on why the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have not yet been able to agree upon a methodology to allocate emissions of greenhouse gases from international aviation between countries. Only emissions from domestic air transport are included in the national inventories on annual national greenhouse gas emissions reported by Parties to the UNFCCC while emissions associated with fuel used for international aviation activities are to be reported separately. Consequently, emissions from international aviation are not included under the so-called Kyoto Protocol that sets out targets for reductions of national emissions of greenhouse gases to be fulfilled by the period 2008-2012. Parties to the UNFCCC and the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) have been discussing different possibilities for allocating emissions from international aviation to Parties, but so far no agreement has been reached on this subject. A main problem seems to be that if emissions are allocated to the country where the fuel is sold some Parties that have large sales of fuel for transit passengers will have to bear a larger burden than countries with no large hub airports. The basic problem seems to be that an airline registered in one country can carry passengers and freight originating from another country to a third country. Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol states that 'the Parties included in
Information Theory vs. Queueing Theory for Resource Allocation in Multiple Access Channels
ParandehGheibi, Ali; Ozdaglar, Asuman; Eryilmaz, Atilla
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of rate allocation in a fading Gaussian multiple-access channel with fixed transmission powers. The goal is to maximize a general concave utility function of the expected achieved rates of the users. There are different approaches to this problem in the literature. From an information theoretic point of view, rates are allocated only by using the channel state information. The queueing theory approach utilizes the global queue-length information for rate allocation to guarantee throughput optimality as well as maximizing a utility function of the rates. In this work, we make a connection between these two approaches by showing that the information theoretic capacity region of a multiple-access channel and its stability region are equivalent. Moreover, our numerical results show that a simple greedy policy which does not use the queue-length information can outperform queue-length based policies in terms of convergence rate and fairness.
Optimization of Patrol Manpower Allocation Using Goal Programming Approach -A Case Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Venkata Subbaiah
2015-10-01
Full Text Available One of the most difficult tasks of the patrol administrators is allocation of manpower; i.e. determining the. most effective level of operational manpower for patrol tasks. Typically, administrators resolve the allocation problem by relying on prior statistical data and by employing subjective analysis. In general, only limited systematic analyses have been applied to the problem. This thesis presents a non linear goal programming model for allocating patrolmen to road segments within a patrol region. The model is demonstrated via a case example of the East section of Visakhapatnam. The results of the model are valuable to the patrol administrator for considering departmental goals and priority structure, in addition to available historical data, in the assignment of patrol manpower for a given urban area.
Burst Fragmentation Model Based on Sequential Burst Allocation Algorithm for Mobile WiMAX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaid G. Ali
2013-07-01
Full Text Available the downlink Bandwidth resources of WiMAX are allocated by the burst allocation algorithm. The algorithm is responsible for calculating the appropriate location of a number of the smallest unit of bandwidth which is called the slot for all users within the downlink subframe in the form of bursts. Resource wastage in the form of unused and unallocated slots is a real common problem accompanies resource management in the burst allocation algorithms. This paper investigates the Sequential Burst Allocation (SBA that based on sequential slot allocation and burst fragmentation. An analytical model of frame utilization has been derived. Moreover, this paper presents criteria of burst fragmentation and investigates the effect of burst fragmentation to the allocation efficiency. It has been observed from the results that the SBA algorithm outperforms the Standard (ST algorithm in term of number of users and resource wastage reduction per frame. The research results illustrates that burst fragmentation can enhance the proportion of frame utilization with minor effect to the overhead size. As well as, the results are useful to be a heuristic guide line for MAC layer scheduler to decide the best burst size that can be used.
Regional allocation of CO2 emissions allowance over provinces in China by 2020
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The mitigation efforts of China are increasingly important for meeting global climate target since the rapid economic growth of China has led to an increasing share in the world's total CO2 emissions. This paper sets out to explore the approach for realizing China's national mitigation targets submitted to the UNFCCC as part of the Copenhagen Accord; that is, to reduce the intensity of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% by 2020, as well as reducing the energy intensity and increasing the share of non-fossil fuel consumption, through regional allocation of emission allowance over China's provinces. Since the realization of China's mitigation target essentially represents a total amount emission allowance allocation problem, an improved zero sum gains data envelopment analysis optimization model, which could deal with the constant total amount resources allocation, is proposed in this study. By utilizing this model and based on several scenarios of China's economic growth, CO2 emissions, and energy consumption, a new efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level for China by 2020 is proposed. The allocation results indicate that different provinces have to shoulder different mitigation burdens in terms of emission intensity reduction, energy intensity reduction, and share of non-fossil fuels increase. - Highlights: ► We explore the approach to realize national CO2 emissions reduction target of China by 2020. ► The CO2 emissions allowance is allocated over China's 30 administrative regions. ► Several scenarios of China's regional economy, emission, energy consumption are given. ► The zero sum gains data envelopment analysis model is applied in emission allowance allocation. ► An efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level is proposed
Optimal Rate Allocation in Cluster-Tree WSNs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Lopez Vicario
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of guaranteed time slot allocation in cluster-tree WSNs. Our design uses the so-called Network Utility Maximization (NUM approach as far as we aim to provide a fair distribution of the available resources. From the point of view of implementation, we extend here the authors’ proposed Coupled-Decompositions Method (CDM in order to compute the NUM problem inside the cluster tree topology and we prove the optimality of this new extended version of the method. As a result, we obtain a distributed solution that reduces the total amount of signalling information in the network up to a factor of 500 with respect to the classical techniques, that is, primal and dual decomposition. This is possible because the CDM finds the optimal solution with a small number of iterations. Furthermore, when we compare our solution to the standard-proposed First Come First Serve (FCFS policy, we realize that FCFS becomes pretty unfair as the traffic load in the network increases and thus, a fair allocation of resources can be considered whenever the price to pay in terms of signalling and computational complexity is controlled.
Location-Based Resource Allocation for OFDMA Cognitive Radio Systems
Ghorbel, Mahdi
2011-05-01
Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. It has been proposed as a suitable solution for the spectrum scarcity caused by the increase in frequency demand. The concept is based on allowing unlicensed users, called cognitive or secondary users, to share the unoccupied frequency bands with their owners, called the primary users, under constraints on the interference they cause to them. In order to estimate this interference, the cognitive system usually uses the channel state information to the primary user, which is often impractical to obtain. However, we propose to use location information, which is easier to obtain, to estimate this interference. The purpose of this work is to propose a subchannel and power allocation method which maximizes the secondary users\\' total capacity under the constraints of limited budget power and total interference to the primary under certain threshold. We model the problem as a constrained optimization problem for both downlink and uplink cases. Then, we propose low-complexity resource allocation schemes based on the waterfilling algorithm. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method with comparison to the exhaustive search algorithm.
Optimal land use allocation of urban fringe in Guangzhou
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GONG Jianzhou; LIU Yansui; CHEN Wenli
2012-01-01
In response to the strong drive for social and economic development,local governments have implemented urban master plans,providing measures and timeframes to address the continuous demand for land and to alleviate urban problems.In this paper,a multi-objective model was constructed to discuss the problem,including economic benefits and ecological effectiveness,in terms of land use optimization.A genetic algorithm was then adopted to solve the model,and a performance evaluation and sensitivity analysis were conducted using Pareto optimality.Results showed that a set of tradeoffs could be acquired by the allocation of land use.In addition,the Pareto solutions proved the model to be efficient; for example,a limit of 13,500 ha of urban area conformed to plan recommendations.The reduction in crop land,orchard land,grassland,and unused land provided further efficiencies.These results implied that further potential regional land resources remain and that the urban master plan is able to support sustainable local development in the years to come,as well as verified that it is feasible to use land use allocation multi-objective modeling and genetic algorithms.
Media content allocation based on insisting indices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Krishnamoorthy, 2 P.Deepa, 3 R.Rajasekar
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Media content allocation using insist indices is to attain a given average delay target with lowest possible utilization of the central server by using the hybrid scheme. The analysis is carried out in an order scaling depending on the total potential mass of customers in the market. The study explains the relative performance of peer-to-peer and centralized client–server schemes, as well as a hybrid of the two: both from the point of view of consumers as well as the media content allocation. The allocation is totally based on the insisting indices. The necessary insists can be used to take provisioning decisions. It can be exceptionally responsive to bursty insist by increasing their service capacity exponentially, while exhibiting nice performance scaling to the offered loads during stationary regimes
Allocating environmental liabilities within a facilities agreement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some environmental issues at jointly owned oil and gas facilities in Alberta are examined, including ways to allocate liability for those issues among the facility's owners, and between the facility's owners and custom users. Causes of environmental contamination, the scope of clean-up costs and some industry initiatives to sort out the question of who pays the environmental costs are also discussed. Some aspects of the legislation in Alberta imposing environmental liabilities on parties to a construction, ownership and operation (CO and O) agreement, and relevant provisions of the Petroleum Joint Venture Association (PJVA)'s Model Operating Procedure are also explained. The author concludes by regretting the industry's failure to develop adequate mechanisms to allocate the costs of environmental damage resulting from operations, and by recommending that agreements pertaining to joint ownership of a facility should address the issues involved in allocating environmental liabilities
Text Categorization with Latent Dirichlet Allocation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZLACKÝ Daniel
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the text categorization of Slovak text corpora using latent Dirichlet allocation. Our goal is to build text subcorpora that contain similar text documents. We want to use these better organized text subcorpora to build more robust language models that can be used in the area of speech recognition systems. Our previous research in the area of text categorization showed that we can achieve better results with categorized text corpora. In this paper we used latent Dirichlet allocation for text categorization. We divided initial text corpus into 2, 5, 10, 20 or 100 subcorpora with various iterations and save steps. Language models were built on these subcorpora and adapted with linear interpolation to judicial domain. The experiment results showed that text categorization using latent Dirichlet allocation can improve the system for automatic speech recognition by creating the language models from organized text corpora.
Multi-robot task allocation based on two dimensional artificial fish swarm algorithm
Zheng, Taixiong; Li, Xueqin; Yang, Liangyi
2007-12-01
The problem of task allocation for multiple robots is to allocate more relative-tasks to less relative-robots so as to minimize the processing time of these tasks. In order to get optimal multi-robot task allocation scheme, a twodimensional artificial swarm algorithm based approach is proposed in this paper. In this approach, the normal artificial fish is extended to be two dimension artificial fish. In the two dimension artificial fish, each vector of primary artificial fish is extended to be an m-dimensional vector. Thus, each vector can express a group of tasks. By redefining the distance between artificial fish and the center of artificial fish, the behavior of two dimension fish is designed and the task allocation algorithm based on two dimension artificial swarm algorithm is put forward. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the problem of multi-robot task allocation and comparer with GA and SA based algorithm is done. Simulation and compare result shows the proposed algorithm is effective.
Allocation Of The DSTATCOM In The Distribution System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aliasghar Baziar
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Through this article a novel random structure is depicted to shape the uncertainty result of the active and reactive loads in the DSTATCOM allocation and problem in sizing. The planned technique has 2m1 point approximation method PEM to capture the random associated with the anticipated fault of the loads. The aims are minimization of the entire active power losses which lessen the voltage nonconformity of the buses. A new optimization procedure on the root of the bat algorithm BA is confirmed to explore the problem galaxy universally. In addition the clue of interactive fuzzy sufficient method is useful in the multi-objective preparation in providing a suitable stability between the optimization of the objective roles. Lastly the proposed method will be examed on the 69-bus IEEE distribution system to settle its likelihood and effective presentation.
Adaptive Resource Allocation For MAI Minimization In Wireless Adhoc Network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Abdul Waheed
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Coding-based solutions for MANETs have emerged as a basic solution to current high rate data accessing in adhoc network. This has become essential related to the absence of centralized control such as a monitoring station. A code assignment protocol is needed to assign distinct codes to different terminals. This problem is less effective in small networks, but becomes dominative in large networks where the numbers of code sequence are lesser than the number of terminals to code, demanding reuse of the codes. The issue of code allocation in communication is focused in this paper with the evaluation of MAI in wireless network. Unlike previously proposed protocols in this paper a focus for the multiple access interference (MAI, thereby addressing the limiting near-far problem that decreases the throughput performance in MANETs is made. The code assignment scheme is developed for the proper usage of users code under MANETs communication to minimize the MAI impact.
Playing games against nature: optimal policies for renewable resource allocation
Ermon, Stefano; Gomes, Carla P; Selman, Bart
2012-01-01
In this paper we introduce a class of Markov decision processes that arise as a natural model for many renewable resource allocation problems. Upon extending results from the inventory control literature, we prove that they admit a closed form solution and we show how to exploit this structure to speed up its computation. We consider the application of the proposed framework to several problems arising in very different domains, and as part of the ongoing effort in the emerging field of Computational Sustainability we discuss in detail its application to the Northern Pacific Halibut marine fishery. Our approach is applied to a model based on real world data, obtaining a policy with a guaranteed lower bound on the utility function that is structurally very different from the one currently employed.
A Dynamic Tap Allocation for Concurrent CMA-DD Equalizers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trindade DiegovonBM
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a dynamic tap allocation for the concurrent CMA-DD equalizer as a low complexity solution for the blind channel deconvolution problem. The number of taps is a crucial factor which affects the performance and the complexity of most adaptive equalizers. Generally an equalizer requires a large number of taps in order to cope with long delays in the channel multipath profile. Simulations show that the proposed new blind equalizer is able to solve the blind channel deconvolution problem with a specified and reduced number of active taps. As a result, it minimizes the output excess mean square error due to inactive taps during and after the equalizer convergence and the hardware complexity as well.
Dynamic Server Allocation over Time Varying Channels with Switchover Delay
Celik, Güner D; Modiano, Eytan
2012-01-01
We consider a dynamic server allocation problem over parallel queues with randomly varying connectivity and server switchover delay between the queues. At each time slot the server decides either to stay with the current queue or switch to another queue based on the current connectivity and the queue length information. Switchover delay occurs in many telecommunications applications and is a new modeling component of this problem that has not been previously addressed. We show that the simultaneous presence of randomly varying connectivity and switchover delay changes the system stability region and the structure of optimal policies. In the first part of the paper, we consider a system of two parallel queues, and develop a novel approach to explicitly characterize the stability region of the system using state-action frequencies which are stationary solutions to a Markov Decision Process (MDP) formulation. We then develop a frame-based dynamic control (FBDC) policy, based on the state-action frequencies, and ...
Tereso, Anabela Pereira; Mota, João; Lameiro, Rui
2005-01-01
This paper presents the implementation of the dynamic programming model (introduced in a previous paper) for the resolution of the adaptive resource allocation problem in stochastic multimodal project networks. A distributed platform using an Object Oriented language, Java, is used in order to take advantage of the available computational resources.
Allocation of Decommissioning and Waste Liabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The work demonstrates that there are a number of methods available for cost allocation, the pros and cons of which are examined. The study investigates potential proportional and incremental methods in some depth. A recommendation in principle to use the latter methodology is given. It is concluded that a 'fair assumption' is that the potential allocation of costs for 'the RMA Leaching Hall' probably is small, in relation to the total costs, and estimated to be not more than about 175 kSEK, plus any costs associated with decommissioning/ disposal of a number of small pieces of equipment added by the current operator
Zafar, Ammar
2012-06-01
In this report, energy-efficient transmission and power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay networks with partial channel state information (CSI) are studied. In the energy-efficiency problem, the total power consumed is minimized while keeping the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) above a certain threshold. In the dual problem of power allocation, the end-to-end SNR is maximized under individual and global power constraints. Closed-form expressions for the optimal source and relay powers and the Lagrangian multiplier are obtained. Numerical results show that the optimal power allocation with partial CSI provides comparable performance as optimal power allocation with full CSI at low SNR.
Alsharoa, Ahmad M.
2014-06-01
In this paper, the problem of power allocation for a multiple-input multiple-output two-way system is investigated in underlay Cognitive Radio (CR) set-up. In the CR underlay mode, secondary users are allowed to exploit the spectrum allocated to primary users in an opportunistic manner by respecting a tolerated temperature limit. The secondary networks employ an amplify-and-forward two-way relaying technique in order to maximize the sum rate under power budget and interference constraints. In this context, we formulate an optimization problem that is solved in two steps. First, we derive a closed-form expression of the optimal power allocated to terminals. Then, we employ a strong optimization tool based on particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the power allocated to secondary relays. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution and analyze the impact of some system parameters on the achieved performance. © 2014 IEEE.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘鑫; 仲伟志; 陈琨奇
2015-01-01
In order to improve the throughput of cognitive radio (CR), optimization of sensing time and cooperative user allocation for OR-rule cooperative spectrum sensing was investigated in a CR network that includes multiple users and one fusion center. The frame structure of cooperative spectrum sensing was divided into multiple transmission time slots and one sensing time slot consisting of local energy detection and cooperative overhead. An optimization problem was formulated to maximize the throughput of CR network, subject to the constraints of both false alarm probability and detection probability. A joint optimization algorithm of sensing time and number of users was proposed to solve this optimization problem with low time complexity. An allocation algorithm of cooperative users was proposed to preferentially allocate the users to the channels with high utilization probability. The simulation results show that the significant improvement on the throughput can be achieved through the proposed joint optimization and allocation algorithms.
Zafar, Ammar
2012-09-16
In this letter, energy-efficient transmission and power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay networks with partial channel state information (CSI) are studied. In the energy-efficiency problem, the total power consumed is minimized while keeping the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) above a certain threshold. In the dual problem of power allocation, the end-to-end SNR is maximized under individual and global power constraints. Closed-form expressions for the optimal source and relay powers and the Lagrangian multiplier are obtained. Numerical results show that the optimal power allocation with partial CSI provides comparable performance as optimal power allocation with full CSI at low SNR. © 2012 IEEE.
Zhi Li; Wong, W. K.; Kwong, C. K.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a supplier selection and order allocation (SSOA) model to solve the problem of a multiperiod supplier selection and then order allocation in the environment of short product life cycle and frequent material purchasing, for example, fast fashion environment in apparel industry. At the first stage, with consideration of multiple decision criteria and the fuzziness of the data involved in deciding the preferences of multiple decision variables in supplier selection, the fuzzy...
Lina Gong
2012-01-01
Currently, to a large extent, the allocation of Chinese college students’ self-own books has the problem of irrationality. It is in sharp contrast with the target of building economical society and advocating low-carbon life. To achieve the optimization and integration of educational resources, especially to improve the utilization efficiency of university students' self-own books, we explore the possibility of optimizing the allocation of college students' self-own books based on the perspec...
Hussain, Syed Adeel
2007-01-01
The approach for setting system reliability in the risk-based reliability allocation (RBRA) method is driven solely by the amount of ‘total losses’ (sum of reliability investment and risk of failure) associated with a non-repairable system failure. For a system consisting of many components, reliability allocation by RBRA method becomes a very complex combinatorial optimisation problem particularly if large numbers of alternatives, with different levels of reliability and assoc...
Cost Allocation as a Coordination Mechanism
Diaw, K.
2003-01-01
This paper shows that cost allocation can endogenously arise as a coordination mechanism in a decentralized firm.This result is derived in a setting with multiple (internally supplied) resources shared by multiple users, which constitutes a departure from previous literature.While standard cost allo
Adaptive resource allocation for efficient patient scheduling
I.B. Vermeulen; S.M. Bohte; S.G. Elkhuizen; H. Lameris; P.J.M. Bakker; H. La Poutre
2009-01-01
Objective: Efficient scheduling of patient appointments on expensive resources is a complex and dynamic task. A resource is typically used by several patient groups. To service these groups, resource capacity is often allocated per group, explicitly or implicitly. Importantly, due to fluctuations in
Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard
The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking and...
Axioms for health care resource allocation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østerdal, Lars Peter
2005-01-01
This paper examines principles of health care resource allocation based on axioms for individual preferences and distributive justice. We establish axioms for representing individual preferences by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), as well as axioms for existence of a social welfare function...
Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.
Nierste, Deborah
2013-01-01
Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care. PMID:23607154
45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.
2010-10-01
... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation....
Dynamic bandwidth allocation in GPON networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ozimkiewiez, J.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Wessing, Henrik; Smolorz, S.
2009-01-01
Two Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation algorithms used for coordination of the available bandwidth between end users in a GPON network have been simulated using OPNET to determine and compare the performance, scalability and efficiency of status reporting and non status reporting dynamic bandwidth...
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... talent. (e) The Secretary will ensure that SBRS slots are used in support of high priority...
Ethics and resource allocation: an economist's view.
McGuire, A
1986-01-01
This paper debates some of the issues involved in attempting to apply economic analysis to the health care sector when medical ethics plays such an important part in determining the allocation of resources in that sector. Two distinct ethical positions are highlighted as being fundamental to the understanding of resource allocation in this sector -- deontological and utilitarian theories of ethics. It is argued that medical ethics are often narrowly conceived in that there is a tendency for the individual, rather than society at large, to form the focal point of the production of the service "health care'. Thus medical ethics have been dominated by individualistic ethical coded which do not fully consider questions relating to resource allocation at a social level. It is further argued that the structure of the health care sector augments these "individualistic' ethics. It is also suggested that different actors in the health care sector address questions of resource allocation with respect to different time periods, and that this serves to further enhance the influence of "individualistic' ethical codes in this sector. PMID:3092362
Carbon allowance allocation in the transportation industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study proposes models for projecting reductions in CO2 emissions of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% compared to business as usual (BAU), using a carbon allowance allocation policy and both unimodal and intermodal modes of transportation. The results show that for 10% to 80% decreases in free carbon allowance, the intermodal ratio increased from 1.01% to 53.44%, which led to decreases in carbon emissions and demand ranging from 10.41% to 48.19% and 8.45% to 7.57%, respectively. When free carbon allowances are decreased, the demand for intermodal systems increases accordingly. These results suggest that a carbon allowance allocation policy could mitigate transportation carbon emissions with a relatively small negative impact on economic activity. - Highlights: • This study proposes models for CO2 reduction by using carbon allowance policy. • This study found decreases in carbon allowance allocation, the intermodal ratio increased. • Truck-only transport will be replaced by intermodal transport. • The carbon allowance allocation policy cause small negative impact on economic activity
RAOPS: Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safegurards
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.
1994-03-01
RAOPS--Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards is extended to a multiobjective return function having the detection probability and expected detection time as criteria. The expected detection time is included as a constraint, based on the well-known Avenhaus model of the optimum number of inventory periods. Examples of computation are provided.
Allocating Faculty in the Budgeting Process.
Kemper, Gene A.
1985-01-01
The University of North Dakota conducted a feasibility study to develop a faculty funding formula that would serve as an internally acceptable guideline and an externally justifiable procedure for allocating faculty in the budgeting process. The current formula is reviewed, and appropriate formula revisions are suggested. (MLW)
Financial development and allocation of external finance
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bena, Jan; Ondko, Peter
-, č. 398 (2009), s. 1-49. ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial development * external finance * allocative efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp398.pdf
A QR Code Based Processing For Dynamic and Transparent Seat Allocation in Indian Railway
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Man Mohan Swarup
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Indian Railway is worlds largest human transport system, is currently dealing with a lot of problems, such as availability of confirming seat to waiting list passengers after its departure. However there is no such system that presently in Indian railway gives accommodation to waiting list passengers during their journey. This paper proposes the Dynamic Seat Allocation (DSA system considering the advantage of QR code processing along with one of the standards of wireless communication. Moreover, dynamic authentication to the wireless device is incorporate which is passenger specific. Through this research paper our approach is to make fair processing in seat reservation or allocation in Indian Railway.
Wang, Wei; Zhao, Yongli; He, Ruiying; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Haomian; Lin, Yi; Han, Jianrui
2016-05-01
Optical network virtualization has been studied as a promising technique for optical network resources provisioning. In the virtualization context of Elastic Optical Network (EON), Virtual Optical Network Embedding (VONE) is investigated as a key issue for allocating spectrum resources to VON requests. This paper discusses the continuity constraint for the VONE problem in EONs, and presents three continuity-aware spectrum allocation schemes according to strict and relaxed continuity constraints. We have demonstrated the proposed schemes on emulated testbed to verify the feasibility of composing VON with discontiguous spectrum resources. Additionally, the performances of the proposed schemes are compared via simulation in terms of blocking probability, spectrum resource utilization and discontinuity degree.
Power flow tracing based method for allocation of transmission service cost to transactions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李卫东; 刘娆; 魏立明
2004-01-01
Based on the concepts of objective fact and subjeetive desire proposed in this paper, the problens that exist in the nodal injections-based and transaction-based transmission service allocation scheme are pointed out. To get around the problems above, a novel transmission service allocation scheme is proposed which considers the power flow distribution and the transaetion impact on the system simultaneously so that the issues of "Cross-subsidies" and "Counter flow" can be avoided. The principle of the scheme is illustrated using two simple networks with 7 cases. The results show that the proposed scheme can satisfy the properties necessary for the development and growth of the electricity market.
Coordinating energy allocation and process performance using an agent-based approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Umair, Aisha; Clausen, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
2015-01-01
mechanism that can balance allocation and demand. In this paper, we propose a novel agent-based software system for solving cooperative control problems. The system produces a Pareto-optimal energy allocation for the process domain while striving to achieve a group objective for balancing the individual...... requirements of the coupled domains. The efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated through simulation. Our preliminary results show that it is possible to create a cooperative coordination mechanism that can achieve a group objective without risking sub-optimality or sub-optimization of individual...
Relay selection and resource allocation for two-way DF-AF cognitive radio networks
Alsharoa, Ahmad M.
2013-08-01
In this letter, the problem of relay selection and optimal resource allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using half duplex amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward protocols is investigated. The primary and secondary users are assumed to access the spectrum simultaneously, in a way that the interference introduced to the primary users should be below a certain tolerated limit. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods are used to find the optimal power allocation. A suboptimal approach based on a genetic algorithm is also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed suboptimal algorithm offers a performance close to the optimal performance with a considerable complexity saving. © 2013 IEEE.
Data-driven Performance Prediction and Resource Allocation for Cloud Services
Yanggratoke, Rerngvit
2016-01-01
Cloud services, which provide online entertainment, enterprise resource management, tax filing, etc., are becoming essential for consumers, businesses, and governments. The key functionalities of such services are provided by backend systems in data centers. This thesis focuses on three fundamental problems related to management of backend systems. We address these problems using data-driven approaches: triggering dynamic allocation by changes in the environment, obtaining configuration param...
Morrell, R. A.; Odoherty, R. J.; Ramsey, H. R.; Reynolds, C. C.; Willoughby, J. K.; Working, R. D.
1975-01-01
Data and analyses related to a variety of algorithms for solving typical large-scale scheduling and resource allocation problems are presented. The capabilities and deficiencies of various alternative problem solving strategies are discussed from the viewpoint of computer system design.
The drivers to product allocation management: A managerial perspective to allocation decision-making
Lyytinen Otayza, Paulo
2013-01-01
Objective of the study The research objective of this study is to determine what are the drivers of product allocation decision making among Multinational Corporations' (MNC) headquarters. Academic background and methodology The topic of product allocation management has multiple facets in extant academic literature, with the most directly related being supply chain management under order fulfillment and push & pull- based Available-To-Promise (ATP) methods. Due to the increasingl...
A Heuristic Optimal Discrete Bit Allocation Algorithm for Margin Maximization in DMT Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shi-Wei Dong
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A heuristic optimal discrete bit allocation algorithm is proposed for solving the margin maximization problem in discrete multitone (DMT systems. Starting from an initial equal power assignment bit distribution, the proposed algorithm employs a multistaged bit rate allocation scheme to meet the target rate. If the total bit rate is far from the target rate, a multiple-bits loading procedure is used to obtain a bit allocation close to the target rate. When close to the target rate, a parallel bit-loading procedure is used to achieve the target rate and this is computationally more efficient than conventional greedy bit-loading algorithm. Finally, the target bit rate distribution is checked, if it is efficient, then it is also the optimal solution; else, optimal bit distribution can be obtained only by few bit swaps. Simulation results using the standard asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL test loops show that the proposed algorithm is efficient for practical DMT transmissions.
Kapur, P. K.; Pham, Hoang; Chanda, Udayan; Kumar, Vijay
2013-09-01
Allocation of efforts to a software development project during the testing phase is a multifaceted task for software managers. The challenges become stiffer when the nature of the development process is considered in the dynamic environment. Many software reliability growth models have been proposed in last decade to minimise the total testing-effort expenditures, but mostly under static assumption. The main purpose of this article is to investigate an optimal resource allocation plan to minimise the cost of software during the testing and operational phase under dynamic condition. An elaborate optimisation policy based on the optimal control theory is proposed and numerical examples are illustrated. This article also studies the optimal resource allocation problems for various conditions by examining the behaviour of the model parameters and also suggests policy for the optimal release time of the software. The experimental results greatly help us to identify the contribution of each selected parameter and its weight.
Research on Multirobot Pursuit Task Allocation Algorithm Based on Emotional Cooperation Factor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baofu Fang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots’ individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm.
Hybrid Evolutionary-Heuristic Algorithm for Capacitor Banks Allocation
Barukčić, Marinko; Nikolovski, Srete; Jović, Franjo
2010-11-01
The issue of optimal allocation of capacitor banks concerning power losses minimization in distribution networks are considered in this paper. This optimization problem has been recently tackled by application of contemporary soft computing methods such as: genetic algorithms, neural networks, fuzzy logic, simulated annealing, ant colony methods, and hybrid methods. An evolutionaryheuristic method has been proposed for optimal capacitor allocation in radial distribution networks. An evolutionary method based on genetic algorithm is developed. The proposed method has a reduced number of parameters compared to the usual genetic algorithm. A heuristic stage is used for improving the optimal solution given by the evolutionary stage. A new cost-voltage node index is used in the heuristic stage in order to improve the quality of solution. The efficiency of the proposed two-stage method has been tested on different test networks. The quality of solution has been verified by comparison tests with other methods on the same test networks. The proposed method has given significantly better solutions for time dependent load in the 69-bus network than found in references.
Improving Hospital-Wide Early Resource Allocation through Machine Learning.
Gartner, Daniel; Padman, Rema
2015-01-01
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which early determination of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) can be used for better allocation of scarce hospital resources. When elective patients seek admission, the true DRG, currently determined only at discharge, is unknown. We approach the problem of early DRG determination in three stages: (1) test how much a Naïve Bayes classifier can improve classification accuracy as compared to a hospital's current approach; (2) develop a statistical program that makes admission and scheduling decisions based on the patients' clincial pathways and scarce hospital resources; and (3) feed the DRG as classified by the Naïve Bayes classifier and the hospitals' baseline approach into the model (which we evaluate in simulation). Our results reveal that the DRG grouper performs poorly in classifying the DRG correctly before admission while the Naïve Bayes approach substantially improves the classification task. The results from the connection of the classification method with the mathematical program also reveal that resource allocation decisions can be more effective and efficient with the hybrid approach. PMID:26262062
APPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF CONTINGENCY USING RISK ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andi Andi
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Many cost overruns in the world of construction are attributable to either unforeseen events or foreseen events for which uncertainty was not appropriately accommodated. It is argued that a significant improvement to project management performance may result from greater attention to the process of analyzing project risks. The objective of this paper is to propose a risk analysis methodology for appropriate allocation of contingency in project cost estimation. In the first step, project risks will be identified. Influence diagramming technique is employed to identify and to show how the risks affect the project cost elements and also the relationships among the risks themselves. The second step is to assess the project costs with regards to the risks under consideration. Using a linguistic approach, the degree of uncertainty of identified project risks is assessed and quantified. The problem of dependency between risks is taken into consideration during this analysis. For the final step, as the main purpose of this paper, a method for allocating appropriate contingency is presented. Two types of contingencies, i.e. project contingency and management reserve are proposed to accommodate the risks. An illustrative example is presented at the end to show the application of the methodology.
Budget Allocation for Maximizing Viral Advertising in Social Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bo-Lei Zhang; Zhu-Zhong Qian; Wen-Zhong Li; Bin Tang; Xiaoming Fu
2016-01-01
Viral advertising in social networks has arisen as one of the most promising ways to increase brand awareness and product sales. By distributing a limited budget, we can incentivize a set of users as initial adopters so that the advertising can start from the initial adopters and spread via social links to become viral. Despite extensive researches in how to target the most influential users, a key issue is often neglected: how to incentivize the initial adopters. In the problem of influence maximization, the assumption is that each user has a fixed cost for being initial adopters, while in practice, user decisions for accepting the budget to be initial adopters are often probabilistic rather than deterministic. In this paper, we study optimal budget allocation in social networks to maximize the spread of viral advertising. In particular, a concave probability model is introduced to characterize each user’s utility for being an initial adopter. Under this model, we show that it is NP-hard to find an optimal budget allocation for maximizing the spread of viral advertising. We then present a novel discrete greedy algorithm with near optimal performance, and further propose scaling-up techniques to improve the time-eﬃciency of our algorithm. Extensive experiments on real-world social graphs are implemented to validate the effectiveness of our algorithm in practice. The results show that our algorithm can outperform other intuitive heuristics significantly in almost all cases.
Ethics of the allocation of highly advanced medical technologies.
Sass, H M
1998-03-01
The disproportionate distribution of financial, educational, social, and medical resources between some rich countries of the northern hemisphere and less fortunate societies creates a moral challenge of global dimension. The development of new forms of highly advanced medical technologies, including neoorgans and xenografts, as well as the promotion of health literacy and predictive and preventive medical services might reduce some problems in allocational justice. Most governments and the World Health Organization (WHO) reject financial and other rewards for living organ donors thus indirectly contributing to the development of black markets. A societal gratuity model supporting and safeguarding a highly regulated market between providers and recipients of organs might provide for better protection of those who provide organs not solely based on altruistic reasons. The moral assessment of global issues in allocation and justice in the distribution of medical technologies must be increased and will have to be based on the principles of self determination and responsibility, solidarity and subsidiarity, and respect for individual values and cultural traditions. PMID:9527289
SRF Coloring: Stream Register File Allocation via Graph Coloring
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xue-Jun Yang; Yu Deng; Li Wang; Xiao-Bo Yan; Jing Du; Ying Zhang; Gui-Bin Wang; Tao Tang
2009-01-01
Stream Register File (SRF) is a large on-chip memory of the stream processor and its efficient management is essential for good performance. Current stream programming languages expose the management of SRF to the programmer, incurring heavy burden on the programmer and bringing difficulties to inheriting the legacy codes. SF95 is the language developed for FT64 which is the first 64-bit stream processor designed for scientific applications. SF95 conceals SRF from the programmer and leaves the management of SRF to its compiler. In this paper, we present a compiler approach named SRF Coloring to manage SRF automatically. The novelties of this paper are: first, it is the first time to use the graph coloring-based algorithm for the SRF management; second, an algorithm framework for SRF Coloring that is well suited to the FT64 architecture is proposed -- this framework is based on a well-understood graph coloring algorithm for register allocation, together with some modifications to deal with the unusual aspects of SRF problem; third, the SRF Coloring algorithm is implemented in SF95Compiler, a compiler designed for FT64 and SF95. The experimental results show that our approach represents a practical and promising solution to SRF allocation.
Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks
Abdelhady, Amr
2016-04-01
Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE. First, we consider sparsely deployed cells experiencing negligible interference and assume perfect channel state information (CSI). For this setting, we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus number of users, and phantom cells share of the total available resource units (RUs). We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It is found that increasing phantom cells share of RUs decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. Second, we consider the densely deployed phantom cellular networks and model the EE optimization problem having into consideration the inevitable interference and imperfect channel estimation. To this end, we propose three resource allocation strategies aiming at optimizing the EE performance metric of this network. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of changing some of the system parameters on the performance of the proposed strategies, such as phantom cells share of RUs, number of deployed phantom cells within a macro cell coverage, number of pilots and the maximum power available for transmission by the phantom cells BSs. It is found that increasing the number of pilots deteriorates the EE performance of the whole setup, while increasing maximum power available for phantom cells transmissions reduces the EE of the whole setup in a
An analysis of dynamic bankruptcy problems
Turhan, Bertan
2009-01-01
In this paper, we analyse Pareto optimal and strategy-proof allocation rules on the dynamic bankruptcy domain. We first develop a model in which dynamic bankruptcy problems are defined. We then redefine the well-known axioms of the classical bankruptcy literature for the dynamic case. In our analysis, for simplicity, two agents and two periods are considered. We first characterize Pareto optimal allocations on the dynamic bankruptcy domain. The main result of the paper characterizes the Paret...
Power Allocation and Pricing in Multi-User Relay Networks Using Stackelberg and Bargaining Games
Cao, Qian; Jing, Yindi
2012-01-01
This paper considers a multi-user single-relay wireless network, where the relay gets paid for helping the users forward signals, and the users pay to receive the relay service. We study the relay power allocation and pricing problems, and model the interaction between the users and the relay as a two-level Stackelberg game. In this game, the relay, modeled as the service provider and the leader of the game, sets the relay price to maximize its revenue; while the users are modeled as customers and the followers who buy power from the relay for higher transmission rates. We use a bargaining game to model the negotiation among users to achieve a fair allocation of the relay power. Based on the proposed fair relay power allocation rule, the optimal relay power price that maximizes the relay revenue is derived analytically. Simulation shows that the proposed power allocation scheme achieves higher network sum-rate and relay revenue than the even power allocation. Furthermore, compared with the sum-rate-optimal so...
Allocating functions to man or machine in nuclear power plant control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are complex, and the operator's task is demanding. Unfortunately, control room (CR) design often adds unnecessarily to the causes of operator confusion and potential error. Design reviews in 1980 and 1981 confirmed this problem, and revealed that many CR deficiencies were basic errors in plant design, in that functions were improperly allocated to man or to machine. Thus it is clear that we need a methodology for improving the allocation of functions during design. BioTechnology, Inc. (BTI) studied this issue, recognized certain lessons from the past, and identified important features of the design process that have not been noted in the literature before. Using these findings and a prior decision model, BTI developed an operationalized method for allocating functions to man and machine. The methodology consists of two major steps, by which an appropriate allocation is first developed hypothetically, and then tested deductively. These steps are mapped into the normal steps in systems design, and linked to those design steps that either contribute to the allocation decision or derive data from it. This methodology is now under test
Joint slot allocation and dynamic pricing of container sea–rail multimodal transportation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di Liu
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The container sea–rail multimodal transport system faces complex challenges with demand uncertainties for joint slot allocation and dynamic pricing. The challenge is formulated as a two-stage optimal model based on revenue management (RM as actual slots sale of multi-node container sea–rail multimodal transport usually includes contract sale to large shippers and free sale to scattered shippers. First stage in the model utilizes an origin-destination control approach, formulated as a stochastic integer programming equation, to settle long-term slot allocation in the contract market and empty container allocation. Second stage in the model is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear programming equation to solve a multiproduct joint dynamic pricing and inventory control problem for price settling and slot allocation in each period of free market. Considering the random nature of demand, the methods of chance constrained programming and robust optimization are utilized to transform stochastic models into deterministic models. A numerical experiment is presented to verify the availability of models and solving methods. Results of considering uncertain/certain demand are compared, which show that the two-stage optimal strategy integrating slot allocation with dynamic pricing considering random demand is revealed to increase the revenue for multimodal transport operators (MTO while concurrently satisfying shippers' demand. Research resulting from this paper will contribute to the theory and practice of container sea–rail multimodal transport revenue management and provide a scientific decision-making tool for MTO.
Formica, R N; Aeder, M; Boyle, G; Kucheryavaya, A; Stewart, D; Hirose, R; Mulligan, D
2016-03-01
The introduction of the Mayo End-Stage Liver Disease score into the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) deceased donor liver allocation policy in 2002 has led to a significant increase in the number of simultaneous liver-kidney transplants in the United States. Despite multiple attempts, clinical science has not been able to reliably predict which liver candidates with renal insufficiency will recover renal function or need a concurrent kidney transplant. The problem facing the transplant community is that currently there are almost no medical criteria for candidacy for simultaneous liver-kidney allocation in the United States, and this lack of standardized rules and medical eligibility criteria for kidney allocation with a liver is counter to OPTN's Final Rule. Moreover, almost 50% of simultaneous liver-kidney organs come from a donor with a kidney donor profile index of ≤0.35. The kidneys from these donors could otherwise be allocated to pediatric recipients, young adults or prior organ donors. This paper presents the new OPTN and United Network of Organ Sharing simultaneous liver-kidney allocation policy, provides the supporting evidence and explains the rationale on which the policy was based. PMID:26603142
Optimal Joint Multiple Resource Allocation Method for Cloud Computing Environments
Kuribayashi, Shin-ichi
2011-01-01
Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. To provide cloud computing services economically, it is important to optimize resource allocation under the assumption that the required resource can be taken from a shared resource pool. In addition, to be able to provide processing ability and storage capacity, it is necessary to allocate bandwidth to access them at the same time. This paper proposes an optimal resource allocation method for cloud computing environments. First, this paper develops a resource allocation model of cloud computing environments, assuming both processing ability and bandwidth are allocated simultaneously to each service request and rented out on an hourly basis. The allocated resources are dedicated to each service request. Next, this paper proposes an optimal joint multiple resource allocation method, based on the above resource allocation model. It is demonstrated by simulation evaluation that the p...
An Improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm for Ethernet PON
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
This paper proposes an improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm for EPON, which combines static and traditional dynamic allocation schemes. Simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm may effectively improve the performance of packet delay.
Economic development and the allocation of petroleum products in Sudan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future
Joint Power and Resource Allocation for Block-Fading Relay-Assisted Broadcast Channels
Shaqfeh, Mohammad
2012-01-01
We provide the solution for optimizing the power and resource allocation over block-fading relay-assisted broadcast channels in order to maximize the long term average achievable rates region of the users. The problem formulation assumes regenerative (repetition coding) decode-and-forward (DF) relaying strategy, long-term average total transmitted power constraint, orthogonal multiplexing of the users messages within the channel blocks, possibility to use a direct transmission (DT) mode from the base station to the user terminal directly or a relaying (DF) transmission mode, and partial channel state information. We show that our optimization problem can be transformed into an equivalent "no-relaying" broadcast channel optimization problem with each actual user substituted by two virtual users having different channel qualities and multiplexing weights. The proposed power and resource allocation strategies are expressed in closed-form that can be applied practically in centralized relay-assisted wireless netw...
7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.
2010-01-01
... State which administers the National School Lunch, School Breakfast or Special Milk Programs an amount... allocations: (1) Allocate $30,000 to each State which administers the Child and Adult Care Food Program (7 CFR... September 30, 1980. (4) Funds which remain after the allocations required in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2),...
30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...
30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...
MULTICARRIER DS-CDMA WITH ADAPTIVE MODULATION AND POWER ALLOCATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Yahong; Zhang Zhongpei; Wu Weiling
2003-01-01
Adaptive modulation and power allocation is introduced into the multicarrier DS-CDMA system to improve the system performance and bandwidth efficiency. First, the systemdesign appropriate for adaptive modulation and power allocation is given, then the algorithmof adaptive modulation and power allocation is applied. Simulation results demonstrate greatperformance improvement compared with the fixed modulated one.
24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604... allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI funds to participating jurisdictions in amounts determined by the formula described in this section. (b) Allocation to states that are...
26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of GST exemption. 26.2632-1 Section...-1 Allocation of GST exemption. (a) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an individual or the individual's executor may allocate the individual's $1 million GST exemption at any...
10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...
Sapwood allocation in tropical trees: a test of hypotheses
Schippers, P.; Vlam, M.; Zuidema, P.A.; Sterck, F.J.
2015-01-01
Carbon allocation to sapwood in tropical canopy trees is a key process determining forest carbon sequestration, and is at the heart of tree growth and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM). Several allocation hypotheses exist including those applying assumptions on fixed allocation, pipe model, an
40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used for calculating...
40 CFR 96.42 - NOX allowance allocations.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 96.42... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used...
Traffic resource allocation for complex networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, an optimal resource allocation strategy is proposed to enhance traffic dynamics in complex networks. The network resources are the total node packet-delivering capacity and the total link bandwidth. An analytical method is developed to estimate the overall network capacity by using the concept of efficient betweenness (ratio of algorithmic betweenness and local processing capacity). Three network structures (scale-free, small-world, and random networks) and two typical routing protocols (shortest path protocol and efficient routing protocol) are adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed strategy. Our results show that the network capacity is reversely proportional to the average path length for a particular routing protocol and the shortest path protocol can achieve the largest network capacity when the proposed resource allocation strategy is adopted. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Using contests to allocate pollution rights
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we advocate a new initial allocation mechanism for a tradable pollution permit market. We outline a Permit Allocation Contest (PAC) that distributes permits to firms based on their rank relative to other firms. This ranking is achieved by ordering firms based on an observable 'external action' where the external action is an activity or characteristic of the firm that is independent of their choice of emissions in the tradable permit market. We argue that this mechanism has a number of benefits over auctioning and grandfathering. Using this mechanism efficiently distributes permits, allows for the attainment of a secondary policy objective and has the potential to be more politically appealing than existing alternatives. (author)
Cost Allocation in Water Resources Development
Young, H. P.; Okada, N.; Hashimoto, T.
1982-06-01
Different methods for allocating the joint costs of water supply projects among users are compared on the basis of certain commonsense principles of equity. We contrast the separable costs-remaining benefits (SCRB) method with simple proportional allocation schemes and more sophisticated methods from cooperative game theory, including the Shapley value and variants of the core. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods in practice are examined using a regional water supply system in Sweden. It is argued that these principles provide a useful framework for choosing intelligently among methods. The appropriateness of a method depends on the context, especially on the reliability of information about costs and demands. The conclusion is that there is no one best method, although from a normative standpoint the SCRB method may be one of the worst.
Inventory Allocation for Online Graphical Display Advertising
Yang, Jian; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Tomlin, John; Shanmugasundaram, Jayavel; Anastasakos, Tasos; Kennedy, Oliver
2010-01-01
We discuss a multi-objective/goal programming model for the allocation of inventory of graphical advertisements. The model considers two types of campaigns: guaranteed delivery (GD), which are sold months in advance, and non-guaranteed delivery (NGD), which are sold using real-time auctions. We investigate various advertiser and publisher objectives such as (a) revenue from the sale of impressions, clicks and conversions, (b) future revenue from the sale of NGD inventory, and (c) "fairness" of allocation. While the first two objectives are monetary, the third is not. This combination of demand types and objectives leads to potentially many variations of our model, which we delineate and evaluate. Our experimental results, which are based on optimization runs using real data sets, demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed model.
Irreplaceability of Neuronal Ensembles after Memory Allocation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoki Matsuo
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Lesion studies suggest that an alternative system can compensate for damage to the primary region employed when animals acquire a memory. However, it is unclear whether functional compensation occurs at the cellular ensemble level. Here, we inhibited the activities of a specific subset of neurons activated during initial learning by utilizing a transgenic mouse that expresses tetanus toxin (TeNT under the control of the c-fos promoter. Notably, suppression interfered with relearning while sparing the ability to acquire and express fear memory for a distinct context. These results suggest that the activity of the initial ensemble is preferentially dedicated to the same learning and that it is not replaceable once it is allocated. Our results provide substantial insights into the machinery underlying how the brain allocates individual memories to discrete neuronal ensembles and how it ensures that repetitive learning strengthens memory by reactivating the same neuronal ensembles.
Models and Methods for Operations in Port Container Terminals
Gudelj, Anita; Krčum, Maja; Twrdy, Elen
2010-01-01
The management of a container terminal is a complex process that involves many decisions. Among the problems to be solved, there are the spatial allocation of containers on the terminal yard, allocation of ships to berths and cranes, scheduling priorities and operations in order to maximize performances based on some economic indicators. Since the container port facilities are very expensive, it is desirable to optimize their performance, making better management decisions. This paper wants t...
Allocation of emission permits with leakage through capital markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper analyses how tradable emission permits should be allocated to firms when capital is internationally mobile. When international environmental problems are attempted solved through uncoordinated policies between countries, it might be desirable for the home country to issue free emission permits in proportion to the use of capital in order to prevent leakage through international capital movements. The desirability of free emission permits will however be reduced if capital also can be employed in a domestic non-polluting sector. In this case, it may even be optimal to tax the use of capital in the polluting sector. It is also shown that it is always optimal to subsidise the use of capital in the polluting sector if the use of labour is taxed at an optimal rate. Finally, leakage does not affect the optimal domestic emission limit as long as appropriate capital subsidies and labour taxes are implementeed. (author)
An OFDMA resource allocation algorithm based on coalitional games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bacci Giacomo
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This work investigates a fair adaptive resource management criterion (in terms of transmit powers and subchannel assignment for the uplink of an orthogonal frequency-division multiple access network, populated by mobile users with constraints in terms of target data rates. The inherent optimization problem is tackled with the analytical tools of coalitional game theory, and a practical algorithm based on Markov modeling is introduced. The proposed scheme allows the mobile devices to fulfill their rate demands exactly with a minimum utilization of network resources. Simulation results show that the average number of operations of the proposed iterative algorithm are much lower than K · N, where N and K are the number of allocated subcarriers and of mobile terminals.
Improving Performance of Wireless Mesh Network using Channel Allocation Schemes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pranay Joshi, Prof. Rupesh Dubey, Prof. Harsh Goud
2013-07-01
Full Text Available One of the major advantages of wireless com-munication over wired is the flexibility when creating links between nodes. But this comes at a price as influences from outside the mesh network can distort communication between the nodes and even the nodes themselves interfere with each other. By carefully selecting channels where each link transmits data on, the interference can be minimized causing the throughput and end-to-end delay to be improved. We compares the channel allocation schemes to find the best channel selection for each link. While single radio mesh nodes operating on a single channel suffer from capacity constraints, equipping mesh routers with multiple radios using multiple non overlapping channels can significantly alleviate the capacity problem and increase the aggregate bandwidth available to the network. The goal of channel assignment algorithms in multi radio mesh networks is to minimize interference while improving the aggregate network capacity and maintaining the connectivity of the network.
Maximizing Cloud Providers Revenues via Energy Aware Allocation Policies
Mazzucco, Michele; Deters, Ralph
2011-01-01
Cloud providers, like Amazon, offer their data centers' computational and storage capacities for lease to paying customers. High electricity consumption, associated with running a data center, not only reflects on its carbon footprint, but also increases the costs of running the data center itself. This paper addresses the problem of maximizing the revenues of Cloud providers by trimming down their electricity costs. As a solution allocation policies which are based on the dynamic powering servers on and off are introduced and evaluated. The policies aim at satisfying the conflicting goals of maximizing the users' experience while minimizing the amount of consumed electricity. The results of numerical experiments and simulations are described, showing that the proposed scheme performs well under different traffic conditions.
The Asset Allocation of Private Pension Plans
Papke, Leslie E.
1991-01-01
This paper summarizes the Form 5500 data on private pension fund investment. Using Form 5500 data from 1981 to 1987, the asset allocation of single employer and mu1tiemp1oyer defined benefit and defined contribution plans is reported, as well as the asset mix of the following subgroups: defined benefit plans categorized by plan funding ratio, sole and multiple defined contribution plans, savings or thrift, money purchase, ESOP, and 401(k) defined contribution plans. A brief survey of the lite...