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Sample records for berry thomas dotzel

  1. Berry phases on Virasoro orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblak, Blagoje

    2017-10-01

    We point out that unitary representations of the Virasoro algebra contain Berry phases obtained by acting on a primary state with conformal transformations that trace a closed path on a Virasoro coadjoint orbit. These phases can be computed exactly thanks to the Maurer-Cartan form on the Virasoro group, and they persist after combining left- and right-moving sectors. Thinking of Virasoro representations as particles in AdS3 dressed with boundary gravitons, the Berry phases associated with Brown-Henneaux diffeomorphisms provide a gravitational extension of Thomas precession.

  2. Thomas precession for dressed particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblak, Blagoje

    2018-03-01

    We consider a particle dressed with boundary gravitons in three-dimensional Minkowski space. The existence of BMS transformations implies that the particle’s wavefunction picks up a Berry phase when subjected to changes of reference frames that trace a closed path in the asymptotic symmetry group. We evaluate this phase and show that, for BMS superrotations, it provides a gravitational generalization of Thomas precession. In principle, such phases are observable signatures of asymptotic symmetries.

  3. Sabu Thomas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Why Does a Rubber Ball Bounce? The Molecular Origins of Rubber Elasticity · V G Geethamma Sabu Thomas · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 9 September 2014 pp 821-833 General Article. Vibration and Sound Damping in Polymers · V G Geethamma R Asaletha Nandakumar Kalarikkal Sabu Thomas.

  4. Thomas Aquinas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaning, Aksel

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer Thomas Aquinas i højmiddelalderens intellektuelle historie, reviderer den for tiden gældende historiegrafi og præsenterer Aquinas' erotiske mystik fra prologen til Sentenskommentaren (ca.1252) og diskuterer "Aurora consurgens" som et muligt sidste skrift af den berømte...

  5. Thomas edison

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    One of Thomas Edison's most famous inventions was the phonograph. It was the first machine to record and play sounds. Kids can read this book to find out more about Edison, like how he started a business at age twelve and what he said in his first phonograph recording. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Applied to STEM Concepts of Learning Principles. Super Sandcastle is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  6. M O Ikeke Appraisal of Thomas Berry's Idea of Technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oduor

    The use of technology in nature by human beings is a subject of enquiry in both philosophy of technology and ... in the Niger Delta of Nigeria ought to be designed with the protection and development of the people and the ..... maintenance of oil facilities or neglect of ethical principles in the process of prospecting for oil.

  7. Thomas Berry's Idea of Technological Transformation: Its Relevance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's Niger Delta, which produces the oil and gas that have made the country the twelfth largest oil producer in the world, has suffered from environmental degradation caused by oil and gas exploration involving the use of technologies that are very often applied without consideration for the health and well-being of the ...

  8. Grace S Thomas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Grace S Thomas. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 33 Issue 3 June 2010 pp 319-324 Catalysis. Thermal decomposition of Co–Al layered double hydroxide: Identification of precursor to oxide with spinel structure · A V Radha Grace S Thomas P Vishnu ...

  9. jijimon k thomas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JIJIMON K THOMAS. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 6 October 2017 pp 1171-1178. Enhanced infrared transmission characteristics of microwave-sintered Y$_2$O$_3$–MgO nanocomposite · C T MATHEW SAM SOLOMON JACOB KOSHY JIJIMON K THOMAS · More Details Abstract ...

  10. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  11. Thomas Jefferson's Academical Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Jonathan; Frohburg, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This is an essay written for the Festschrift of Karl-Heinz Schmitz, Professor at Bauhaus-Universität Weimar. It reflects on some aspects of Thomas Jefferson's design for the University of Virginia in relation to Professor's Schmitz' teachings and interests.......This is an essay written for the Festschrift of Karl-Heinz Schmitz, Professor at Bauhaus-Universität Weimar. It reflects on some aspects of Thomas Jefferson's design for the University of Virginia in relation to Professor's Schmitz' teachings and interests....

  12. Morgan, Prof. Thomas Hunt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1939 Honorary. Morgan, Prof. Thomas Hunt Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1933. Date of birth: 25 September 1866. Date of death: 4 December 1945. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th ...

  13. Thomas a edison

    CERN Document Server

    Strand, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Creator of the phonograph and electric light bulb, Thomas Edison's inventions are still being used today. Historic photos and easy-to-read text take readers into the athlete's life. Zoom in even deeper with quick stats, a timeline, and bolded glossary terms. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  14. Morgan, Prof. Thomas Hunt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1939 Honorary. Morgan, Prof. Thomas Hunt Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1933. Date of birth: 25 September 1866. Date of death: 4 December 1945. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by ...

  15. Happy Birthday, Thomas Edison!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Edward A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the work and inventions of Thomas Edison and their use in making teachers and students aware of the importance of electrotechnology in their lives and in their futures. Enables students to learn about science, experimentation, research, the process of invention, and the thrill of discovery. Describes educational resources available from…

  16. J K Thomas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. J K Thomas. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 31 Issue 5 October 2008 pp 719-722 Nanomaterials. Synthesis, characterization, sintering and dielectric properties of nanostructured perovskite-type oxide, Ba2GdSbO6 · C Vijayakumar H Padma Kumar Sam ...

  17. Thomas Alva Edison

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 1. Thomas Alva Edison - His Contributions to Lighting and Power Generation. D P Sengupta. General Article Volume 5 Issue 1 January 2000 pp 60-70 ... Author Affiliations. D P Sengupta1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  18. Sir John Meurig Thomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2013-10-11

    "My greatest achievement has been to combine being a teacher, a researcher, and a popularizer of science for over 50 years. My worst nightmare is to find myself dumbstruck when I am about to give a lecture …︁" This and more about Sir John Meurig Thomas can be found on page 10938. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Practicing like Thomas Edison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil; Ornstein, Hal

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, medicine has practiced in a vacuum, and the healthcare profession has been isolated from other scientific disciplines. Beginning in the 20th century, doctors and scientists have looked to others for ideas, suggestions, innovations, and new technologies. Probably no one in the past hundred years has done so much to change the world than Thomas Edison. This article will discuss eight principles of Edison and how they may apply to our profession and our practices.

  20. 7 CFR 51.904 - Shot berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.904 Shot berries. Shot berries means very small berries resulting from insufficient pollination, usually seedless in those... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shot berries. 51.904 Section 51.904 Agriculture...

  1. 7 CFR 51.905 - Dried berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.905 Dried berries. Dried berries means berries which are dry and shriveled to the extent that practically no moisture is present... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dried berries. 51.905 Section 51.905 Agriculture...

  2. Finalismo em Thomas Hobbes

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, José Edelberto Araújo de

    2009-01-01

    102f. Para Thomas Hobbes, a Filosofia é um exercício voltado para a obtenção de conhecimento que permita mudar a vida das pessoas. Averiguar os rudimentos das relações do homem com o corpo natural e do homem com o corpo moral significa, nesta medida, para Hobbes, buscar um projeto cientificista confiável, tendo o homem e o Estado como objetos, identificando-se com o espírito galileano do século 17. Tal projeto, a soma das filosofias natural e moral, foca o movimento quantificável dos corpo...

  3. Physico-chemical Properties of Serendipity Berry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the physico-chemical properties of serendipity berry. Physico-chemical properties of the serendipity berries were analyzed. The total number of berries in a bunch of fruit ranged from 45 to 98. This depends on the size of the bunch. The results revealed the dry matter, moisture, soluble solids and vitamin ...

  4. Thomas Kibble visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Emeritus Professor Sir Thomas W.B. Kibble, from Imperial College London visited LHC for the first time last week and delivered a colloquium on the genesis of electroweak unification and the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism.   From left to right: Jim Virdee, Tiziano Camporesi, Tom Kibble and Austin Ball on the visit to CMS. On his way back from Trieste, where he received the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics' Dirac Medal, Tom Kibble stopped by CERN for his first visit to the LHC. Kibble had a standing invitation from Jim Virdee, former CMS spokesperson, who is also a researcher from Imperial College London. Peter Jenni (left) and Tom Kibble tour the ATLAS detector. (Image: Erwan Bertrand) Kibble made the trip to CERN a family outing and brought along 14 relatives,  including his children and grandchildren. He visited the ATLAS detector with Peter Jenni, its former spokesperson, on Friday 10 October. In the afternoon, Kibble delivered a colloquium in the...

  5. Algo sobre a Europa: Thomas More

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Rui Pina

    2005-01-01

    Crítica de teatro / Thomas More / William Shakespeare / Anthony Munday / Robert Delamere / Royal Shakespeare Company ABSTRACT - Review of the theatre performance Thomas More, by Anthony Munday, Henry Chettle, Thomas Dekker, Thomas Heywood and William Shakespeare, directed by Robert Delamere, Royal Shakespeare Company (2005).

  6. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  7. Berry phase in entangled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Durstberger, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The influence of the geometric phase, in particular the Berry phase, on an entangled spin-1/2 system is studied. We discuss in detail the case, where the geometric phase is generated only by one part of the Hilbert space. We are able to cancel the effects of the dynamical phase by using the 'spin-echo' method. We analyze how the Berry phase affects the Bell angles and the maximal violation of a CHSH-Bell inequality. Furthermore, we suggest an experimental realization of our setup within neutron interferometry. It is possible to create entanglement between different degrees of freedom (spin and spatial degree of freedom) for a single neutron. The influence of the geometrical phase on the entangled neutron state is tested experimentally which is work in progress. (author)

  8. Thomas-Fermi molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerouin, J.; Pollock, E.L.; Zerah, G.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional density-functional molecular-dynamics code is developed for the Thomas-Fermi density functional as a prototype for density functionals using only the density. Following Car and Parrinello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)], the electronic density is treated as a dynamical variable. The electronic densities are verified against a multi-ion Thomas-Fermi algorithm due to Parker [Phys. Rev. A 38, 2205 (1988)]. As an initial application, the effect of electronic polarization in enhancing ionic diffusion in strongly coupled plasmas is demonstrated

  9. Thomas, Prof. Sir John Meurig

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas, Prof. Sir John Meurig FRS. Date of birth: 15 December 1932. Address: Department of Materials Science and, Metallurgy, New Museums Site, 27, Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS, U.K.. Contact: Office: (+44-1223) 33 4300. Fax: (+44-1223) 33 4567. Email: jmt2@cam.ac.uk. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ...

  10. Thomas, Prof. Sir John Meurig

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas, Prof. Sir John Meurig FRS. Date of birth: 15 December 1932. Address: Department of Materials Science and, Metallurgy, New Museums Site, 27, Babbage ... Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more.

  11. The Berry phase in frustrated spin glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    2007-12-01

    In this letter we have pointed out that frustration in spin glass is realized through the Berry phase due to the conflict between the spin ordering in the course of parallel transport. We came to the point that the Berry phase depicting the chiral change of helicity of a quantized spinor is prominent only in the presence of frustration. (author)

  12. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  13. Thomas Vicary, barber-surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duncan P

    2006-05-01

    An Act of Parliament in 1540 uniting the barbers and surgeons to form the Barber-Surgeons' Company represented an important foundation stone towards better surgery in England. Thomas Vicary, who played a pivotal role in promoting this union, was a leading surgeon in London in the middle of the 16th century. While Vicary made no direct contribution to surgical knowledge, he should be remembered primarily as one who contributed much towards the early organization and teaching of surgery and to the consequent benefits that flowed from this improvement.

  14. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Stan; Alina Maria Hangan; Sevastiata Muste

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w) and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during thi...

  15. Aspects of Berry phase in QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggio, Marco [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Niarchos, Vasilis [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Center for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Papadodimas, Kyriakos [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-04-11

    When continuous parameters in a QFT are varied adiabatically, quantum states typically undergo mixing — a phenomenon characterized by the Berry phase. We initiate a systematic analysis of the Berry phase in QFT using standard quantum mechanics methods. We show that a non-trivial Berry phase appears in many familiar QFTs. We study a variety of examples including free electromagnetism with a theta angle, and certain supersymmetric QFTs in two and four spacetime dimensions. We also argue that a large class of QFTs with rich Berry properties is provided by CFTs with non-trivial conformal manifolds. Using the operator-state correspondence we demonstrate in this case that the Berry connection is equivalent to the connection on the conformal manifold derived previously in conformal perturbation theory. In the special case of chiral primary states in 2d N=(2,2) and 4d N=2 SCFTs the Berry phase is governed by the tt{sup ∗} equations. We present a technically useful rederivation of these equations using quantum mechanics methods.

  16. Thomas Bernhard (1931-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens A. Franken K.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, basándose en la pentalogía autobiográfica y en casi todos sus relatos y novelas, analiza los cuatro complejos temáticos más relevantes de la obra del hace dos años fallecido escritor y dramaturgo austríaco Thomas Bernhard. Los temas son: l. la muerte, la enfermedad, locura y el suicidio; 2. el rechazo de la naturaleza como un ente hostil al hombre; 3. la soledad, incomprensión e incomunicación que sufre el ser humano; 4. la virulenta crítica a la sociedad austríaca. Al final se refiere también a varios conceptos estético-literarios del autor, más su visión del lenguaje.   This study of the late Austrian playwright and novelist Thomas Bernhard is based on his five autobiographical works and the greater part of his fictional creation. The essay analyzes the four most relevant themes in Bernhard's work. The final part of the study deals with several of the author's aesthetic concepts, as well as with his ideas about language.

  17. Thomas: o primeiro blanchotiano = Thomas: the first Blanchotian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel, Davi Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a narrativa Thomas l’obscur, de Maurice Blanchot, a partir da configuração da outra noite blanchotiana, noite que apresenta a falta e a ausência da palavra no que ela tem de mais agressiva, de mais excessiva e de mais absurdamente maravilhosa. Neste artigo, tenho como interlocutor teórico os escritos sobre literatura do próprio autor. O interesse nesse diálogo consiste em apresentar a fusão apaixonada de seus escritos ficcionais e teóricos. Em Maurice Blanchot, não há pontos de isolamento e nem de divergência entre seus dois pólos de escritura, mas sim uma complementação, uma convergência, entre o que denominamos de ficção e de teoria

  18. BlackBerry for Work Productivity for Professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K

    2010-01-01

    The BlackBerry is cool, and the BlackBerry is fun, but the BlackBerry also means serious business. For those of you who bought your BlackBerry to help get your life organized and free yourself from the ball-and-chain of desktop computing, BlackBerry at Work: Productivity for Professionals is the book to show you how. There are plenty of general-purpose BlackBerry guides, but this book shows you how to complete all the traditional smartphone tasks, like to-dos, calendars, and email, and become even more efficient and productive. You'll learn mechanisms for developing effective workflows specifi

  19. CrackBerry The Tales of BlackBerry Use and Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Michaluk, Kevin J; Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A delayed train, a dip in the conversation, an early morning hour with no sleep - during these moments, do you feel an overwhelming urge to grab your BlackBerry? Do you know someone else who does? If the answer is yes, then look no further than this one-of-a-kind book...CrackBerry: True Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse covers the phenomenon of "BlackBerry Addiction," offering true-life accounts of BlackBerry dependence and mishaps. You'll find comfort and humor in the unbelievable tales of BlackBerry abuse and also learn some valuable tips along the way. * The definitive guide to respons

  20. 78 FR 7663 - SLR; 2013 International Rolex Regatta; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... 1625-AA08 SLR; 2013 International Rolex Regatta; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... special local regulations on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands during... through March 24, 2013, the St. Thomas Yacht Club is sponsoring the 2013 Rolex Regatta, a series of sail...

  1. 78 FR 22778 - Safety Zone; Corp. Event Finale UHC, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S.V.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Corp. Event Finale UHC, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S.V.I. AGENCY: Coast Guard... waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands during the Corp. Event Finale UHC, a... barge being positioned near the St. Thomas Harbor channel from which fireworks will be lit. The safety...

  2. 78 FR 16780 - Special Local Regulation; 2013 International Rolex Regatta; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; 2013 International Rolex Regatta; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U... is establishing special local regulations on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U. S.... Thomas Yacht Club is sponsoring the 2013 Rolex Regatta, a series of sail boat races. The races will be...

  3. 78 FR 23489 - Safety Zone; V.I. Carnival Finale, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S.V.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; V.I. Carnival Finale, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S.V.I. AGENCY: Coast Guard... waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands during the V.I. Carnival Finale, a... being positioned near the St. Thomas Harbor channel from which fireworks will be lit. The safety zone is...

  4. 78 FR 16208 - Safety Zone; V. I. Carnival Finale; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; V. I. Carnival Finale; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands AGENCY... establish a safety zone on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands during the V..., 2013, and will entail a barge being positioned near the St. Thomas Harbor channel from which fireworks...

  5. 78 FR 16211 - Safety Zone, Corp. Event Finale UHC, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Corp. Event Finale UHC, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... establish a temporary safety zone on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... near the St. Thomas Harbor channel from which fireworks will be lit. DATES: Comments and related...

  6. Thomas Bartholin. Domus Anatomica Hafniensis brevissima descripta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels W.; Fink-Jensen, Morten

    In 1662 Thomas Bartholin published A Short Description of the Anatomy House in Copenhagen, which describes the layout of the Anatomy House alongside the first eighteen years of its history.......In 1662 Thomas Bartholin published A Short Description of the Anatomy House in Copenhagen, which describes the layout of the Anatomy House alongside the first eighteen years of its history....

  7. THOMAS AQUINAS'TA MUTLULUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer İSKENDEROĞLU

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Aquinas is one of the greatest thinkers of Christianity. His ethical theory, togetherwith the theories of Augustine and Abelard, constitutes one of the main ethical theories ofMedieval Christianity. Aquinas develops his theory most extensively and systematically inthe Second Part of the Summa Theologica. For Aquinas ethics has two principal topics: first,what is the ultimate goal of human being, and second, how that goal is to be achieved. Theaim of this study is to present Aquinas' understanding of happiness in general. For thisreason it will discuss the following questions: What is the ultimate goal of human being?What constitutes man's happiness? What is happiness? What are the things required forhappiness? Whether happiness can be attained? The article concludes that Aquinas tries toharmonise Aristotelian ethics with Christianity, and in doing so he adds new dimensions tothe Aristotelian ethics.

  8. Melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grape berries to increase size and synchronicity of berries and modify wine aroma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Song, Chang-Zheng; Yu, Yong; Hu, Fan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2015-10-15

    A comprehensive investigation was carried out to determine the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grapes on grape berries and its wines. Two melatonin treatments of pre-veraison grape berries increased the weight of the berries by approximately 6.6%. Meanwhile, this melatonin treatment could be beneficial in the reduction of underripe and overripe fruits and in enhancing the synchronicity of the berries. In addition, there were significant differences in the volatile compound composition between the wine produced from the melatonin-treated berries and the wines made from untreated berries. The wine from melatonin-treated pre-veraison grape berries had stronger fruity, spicy, and sweet sensory properties, compared to the wines made from untreated berries. Prolonging the treatment through repeated applications can enhance these effects and under different seasonal conditions, more pronounced effects on the grape quality and wine properties can be observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A repellent against the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer continues to pose a formidable challenge to coffee growers worldwide. Due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. A sesquiterpene, (E,E)-a-farnesene, produced by infested coffee berries...

  10. Fermi-Walker transport and Thomas precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor Lambare, Justo

    2017-07-01

    An exact derivation of the Thomas precession formula is presented based on the Fermi-Walker transport equation. Given that the Thomas precession effect is not a particularly intuitive phenomenon, such that when discovered in 1925 it took by surprise even experts in relativity theory, Einstein included, an alternative perspective can be useful at an intermediate level for physics students. The existing literature linking the Thomas precession to Fermi-Walker transport use geometric algebra as mathematical tool. Here the mathematics is kept within the limits of the usual vector and tensor algebra commonly used in special relativity theory at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students.

  11. Thomas Henry Huxley and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U

    1999-01-01

    In the latter decades of the nineteenth century Thomas Henry Huxley was at the heart of British Science: President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1870), President of the Royal Society (1883-86), Chairman of innumerable committees. His thought in many ways characterises the spirit of the 'high' Victorian age in Britain. He was not only the most eminent academic biologist of his time but also deeply interested in philosophical issues. His re-examination of the evolution of the brain in response to Richard Owen's 'telenomic' views formed the kernel of the notorious debate at the 1860 meeting of the British Association in Oxford. From his early youth until old age he thought long and hard about the mind/body problem. This paper follows the development of his ideas and shows how in debate with many of the leading thinkers of his age, in the X-club and the Metaphysical Society, he struggled to develop a biologically-based account of the relationship between mind and brain. However, at the end, he seems to have recognized that his position was not entirely satisfactory and ultimately famously confessing himself 'agnostic' turned from metaphysics to devote himself to more practical issues. The unresolved problems of mind and brain which perplexed Huxley remain to torment his epigoni.

  12. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grames, Joseph; Higinbotham, Douglas; Montgomery, Hugh

    2010-09-08

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Newport News, Virginia, USA, is one of ten national laboratories under the aegis of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is managed and operated by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. The primary facility at Jefferson Lab is the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) as shown in an aerial photograph in Figure 1. Jefferson Lab was created in 1984 as CEBAF and started operations for physics in 1995. The accelerator uses superconducting radio-frequency (srf) techniques to generate high-quality beams of electrons with high-intensity, well-controlled polarization. The technology has enabled ancillary facilities to be created. The CEBAF facility is used by an international user community of more than 1200 physicists for a program of exploration and study of nuclear, hadronic matter, the strong interaction and quantum chromodynamics. Additionally, the exceptional quality of the beams facilitates studies of the fundamental symmetries of nature, which complement those of atomic physics on the one hand and of high-energy particle physics on the other. The facility is in the midst of a project to double the energy of the facility and to enhance and expand its experimental facilities. Studies are also pursued with a Free-Electron Laser produced by an energy-recovering linear accelerator.

  13. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Newport News, Virginia, USA, is one of ten national laboratories under the aegis of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is managed and operated by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. The primary facility at Jefferson Lab is the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) as shown in an aerial photograph in Figure 1. Jefferson Lab was created in 1984 as CEBAF and started operations for physics in 1995. The accelerator uses superconducting radio-frequency (srf) techniques to generate high-quality beams of electrons with high-intensity, well-controlled polarization. The technology has enabled ancillary facilities to be created. The CEBAF facility is used by an international user community of more than 1200 physicists for a program of exploration and study of nuclear, hadronic matter, the strong interaction and quantum chromodynamics. Additionally, the exceptional quality of the beams facilitates studies of the fundamental symmetries of nature, which complement those of atomic physics on the one hand and of high-energy particle physics on the other. The facility is in the midst of a project to double the energy of the facility and to enhance and expand its experimental facilities. Studies are also pursued with a Free-Electron Laser produced by an energy-recovering linear accelerator.

  14. Martineau, Harriet. - Mistry, Rohinton. - Peacock, Thomas Love

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Martineau, Harriet. - Mistry, Rohinton. - Peacock, Thomas Love. - In: Metzler-Lexikon englischsprachiger Autorinnen und Autoren / hrsg. von Eberhard Kreutzer ... - Stuttgart u.a. : Metzler, 2002. - S. 384, 405 f., 452 f.

  15. Professionaalne marketing - edu pant / Thomas Westerberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Westerberg, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Majanduslanguse perioodil tuleb fokusseerida oma plaanid tulevikku, sel perioodil avalduvad turundusjuhtide tõelised ja varjatud professionaalsed oskused. Thomas Westerbergi, Coca-Cola Baltic Beverages Ltd. tegevdirektori ettekanne Majanduskonverentsil "Kuidas olla edukas majanduslanguse perioodil"

  16. Thomas Fermi model of finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguta, J.; Rafelski, J.

    1977-01-01

    A relativistic Thomas-Fermi model of finite-nuclei is considered. The effective nuclear interaction is mediated by exchanges of isoscalar scalar and vector mesons. The authors include also a self-interaction of the scalar meson field and the Coulomb repulsion of the protons. The parameters of the model are constrained by the average nuclear properties. The Thomas-Fermi equations are solved numerically for finite, stable nuclei. The particular case of 208 82 Pb is considered in more detail. (Auth.)

  17. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  18. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska’s environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry; Brubaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Kira S.; Williamson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wild berries are a valued traditional food in Alaska. Phytochemicals in wild berries may contribute to the prevention of vascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline, making berry consumption important to community health in rural areas. Little was known regarding which species of berries were important to Alaskan communities, the number of species typically picked in communities and whether recent environmental change has affected berry abundance or quality.Objective: To identify species of wild berries that were consumed by people in different ecological regions of Alaska and to determine if perceived berry abundance was changing for some species or in some regions.Design: We asked tribal environmental managers throughout Alaska for their views on which among 12 types of wild berries were important to their communities and whether berry harvests over the past decade were different than in previous years. We received responses from 96 individuals in 73 communities.Results: Berries that were considered very important to communities differed among ecological regions of Alaska. Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and V. caespitosum), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) were most frequently identified as very important berries for communities in the boreal, polar and maritime ecoregions, respectively. For 7 of the 12 berries on the survey, a majority of respondents indicated that in the past decade abundance had either declined or become more variable.Conclusions: Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how environmental change may

  19. Letter from Thomas Moran to Ferdinand Hayden and Paintings by Thomas Moran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann; Eder, Elizabeth K.; Hussey, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Medical doctor and geologist Dr. Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden selected more than 30 scientists, technical personnel, and artists, including photographer William Henry Jackson and painter Thomas Moran, to join the survey of the Yellowstone region in northwest Wyoming territory. Thomas Moran was an accomplished artist when he joined the survey to…

  20. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  1. Pipe failure probability - the Thomas paper revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydell, B.O.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Almost twenty years ago, in Volume 2 of Reliability Engineering (the predecessor of Reliability Engineering and System Safety), a paper by H. M. Thomas of Rolls Royce and Associates Ltd. presented a generalized approach to the estimation of piping and vessel failure probability. The 'Thomas-approach' used insights from actual failure statistics to calculate the probability of leakage and conditional probability of rupture given leakage. It was intended for practitioners without access to data on the service experience with piping and piping system components. This article revisits the Thomas paper by drawing on insights from development of a new database on piping failures in commercial nuclear power plants worldwide (SKI-PIPE). Partially sponsored by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), the R and D leading up to this note was performed during 1994-1999. Motivated by data requirements of reliability analysis and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the new database supports statistical analysis of piping failure data. Against the background of this database development program, the article reviews the applicability of the 'Thomas approach' in applied risk and reliability analysis. It addresses the question whether a new and expanded database on the service experience with piping systems would alter the original piping reliability correlation as suggested by H. M. Thomas

  2. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during this study. The product presented qood quality criteria and it was highly appreciated by consumers who tasted it. This study presents a valuable method to preserve fresh widberries in honey over a long period of time. The economical value of this experiment resides in making these fruits available outside the harvesting season.

  3. Berry Fruit Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vendrame

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors which often includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, as well as a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-thrombotic environment. This leads to a dramatically increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death both in the United States and worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that berry fruit consumption has a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of most risk factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome and its cardiovascular complications in the human population. This is likely due to the presence of polyphenols with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, such as anthocyanins and/or phenolic acids. The present review summarizes the findings of recent dietary interventions with berry fruits on human subjects with or at risk of Metabolic Syndrome. It also discusses the potential role of berries as part of a dietary strategy which could greatly reduce the need for pharmacotherapy, associated with potentially deleterious side effects and constituting a considerable financial burden.

  4. NUTRIENTS ACCUMULATION IN FRUITS OF BERRY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Parascovia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of observations and biochemical analysis of the berries made during the years 2013-2014 in Republic of Moldova, it was found that bacciferous species included in the study had a wide spectrum of colors, from white, orange, red to blue and black. The possibility to extend the consumption of fresh berries is because these species ripen in series starting with honeysuckle in May, then one by one until September: strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, barberry, jostaberry, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, chokeberry, guilder rose. Chokeberries accumulated the highest average amount of soluble solids - 18.02%, jostaberries highlighted with the highest average amount of accumulated sugars - 9.56%. Red currant highlighted with the highest acidity - 5.22%, while blueberries with low acidity - 1.43%. Rosehip has accumulated the highest average amount of tannins and coloring substances - 546.65 mg%. Rosehip berries accumulated the highest amount of vitamin C average - 292.38 mg%, the black currant - 179.69 mg%, jostaberry - 112.86 mg%, and sea buckthorn - 96.7 mg%. The highest average values of the coefficient sugar / acid certifying good qualities were found in: blueberries - 4.39, guelder rose - 3.93, gooseberry - 3.55.

  5. Using THOMAS for Service Oriented Open MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, V.; Rebollo, M.; Argente, E.; Botti, V.; Carrascosa, C.; Giret, A.

    Recent technological advances in open systems have imposed new needs on multi-agent systems. Nowadays, open systems require open autonomous scenarios in which heterogeneous entities (agents or services) interact to fulfill the system goals. This impose the need for open architectures and computational models for large-scale open multi-agent systems based on service-oriented approaches. THOMAS is a new architecture specifically addressed for the design of virtual organizations for open systems. In this paper we present a case study that exemplifies the usage of THOMAS for implementing a management system of a travel agency.

  6. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  7. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  8. Thomas Aquinas on Contingency of Nature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2008), s. 185-196 ISSN 1214-8407 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA900090602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Thomas Aquinas * determinism * contingency Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. Thomas-Fermi model of warm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchler, J.R.; Epstein, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average nuclear level density of spherical nuclei is computed with a finite temperature Thomas-Fermi model. More than 80% of the low energy nuclear excitations can be accounted for in terms of this statistical model. The relevance for stellar collapse is discussed

  10. Dylan Thomas's "25 Poems": Paradox as Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, S.

    2014-01-01

    Irony, inclusiveness, and complexity are the chief criteria of value in the twentieth century intellectual poetry. These criteria, however, do not merely indicate qualities of craftsmanship; they reflect a sensibility, a particular way of experiencing reality. What really distinguishes Dylan Thomas is a capacity for self-analysis, a capacity for…

  11. Teaching the "Leviathan": Thomas Hobbes on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Teresa M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers Thomas Hobbes's educational thought both in its historical context and in the context of his political philosophy as a whole. It begins with Hobbes's diagnosis of the English Civil War as the product of the miseducation of the commonwealth and shows that education was a central and consistent concern of his political theory…

  12. Thomas Piketty and the Justice of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøyum, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century" is best known for its documentation of increasing social inequality, but it also has a notable normative aspect. Although Piketty is far less clear on the normative level than on the empirical, his view of justice can be summarised as meritocratic luck egalitarianism. This leads him…

  13. Physical Holonomy, Thomas Precession, and Clifford Algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbantke, H.

    1988-01-01

    After a general discussion of the physical significance of holonomy group transformations, a relation between the transports of Fermi-Walker and Levi-Civita in Special Relativity is pointed out. A well-known example -the Thomas-Wigner angle - is rederived in a completely frame-independent manner using Clifford algebra. 14 refs. (Author)

  14. A Model Technology Educator: Thomas A. Edison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzer, William S.; Rogers, George E.; Bush, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    Reflecting back over a century ago to the small village of Menlo Park, New Jersey provides insight into a remarkable visionary and an exceptional role model for today's problem-solving and design-focused technology educator: Thomas A. Edison, inventor, innovator, and model technology educator. Since Edison could not simply apply existing knowledge…

  15. New Jersey's Thomas Edison and the fluoroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselos, G D

    1995-11-01

    Thomas Edison played a major role in the development of early x-ray technology in 1896, notably increasing tube power and reliability and making the fluoroscope a practical instrument. Eventually, Edison would move x-ray technology from the laboratory to the marketplace.

  16. The transculturation of Thomas Mofolo's Chaka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I will discuss Thomas Mofolo's novel contribution to Chaka's mythical status in Francophone African literature and Africanist ideology, mainly by way of the Negritude movement. In my analysis I postulate that the .... The African Francophone writers who read Chaka found inspiration in Mofolo because his concerns, in a pan-.

  17. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for the St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for the St. Thomas East End Reserve...

  18. Relativistic effects in the Thomas--Fermi atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waber, J.T.; Canfield, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Two methods of applying relativistic corrections to the Thomas--Fermi atom are considered, and numerical calculations are discussed. Radial charge distributions calculated from a relativistic Thomas--Fermi equation agree in gross form with those from more complicated self-consistent calculations. Energy eigenvalues for mercury, as determined from the relativistic Thomas--Fermi solution, are compared with other calculated and experimental values

  19. 76 FR 26223 - Petition for Rulemaking Submitted by Thomas Popik

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Rulemaking Submitted by Thomas Popik AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Petition for rulemaking... filed with the NRC by Thomas Popik. The petition was docketed by the NRC on March 15, 2011, and has been... received a petition for rulemaking on March 14, 2011 (PRM- 50-96). The petition was submitted by Mr. Thomas...

  20. Nonadiabatic Berry phase in nanocrystalline magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Skomski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is investigated how a Berry phase is created in polycrystalline nanomagnets and how the phase translates into an emergent magnetic field and into a topological Hall-effect contribution. The analysis starts directly from the spin of the conduction electrons and does not involve any adiabatic Hamiltonian. Completely random spin alignment in the nanocrystallites does not lead to a nonzero emergent field, but a modulation of the local magnetization does. As an explicit example, we consider a wire with a modulated cone angle.

  1. Population dynamics and distribution of the coffee berry borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamics and distribution of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were studied on Coffea arabica L. in southwestern region of Ethiopia. Thirty coffee trees were sampled at weekly intervals from 2000 to 2001. Findings of this study showed that coffee berry borer population ...

  2. Toxicity of nightshade berries (Solanum dulcamara) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, C S; Collins, J E

    1990-01-01

    Ripened nightshade berries (Solanum dulcamara) are among the most commonly reported plant ingestions in Minnesota. Because of the lack of adequate information regarding the toxic qualities of S. dulcamara berries, the ingestion of even small quantities by children is usually treated conservatively with syrup of ipecac. The toxicity of S. dulcamara berries was studied by gavaging mice with a preparation of lyophilized berries, ripened and unripened, collected at various times of the year. Mice receiving unripened fruit from early in the season had gastrointestinal tissue changes consistent with solanine toxicity. Animals dosed with unripened fruit from the latter part of the year showed behavioral signs suggestive of solanine toxicity, however gastrointestinal lesions were not observed. In no case did the ripened fruit produce behavioral or histologic toxicity. Aggressive treatment of children ingesting limited amounts of ripened S. dulcamara berries appears to be unnecessary.

  3. Cholera in Thomas Mann's Death in Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article sets the cholera motif in Thomas Mann's famous novella Death in Venice against the historical context from which it partially originates. It is shown that this motif, while undoubtedly appropriated to serve Mann's own poetic ends, has a solid grounding in historical and autobiographical fact, thus blurring the boundaries between fact and fiction. The article illustrates the verifiable events of the outbreak of the Venetian cholera epidemic in May 1911, which Mann partly witnessed himself, during a holiday trip to Brioni and Venice, and partly heard and read about. It is established that Thomas Mann's account of the cholera in Venice in his novella is characterised by a rare and almost preternatural insightfulness into an otherwise murky affair that was marked by rumours, speculations and denials.

  4. SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIC FRESH BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Elena TĂNASE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and particularly global warming are topics carefully treated by specialists already since decades. The most pregnant factor that influences climate change is pollution, namely the high level carbon dioxide emissions. Besides other substances used by the most of the industries (oil, charcoal, fertilizers, etc., plastics are not to be ignored when talking about pollution. Plastic waste affects animals and humans, as well as their habitat. In this respect, food industry engages in preserving the good functioning of the environment by developing and using biodegradable and bio-based resources for food packaging. The aim of this literature review was to identify the optimal sustainable packaging solution used for berries. The results of the study pointed out that the most used environmentally friendly packaging technique is the one that involves modified atmosphere. In terms of packaging materials, the literature is limited when it comes to biodegradable/bio-based solutions. However, active packaging gains popularity among researchers, considering the endless possibilities to include sustainable compounds in a biopolymer based matrix, in order to prolong the shelf-life of berries or fruits in general.

  5. Thomas Bartholin mellem tro og viden

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrichsen, Emil Niels

    2011-01-01

    The Danish 17th century physician, mathematician, and theologian, Thomas Bartholin, who discovered the lymphatic system in humans, played a central role in the scholarly world of his contemporary time. Through the study of his publications On diseases in the Bible: a medical miscellany and The discovery of the lymphatic system from his comprehensive bibliography, the aim of this project is to investigate his views on medicine and theology, and the possible concordance or dispute between these...

  6. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of

  7. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-11-22

    Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes

  8. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  9. Deconvoluting effects of vine and soil properties on grape berry composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerihun, Ayalsew; McClymont, Lexie; Lanyon, Dean; Goodwin, Ian; Gibberd, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition is influenced by several factors including grapevine and soil properties and their interactions. Understanding how these factors interact to determine berry composition is integral to producing berries with desired composition. Here we used extensive spatio-temporal data to identify significant vine and soil features that influence Shiraz berry composition. The concentrations of berry flavonoids (anthocyanins, tannin and total phenolics), total soluble solids and pH were typically negatively associated with canopy, crop and berry size factors whereas titratable acidity was positively associated. The strengths of the associations, however, were generally greater with the crop and berry size factors than with the canopy size factor. The analyses also resolved separate influences of berry and crop size on berry composition. Soil properties had significant influences on berry composition; however, when influences of soil factors on vine-attributes were accounted for, the apparent effects of soil factors on berry composition were largely non-existent. At each site, variations in berry composition were more strongly associated with crop and berry size than with canopy size factors. Apparent influences of soil properties on berry composition are indirect, being mediated via their effects on vine attributes (canopy, crop and berry sizes). © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Localized Donaldson-Thomas theory of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholampour, Amin; Sheshmani, Artan; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2017-01-01

    , in combination with Mochizuki's formulas, we are able to express the localized DT invariants in terms of the invariants of the nested Hilbert schemes defined by the authors in [GSY17a], the Seiberg-Witten invariants of S, and the integrals over the products of Hilbert schemes of points on S. When......  is the canonical bundle of S, the Vafa-Witten invariants defined recently by Tanaka-Thomas, can be extracted from these localized DT invariants. VW invariants are expected to have modular properties as predicted by S-duality....

  11. Instantons and Donaldson-Thomas invariants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirafici, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Sinkovics, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Szabo, R.J. [Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Riccarton, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-05

    We review some recent progress in understanding the relation between a six dimensional topological Yang-Mills theory and the enumerative geometry of Calabi-Yau threefolds. The gauge theory localizes on generalized instanton solutions and is conjecturally equivalent to Donaldson-Thomas theory. We evaluate the partition function of the U(N) theory in its Coulomb branch on flat space by employing equivariant localization techniques on its noncommutative deformation. Geometrically this corresponds to a higher dimensional generalization of the ADHM formalism. This formalism can be extended to a generic toric Calabi-Yau. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. On the Symbolism of Thomas Mann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily M. Tolmatchoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay discusses Thomas Mann’s symbolism and its parameters as well as Mann’s interpretation of the crisis of European spiritual values. Тhe author examines the role of Nietzsche in Mann’s heritage as well as interconnections between Mann and Wilde, Mann and Gide. Buddenbrooks is interpreted as a novel about the end of the German Renaissance; duality of the modern artist is shown on the example of “Tonio Kröger” while the paradoxes of his eroticism are analyzed on the example of “Der Tod in Venedig.”

  13. St. Thomas and the hilemorfic ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Dewan, O.P.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relevancy of Aristotle’s hylemorphic ontology.Aristotle himself highlighted the importance and astonishing complexityof the problem of prime matter’s ontological status and he presenting thesolution in his doctrine of hylemorphism. As Saint Thomas Aquinasnoted, it is a crucial issue for philosophy because all four, hilemorfism,logic, physics and metaphysics, stand or fall depending on a correctunderstanding of the ontology of prime matter and of the kind of causalrelationship which exist between prime matter and substantial form ingenerable and corruptible substance.

  14. Pilgrim Souvenir: Ampulla of Thomas Becket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Jeffs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This tin ampulla was probably purchased by a pilgrim near the shrine of St Thomas Becket in Canterbury. It is designed to contain holy water and be hung around the neck on a cord. Measuring 100 by 87 millimetres, it is in the form of a narrow, pointed vessel surrounded by an openwork penannular frame and would have been rapidly slush-cast, in one go, in a three-part mould. A date in the first half of the thirteenth century is probable based on the style of the military figures’ armour and the archaeological contexts of stylistically similar ampullae.

  15. Pilgrim Souvenir: Ampulla of Thomas Becket

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Jeffs

    2017-01-01

    This tin ampulla was probably purchased by a pilgrim near the shrine of St Thomas Becket in Canterbury. It is designed to contain holy water and be hung around the neck on a cord. Measuring 100 by 87 millimetres, it is in the form of a narrow, pointed vessel surrounded by an openwork penannular frame and would have been rapidly slush-cast, in one go, in a three-part mould. A date in the first half of the thirteenth century is probable based on the style of the military figures’ armour and the...

  16. Limitations of the Porter-Thomas distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenmüller, Hans A.

    2017-12-01

    Data on the distribution of reduced partial neutron widths and on the distribution of total gamma decay widths disagree with the Porter-Thomas distribution (PTD) for reduced partial widths or with predictions of the statistical model. We recall why the disagreement is important: The PTD is a direct consequence of the orthogonal invariance of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) of random matrices. The disagreement is reviewed. Two possible causes for violation of orthogonal invariance of the GOE are discussed, and their consequences explored. The disagreement of the distribution of total gamma decay widths with theoretical predictions cannot be blamed on the statistical model.

  17. Thomas Young and the Rosetta Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    Who deciphered the Rosetta Stone and the Egyptian hieroglyphs? The usual answer is Jean-François Champollion, beginning in 1822. But ever since that time, Egyptologists have debated the role of his rival, the polymath Thomas Young, the first person to publish a partially correct translation of the Rosetta Stone. A recent BBC television dramatisation rekindled the controversy by presenting Champollion as a 'lone genius' who succeeded independently of Young. While there is no doubt that Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphic script as a whole, the evidence suggests that Young's early detailed study of the Rosetta Stone created the conceptual framework that made possible Champollion's later breakthrough.

  18. Thomas Edison’s Poetry Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Rubery, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The tradition of spoken-word recording began with Thomas Edison’s invention of the phonograph. Hence, this article makes the case that 1878 is a more important year to the history of literature than has yet been recognized for its experiments with verse and sound-recording technology. Although the tinfoil phonograph’s first decade has been well documented by media historians, literary critics have singled out 1888 as the noteworthy year since that is when Edison’s improved phonograph made it ...

  19. Lantana camara berry for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: From the results obtained it is suggested that surface modified AgNPs at lower concentration, showed higher antioxidant activity than berry extract against 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl and could be used effectively in future ethno pharmacological concerns.

  20. The genetic aspects of berries: from field to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Luca; Perez-Lopez, Patricia; Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, Jose M; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Quiles, Jose L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-30

    Berries are a relevant source of micronutrients and nonessential phytochemicals, such as polyphenol compounds, that play a synergistic and cumulative role in human health promotion. Several systematic analyses showed that berry phenolics are able to detoxify reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, blocking their production, to intervene in the cell cycle, participating in the transduction and expression of genes involved in apoptosis, and to repair oxidative DNA damage. As a consequence, the improvement of the nutritional quality of berries has become a new quality target of breeding and biotechnological strategies, to control or to increase the content of specific health-related compounds in fruits. This work reviews, on the basis of the in vitro and in vivo evidence, the main berries' phytochemical compounds and their possible mechanisms of action on pathways involved in several type of diseases, with particular attention to cancer, inflammation, neurodegeneration, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-04-13

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  2. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  3. Bioactive compounds in berries relevant to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battino, M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Denoyes-Rothan, B.; Laimer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Berries contain powerful antioxidants, potential allergens, and other bioactive compounds. Genetic and environmental factors affect production and storage of such compounds. For this reason breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to control or to increase the content of specific

  4. Acai Berry Products: Do They Have Health Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acai berries, and what are their possible health benefits? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. The ... acai that may have other ingredients, such as caffeine. If you're taking amounts of acai higher ...

  5. Principal Component Surface (2011) for St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER) in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)....

  6. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  7. Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. Methodology/Principal Finding The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Conclusion Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in

  8. Computational models for the berry phase in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, S., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca; Melnik, R. V. N., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Sebetci, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mevlana University, 42003, Konya (Turkey)

    2014-10-06

    By developing a new model and its finite element implementation, we analyze the Berry phase low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, focusing on quantum dots (QDs). In particular, we solve the Schrödinger equation and investigate the evolution of the spin dynamics during the adiabatic transport of the QDs in the 2D plane along circular trajectory. Based on this study, we reveal that the Berry phase is highly sensitive to the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit lengths.

  9. Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra, topological parameter and Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengcheng; Xue, Kang; Gou, Lidan; Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Hu, Taotao

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a 3 × 3-matrix representation of Birman-Wenzl-Murakami (BWM) algebra has been presented. Based on which, unitary matrices A( θ, φ 1, φ 2) and B( θ, φ 1, φ 2) are generated via Yang-Baxterization approach. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary B( θ, φ) matrix. Then we study Berry phase of the Yang-Baxter system, and obtain the relationship between topological parameter and Berry phase.

  10. Thomas Linacre at the University of Padua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    The Bo (meaning 'ox' in the Venetian dialect) is the historic seat of the University of Padua, founded in 1222. A full-length portrait of Thomas Linacre stands in its prestigious Sala dei Quaranta (Hall of the Forty), so called because of the portraits of forty great foreign scholars of the University, painted by Giacomo dal Forno in 1942. Thomas Linacre came to Italy in 1485, following an embassy by Henry VII to the Vatican. Linacre visited Bologna, Florence, Rome, Venice, Vicenza and Padua, where he took his degree in medicine in 1496 with great distinction. During his stay in Italy he met illustrious humanists and physicians, including Poliziano, Hermolaus Barbarus and Aldus Manutius Romanus, and Nicolaus Leonicenus who further stimulated him to the translation of classic works by Hippocrates and Galen. In 1518 Linacre played a pivotal role in the foundation of the Royal College of Physicians in London which, as first President, he organized on the basis of Italian models. With his portrait, the University of Padua celebrates the life and work of an astonishing figure linking the Italian and English medical cultures.

  11. Orthophoto Mosaic (2012) of the St. Thomas East End Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 0.3x0.3 meter imagery mosaic of the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands was created by the National Oceanic and...

  12. Bathymetry (2011) of the St. Thomas East End Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), St. Thomas in the...

  13. Student Rights, Clarence Thomas, and the Revolutionary Vision of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Rowe, Bradley; Kim, Sang Hyun

    2009-01-01

    In his concurring opinion to the 2007 U.S. Supreme Court decision, "Morse v. Frederick," Justice Clarence Thomas argues that the "Tinker" decision, which granted students constitutional rights in public schools, should be overturned on originalist grounds. In this essay, Bryan Warnick, Bradley Rowe, and Sang Hyun Kim make the case that Thomas's…

  14. Thomas Gordon's Communicative Pedagogy in Modern Educational Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchenko, Maria; Isaieva, Svitlana

    2014-01-01

    In the article the principles, strategies, methods, techniques of communicative pedagogy of American scientist Thomas Gordon and system components of effective communication training for parents, teachers and administrators are enlightened. It has been determined that the main principle of Thomas Gordon's pedagogy is an interactive way of knowing…

  15. 75 FR 4061 - Favinger, Thomas; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ID-6223-000] Favinger, Thomas; Notice of Filing January 19, 2010. Take notice that on January 15, 2010, Mr. Thomas G. Favinger filed an application for authority to hold interlocking positions, pursuant to section 305(b) of the...

  16. 75 FR 68350 - Fischer, Thomas J.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ID-6422-000] Fischer, Thomas J.; Notice of Filing October 29, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2010, Thomas J. Fischer filed an Application for Authorization to Hold Interlocking Positions as Director of Wisconsin Electric...

  17. 76 FR 9012 - Favinger, Thomas G.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ID-6223-002] Favinger, Thomas G.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on January 31, 2011 Thomas G. Favinger submitted for filing, an application for authority to hold interlocking positions, pursuant to Section 305(b) of the...

  18. Praost Thomas Vaga 70 / Juhan Simonson ; foto: Juhan Simonson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Simonson, Juhan, 1933-2012

    2008-01-01

    8. märtsil 70 aastaseks saavast üle 20 aasta kirikuõpetajana New Jerseys ja New Yorgis teeninud praost Thomas Vagast. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves annetas iseseisvuspäeva puhul Thomas Vagale kui eestluse hoidjale Ameerika Ühendriikides ja kirikuelu edendajale Valgetähe IV klassi teenetemärgi

  19. FRIEDMAN Thomas, La terre est plate

    OpenAIRE

    Kociemba, Valérie

    2008-01-01

    « L’Église dit que la terre est plate, mais j’ai vu l’ombre sur la lune et j’ai plus foi en l’ombre qu’en l’église. » (Ferdinand Magellan) Bien des siècles plus tard, Thomas Friedman réitère l’affirmation en titre de son dernier ouvrage : La terre est plate, Une brève histoire du xxie siècle. À quelle Église appartient donc ce brillant éditorialiste du « New York Times » ? À l’Église de la toute puissance des nouvelles technologies de l’information, et il n’en fait pas mystère puisqu’il décla...

  20. Thomas K. Jeffers: pioneer of coccidiosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D

    2012-01-01

    Thomas K. Jeffers has made many significant contributions to our understanding of the biology of the parasite Eimeria, the cause of coccidiosis in poultry. His work has had direct practical application for the control of this widespread disease. Topics discussed include Jeffers' pioneering work concerned with genetics of the host response to infection, the nature of biological and immunological intraspecific variation, drug resistance and discovery, field surveys of resistance, and his most recognized achievement-the demonstration that the lifecycle of coccidia may be altered by artificial selection. Parasites so modified are attenuated but retain their immunogenicity, a discovery that has led to the development of live vaccines that are inherently non-pathogenic. This article provides a brief biography and describes the contributions that Jeffers has made to our knowledge of coccidiosis.

  1. Thomas precession: correct and incorrect solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malykin, Grigorii B

    2006-01-01

    A wealth of different expressions for the frequency of the Thomas precession (TP) can be found in the literature, with the consequence that this issue has been discussed over a long period of time. It is shown that the correct result was obtained in the works of several authors, which were published more than forty years ago but remained unnoticed against the background of numerous erroneous works. Several TP-related physical paradoxes formulated primarily to disprove the special relativity theory are shown to be fallacious. Different techniques for deriving the correct expression are considered and the reasons for the emergence of the main incorrect expressions for the TP frequency are analyzed. (from the history of physics)

  2. Sobre o desejo em Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigues Montes D'Oca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é explicar o papel do desejo na filosofia política do filósofo inglês Thomas Hobbes. Para tanto, o presente estudo propõe-se apresentar: i. a razão por que Hobbes reivindica o desejo à política, i.a tratando da teoria da conservação do movimento, de Galileu Galilei, e i.b da felicidade como um sucesso contínuo na obtenção dos objetos de desejo; e ii. o papel do desejo no estado de natureza, já que este é determinante tanto para ii.a a entrada do homem no estado de guerra quanto ii.b para a saída deste estado.

  3. [Thomas Schwencke and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Harry F P

    2010-01-01

    Thomas Schwencke (1694-1767) was Professor of Anatomy and Surgery and Lecturer in Obstetrics at the Surgical School in The Hague, the Netherlands. In 1743 he published the very first textbook on haematology. Furthermore, he described his observations on the variolation of smallpox, and published the design of a new obstetric instrument. Schwencke was physician of the city of The Hague and also physician at the court of the princes van Nassau-Weilburg. In 1765 Princess Caroline of Nassau-Weilburg invited the young Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to perform concerts. During his Dutch tour the young Mozart fell seriously ill, probably from typhoid fever. At the request of the court Mozart was seen for a second opinion and thereafter successfully treated by Schwencke. Mozart could continue his concert tour and Schwencke's reputation as Mozart's physician was established.

  4. The Roman Catholic Tradition in Conversation with Thomas Berry’s Fourfold Wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Appolloni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking the threatening anthropogenic global environmental destruction—the anthropocene—as a starting point, this paper examines the Catholic tradition, which has remained relatively indifferent to this looming crisis, asking what might help it to change its focus from a decided human ecology to one that counts the human as an integral part of the larger natural ecology. Thomas Berry, whose teachings underlie this work, suggests that since the tradition has grown out of a cosmological perspective that places the human being at the center of ethical deliberations and separate from the natural world, it needs to rely on other Earth-centered and ecological expressions to help Catholics to discover more harmonious avenues of being on Earth, which he describes as a fourfold wisdom—the wisdoms of indigenous peoples, classical traditions, women, and science. Through a critical weaving of these wisdoms into a conversation with the Catholic tradition, this article examines the efficacy of the fourfold wisdom to transform the tradition into a more Earth-honoring expression. While this work concludes that the fourfold wisdom is effecting change where engaged, it also reflects on the challenges and opportunities this engagement faces in light of current realities within the Catholic tradition.

  5. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Curtis J. Bonk, Mimi Miyoung Lee, Thomas C. Reeves, & Thomas H. Reynolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Mark; Gardner, Ellen; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Curtis J. Bonk, is Professor of Instructional Systems Technology at Indiana University and President of CourseShare. Mimi Miyoung Lee is Associate Professor in the Department of Curriculum and instruction at the University of Houston. Thomas C. Reeves is Professor Emeritus of Learning, Design, and Technology at the University of Georgia. Thomas H.…

  6. Contribution of Anthocyanin Composition to Total Antioxidant Capacity of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gil; Vance, Terrence M; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthocyanin composition to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of berries having different anthocyanin composition; blackberry, black currant, and blueberry. Blackberry demonstrated the highest TAC, while it had the lowest total anthocyanin content among the three berries in both of the phenolic extract and anthocyanin fractions. On the other hand, black currant had the highest total anthocyanin content, but the lowest TAC. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (cya-3-glc) accounted for 94% of blackberry anthocyanins, and as one of the strongest antioxidants present in these three berries, it substantially contributed to the TAC of blackberry anthocyanin fraction (96.0%). Delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside in black currant had lower antioxidant capacities compared with delphinin-3-O-glucoside and cya-3-glc, resulting in its lowest TAC among berry anthocyanin fractions examined. Malvidin derivatives, major anthocyanins of blueberry, had considerably lower antioxidant capacity than other anthocyanidin derivatives, such as cyanidin or delphinidin, resulting in lower TAC of blueberry compared with blackberry. Our findings indicate that anthocyanin composition as well as the antioxidant capacity of individual anthocyanins contributes to the TAC of berries rich in distinct anthocyanins.

  7. Effect of grape and other berries on cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, JoLynne D; Heuberger, Roschelle A

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally. Many cardiovascular risk factors can be modified through lifestyle modification, including dietary patterns that emphasize daily consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Recent observational and clinical studies suggest that flavonoids, especially those abundant in grapes and other berries, may be associated with health benefits, particularly cardiovascular benefits. Human clinical data support cardioprotective benefits of grapes through inhibition of platelet aggregation, decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, reduction in oxidative stress and improvements in endothelial function. Emerging evidence suggests that grapes may also have a favorable effect on blood lipids, decrease inflammation and reduce blood pressure in certain populations. Studies to date have shown that berries can have a beneficial effect on reducing LDL oxidation. Limited data suggest that berries may have a favorable effect on endothelial health and blood pressure. This review summarizes the current literature on human clinical studies examining the cardioprotective benefits of grapes and berries. Collectively, these data support the recommendation to incorporate products made with grapes and other berries into a heart-healthy diet. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Characterization of mitochondrial dicarboxylate/tricarboxylate transporters from grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Ana; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo; Bitetto, Maria; Laera, Valentina Liliana; Pimentel, Catarina; Francisco, Rita; Passarinho, José; Chaves, Maria M; Agrimi, Gennaro

    2013-03-01

    Grape berries (Vitis vinifera L fruit) exhibit a double-sigmoid pattern of development that results from two successive periods of vacuolar swelling during which the nature of accumulated solutes changes significantly. Throughout the first period, called green or herbaceous stage, berries accumulate high levels of organic acids, mainly malate and tartrate. At the cellular level fruit acidity comprises both metabolism and vacuolar storage. Malic acid compartmentation is critical for optimal functioning of cytosolic enzymes. Therefore, the identification and characterization of the carriers involved in malate transport across sub-cellular compartments is of great importance. The decrease in acid content during grape berry ripening has been mainly associated to mitochondrial malate oxidation. However, no Vitis vinifera mitochondrial carrier involved in malate transport has been reported to date. Here we describe the identification of three V. vinifera mitochondrial dicarboxylate/tricarboxylate carriers (VvDTC1-3) putatively involved in mitochondrial malate, citrate and other di/tricarboxylates transport. The three VvDTCs are very similar, sharing a percentage of identical residues of at least 83 %. Expression analysis of the encoding VvDTC genes in grape berries shows that they are differentially regulated exhibiting a developmental pattern of expression. The simultaneous high expression of both VvDTC2 and VvDTC3 in grape berry mesocarp close to the onset of ripening suggests that these carriers might be involved in the transport of malate into mitochondria.

  9. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2008-01-01

    ...; these provisions later became the Berry Amendment. The Berry Amendment requires DOD to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  10. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2008-01-01

    ...; these provisions later became the Berry Amendment. The Berry Amendment requires DoD to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home-grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  11. Berry phases in the three-level atoms driven by quantized light fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 70; Issue 3. Berry phases in the ... Berry phase; quantized light field; three-level atom. Abstract. A theoretical analysis of Berry's phases is given for the three-level atoms interacting with external one-mode and two-mode quantized light fields. Three main results are ...

  12. Review of the health effects of berries and their phytochemicals on the digestive and immune systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, Coen; Kasikci, Muzeyyen Berkel; Sluis, van der Addie A.; Mes, Jurriaan J.

    2018-01-01

    Berries are generally considered beneficial to health. This health-promoting potential has mainly been ascribed to berries' phytochemical and vitamin content, and little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of berries for the digestive tract, despite this being the first point of

  13. Berry syndrome in association with familial limb malformation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    We describe a newborn boy diagnosed with Berry syndrome consisting of a distal aortopulmonary septal defect, aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery, and interruption of the aorta. The child was noted to have reduplication of the right thumb. The child\\'s mother had a claw malformation of her left hand but a normal cardiovascular status. Genetic analysis for TBX5 and SALL4 mutations were negative in both the patient and his mother. This case describes the first ever report of Berry syndrome in an infant with reduplication of the right thumb and familial limb malformation.

  14. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaumie Sabine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7, harvest (TH, and 10-days after harvest (TH+10. Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S

  15. KONSTRUKSI TEORI PARADIGMA THOMAS S. KUHN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurkhalis Nurkhalis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kuhn memberikan gambaran bahwa kebenaran sains akan ditemukan berkali-kali ataupun berganti-ganti bentuk ilmiahnya walaupun dari satu objek yang sama. Formulasi teori paradigma yang mencetuskan bahwa sebuah kebenaran sains (legatimed truth identik dalam target teleologis yang didasari pada detection dikenal sebagai final cause (end. Kebenaran sains bukan continuous (lanjutan, improvisasi, evolusi atau kumulatif, melainkan terjadi paradigm shift (pergeseran paradigma atau disebut juga dengan revolusi. Paradigma melalui shift moving (pergerakan pergeseran dipahami sama dengan gestalt switch (perpindahan secara keseluruhan atau tidak sama sekali. Di dalam gestalt switch yang diungkapkan adalah verifikasi terjadi sekaligus atau tidak sama sekali (all at once or not at all. Konsep paradigm shifts membuka kesadaran bersama bahwa para pengkaji sains tidak akan mungkin bekerja dalam suatu suasana objektivitas yang mapan. Paradigma men-design kerangka world view (pandangan dunia atau perspective (cara pandang untuk lebih important, legitimate, and reasonable. Hal ini membuat sebuah detection (target teleologis tidak akan terevolusi atau tereleminir karena kemampuan eksperimentalnya mengakomodir counterinstances (ketahanan berkompetisi teori. Paradigma yang bertahan merupakan winnowing (keunggulan baru dari sebuah discovery, supertitian (temuan besar atau novelty (terbaharukan. Paradigma bertahan akan tumbuh menguasai normal science selama belum eksisnya anomaly (ketimpangan. Paradigma baru memiliki kriteria neater (rapi, more suitable (lebih cocok, simpler (sederhana, or more elegant (lebih elegan. Paradigma akan terusbertransformatif dengan paradigma baru karena sistem bekerja paradigma mengalihkan padigma menuju revolusi ilmiah di mana revolusi ilmiah dengan perubahan fundamental akan meresap dalam metode dan pemahaman.

  16. Health Care Ergonomics: Contributions of Thomas Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole Wilson, Tiffany; Davis, Kermit G

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of Thomas Waters's work in the field of health care ergonomics and beyond. Waters's research of safe patient handling with a focus on reducing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in health care workers contributed to current studies and prevention strategies. He worked with several groups to share his research and assist in developing safe patient handling guidelines and curriculum for nursing students and health care workers. The citations of articles that were published by Waters in health care ergonomics were evaluated for quality and themes of conclusions. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and centrality to original research rating. Themes were documented by the type of population the citing articles were investigating. In total, 266 articles that referenced the top seven cited articles were evaluated. More than 95% of them were rated either medium or high quality. The important themes of these citing articles were as follows: (a) Safe patient handling is effective in reducing MSDs in health care workers. (b) Shift work has negative impact on nurses. (c) There is no safe way to manually lift a patient. (d) Nurse curriculums should contain safe patient handling. The research of Waters has contributed significantly to the health care ergonomics and beyond. His work, in combination with other pioneers in the field, has generated multiple initiatives, such as a standard safe patient-handling curriculum and safe patient-handling programs. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  17. Thomas Wolsey on stage and screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hornbeck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, lord chancellor of England from 1515 to 1529, has played no small part in the many literary, historical and dramatic retellings of the reign of King Henry VIII. This article presents the first extended analysis of the way in which Wolsey has been represented by playwrights and, later, film and television writers during the years from his death in 1530 through the present. The article demonstrates that by the middle of the 16th century, two competing narratives about Wolsey had become entrenched historiographically, and nearly all subsequent accounts borrow substantially from the narratives of either Edward Hall (1550 or George Cavendish (1554–1558. How successive playwrights and screenwriters balanced the cardinal’s two archetypal personae has often depended, in no small part, on the concerns of their own day. In the 21st century, readings of the cardinal as crafty rather than callous, unlucky rather than unprincipled, have become more common, and with them have come more sympathetic portrayals of a traditional Tudor villain.

  18. Thomas Edison’s Poetry Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rubery

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of spoken-word recording began with Thomas Edison’s invention of the phonograph. Hence, this article makes the case that 1878 is a more important year to the history of literature than has yet been recognized for its experiments with verse and sound-recording technology. Although the tinfoil phonograph’s first decade has been well documented by media historians, literary critics have singled out 1888 as the noteworthy year since that is when Edison’s improved phonograph made it possible to record prominent figures including Alfred Tennyson and Robert Browning. Taking Edison’s original tinfoil phonograph as an alternative starting point reveals how the 1878 phonograph demonstrations, despite technological limitations, undertook acoustic experiments that enabled audiences to discern new forms of meaning, pleasure, and pathos in even the most well-known material. The recordings considered here include ‘Mary Had a Little Lamb’ as well as scripts by Tennyson, Caroline Norton, Edgar Allan Poe, Shakespeare, and others. Such recitals illustrate the extent to which Edison’s talking machine influenced the reception of texts while at the same time giving rise to performances unheard of in previous cultures.

  19. The nuclear Thomas-Fermi model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1994-08-01

    The statistical Thomas-Fermi model is applied to a comprehensive survey of macroscopic nuclear properties. The model uses a Seyler-Blanchard effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, generalized by the addition of one momentum-dependent and one density-dependent term. The adjustable parameters of the interaction were fitted to shell-corrected masses of 1654 nuclei, to the diffuseness of the nuclear surface and to the measured depths of the optical model potential. With these parameters nuclear sizes are well reproduced, and only relatively minor deviations between measured and calculated fission barriers of 36 nuclei are found. The model determines the principal bulk and surface properties of nuclear matter and provides estimates for the more subtle, Droplet Model, properties. The predicted energy vs density relation for neutron matter is in striking correspondence with the 1981 theoretical estimate of Friedman and Pandharipande. Other extreme situations to which the model is applied are a study of Sn isotopes from 82 Sn to 170 Sn, and the rupture into a bubble configuration of a nucleus (constrained to spherical symmetry) which takes place when Z 2 /A exceeds about 100

  20. The Nuclear Thomas-Fermi Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. D.; Swiatecki, W. J.

    1994-08-01

    The statistical Thomas-Fermi model is applied to a comprehensive survey of macroscopic nuclear properties. The model uses a Seyler-Blanchard effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, generalized by the addition of one momentum-dependent and one density-dependent term. The adjustable parameters of the interaction were fitted to shell-corrected masses of 1654 nuclei, to the diffuseness of the nuclear surface and to the measured depths of the optical model potential. With these parameters nuclear sizes are well reproduced, and only relatively minor deviations between measured and calculated fission barriers of 36 nuclei are found. The model determines the principal bulk and surface properties of nuclear matter and provides estimates for the more subtle, Droplet Model, properties. The predicted energy vs density relation for neutron matter is in striking correspondence with the 1981 theoretical estimate of Friedman and Pandharipande. Other extreme situations to which the model is applied are a study of Sn isotopes from {sup 82}Sn to {sup 170}Sn, and the rupture into a bubble configuration of a nucleus (constrained to spherical symmetry) which takes place when Z{sup 2}/A exceeds about 100.

  1. Thomas Trotter's 'Essay on Drunkenness' appraised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Griffith

    2012-09-01

    In 1804 Thomas Trotter, a recently retired Physician to the Fleet, published his 'Essay on Drunkenness'. This was the first ever book-length consideration of the phenomenon of alcohol dependence and its treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of that treatise on the evolution of relevant ideas over the years that have followed. A factual analysis of the content of the Essay is the starting-point, followed by an examination of sequential published appraisals on the significance, or lack of significance, of this work. To the modern reader, Trotter is likely to be seen as prescient, with his assertion that 'the habit of drunkenness is a disease of the mind', setting the scene for two centuries of debate. The literature, however, seems to suggest that Trotter did not, in fact, achieve much impact either on professional opinion or on the emergent temperance movement. It was Benjamin Rush's 1785 pamphlet on 'Ardent Spirits' which achieved iconic status. Rush and Trotter, although in some ways overlapping in their ideas, differed in other respects. © 2012 The Author. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Thomas Kuhn as a Historian of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Stephen G.

    Thomas S. Kuhn (1922-1996) exerted a strong force on intellectual discourse in the last third of the 20th century, by the publication of a book only 200 pages long. Why did Kuhn's publications in his own primary field, history of science, have so little impact on that field? Was The Structure of Scientific Revolutions so successful in accelerating the trend toward social history of science that his own internalist work seemed outmoded? Kuhn wrote incisive articles on a wide range of topics including Robert Boyle and structural chemistry, energy conservation as an example of simultaneous discovery, the Cagnard engine, and the historiography of science, as well as a book on the Copernican Revolution; they are rarely cited by historians of science. His most important historical contribution in later years was in the history of quantum theory; he led a project to collect and preserve source materials, and published a monograph on the origin of the quantum hypothesis. Why does he receive almost no recognition for his remarkable work on the history of quantum physics? Does everyone still believe (in spite of Kuhn) that Planck introduced a physical quantum discontinuity in 1900?

  3. Thomas Walter Bannerman Kibble (1932 - 2016)

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Tom Kibble, an internationally-renowned theoretical physicist, passed away on Thursday 2 June.   Tom Kibble in the CMS cavern during a visit to CERN in 2014. (Photo: CMS/CERN) Professor Thomas Walter Bannerman Kibble passed away unexpectedly on 2 June at the age of 83. He was senior research investigator at the Blackett Laboratory and Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College, London. He made seminal contributions to our current understanding of symmetries and symmetry breaking in the Standard Model of particle physics. He was among those who, in 1964, proposed the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories, together with G. Guralnik and C. Hagen in the autumn of that year, following the papers by R. Brout and F. Englert and by P. Higgs. When this new understanding was incorporated into a model proposed by S. Glashow in 1961, it led to the first formulations of the Standard Model by S. Weinberg and A. Salam. Kibble deepened our under...

  4. Ado Vabbe preemia laureaat on Rauno Thomas Moss / Indrek Grigor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grigor, Indrek

    2011-01-01

    2010. aasta Ado Vabbe preemia pälvinud Rauno Thomas Mossi loomingust, esinemisest näitustel. R. T. Moss on praegu TÜ semiootika ja maalikunsti osakonna õppejõud ning semiootika osakonna doktorant

  5. St. Thomas and the Divine Origin of Law: Some Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Dewan, O.P.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a series of notes on the concept of Law and itsrelationship to God in Classical Antiquity, specifically taking into account the viewpoints of Aristotle and Saint Thomas Aquinas.

  6. Concerning the Baker Solution of the Thomas-Fermi Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirov, R.Kh.

    1993-01-01

    A simple proof is founded that Baker's expansion is the exact solution of the Thomas-Fermi equation in the region very close to the nucleus. An alternative form of the basis equation of the Thomas-Fermi statistical theory of atom is derived. The recurrence relation for Baker's coefficients is found on the basis of this form. The non-trivial mathematical convergent series were summed up on the basis of our consideration

  7. A generalization of Ross-Thomas' slope theory

    OpenAIRE

    Odaka, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    We give a formula of the Donaldson-Futaki invariants for certain type of semi test configurations, which essentially generalizes Ross-Thomas' slope theory. The positivity (resp. non-negativity) of those "a priori special" Donaldson-Futaki invariants implies K-stability (resp. K-semistability). We show its applicability by proving K-(semi)stability of certain polarized varieties with semi-log-canonical singularities, generalizing some results by Ross-Thomas.

  8. Relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model, which has been proposed recently in an astrophysical context. Assuming a constant distribution of protons inside the nucleus of finite size avoids severe divergence of the electron density with respect to a point-like nucleus. A formula for the nuclear radius is chosen to treat any element. The relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model matches the two asymptotic regimes, i.e., the non-relativistic and the ultra-relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi models. The equation of state is considered in detail. For each version of the finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model, the pressure, the kinetic energy, and the entropy are calculated. The internal energy and free energy are also considered. The thermodynamic consistency of the three models is considered by working from the free energy. The virial question is also studied in the three cases as well as the relationship with the density functional theory. The relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model is far more involved than the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi models that are very close to each other from a mathematical point of view.

  9. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  10. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  11. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maunula, L.; Kaupke, A.; Vasickova, P.; Soderberg, K.; Kozyra, I.; Lazic, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bouwknegt, M.; Rutjes, S.; Willems, K.A.; Moloney, R.; Agostino, D' M.; Husman, A.M.D.; Bonsdorff, C.H.; Rzezutka, A.; Pavlik, I.; Petrovic, T.; Cook, N.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses.

  12. Metabolic Effects of Berries with Structurally Diverse Anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Overall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity. Diets supplemented with blackberry (mono-glycosylated cyanidins, black raspberry (acylated mono-glycosylated cyanidins, blackcurrant (mono- and di-glycosylated cyanidins and delphinidins, maqui berry (di-glycosylated delphinidins, Concord grape (acylated mono-glycosylated delphinidins and petunidins, and blueberry (mono-glycosylated delphinidins, malvidins, and petunidins showed a prominent discrepancy between biological activities of delphinidin/malvidin-versus cyanidin-type anthocyanins that could be explained by differences in their structure and metabolism in the gut. Consumption of berries also resulted in a strong shift in the gastrointestinal bacterial communities towards obligate anaerobes that correlated with decrease in the gastrointestinal luminal oxygen and oxidative stress. Further work is needed to understand mechanisms that lead to nearly anoxic conditions in the gut lumens, including the relative contributions of host, diet and/or microbial oxidative activity, and their implication to human health.

  13. Unitarity-Cuts, Stokes' Theorem and Berry's Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Two-particle unitarity-cuts of scattering amplitudes can be efficiently computed by applying Stokes' Theorem, in the fashion of the Generalised Cauchy Theorem. Consequently, the Optical Theorem can be related to the Berry Phase, showing how the imaginary part of arbitrary one-loop Feynman amplitudes can be interpreted as the flux of a complex 2-form.

  14. Coffee Berry Insect Pests and their Parasitoids in the Afromontane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the presence, intensity and damages caused to coffee berries by major insect pests of coffee in wild coffee populations in Afromontane rainforests of Southwestern Ethiopia. The parasitoids associated with those insect pests were also studied. Based on ecological descriptions of forest ...

  15. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  16. Q & A with economist Albert Berry | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... Listen to Berry describe the pitfalls of a resource-dependent economy. IDRC. — So what exactly is the problem? AB — Latin America's golden age was between 1945 and 1980 when the regional economy was growing at 5.5% — the fastest the continent has ever achieved. This stalled during the debt crisis ...

  17. Correlation of antioxidant activity of dried berry infusions with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activity was measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay in seven types of infusions prepared from commercial dried berry fruit products: Rosa canina, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Hiphophae rhamnoides, Hibiscus sabdariffa and three fruit mixtures. Total polyphenols (TP), total anthocyanins and the ...

  18. Thomas Mann: um escritor contra o nazismo Thomas Mann: a writer against nazism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Dayan-Herzbrun

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O combate que Thomas Mann travou contra o nazismo a partir de 1922 é exemplar, pois é o de um escritor apaixonado pela liberdade e não o de um militante. Ele privilegia a ficção e o mito como meios de luta contra o fascínio exercido pelo nazismo e afirma a permanência de uma Alemanha cultural, cosmopolita, fonte de uma universalidade estranha a todos os particularismos étnicos. Goethe, com quem ele se identifica e no qual se projeta, é a figura de proa dessa Alemanha.Thomas Mann's attack, from 1922 onwards, against Nazism is exemplar in the sense that it was promoted by a writer committed to the defence of liberty and not by a militant. He underlines fiction and myth as ways of fighting against the charms of Nazism and proclaims the permanence of a cultural, cosmopolitan Germany, a source of a universality which is alien to all kinds of ethnic particularities. Goethe, someone he is identified with, is the prominent figure of this Germany.

  19. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  20. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of light exposure on linalool biosynthesis and accumulation in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Matsuyama, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-12-01

    Linalool is an important compound that contributes to the floral aroma in wines. This study showed the effect of light exposure on linalool accumulation in berries. The grape bunches were covered with films that block the full light spectrum (Shade) and the UV spectrum (UV-block), and a transparent film (Control). The linalool content was significantly higher in juice from Control-covered berries than in juice from Shade- and UV-block-covered berries, and the expression levels of the representative genes in linalool biosynthesis in Shade- and UV-block-covered berries were markedly lower than in Control-covered berries. These findings suggest that exposing berries to light is essential for linalool biosynthesis. To reflect sunlight onto grape clusters, reflective sheets were placed on the ground of a vineyard. The linalool content in berries exposed to sunlight reflected from the reflective sheets was higher than those in the control.

  2. Water Deficit Effect on Ratio of Seed to Berry Fresh Weight and Berry Weight Uniformity in Winegrape cv. Merlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field-grown grapevines cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) were differentially irrigated in a randomized block design during two growing seasons to maintain a high or low level of vine water stress between fruit set and harvest. Detached berries from clusters harvested at maturity were individually weig...

  3. Obituary: Thomas Robert Metcalf, 1961-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka, K. D.

    2007-12-01

    The astronomy community lost a good friend when Tom Metcalf was killed in a skiing accident on Saturday, 7 July 2007, in the mountains near Boulder, Colorado. Tom was widely known for prolific work on solar magnetic fields, hard-X-ray imaging of solar flares, and spectral line diagnostics. He was often characterized as "one of the nicest guys in science." Born October 5, 1961 in Cheverly, Maryland, to Fred and Marilyn, Thomas R. Metcalf joined his sister, Karen, two years his elder, in a close family that loved sailing, inquisitiveness, and the natural world. Sibling rivalry (usually a Tonka truck intruding on Barbie's sub-table "castle") melted when Tom and Karen collaborated on elaborately engineered room-sized blanket-forts. Tom confidently signed up at age of three to crew for his family's sailboat; when the family moved to California in 1966, as Tom's father took a Professor of Mathematics position at the University of California Riverside, Tom's love for sailing was well-established. Week-long cruises or short trips in the harbor were all fun; when school friends came aboard, it was even better--if "only slightly too crowded" from the adults' points of view. Tom's introduction to astronomy began one cold, very clear, December night in the early 1970s, on a family camping trip to Death Valley. The "Sidewalk Astronomers of San Francisco" had lined the sidewalk near the visitors' center with all sorts of telescopes for public viewing. Soon after, Tom and his boyhood friend Jim O'Linger were building their own scopes, attending "Amateur Telescope Makers" conferences, and Tom was setting up his scope on a sidewalk for public viewing. In 1986, Tom set up his telescope on the bluffs above Dana Point Harbor, and gave numerous strangers a stunning view of Halley's Comet. His interest in physics and mathematics became evident during Tom's last years in high school (Poly High in Riverside), and as a senior he qualified to take freshman Physics at the University of

  4. Museum security and the Thomas Crown Affair.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaud, E. C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, I've daydreamed about stealing a Vermeer, a Picasso, or Rembrandt. It tickles me, as much as watching the reboot of The Thomas Crown Affair. Why is it, do you suppose, so much fun to think about stealing a world renowned piece off the wall of a major metropolitan museum? Is it the romantic thoughts of getting away with it, walking past infrared detectors, and pressure sensors ala Indiana Jones with the sack of sand to remove the idol without triggering the security system? Is it the idea of snatching items with such fantastic prices, where the romance of possessing an item of such value is less intoxicating than selling it to a private collector for it to never be seen again? I suspect others share my daydreams as they watch theater or hear of a brazen daylight heist at museums around the world, or from private collections. Though when reality sets in, the mind of the security professional kicks in. How could one do it, why would one do it, what should you do once it's done? The main issue a thief confronts when acquiring unique goods is how to process or fence them. They become very difficult to sell because they are one-of-a-kind, easy to identify, and could lead to the people involved with the theft. The whole issue of museum security takes up an ironic twist when one considers the secretive British street artist 'Banksy'. Banksy has made a name for himself by brazenly putting up interesting pieces of art in broad daylight (though many critics don't consider his work to be art) on building walls, rooftops, or even museums. I bring him up for a interesting take on what may become a trend in museum security. In March of 2005, Banksy snuck a piece of his called 'Vandalized Oil Painting' into the Brooklyn Museum's Great Historical Painting Wing, plus 3 other pieces into major museums in New York. Within several days, 2 paintings had been torn down, but 2 stayed up much longer. In his home country of the UK, a

  5. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  6. Transcriptome comparison of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from two regions with distinct climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runze; He, Fei; Lan, Yibin; Xing, Ranran; Liu, Rui; Pan, Qiuhong; Wang, Jun; Duan, Changqing

    2015-04-15

    Primary and secondary metabolism in grape berries is under the control of complex interactions among environmental conditions, genotypes, and management practices. To obtain an interpretation from the view of transcriptome on distinct metabolite accumulation between ecologically different regions in China, next-generation sequencing technology was performed on E-L 31, 35, and 38 stages of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from Changli (CL, eastern) and Gaotai (GT, western). The transcript abundance of epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and xanthoxin dehydrogenase required for ABA biosynthesis was significantly higher in the GT berries at E-L 35 and 38 stages compared with the CL berries, which may explain the relatively short maturation period of berries in the western region. Some genes required for carbohydrate metabolism, such as hexose transporter, L-idonate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, were significantly up-regulated in the CL berries in relation to the GT berries, which positively correlated with the sugar and organic acid accumulations. Pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that the CL berries had higher levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis at E-L 38 stage than the GT berries, which may relate to the quick fading of the GT wines because of weak co-pigmentation. This observation lays a foundation for further study concerning the molecular basis for environmental effects on berry quality formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Guest Foreword from Michael Thomas CMG QC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Thomas

    2012-04-01

    precedents and thought in a unique legal market in which ideas drawn from Islamic law, civil law and common law can intermingle and blend. It is not surprising therefore to see that this new publication will be dedicated to the subject of international law, both public and private. Its laudable aim is to promote legal discourse around the world, and to promote a wider international understanding of contemporary legal issues for the common benefit. As an open access, bilingual journal, addressing topics concerning any jurisdiction, I hope it will reach a wide audience, and fulfil its aim of promoting understanding between different cultures. I am sure that the journal will not only benefit Qatar’s legal community by advancing academic and practice-based legal discussion. I am also confident that it will stimulate thought in the global legal community at large. May I wish it every success and a long life. Michael Thomas CMG QC

  8. Obituary: Thomas Michael Donahue, 1921-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamás I.

    2004-12-01

    Thomas M. Donahue, one of the nation's leading space and planetary scientists and a pioneer of space exploration, died Saturday October 16, 2004, from complications following heart surgery. The Edward H. White II Distinguished University Professor of Planetary Science at the University of Michigan, Tom shaped space exploration through his scientific achievements and policy positions. His work started with the first use of sounding rockets following World War II and continued for almost 60 years. Tom was born in Healdton, Oklahoma on May 23, 1921 to Robert Emmet and Mary (Lyndon) Donahue. His father was a plumber in the oil fields when Tom was born (Healdton OK was an oil town) and worked as a plumber in Kansas City for a time. Tom grew up in Kansas City, graduating in 1942 from Rockhurst College in that city with degrees in classics and physics. His graduate work in physics at Johns Hopkins University was interrupted by service in the Army Signal Corps. He obtained his PhD degree in atomic physics from Hopkins in the fall of 1947. After three years as a post-doctoral research associate and assistant professor at Hopkins, Tom joined the University of Pittsburgh Physics Department in 1951. At Pittsburgh he organized an atomic physics and atmospheric science program that led to experimental and theoretical studies of the upper atmosphere of the Earth and other solar system planets with instruments flown on sounding rockets and spacecraft. He became Professor of Physics in 1959 and eventually Director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Sciences and the Space Research Coordination Center at the University. In 1960 he spent a sabbatical year on a Guggenheim Fellowship at the Service d'Aeronomie in Paris, which began collaborations with French colleagues that flourished for more than 40 years. In 1974 he became the Chairman of the Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Department, University of Michigan, a position he held until 1981. In 1986, he was named the Henry

  9. California: 'the Stem Cell State'. Interview with Jonathan Thomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    We talked to Jonathan Thomas, newly elected Chairman of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), a few weeks into a role he describes as "the opportunity of the lifetime" to find out what he sees as the key goals for the CIRM and why patient advocates are so critical to the future of the Institute. Jonathan Thomas was elected as Chairman of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) in June 2011, succeeding the Founder and former Chairman, Bob Klein. Thomas has had a successful career in finance and law and is a Co-Founding Partner at Saybrook Capital, an investment banking and private equity firm. His commitment to patient advocacy and keen interest in biological sciences, developed as a Biology Major at Yale, led him to stand for Chairman.

  10. Water deficit increases stilbene metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Decendit, Alain; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2011-01-12

    The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes.

  11. Double sigmoidal models describing the growth of coffee berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Jesus Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to verify if the growth pattern of coffee berries, considering fresh mass accumulation over time, is double sigmoid and to select the most suitable nonlinear model to describe such behavior. Data used consisted of fourteen longitudinal observations of average fresh mass of coffee berries obtained in an experiment with the cultivar Obatã IAC 1669-20. The fits provided by the Logistic and Gompertz models were compared in their single and double versions. Parameters were estimated using the least squares method using the Gauss-Newton algorithm implemented in the nls function of the R software. It can be concluded that the growth pattern of the coffee fruit, in fresh mass accumulation, is double sigmoid. The double Gompertz and double Logistic models were adequate to describe such a growth curve, with a superiority of the double Logistic model.

  12. Berry-phase blockade in single-molecule magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate the problem of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the Coulomb blockade regime taking into account topological interference effects for the tunneling of the large spin of a SMM. The interference originates from spin Berry phases associated with different tunneling paths. We show that in the case of incoherent spin states it is essential to place the SMM between oppositely spin-polarized source and drain leads in order to detect the spin tunneling in the s...

  13. Tunability of the Berry phase in gapped graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Urru, Andrea; Cocco, Giulio; Fiorentini, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    When a gap of tunable size opens at the conic band intersections of graphene, the Berry phase does not vanish abruptly, but progressively decreases as the gap increases. The phase depends on the reciprocal-space path radius, i.e., for a doped system, the Fermi wave vector. The phase and its observable consequences can thus be tuned continuously via gap opening --by a modulating potential induced by strain, epitaxy, or nanostructuration-- and doping adjustment.

  14. An analogue of the Berry phase for simple harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    We evaluate a variant of Berry's phase for a ‘missing’ family of the square integrable wavefunctions for the linear harmonic oscillator, which cannot be derived by the separation of variables (in a natural way). Instead, it is obtained by the action of the maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard solutions. A simple closed formula for the phase (in terms of elementary functions) is found here by integration with the help of a computer algebra system.

  15. Semiclassical dynamics, Berry curvature, and spiral holonomy in optical quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Stephen; Cooper, Nigel R.

    2018-04-01

    We describe the theory of the dynamics of atoms in two-dimensional quasicrystalline optical lattices. We focus on a regime of shallow lattice depths under which the applied force can cause Landau-Zener tunneling past a dense hierarchy of gaps in the quasiperiodic energy spectrum. We derive conditions on the external force that allow for a "semiadiabatic" regime in which semiclassical equations of motion can apply, leading to Bloch oscillations between the edges of a pseudo-Brillouin-zone. We verify this semiclassical theory by comparing to the results of an exact numerical solution. Interesting features appear in the semiclassical dynamics for the quasicrystal for a particle driven in a cyclic trajectory around the corner of the pseudo-Brillouin-zone: The particle fails to return to its initial state, providing a realization of a "spiral holonomy" in the dynamics. We show that there can appear anomalous velocity contributions, associated with nonzero Berry curvature. We relate these to the Berry phase associated with the spiral holonomy, and show how the Berry curvature can be accessed from the semiclassical dynamics. Finally, by identifying the pseudo-Brillouin-zone as a higher genus surface, we show that the Chern number classification for periodic systems can be extended to a quasicrystal, thereby determining a topological index for the system.

  16. Other Kinds of Violence: Wendell Berry, Industrialism, and Agrarian Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Major

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the need to understand pacifism and environmentalism as essentially consonant philosophies and practices, just as a proper theorization of ecocide must also include the violence inherent to industrialism and militarism. Few contemporary writers understand the stakes involved in this conflation as well as Wendell Berry, and few have had more occasion to enact the entwined values of pacifism and environmentalism than he has. Berry therefore marries pacifist politics to a land ethic of care, a union from which emerges an environmentalism highly critical of the violence of American corporate capitalism and militarism, the apotheosis of which can be seen in the guise of war (Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, the “War on Terror”. Moreover, such violence has its domestic ecocidal analogy, best evidenced by strip mining and mountaintop removal. Berry’s union of peaceableness and agrarian environmentalism does, however, deserve critical examination, for it often rests upon the construction of a sometimes frustrating disconnection between a precious and benign domesticity and a theoretically corrupt public sphere. To be sure, in his reworking of the fluid boundaries between the private and public through which his agrarian ethics is often articulated, Berry simultaneously invokes and disavows a separation he clearly understands to be artificial. In Berry’s peaceful agrarian vision, then, the agrarian pacifist who is also by definition an environmentalist must draw upon enormous internal resources if she is to revolutionize the economies of ruin that characterize modern life.

  17. The nutritional value of leaves of selected berry species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Biel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Although the medicinal properties of berry fruit are well known, there is relatively little information available concerning the applications of other parts of berry plants. Thus, in this study we determined the nutritional value of the leaves of selected berry species and their possible application in health promoting diets. The levels of nutrients, and macro- and microelements in the leaves of four species collected from allotment gardens in the city of Szczecin, Poland (53°26′17″ N, 14°32′32″ E; altitude 7 m a.s.l. were identified: raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L., chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L., and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.. Sea buckthorn leaves were the richest source of protein, raspberry leaves had the highest levels of lipids, and the leaves of all four species studied were a rich source of crude fibre and dietary fibre fractions. Desirable Ca:P and Na:K ratios indicated their potential as a good source of minerals essential to bone formation and the treatment of hypertension. Sea buckthorn leaves contained high but also safe Fe levels (within recommended WHO limits and, therefore, may become an alternative rich source of this element.

  18. Changes in Endogenous Hormone Levels during the Ripening of Grape Cultivars Having Different Berry Set Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDAR*, Nilgün GÖKTÜRK; HARMANKAYA, Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) were measured by gas chromatography (GC) in the berries of 3 grape cultivars having different berry set mechanisms to elucidate the possible relationship between endogenous hormones and berry set mechanisms. The results obtained showed that the levels of IAA, GA3 and ABA in seeded Italia, empty seeded Çavuş and stenospermocarpic seedless Perlette changed during ripening. While Italia exhibited a hormo...

  19. Effect of light exposure on linalool biosynthesis and accumulation in grape berries

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Matsuyama, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Linalool is an important compound that contributes to the floral aroma in wines. This study showed the effect of light exposure on linalool accumulation in berries. The grape bunches were covered with films that block the full light spectrum (Shade) and the UV spectrum (UV-block), and a transparent film (Control). The linalool content was significantly higher in juice from Control-covered berries than in juice from Shade- and UV-block-covered berries, and the expression levels of the represen...

  20. Naval Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and the Buy American Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    contracts for items that are subject to Berry Amendment and Buy American Act review. Unrestricted GAO reports can be accessed over the Internet at...S T 1 2 , 2 0 1 5 Naval Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and the Buy American Act Report No. DODIG-2015-161 Mission...With the Berry Amendment and the Buy American Act Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether Naval personnel

  1. Obituary: Thomas Julian Ahrens (1936-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Asimow, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Thomas J. Ahrens, a leader in the use of shock waves to study planetary interiors and impact phenomena, died at his home in Pasadena, California on November 24, 2010, at the age of 74. He was the California Institute of Technology's Fletcher Jones Professor of Geophysics, formally emeritus since 2005 but professionally active to the end. Tom was a pioneer in experimental and numerical studies of the effects of hypervelocity impact, arguably the most important geophysical process in the formation, growth and - in many cases - surface evolution of planets. As a professor at Caltech, he established the foremost university laboratory for shock wave experiments, where students and research associates from around the world pursued basic research in geophysics, planetary science and other disciplines. Previously, high-pressure shock experiments were primarily conducted in national laboratories, where they were initially associated with development of nuclear weapons. The shock wave laboratory at Caltech was noted for key measurements addressing major questions in planetary geophysics. Equation-of-state studies on silicate melts showed that magma deep in Earth's mantle could be denser than the coexisting crystals, implying downward transport of melts (and associated heat) rather than the upward eruption of lavas observed in volcanic regions at Earth's surface. Shock-melting experiments on iron at pressures of Earth's core provide a crucial constraint on the temperature at the center of our planet. And studies of hydrous, carbonate and sulphate minerals under shock compression document how climate-altering molecules can be released by major impacts, such as the K/T event associated with the most recent mass extinction of biota in Earth history. In addition, Tom was a leader in numerical simulation of cratering, bringing the most recent laboratory measurements into the modeling of planetary impacts. Tom's training was in geophysics and applied experimental physics, as

  2. Sugar demand of ripening grape berries leads to recycling of surplus phloem water via the xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Zhang, Yun; Shrestha, Pradeep M; Biondi, Marco; Bondada, Bhaskar R

    2015-06-01

    We tested the common assumption that fleshy fruits become dependent on phloem water supply because xylem inflow declines at the onset of ripening. Using two distinct grape genotypes exposed to drought stress, we found that a sink-driven rise in phloem inflow at the beginning of ripening was sufficient to reverse drought-induced berry shrinkage. Rewatering accelerated berry growth and sugar accumulation concurrently with leaf photosynthetic recovery. Interrupting phloem flow through the peduncle prevented the increase in berry growth after rewatering, but interrupting xylem flow did not. Nevertheless, xylem flow in ripening berries, but not berry size, remained responsive to root or shoot pressurization. A mass balance analysis on ripening berries sampled in the field suggested that phloem water inflow may exceed growth and transpiration water demands. Collecting apoplastic sap from ripening berries showed that osmotic pressure increased at distinct rates in berry vacuoles and apoplast. Our results indicate that the decrease in xylem inflow at the onset of ripening may be a consequence of the sink-driven increase in phloem inflow. We propose a conceptual model in which surplus phloem water bypasses the fruit cells and partly evaporates from the berry surface and partly moves apoplastically to the xylem for outflow. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Should home ipecac-induced emesis be routinely recommended in the management of toxic berry ingestions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, P M; Cobaugh, D J; Lawrence, R A

    1999-12-01

    Poison center (PC) management of toxic berry ingestions may include recommendations to administer syrup of ipecac (SI) regardless of the number of berries ingested. We investigated whether the routine use of SI in the home management of asymptomatic single or few (berry ingestions may be unnecessary. A prospective, randomized clinical trial compared SI + home observation (HO) to HO alone for management of pediatric toxic berry ingestions. Subjects were children 9 mo to 5 y who ingested a small number (berries. Exclusions were symptomatic subjects, ingestion of more than 1 type of berry or other plant part, or contraindication to SI. Outcome variables consisting of symptom assessment and disposition were assessed 24 h following the ingestion. Over a 27-mo period 103 subjects were entered into the study; 45 received SI/HO and 51 received only HO. While 100% of the SI/HO group experienced vomiting, none of the HO group vomited. Diarrhea and sedation were more common in the SI/HO group. Use of SI in the home management of young children who ingest fewer than 6 toxic berries (yew, nightshade, holly or unknown) and who are asymptomatic when the PC is contacted may be responsible for the majority of symptoms. Ingestion of small amounts of berries may require no intervention beyond observation. Methodological limitations of this study included the lack of confirmed identification of the berries and the inability to confirm ingestion and absorption.

  4. Thomas Henry Huxley et la Bible Thomas Henry Huxley and the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Duvey

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Henry Huxley devoted several essays to the study of the Bible. This interest can only be accounted for if his ideas on history, religion as well as epistemology are examined. According to him, a struggle between free thought and supernaturalism was culminating during the Victorian era, hence the need for a “New Reformation” which was heir to the ideals of freedom defended by the humanists of the Renaissance. This movement opposed the principles of the supporters of what he called “ecclesiasticism”. The advocates of the “New Reformation” could rely on the progress of modern science, and agnosticism, which Huxley identified with scientific method, became its epistemological foundation. As a result, Huxley thought that the authority of physical science was in conflict with the infallibility of the Scriptures and with the theological arguments which rested on it, and this notably led him to the conclusion that the biblical narrative of the Flood was unhistorical. The naturalisation of the Scriptures seems then logically to follow his philosophical views based on the limits of human knowledge.It appears that it was the question of authority which underlay Huxley’s interest in the Bible. He thought that the authority of the Scriptures must be replaced by that of science.

  5. The Concurrentism of Thomas Aquinas: Divine Causation and Human Freedom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2013), s. 617-634 ISSN 0048-3893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/0371 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : divine causation * free will * concurrentism * Thomas Aquinas Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Pioneers in South African Anaesthesia: Thomas Voss and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pioneers in South African Anaesthesia: Thomas Voss and the “Elephant Tube”. R Hofmeyr, PC Gordon. Abstract. South Afr J Anaesth Analg 2013;19(5):239-241. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22201173.2013.

  7. Thomas Paine's "Common Sense": A Study in Polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Carole

    Thomas Paine's "Common Sense," published in 1776, was a significant rhetorical event, having a polarizing effect on a situation marked by confusion and conflicting loyalties, in which prevailing views favored reconciliation of the American colonies with England. Paine's rhetoric intensified the conflict, forcing a cognitive restructuring…

  8. Fasihi ya Kiswahili na rushwa Tanzania: Thomas A. R. Kamugisha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makala hii inajaribu kuelezea mchango wa fasihi ya Kiswahili katika kuijadili rushwa. Kwa kurejea kwenye Riwaya ya Thomas A.R. Kamugisha Kitu Kidogo tu! makala hii inasawilisha miongo takribani mitatu ya dhana ya “kitu kidogo” na athari zake kwa jamii ya Tanzania. Kwa kuijadili riwaya ya Kitu Kidogo tu! makala hii ...

  9. Demography and life history of Thomas Langurs (Presbytis thomasi)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wich, S.A.; Steenbeek, R.; Sterck, E.H.M.; Korstjens, A.H.; Willems, E.P.; Schaik, C.P. van

    2007-01-01

    Life history data from wild primate populations are necessary to explain variation in primate social systems and explain differences between primates and other mammals. Here we report life history data from a 12.5-year study on wild Thomas langurs. Mean age at first reproduction was 5.4 years and

  10. Thomas Hunt Morgan and the Rise of Genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 11. Thomas Hunt Morgan and the Rise of Genetics. Amitabh Joshi. Article-in-a-Box Volume 8 ... Author Affiliations. Amitabh Joshi1. Animal Behaviour Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560 064. India.

  11. Some aspects of fisheries ecology in Thomas dam, Kano Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity, length-weight relationship and condition factor of fish species of Thomas Dam, Dambatta Kano were studied fortnightly between November, 2016 and February, 2017. Fish species were collected using line nets, cast nets, hooks and traps; weighted to the nearest gram and standard length measured to the ...

  12. The medical history of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberg, Norman G

    2008-05-01

    Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the USA, was often the victim of a panoply of disorders including episodic headaches, dysentery, rheumatism, multiple bone fractures, malaria, possibly tuberculosis, dental problems, diabetes and urinary tract obstruction. Intermittently he experienced anxiety, depression and insomnia; he was an anxious, striving perfectionist, a compulsively controlled man.

  13. Retrospective: "Futki" and Some Other Elephants | Thomas | Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrospective: "Futki" and Some Other Elephants. HB Thomas. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v48i1.23010 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  14. Insights into translation and the original text: Thomas Mofolo's Chaka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to explore the strategies applied during the translation of chosen passages from the original Sesotho text of Chaka by Thomas Mofolo into English. Insights expressed here originate from participation in the translation workshops during the conference on “Translating Mofolo”. Different stages of the ...

  15. Thomas Hopley and Mid-Victorian Attitudes to Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the trial of Thomas Hopley, accused of killing his pupil Reginald Cancellor in 1860 during an act of corporal punishment. The case provoked immediate sensational interest and became an important defining point in how corporal punishment is treated in British law. Established by this trial was the test that any corporal…

  16. Biographical sketch: Thomas W. Huntington, MD (1849-1929).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    This biographical sketch on Thomas Huntington corresponds to the historic text, The classic: case of bone transference. use of a segment of fibula to supply a defect in the tibia (1905), available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-012-2496-z .

  17. Thomas Aquinas on the Beatitudes : Edition of the Basel Manuscript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Anton

    2017-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in Thomas Aquinas’ interpretation of the beatitudes. An important source for the study of the beatitudes is Aquinas’ commentary on the gospel of Matthew. However, the available editions of this commentary present a text that ignores the oldest manuscript, and has

  18. Waren Judas en Thomas gnostici? Het evangelie naar Johannes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Philip are also more conspicuous characters in the Gospel of John than in the Synoptics. This challenges scholars to read these sections in relation to Gnosticism. The article aims at reading the scenes dealing with Jude and Thomas in John's gospel with a Gnostic framework in mind. These texts gain more profile than ...

  19. Full depth bituminous recycling of I-70, Thomas County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In 1990, 13 full depth asphalt pavement test sections were built on a portion of I-70 in Thomas County, Kansas. Various combinations of hot mix and cold recycle mixes with different additives were used to build the test sections. Two of the test sect...

  20. Reflective Teaching and Practice: Interview with Thomas Farrell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Alvin

    2017-01-01

    Thomas Farrell is widely known for his views and publications on the topic of Reflective Practice, which is key to the professional development of teachers in 21st century classrooms. He is Professor of Applied Linguistics at Brock University, Canada. Farrell has been a language teacher and teacher educator since 1978 and has worked in Korea,…

  1. Thomas B. Greenfield: A Challenging Perspective of Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Organizations are not real; people are. Any science or theory of organizations must consider how the organization impinges, in a very real and tangible way, on the lives of its members. This article traces the development of one such theoretical branch of organizational science through the pioneering work of Thomas B. Greenfield. The author uses…

  2. Potential motion for Thomas-Fermi non-topological solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, S.

    1992-04-01

    In the Thomas-Fermi approximation to theories of coupled fermions and scalars, the equations for spherically-symmetric non-topological solitons have the form of potential motion. This gives a straightforward method for proving the existence of non-topological solitons in a given theory and for finding the constant-density, saturating solutions

  3. Ethical Implications of Thomas Reid's Philosophy of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopec, Eric Wm.

    Eighteenth century Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid's emphasis on first principles of knowledge is fundamental to his ethics of rhetoric. Reid found the reduction of mental activities to material phenomena by Hobbes and others to be particularly odious and destructive of common sense. Turning to the analysis of human nature, he developed a radical…

  4. The Sovereign as Educator: Thomas Hobbes's National Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Geraint

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on Thomas Hobbes, an English political philosopher who argued that the solution to civil disorders lay in a sovereign authority backed with force. Argues that education should be seen at the center of Hobbes's project of rescuing society from the disorders threatening civilization throughout 17th-century Europe. (CMK)

  5. Religious Conscience and Civic Conscience in Thomas Hobbes's Civic Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperell, Keith C.

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses Thomas Hobbes' concept of conscience, the historical context in which the concept was formulated, and Hobbes' conclusion that civil law takes precedence over religious conscience. Hobbes' views are related to the debate between Pratte and Losito over the interaction between religious and civic conscience. (IAH)

  6. Teaching with Purpose: An Interview with Thomas E. Ludwig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Ludwig, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Thomas E. Ludwig is the John Dirk Werkman Professor of Psychology at Hope College, where he joined the faculty in 1977 after receiving his PhD in development and aging from Washington University in St. Louis. His research focuses on developmental issues in cognitive neuropsychology. He is also the author or coauthor of more than a dozen sets of…

  7. Scientific Aspects of Two Theological Questions in Thomas Aquinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattis, James M.

    1984-01-01

    An examination of how St. Thomas Aquinas makes use of science in his theological works provides an understanding of the relations of medieval science and the Christian theology of the Middle Ages. Two issues are examined: the problem of the nature and existence of God and the question of the eternity of the world. (RM)

  8. Matrix models and stochastic growth in Donaldson-Thomas theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Richard J.; Tierz, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    We show that the partition functions which enumerate Donaldson-Thomas invariants of local toric Calabi-Yau threefolds without compact divisors can be expressed in terms of specializations of the Schur measure. We also discuss the relevance of the Hall-Littlewood and Jack measures in the context of BPS state counting and study the partition functions at arbitrary points of the Kähler moduli space. This rewriting in terms of symmetric functions leads to a unitary one-matrix model representation for Donaldson-Thomas theory. We describe explicitly how this result is related to the unitary matrix model description of Chern-Simons gauge theory. This representation is used to show that the generating functions for Donaldson-Thomas invariants are related to tau-functions of the integrable Toda and Toeplitz lattice hierarchies. The matrix model also leads to an interpretation of Donaldson-Thomas theory in terms of non-intersecting paths in the lock-step model of vicious walkers. We further show that these generating functions can be interpreted as normalization constants of a corner growth/last-passage stochastic model.

  9. The Invention Factory: Thomas Edison's Laboratories. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Benjamin

    This lesson explores the group of buildings in West Orange, New Jersey, built in 1887, that formed the core of Thomas Edison's research and development complex. They consisted of chemistry, physics, and metallurgy laboratories; machine shop; pattern shop; research library; and rooms for experiments. The lesson explains that the prototypes (ideas…

  10. Thomas Aquinas: On Law, Tyranny and Resistance | Swartz | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thomas Aquinas's notion on law, tyranny and resistance served as a limitation on governmental powers. When those who bear the law command things which exceed the competence of such authority, the subject is free to obey or disobey. The function of the law culminates in two maxims: quantum ad vim coactivam legis ...

  11. Obituary: Thomas Gold, 1920-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2004-12-01

    Thomas "Tommy" Gold died of heart disease at Cayuga Medical Center, Ithaca NY on 22 June 2004 at the age of 84. He will be remembered as one of the most interesting, dynamic and influential scientists of his generation. Tommy's paradigm-changing ideas in astronomy and planetary science, while original and bold, were also highly controversial. With his radical work on the origin of natural gas and petroleum, the controversy is likely to continue. Tommy was born in Vienna, Austria on 22 May 1920, moving with his family to Berlin at age 10 and then, after the rise of Hitler in 1933, to England. His parents were Josephine (nee Martin) and Maximillian Gold, a successful steel magnate. Tommy was educated at Zuoz College in Switzerland where he became an expert skier and developed an athletic prowess that he maintained throughout his life, winning a NASTAR gold medal for skiing at the age of 65. He studied Mechanical Sciences at Trinity College, Cambridge, but much to his disgust his education was interrupted because of internment by the British as a suspected enemy alien. That unfortunate period (I remember him saying to me "Can you believe the stupidity, interring people like me who had fled from Nazi Germany?") had one good outcome: on his first night in camp he met Hermann Bondi who had an important influence on his early development as a scientist. They were both born in Vienna, their parents knew each other, and they were fellow students at Trinity, but this was their first meeting. On release, he went immediately into top-secret radar research for the British Admiralty, working as a team with Bondi and Fred Hoyle in a farm cottage in Dunsfold, Surrey. Tommy's first published research, which was a Nature paper with R.J. Pumphrey in 1947, was not in astronomy but physiology. He applied his engineer's understanding of positive feedback to develop and test a resonance model for how the human ear determines pitch. His conclusion that pitch discrimination occurs

  12. 75 FR 52023 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington...

  13. 75 FR 36672 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University of Washington...

  14. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  15. Thomas van Aquino en de Thomas van Utrecht. Kritische kanttekeningen bij de Utrechtse lezing van de Summa Theologiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aertsen, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the last decade a group of scholars at the Catholic University of Utrecht developed an approach of its own to Aquinas's Summa theologiae, which is named “the Utrecht hypothesis”. In section I this hypothesis is summarized in eight propositions. Its main elements are twofold. (A) Thomas does not

  16. 78 FR 65511 - Death of Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the House of Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the House of Representatives #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0... Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the House of Representatives By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As a mark of respect for the memory of Thomas S. Foley, former Speaker of the House...

  17. 76 FR 20032 - Thomas E. Mitchell, M.D.; Dismissal of Proceeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [Docket No. 10-7] Thomas E. Mitchell, M.D... Control, Drug Enforcement Administration, issued an Order to Show Cause to Thomas E. Mitchell, M.D....100(b) and 0.104, I hereby order that the Order to Show Cause issued to Thomas E. Mitchell, M.D., be...

  18. 78 FR 59956 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of..., Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of..., Arie Handel, and H. Thomas Cain and donated to the Burke Museum in 1937 (Burke Accn. 2983, 2984). In...

  19. 77 FR 51564 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington... of human remains under the control of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum...

  20. 76 FR 28806 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas... Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke... and associated funerary objects in the control of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

  1. 33 CFR 110.250 - St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie, V.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.250 St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie.... Thomas, V.I. of the United States and approaches thereto, including all waters under its jurisdiction, as...

  2. 77 FR 59649 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington... human remains were removed by Thomas Greaves and donated to the Burke Museum in 1962 (Burke Accn. 1963...

  3. 33 CFR 165.762 - Security Zone; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; St. Thomas, U.S....762 Security Zone; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. (a) Location. Moving and fixed security zones are established 50 yards around all cruise ships entering, departing, moored or anchored in the Port of St. Thomas...

  4. Consumer preferences in respect of processed fruit and berry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribova N. А.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays fruits, berries and processed products are an indispensable component of the human diet throughout the year. Frozen fruits and berries are widely distributed on the Russian market and are part of the food industry worldwide. Frozen products become popular among consumers for home use due to the minimal cooking time. Consumer evaluation is the most relevant and significant for identifying preferences and evaluating quality products in Russian markets. In this regard, a qualitative analysis of marketing research has been carried out and preferences have been identified according to which criteria consumers buy quick-frozen products. Some methods of sensory analysis have been used (consumer evaluation, the profile method, and pairwise comparison method. The dominant factor in choosing a brand of quick-frozen products is the combination of an acceptable price and quality, and to a lesser extent, the recommendation of acquaintances, the type of packaging and advertising of products. The research is aimed at identifying organoleptic properties that affect the consumer evaluation of the quality of frozen, thawed grapes in comparison with the reference product. Fruits and berries freeze for hours and even minutes, but are stored for a long time. The problem arises in rehydration – the return of the product to its original state, close to fresh natural raw material. The main goal of the research is aimed at identifying some rational method of defrosting, corresponding to organoleptic and consumer properties. With the help of organoleptic evaluation the best ways of defrosting have been identified – the microwave oven and the freezer. These methods allow obtaining thawed foods with the finest quality and identical to natural raw materials. The storage time after defrosting has been revealed: in the microwave oven – 60 min; at the room temperature – 80 min; in the coldstore – 100 min. The obtained information can be useful for consumers

  5. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  6. Berry-Phase Blockade in Single-Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2007-06-01

    We formulate the problem of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the Coulomb blockade regime taking into account topological interference effects for the tunneling of the large spin of a SMM. The interference originates from spin Berry phases associated with different tunneling paths. We show that, in the case of incoherent spin states, it is essential to place the SMM between oppositely spin-polarized source and drain leads in order to detect the spin tunneling in the stationary current, which exhibits topological zeros as a function of the transverse magnetic field.

  7. Berry phases in the three-level atoms driven by quantized light fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vf; 42.50.Dv. 1. Introduction. When a quantum state evolves slowly and eventually brought back to its initial form, the state acquires a quantum adiabatic geometrical phase, now known as the Berry phase, as pointed out by Berry in 1984 [1].

  8. On Membership, Humility, and Pedagogical Responsibilities: A Correspondence on the Work of Wendell Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusewicz, Rebecca A.; Edmundson, Jeff; Kahn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Wendell Berry is a novelist, essayist, conservation activist and farmer who has had a lot to say over the last half century about the impact of modern industrial society on small farm communities and the land especially since WWII. In this three-way conversation, the authors take up central aspects of Berry's work to think about how it has…

  9. Review of the health effects of berries and their phytochemicals on the digestive and immune systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Coen; Berkel Kasikci, Muzeyyen; van der Sluis, Addie A; Mes, Jurriaan J

    2018-01-01

    Berries are generally considered beneficial to health. This health-promoting potential has mainly been ascribed to berries' phytochemical and vitamin content, and little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of berries for the digestive tract, despite this being the first point of contact. In vivo studies that described the health effects of berries on individual parts of the digestive tract (ie, the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, microbiome, and immune system) were reviewed. Immune effects were included because a large part of the immune system is located in the intestine. Beneficial health effects were mainly observed for whole berry extracts, not individual berry components. These effects ranged from support of the immune system and beneficial microbiota to reduction in the number and size of premalignant and malignant lesions. These results demonstrate the potency of berries and suggest berries can serve as a strong adjuvant to established treatments or therapies for a variety of gastrointestinal and immune-related illnesses. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Berry phase in superconducting charge qubits interacting with a cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method for analyzing Berry phase for a multi-qubit system of superconducting charge qubits interacting with a microwave field. By suitably choosing the system parameters and precisely controlling the dynamics, novel connection found between the Berry phase and entanglement creations.

  11. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Berry Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  12. Time and Frequency Domain Response of Grape Berries to Nondestructive Impact during the Harvesting Period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Pavloušek, P.; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2016), s. 24-33 ISSN 0022-4901 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : berry´s response * dominant frequency * elastic modulus * grape berries Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com

  13. Miracle Berry for Increasing Health Benefits of beta-Glucan Soluble Fiber Functional Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum) is known for its taste modification of sour materials to give them an excellent sweetening taste. Although miracle berry was known in West African since the 1800’s, the earliest chemical composition studies were first performed in 1965 by Inglett and co-workers...

  14. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Variability of Polyphenol Compounds in Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae Berries from Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chiaramonti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds were extracted from Myrtus communis L. berries (Myrtaceae by maceration in 70% ethanol and analysed by HPLC-DAD and electrospray mass spectrometry. The Myrtus berries were collected at maturity from seven localities on the island of Corsica (France and the sampling was carried out during three years. The polyphenol composition of Corsican Myrtus berries was characterized by two phenolic acids, four flavanols, three flavonols and five flavonol glycosides. The major compounds were myricetin-3-O-arabinoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside. Principal components analysis (PCA is applied to study the chemical composition and variability of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts from the seven localities. Canonical analysis and PCA data distinguishes two groups of myrtle berries characterized by different concentrations of polyphenols according to soil and years of harvest. The variations in the polyphenol concentration were due to biotic and abiotic factors.

  16. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...... herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns...... related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste...

  17. Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1∶1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

  18. JUSTICIA Y PROPIEDAD SEGÚN THOMAS REID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernández Prado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward that according to Scottish philosopher, Thomas Reid (1710-1796, justice must be understood as a moral virtue of a natural kind among human beings, or as a matter of species regarding them; not as an artificial or a conventional virtue, which is a product of human collectivities or a matter of sociability in human beings. However, the article proposes as well that in his reflections on justice, Thomas Reid held an arguable notion of property, as the ownership of riches basically distributable or apportionable, but not as one of the goods that are mainly produced or generated, as his contemporaries David Hume and Adam Smith stated it.

  19. Thomas Spence on Women’s Rights: A Vindication

    OpenAIRE

    Duthille, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Spence défendait les droits politiques et économiques des femmes. Il était l’un des très rares pamphlétaires de son époque à demander le vote des femmes. Certains historiens ont cependant décelé chez lui une vision patriarcale, voire rétrograde. Contre ces interprétations anachroniques, cet article s’emploie à dégager l’évolution de la position de Thomas Spence, de plus en plus favorable à l’égalité entre les sexes, tout en soulignant que Spence n’envisageait pas de confier aux femmes ...

  20. Thomas Hirschhorn, l’art et l’espace public.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Cherel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce catalogue relate la manière dont l’artiste Thomas Hirschhorn est intervenu dans le quartier du Landy à Aubervilliers pour réaliser un projet de sculpture dans l’espace public. Entre avril et juin 2004 s’est ouvert, rue Albinet sous l’impulsion conjuguée de Thomas Hirschhorn et des laboratoires d’Aubervilliers, un musée inhabituel, dont la vocation fut de « faire exister l’art au-delà des espaces qui lui sont consacrés ». Ce musée prit d’autant plus de poids pour ...

  1. Thomas Docherty. Culture and a New Experience of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik S. RORABACK

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Docherty’s freshly printed volume from Stanford University Press, Aesthetic Democracy, is requisite reading for all those thinking beings out there interested in the question of the inter-relation and even inter-articulation between culture and experience for a possible new encounter with the political that would inch toward a truer form of democracy for our current postmodern social spheres and spaces. Professor of English and Comparative Literature in the University of Warwick, long ...

  2. Losing Thomas & Ella: A Father's Story (A Research Comic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B

    2017-09-01

    "Losing Thomas & Ella" presents a research comic about one father's perinatal loss of twins. The comic recounts Paul's experience of the hospital and the babies' deaths, and it details the complex grieving process afterward, including themes of anger, distance, relationship stress, self-blame, religious challenges, and resignation. A methodological appendix explains the process of constructing the comic and provides a rationale for the use of comics-based research for illness, death, and grief among practitioners, policy makers, and the bereaved.

  3. Thomas Hill Green. Od epistemologii do filozofii politycznej

    OpenAIRE

    Grygieńć, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    The philosophy of Thomas Hill Green, as well as that of most of the British idealists, remains almost completely unknown to the Polish Reader. This is the main reason for which the Author of this book has chosen to present the broad spectrum of its issues and possible interpretations. Despite the fact that Green lived for less than 46 years, philosophical conceptions which his lectures (published posthumously as Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation and Prolegomena to Ethics) con...

  4. Rational Chebyshev pseudospectral approach for solving Thomas-Fermi equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parand, K. [Department of Computer Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: k_parand@sbu.ac.ir; Shahini, M. [Department of Computer Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: m.shahini@mail.sbu.ac.ir

    2009-01-05

    In this Letter we propose a pseudospectral method for solving Thomas-Fermi equation which is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation on semi-infinite interval. This approach is based on rational Chebyshev pseudospectral method. This method reduces the solution of this problem to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. Comparison with some numerical solutions shows that the present solution is highly accurate.

  5. A generalization of the Ross-Thomas slope theory

    OpenAIRE

    Odaka, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    We give a formula for the Donaldson--Futaki invariants of certain type of semi test configurations, which essentially generalizes the Ross--Thomas slope theory [28]. The positivity (resp. non-negativity) of those ``a priori special'' Donaldson--Futaki invariants implies K-stability (resp. K-semistability). As an application, we prove the K-(semi)stability of certain polarized varieties with semi-log-canonical singularities, which generalizes some results of [28].

  6. Thomas S. Schelling: game theory and indirect communication

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In their recent work Thomas S. Schelling (2007, 2010), reiterating original arguments about game theory and its applications to social sciences. In particular, game theory helps to explore situations in which agents make decisions interdependent (strategic communication). Schelling's originality is to extend economic theory to social sciences. When a player can anticipate the options and influence the decisions of others. The strategy, indirect communication plays a crucial role. To illustrat...

  7. Thomas Alva Edison (170th Anniversary of His Birth)

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Samokhin; E A. Tikhomirovа

    2017-01-01

    A brief overview of the major technical achievements of Thomas Edison, an outstanding American inventor, author of more than 1,000 US patents and several thousand patents in other countries, honorary academician of the USSR. Presents biographical information and details of the formation of Edison, his work as a telegrapher, organizing the world's first industrial research laboratory for the continuous development of technological innovations, as well as some interesting facts about his life a...

  8. Safety Performance Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants Utilizing THOMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won June; Ryu, Jung Uk; Suh, Kune Y.

    2005-01-01

    THOMAS (Thermal Hydraulics Online Monitoring Advisory System) is equipped with a couple of salient features compared with existing monitoring systems. The first has to do with the three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique to support the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators and personnel using the virtual reality (VR) technology. VR depicts an environment simulated by a computer. Most of the VR environments primarily include visual experiences, displayed either on a monitor or though special stereoscopic goggles. Users can often interactively manipulate a VR environment, either through standard input devices like a keyboard, or through specially designed devices like a cybergloves. Additional devices were not applied the in THOMAS. The visualized model file is brought to the VR space from the computer-aided design (CAD) tool. In the VR space, using mapping, the component color is changed with linked value of the safety variables. Operators thus can easily recognize the plant condition. This is related with the human factor engineering. The second is the function of decision making using the influence diagram logic. The influence diagram logic is based on the total probability and Bayesian theory. The accident modeling is rooted in the emergency operating procedure (EOP). The final goal of this system is, in the accident situation, to present a success path to the operator for the recovery of the NPP system. At the current developing level, the database signals THOMAS. In other words, a spectrum of system analysis codes provides the safety parameter values to the database, which are subsequently supplied to THOMAS through the network

  9. Chemical quality parameters and bioactive compound content of brazilian berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing consumer demand for higher healthy foods such as berries which are a rich source of phenolic compounds. The current work evaluated blackberry cultivars: Cherokee, Tupy and Xavante; raspberry cultivars: Heritage, Fallgold and Black; and the hybrid Boysenberry. All berries were grown under homogenous subtropical conditions in Brazil. Black raspberry, Cherokee and Tupy blackberry cultivars showed the highest ratio between soluble solid contents and titratable acidity, and Fallgold and Heritage raspberry showed the highest titratable acidity. Total phenolic content ranged from 2.03 to 5.33 g kg–1 fresh weight and total anthocyanin content registered values from 0.41 to 1.81 g kg–1 fresh weight. The most common phenolic acids were gallic, p-coumaric and ellagic, and for anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvinidin-3-glucoside. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 14.13 to 21.51 mol equivalent trolox kg–1 fresh weight. Black raspberry, all blackberry cultivars and the Boysenberry hybrid are appropriate to be consumed fresh, while Fallgold and Heritage raspberries are recommended to the food industry. Due to their phenolic richness and antioxidant properties, these fruits are of great interest to the fresh fruit market and to pharmaceutical industries. These results could help breeders and growers when planning the cultivar selection according to their foreseeable destination.

  10. Measurement of Berry's Phase in Microscopic -Triaxial Cracking Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Hamed O.; Griffith, W. Ashley; Flynn, William; Young, R. Paul

    Many intractable systems can be reduced to a system of interacting spins. Here, we introduce a system of artificial acoustic spins which are manipulated with ultrasound excitations from microcracking sources with three control parameters in a 3D inhomogeneous confined stress field. We evaluate the evolution of the order parameter visualized as dancing strings constructed from time series collected using multi-array ultrasound sensors. We study the adiabatic cyclic change of the order parameter of the system due to rotation of the pseudo-stress field. We show that the order parameter acquires a geometric phase factor in addition to the dynamic phase known as Berry's phase. We demonstrated the accumulation of a geometric phase in the ``k-chains'' and show that the system can be manipulated geometrically by means of microscopic ultrasound radiation of cracking excitations and observed the real-time accumulated phase. We found that the observed geometric phase is an excellent agreement with Berry's predictions. The introduced acoustic-spin system opens new horizon to study other aspects of spin-systems including different time characteristics of relaxation phases, topological phases induced by driving and stress-quenched induced defects.

  11. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-06-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  13. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Effects of Edible Berries: A Focus on Colon Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Afrin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases across the world. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that diets rich in fruit, such as berries, provide significant health benefits against several types of cancer, including colon cancer. The anticancer activities of berries are attributed to their high content of phytochemicals and to their relevant antioxidant properties. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that berries and their bioactive components exert therapeutic and preventive effects against colon cancer by the suppression of inflammation, oxidative stress, proliferation and angiogenesis, through the modulation of multiple signaling pathways such as NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AKT/PKB/mTOR, and ERK/MAPK. Based on the exciting outcomes of preclinical studies, a few berries have advanced to the clinical phase. A limited number of human studies have shown that consumption of berries can prevent colorectal cancer, especially in patients at high risk (familial adenopolyposis or aberrant crypt foci, and inflammatory bowel diseases. In this review, we aim to highlight the findings of berries and their bioactive compounds in colon cancer from in vitro and in vivo studies, both on animals and humans. Thus, this review could be a useful step towards the next phase of berry research in colon cancer.

  15. The Transcriptional Responses and Metabolic Consequences of Acclimation to Elevated Light Exposure in Grapevine Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari du Plessis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of field studies that focus on grapevine berry development and ripening implement systems biology approaches; the results are highlighting not only the intricacies of the developmental programming/reprogramming that occurs, but also the complexity of how profoundly the microclimate influences the metabolism of the berry throughout the different stages of development. In a previous study we confirmed that a leaf removal treatment to Sauvignon Blanc grapes, grown in a highly characterized vineyard, primarily affected the level of light exposure to the berries throughout their development. A full transcriptomic analysis of berries from this model vineyard details the underlying molecular responses of the berries in reaction to the exposure and show how the berries acclimated to the imposing light stress. Gene expression involved in the protection of the photosynthetic machinery through rapid protein-turnover and the expression of photoprotective flavonoid compounds were most significantly affected in green berries. Overall, the transcriptome analysis showed that the berries implemented multiple stress-mitigation strategies in parallel and metabolite analysis was used to support the main findings. Combining the transcriptome data and amino acid profiling provided evidence that amino acid catabolism probably contributed to the mitigation of a likely energetic deficit created by the upregulation of (energetically costly stress defense mechanisms. Furthermore, the rapid turnover of essential proteins involved in the maintenance of primary metabolism and growth in the photosynthetically active grapes appeared to provide precursors for the production of protective secondary metabolites such as apocarotenoids and flavonols in the ripening stages of the berries. Taken together, these results confirmed that the green grape berries responded to light stress much like other vegetative organs and were able to acclimate to the increased

  16. Berry's phase, Josephson's equation, and the dynamics of weak link superconductors and their vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitan, F.; Shenoy, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    We examine the dynamical consequences of Berry's phase for Josephson junctions, junction arrays, and their vortices. Josephson's equation and the related phase slip voltages are shown to be unaffected by Berry's phase. In an annular Josephson junction, Berry's phase is seen to generate a new current drive on a vortex. In the continuum limit, vortex is expected in a 2D array is shown to map onto that of a 2D film. A Hall sing anomaly is expected arrays; and the merits of arrays for studies of disorder on vortex motion is discussed. (author). 12 refs

  17. THE RATIONALIZATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF MILK PROTEINS’ THERMO ACID COAGULATION BY BERRY COAGULANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena GREK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results related to the influence of berry coagulant amount, its proactive acidity and duration of thermo acid coagulation on the process of milk proteins’ sedimentation. In the present work, the regression equations and response surface analysis were used to design and optimize an industrial bioprocess. Increase in the berry coagulant amount to 11 % and reduction of active acidity to 2.4 units were determined. pH up to 3 minutes is characterized by the highest processes of destabilization. Moreover, it improves the organoleptic properties and has the biggest impact on the yield of protein-berry clot (to 25 % and active acidity.

  18. Surface Plasmons Carry the Pancharatnam-Berry Geometric Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Salman; Saastamoinen, Kimmo; Saastamoinen, Toni; Vartiainen, Ismo; Friberg, Ari T.; Visser, Taco D.

    2017-12-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic surface waves that travel along the boundary of a metal and a dielectric medium. They can be generated when freely propagating light is scattered by structural metallic features such as gratings or slits. In plasmonics, SPPs are manipulated, amplified, or routed before being converted back into light by a second scattering event. In this process, the light acquires a dynamic phase and perhaps an additional geometric phase associated with polarization changes. We examine the possibility that SPPs mediate the Pancharatnam-Berry phase, which follows from a closed path of successive in-phase polarization-state transformations on the Poincaré sphere and demonstrate that this is indeed the case. The geometric phase is shown to survive the light →SPP →light process and, moreover, its magnitude agrees with Pancharatnam's rule. Our findings are fundamental in nature and highly relevant for photonics applications.

  19. Berry's phase, chaos, and the deformations of Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévay, Péter

    1997-11-01

    Parametrized families of Landau Hamiltonians on compact Riemann surfaces corresponding to classically chaotic families of geodesic motion are investigated. The parameters describe deformations of such surfaces with genus g>=1. It is shown that the adiabatic curvature (responsible for Berry's phase) of the lowest Landau level for g>1 is the sum of two terms. The first term is proportional to the natural symplectic form on deformation space, and the second is a fluctuating term reflecting the chaos of the geodesic motion for g>1. For g=1 (integrable motion on the torus) we have no fluctuating term. We propose our result to be interpreted as a curvature analog of the well-known semiclassical trace formulas. Connections with the viscosity properties of quantum Hall fluids on such surfaces are also pointed out. An interesting possibility in this respect is the fractional quantization of certain components of the viscosity tensor of such fluids.

  20. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajčić Slađana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, contents of total phenolic (TPh, total flavonoid (TF, and total monomeric anthocyianin (TMA, as well as the antioxidant activity of two raspberry cultivars (Meeker and Willamette, two blackberry cultivars (Čačanska bestrna and Thornfree and wild bilberry were studied. The raspberry cultivars had the highest total solids among fruits investigated. Bilberry fruits had the highest sugar-to-acid ratio. Blackberry fruits were richer in crude fibers (cellulose in comparison to raspberry and bilberry fruits. The content of pectic substances was highest in the bilberry. Also, bilberry had a highest content of TPh (808.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, TF (716.31 mg RE/100 g FW and TMA (447.83 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as the EC50 value (in mg of fresh weight of berry fruit per ml of the reaction mixture, of bilberry (0.3157 ± 0.0145 mg/ml was the highest. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW bilberry, raspberry - Willamette, raspberry - Meeker, blackberry - Čačanska bestrna and blackberry - Thornfree is equivalent to 576.50 mg, 282.74 mg, 191.58 mg, 222.28 mg and 272.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities and content of total phenolics (RTPh 2=0.9627, flavonoids (RTF 2=0.9598 and anthocyanins (RTMA 2=0.9496 in berry fruits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  1. SOME ASPECTS OF CONTEMPORARY ATHEISM AND ST. THOMAS AQUINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH. MOREROD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Atheism has become fashionable in the recent years. It has diff erent forms, but in many cases starts from the presupposition that the only rational approach is the one of natural sciences. Believers have the duty to provide some answers to the atheists, also at the philosophical level. St. Thomas Aquinas off ers several arguments that can be explained in contemporary terms: the Universe needs a fi rst cause, which acts also through created causes; our desire for the infi nite is a sign of God; the order of the Universe suggests and organizer

  2. Las revoluciones de Thomas Kuhn, una mirada discontinuista

    OpenAIRE

    Melogno, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Se discuten algunas divergencias entre La revolución copernicana (1957) y La estructura de las revoluciones científicas (1962), de Thomas Kuhn. Se muestra que presentan una consideración diferente de los factores extracientíficos, que tienen en la primera un peso explicativo mayor. Se propone que en 1957 Kuhn maneja una historiografía casuística, centrada en la revolución copernicana, y en 1962 una historiografía estructural, centrada en los rasgos invariantes de las revoluciones cien...

  3. Local Lorentz transformations and Thomas effect in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silenko, Alexander J.

    2016-06-01

    The tetrad method is used for an introduction of local Lorentz frames and a detailed analysis of local Lorentz transformations. A formulation of equations of motion in local Lorentz frames is based on the Pomeransky-Khriplovich gravitoelectromagnetic fields. These fields are calculated in the most important special cases and their local Lorentz transformations are determined. The local Lorentz transformations and the Pomeransky-Khriplovich gravitoelectromagnetic fields are applied for a rigorous derivation of a general equation for the Thomas effect in Riemannian spacetimes and for a consideration of Einstein's equivalence principle and the Mathisson force.

  4. Thomas L.Friedman, „Lexus ir alyvmedis“, recenzija

    OpenAIRE

    Karpavičiūtė, Ieva

    2006-01-01

    Vienas dažniausiai cituojamų globalizacijos optimistų, hiperglobalistų - New York Times užsienio reikalų skilties apžvalgininkas Thomas L. Friedman, stengiasi savitai pažvelgti į globalizacijos procesus, išskirti pagrindines tendencijas, pažvelgti į jų teigiamas bei neigiamas pasekmes. T.L. Friedman dar 1999 metais išleistoje knygoje “Lexus ir alyvmedis” analizuoja globalėjimą, teigia technologinį determinizmą ir akcentuoja JAV vaidmens globalizacijos procesuose unikalumą bei svarbą. Knyga „L...

  5. Status of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.A. Grunder

    1997-01-01

    When first beam was delivered on target in July 1994, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), in Newport News, Virginia realized the return on years of planning and work to create a laboratory devoted to exploration of matter that interacts through the strong force, which holds the quarks inside the proton and binds protons and neutrons into the nucleus. Dedicated this year as the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), the completion of construction and beginning of its experimental program has culminated a process that began more than a decade ago with the convening of the Bromley Panel to look at research possibilities for such an electron accelerator

  6. Thomas James Walker (1835-1916): Surgeon and general practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Martyn

    2018-02-01

    Thomas James Walker was a surgeon and general practitioner who worked in the city of Peterborough at a time when there were changes and innovations in the practice of medicine. After training in medicine and surgery at Edinburgh University, he qualified in London in 1857. He was a pioneer of laryngoscopy. He played an important role in introducing antiseptic surgery to the Peterborough Infirmary and was instrumental in the development of the operating theatre which opened in 1894. He was a philanthropist and collector of Roman and Saxon artefacts. In 1915, he was recognized as an outstanding member of the Peterborough community when he was offered the Freedom of the City.

  7. Nom comú i nom propi segons Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Moran i Ocerinjauregui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679 tracta el llenguatge humà, i més concretament els noms, des d’un punt de vista filosòfic. Per a Hobbes, els noms són designadors de conceptes: els noms propis designen una sola cosa mentre que els noms comuns en designen diverses. Aquestes idees van ser objecte de reflexió filosòfica i van tenir gran influència en altres filòsofs, com John Stuart Mill.

  8. Logical consistence and operating base in Thomas Hobbes. [Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusbel Martínez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to specify the operative elements included in the Thomas Hobbes philosophy substratum. I defend the idea that the logic in the Hobbes philosophy system depends on this substratum. In this paper I use the idea of «operative and thematic concepts» development by Eugen Fink. These concepts are used to show how all of the Hobbes philosophy system has explicit and implicit concepts. Another aim is to concede the importance of understanding the Hobbes philosophy as holistic.

  9. Porter-Thomas distribution in unstable many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volya, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We use the continuum shell model approach to explore the resonance width distribution in unstable many-body systems. The single-particle nature of a decay, the few-body character of the interaction Hamiltonian, and the collectivity that emerges in nonstationary systems due to the coupling to the continuum of reaction states are discussed. Correlations between the structures of the parent and daughter nuclear systems in the common Fock space are found to result in deviations of decay width statistics from the Porter-Thomas distribution.

  10. Shell model test of the Porter-Thomas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.; Bloom, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    Eigenvectors have been calculated for the A=18, 19, 20, 21, and 26 nuclei in an sd shell basis. The decomposition of these states into their shell model components shows, in agreement with other recent work, that this distribution is not a single Gaussian. We find that the largest amplitudes are distributed approximately in a Gaussian fashion. Thus, many experimental measurements should be consistent with the Porter-Thomas predictions. We argue that the non-Gaussian form of the complete distribution can be simply related to the structure of the Hamiltonian

  11. Timing of ripening initiation in grape berries and its relationship to seed content and pericarp auxin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Deluc, Laurent G

    2015-02-12

    Individual berries in a grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cluster enter the ripening phase at different times leading to an asynchronous cluster in terms of ripening. The factors causing this variable ripening initiation among berries are not known. Because the influence via hormonal communication of the seed on fruit set and growth is well known across fruit species, differences in berry seed content and resultant quantitative or qualitative differences in the hormone signals to the pericarp likely influence the relative timing of ripening initiation among berries of the cluster. At the time of the initiation of cluster ripening (véraison), underripe green berries have higher seed content compared to the riper berries and there is a negative correlation between the seed weight-to-berry weight ratio (SB) and the sugar level in berries of a cluster. Auxin levels in seeds relative to the pericarp tissues are two to 12 times higher at pre-ripening stages. The pericarp of berries with high-SB had higher auxin and lower abscisic acid (ABA) levels compared to those with low-SB from two weeks before véraison. In the prevéraison cluster, the expression of auxin-response factor genes was significantly higher in the pericarp of high-SB berries and remained higher until véraison compared to low-SB berries. The expression level of auxin-biosynthetic genes in the pericarp was the same between both berry groups based upon similar expression activity of YUC genes that are rate-limiting factors in auxin biosynthesis. On the other hand, in low-SB berries, the expression of ABA-biosynthetic and ABA-inducible NCED and MYB genes was higher even two weeks before véraison. Differences in the relative seed content among berries plays a major role in the timing of ripening initiation. Towards the end of berry maturation phase, low and high levels of auxin are observed in the pericarp of low- and high-SB berries, respectively. This results in higher auxin-signaling activity that lasts longer

  12. Reexamination of shell model tests of the Porter-Thomas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent shell model calculations have yielded width amplitude distributions which have apparently not agreed with the Porter-Thomas distribution. This result conflicts with the present experimental evidence. A reanalysis of these calculations suggests that, although correct, they do not imply that the Porter-Thomas distribution will fail to describe the width distributions observed experimentally. The conditions for validity of the Porter-Thomas distribution are discussed

  13. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2006-01-01

    The Berry Amendment requires the Department of Defense (DoD) to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home-grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals. To protect the U.S...

  14. Visualizing the mesothoracic spiracles in a bark beetle: The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) possesses mycangia, we fortuitously detected the mesothoracic spiracles, which are usually concealed. The mesothoracic s...

  15. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC, total anthocyanins (TA, and total phenols (TP of wild and cultivated berries in different localities of La Araucanía and Los Ríos Regions in Chile. These parameters were analyzed by using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH method, pH-differential, and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Percentages of DPPH discoloration of different berries studied were between 67.8% and 95.3% for red sarsaparilla and rosehip, respectively. Maqui berries showed a significantly higher TA content (2240.2 and 1445.3 mg L-1 cyanidin 3-glucoside than other berries, and a mean for all berries of 335.5 mg L-1. Higher phenol content levels were obtained in two cultivars of saskatoon (773.9 and 1001.9 mg L-1 gallic acid and wild rosehip (1457.0 and 1140.4 mg L-1 gallic acid. We conclude that there are significant differences in antioxidant capacity of wild and cultivated Chilean berries in this study which show a strong correlation between AC and TP content.Por medio del consumo de berries es posible incorporar al organismo una gran cantidad de antioxidantes capaces de prevenir múltiples enfermedades generadas por la acción de los radicales libres. Los antioxidantes actúan neutralizando los radicales libres y de esta forma protegen al organismo del daño oxidativo de lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Entre variadas frutas y hortalizas, se destacan los berries como una de las fuentes más ricas en fitonutrientes antioxidantes. El objetivo de esta investigaci

  16. An explicit Berry-Ess\\'een bound for uniformly expanding maps on the interval

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Loïc

    2009-01-01

    For uniformly expanding maps on the interval, analogous versions of the Berry-Ess\\'een theorem are known but only with an unexplicit upper bound in $O(1/\\sqrt{n})$ without any constants being specified. In this paper, we use the recent complex cone technique to prove an explicit Berry-Ess\\'een estimate with a reasonable constant for these maps. Our method is not limited to maps on the interval however and should apply to many situations.

  17. BacHBerry:: BACterial Hosts for production of Bioactive phenolics from bERRY fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudnik, Alexey; Almeida, A. Filipa; Andrade, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    and economically-feasible strategy for the production of novel high-value phenolic compounds isolated from berry fruits using bacterial platforms. The project aimed at covering all stages of the discovery and pre-commercialization process, including berry collection, screening and characterization......-up of production by fermentation up to pilot scale, as well as societal and economic analyses of the processes. This review article summarizes some of the key findings obtained throughout the duration of the project....

  18. COLONIZATION OF GRAPE BERRIES BY REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS ALTERNARIA AND THEIR OCCURRENCE IN THE STUM

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Mašková; Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Soňa Felšöciová; Jaroslava Kačinová

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the mycobiota occurring on the grapes originating from Slovak wine-growing regions. The main focus was to discover the presence of the representatives of the genus Alternaria on/in grape berries and in the stum.Using the direct method of placing grape berries on the culture medium was analyzed their total and endogenous (after superficial sterilization) mycobiota. Plate dilution method was used for stum mycobiota determination. Alternaria spp. colonized gra...

  19. Vigencia de algunas de las ideas mercantilistas de Thomas Mun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Borgucci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalmente cuando se aborda el mercantilismo se hace referencia a la acumulación de oro y plata, una balanza de pagos favorable o a la política económica de Jean Colbert. Pero poco se ha hablado del papel y condiciones necesarias del comerciante como agente que hizo posible que los primeros Estados-Nación se convirtieran en las futuras potencias económicas del mundo occidental. Thomas Mun fue uno de aquellos escritores mercantilistas que destacó el papel del comerciante en el auge del sistema mercantilista. El estudio de sus ideas permite concluir que sus recomendaciones acerca de lo que debería ser un comerciante de éxito siguen vigentes hoy en día. La razón de tal afirmación estriba en que sus recomendaciones eran adecuadas en un marco en que se estaba presentando una transformación significativa del sistema de organización comercial con la presencia de la Joint-Stock Company. Independientemente de que muchas de las funciones que Thomas Mun le atribuía al comerciante hoy en día son especializadas, su dominio sigue siendo la clave del éxito de una política comercial que emprenda cualquier nación.

  20. FEMALE SURVIVORS IN THOMAS HARDY‘S THE WITHERED ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulistiyanti Yulistiyanti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses women position in society that Thomas Hardy portrays in his short story entitled The Withered Arm. This short story tells about two female character have closerelationship to the same man. The man comes from upper class. The first woman from lower class has a son of his, but they do not live together. Then, the second one is his new young wife. This short story takes rural area, Dorset as the setting of place where the society has intimate relationships and setting of time is in Victorian era. It applied feminism theory that focuses on male and female positions in society. Beauvoir (1949 considered that the male in French and Western societies defines what it means to be human and what it means to be female. The female becomes subordinate to the male. It applies qualitative analysis method. The text is analyzed relating to the female characters‘ position in society. Their positions make them get discrimination which society created. Thomas Hardy‘s short story will be analyzed on discrimination to female characters. The data shows that the two female characters are oppressed on their conditions. Although they do not get physical harassment, the oppression comes from social injustice that women do not get equal benefit and opportunities. Both of them survive to obtain what they need. These characters use their ways as the survivors because of unfair condition.

  1. Told by a myth: Thomas Mann’s Felix Krull

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    Montiel, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an approach to the novel Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull by Thomas Mann from the point of view of the imaginal psychology of James Hillman. From this perspective the novel seems to illustrate the most innovative thesis of that psychology, which is especially relevant for having been written prior to the formulation of Hillman’s theories. The unplanned correspondence between both ways of thinking furnishes a valuable argument that supports the new conception of human psyche introduced by Carl Gustav Jung and developed in this way by James Hillman.El presente artículo propone una lectura de la novela de Thomas Mann desde la óptica de la psicología imaginal de James Hillman. En esta perspectiva la novela parece ofrecer una ilustración de las tesis más innovadoras de dicha psicología, lo que resulta especialmente relevante por haber sido escrita con antelación a la formulación de las teorías del pensador estadounidense. La impremeditada correspondencia entre ambos pensamientos suministra un argumento digno de tenerse en cuenta a favor de la innovadora concepción de la psique humana inaugurada por Carl Gustav Jung y desarrollada en esta línea por James Hillman.

  2. Instantons, quivers and noncommutative Donaldson-Thomas theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirafici, Michele, E-mail: cirafici@math.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Analise Matematica, Geometria e Sistemas Dinamicos, Departamento de Matematica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sinkovics, Annamaria, E-mail: A.Sinkovics@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Szabo, Richard J., E-mail: R.J.Szabo@ma.hw.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University, Colin Maclaurin Building, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-11

    We construct noncommutative Donaldson-Thomas invariants associated with abelian orbifold singularities by analyzing the instanton contributions to a six-dimensional topological gauge theory. The noncommutative deformation of this gauge theory localizes on noncommutative instantons which can be classified in terms of three-dimensional Young diagrams with a colouring of boxes according to the orbifold group. We construct a moduli space for these gauge field configurations which allows us to compute its virtual numbers via the counting of representations of a quiver with relations. The quiver encodes the instanton dynamics of the noncommutative gauge theory, and is associated to the geometry of the singularity via the generalized McKay correspondence. The index of BPS states which compute the noncommutative Donaldson-Thomas invariants is realized via topological quantum mechanics based on the quiver data. We illustrate these constructions with several explicit examples, involving also higher rank Coulomb branch invariants and geometries with compact divisors, and connect our approach with other ones in the literature.

  3. O Estado cristão em Thomas Hobbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Artur Emidio Branco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como finalidade a investigação do pensamento do filósofo inglês Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679, mais precisamente a relação entre Igreja e Estado, valendo-se de suas obras, em especial Leviatã (1651. Com o título O Estado Eclesiástico em Thomas Hobbes, o artigo busca mostrar como as conclusões de Hobbes acerca do papel da Igreja no Estado são relevantes para o século XXI. A concepção de Evangelho de Cristo como um reino de outro mundo, a natureza privada da fé, o pontificado do soberano como aquele que se posiciona está entre Deus e os homens, a união entre Lei Mosaica e Lei Natural e a união entre Igreja e Estado são os delimitadores do grande tema, que busca levar o leitor contemporâneo ao conhecimento das conclusões de Hobbes e, assim, considerar a aplicação das mesmas a sua geração.

  4. Thomas Willis: the faculties and his two cognitive frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Jody

    2014-11-01

    Thomas Willis' 1664 study The anatomy of the brain is widely regarded as one of the first clinical studies of the brain. In Theanatomy, Thomas Willis explicitly connected the cognitive faculties and the nerves. Willis' later, 1672 work, The two discourses concerning the soul of brutes, severely undermined the materialism of Willis' first study: he affirmed dualism and cognitive immateriality; changed the anatomical locations of cognition; and reasserted a division between the rational and sensitive souls. His exact motive to return to orthodoxy is unclear, but contemporary scholarship of Willis has compounded the confusion with by relying predominantly on The soul of brutes instead of The anatomy. We trace Willis' career and examine his methodological practices, which help explain the historical practices and pressures. A closer examination of Willis' Anatomy of the brain reveals a much more materialistic account of the brain, the faculties, and nervous system. In this article, we present our own analysis of Willis' concept of rationality in the Anatomy and explain its importance for nervous physiology and understanding the analytic techniques for first defining faculty localizations. We then explain the role of the imagination and the immortal soul in the rearticulated anatomical concepts from The soulof brutes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Philosophical Creationism: Thomas Aquinas’ Metaphysics of Creatio ex Nihilo

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    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All philosophers, beginning with the pre-Socratics, through Plato and Aristotle, and up to Thomas Aquinas, accepted as a certain that the world as a whole existed eternally. The foundation for the eternity of the world was the indestructible and eternal primal building material of the world, a material that existed in the form of primordial material elements (the Ionians, in the form of ideas (Plato, or in the form of matter, eternal motion, and the first heavens (Aristotle. The article outlines the main structure of the philosophical theory of creation ex nihilo developed by St. Thomas Aquinas and indebted to his metaphysical thought. It shows the wisdom-based and ratiocinative foundation of the rational cognition of reality—reality that comes from the personal creative act of God. It concludes that the perception that the beings called to existence by the personal act of God the Creator are intelligible is the ultimate rational justification for the fact that our human cognition, love, and spiritual creativity are rational.

  6. Color of berry and juice of 'Isabel' grape treated with abscisic acid in different ripening stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Yukari Yamamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of (S-cis-abscisic acid (S-ABA application at different ripening stages, in increasing phenolic compounds and color of berry and juice of 'Isabel' grape (Vitis labrusca. The evaluated treatments were: control, without S-ABA application; 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied 7 days before veraison (DBV + 400 mg L-1S-ABA at 35 days after first application (DAFA; 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied at veraison (V + 400 mg L-1S-ABA at 35 DAFA; and 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied 7 days after veraison (DAV + 400 mg L-1S-ABA at 35 DAFA. There was no difference among treatments regarding the physical characteristics of berries and clusters, as well as total polyphenols in berry and juice. However, there was an increase in total anthocyanins in berry and juice with S-ABA application. Colorimetric variables indicated the increase in color of berry treated with S-ABA. Juices produced from grapes treated with S-ABA were more appreciated by tasters. The treatments with 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied 7 days before, during, or 7 days after veraison, combined with an additional application 35 days after the first one, increment total anthocyanin concentration and color of berry and juice of 'Isabel' grape, with better juice acceptance, without affecting total polyphenol concentration.

  7. Cultivar specific metabolic changes in grapevines berry skins in relation to deficit irrigation and hydraulic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Degu, Asfaw; Cramer, Grant R; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Fait, Aaron

    2015-03-01

    Deficit irrigation techniques are widely used in commercial vineyards. Nevertheless, varieties respond differently to water availability, prompting the need to elucidate the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between genotypes and their environment. In the present study, the variability in berry metabolism under deficit irrigation was investigated in the field on Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS), known for their hydraulic variability. Berry skin metabolite profiling of the two cultivars was performed by parallel GC-MS and LC-MS at four development stages. Under similar irrigation, the cultivars differed in stomata regulation. In response to water deficit, CS exhibited lessened loss in berry weight and milder metabolic alteration of berry-skin primary metabolites, as compared with Shiraz. The metabolic stress responses were shown to depend on berry phenology. Characteristic metabolic changes included a decrease in amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates from veraison onward. In contrast, water deficit induced the accumulation of stress-related metabolites such as: proline, beta-alanine, raffinose, nicotinate and ascorbate, to a greater extent in Shiraz. Polyphenol metabolism in response to water stress also underwent significant changes, unique to each cultivar. Results suggest a link between the vine hydraulics and water-deficit driven changes in the berry skin metabolism, with significant consequences on the metabolic composition of the fruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. On the eyes of male coffee berry borers as rudimentary organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E Vega

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001 number of facets in males (19.1 ± 4.10 than in females (127.5 ± 3.88. To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles.

  9. Berries: improving human health and healthy aging, and promoting quality life--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-López, Octavio; Cervantes-Ceja, Martha L; Vigna-Pérez, Mónica; Hernández-Pérez, Talía

    2010-09-01

    The importance of the diet in relation to human health has increased the interest of consumers on nutraceuticals rich foods, and especially on fruits and vegetables. Berries are rich sources of a wide variety of antioxidant phenolics; these phytochemicals include flavonoids, stilbenes, tannins, and phenolic acids. Reactive oxidant species and free radicals are produced in an extensive range of physiological processes. In addition to the antioxidant defenses produced in the body, there are exogenous sources supplied by the diet; this is the case of berry fruits, among others. The insufficiency of antioxidant defense mechanisms is associated to the pathology of chronic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and diabetes. Therefore, the enforcement of the latter mechanisms is of the utmost importance. The isolation and characterization of compounds that may delay the onset of aging is receiving intense research attention; some berry phenolics are being associated with this functional performance. Berry phenolics may also act as antimicrobials which may be of help in the control of the wild spectra of pathogens, in view of recent problems associated with antibiotic resistance. Most of the research works on the antioxidant activity of bioactive constituents of berries has been carried out using in vitro assays. In view of this, the human studies investigating the bioavailability and potential toxicity of phenolics are receiving more attention. Finally, we would like to emphasize the necessity of associating new plant breeding and genetic studies of berries with the expression and overexpression of compounds for human health and healthy aging.

  10. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  11. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was determinate using ORAC assay which measures the decrease of AAPH-radical level by the scavenging action of the antioxidant substance. In addition, the vitamin C content and total tannins of the berries extracts were determined using spetophomotmetric methods. The phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of analyzed berries did not varied considerably. The highest amounts of TPC and the strongest antioxidant activities were found in blueberry and blackberries (678 GAE mg/100 g FW, 442 mg/100g FW respectively. Vitamin C content was found in higher concentration in raspberries 21.7 mg/100 g FW while the lower concentration was found in blackberry.  All berries contain higher levels of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or tannins which are responsible for their antioxidant potential and bring their nutritional value, being highly recommended for daily consumption.

  12. Berry phytochemicals, genomic stability and cancer: evidence for chemoprotection at several stages in the carcinogenic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Susan J

    2007-06-01

    Consumption of a diet high in plant-based foods is associated with a decreased risk of epithelial cell cancers at several sites. Cytoprotectants in fruits and vegetables include vitamins, minerals and numerous micronutrients. While there is little evidence uniquely linking berry consumption with lower cancer risk, berries contain high levels of compounds believed to reduce malignant transformation, including the polyphenol flavonoids and anthocyanins. There is strong and convincing evidence that berry extracts and berry phytochemicals modulate biomarkers of DNA damage and indicators of malignant transformation in vitro and in vivo. Data from numerous cell culture and animal models indicate that berry components such as the anthocyanins are potent anticarcinogenic agents and are protective against genomic instability at several sites in the carcinogenic pathway. Anticarcinogenic mechanisms include modulation of carcinogen activation and detoxification, decreased DNA binding of the carcinogen, inhibition of oxidative DNA damage, alteration in cell signalling and malignant transformation and inhibition of cell invasiveness and metastasis. Exactly which berry constituents are cytoprotective remains uncertain and in the majority of in vitro and in vivo studies the concentration of extract or phytochemical employed is non-nutritional. Evidence for an anticarcinogenic effect in human studies is weak.

  13. Acculturation and mental health--empirical verification of J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M W; Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, C

    2004-01-01

    Many studies concerning mental health among ethnic minorities have used the concept of acculturation as a model of explanation, in particular J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress. But Berry's theory has only been empirically verified few times. The aims of the study were to examine whether Berry's hypothesis about the connection between acculturation and mental health can be empirically verified for Greenlanders living in Denmark and to analyse whether acculturation plays a significant role for mental health among Greenlanders living in Denmark. The study used data from the 1999 Health Profile for Greenlanders in Denmark. As measure of mental health we applied the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Acculturation was assessed from answers to questions about how the respondents value the fact that children maintain their traditional cultural identity as Greenlander and how well the respondents speak Greenlandic and Danish. The statistical methods included binary logistic regression. We found no connection between Berry's definition of acculturation and mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark. On the other hand, our findings showed a significant relation between mental health and gender, age, marital position, occupation and long-term illness. The findings indicate that acculturation in the way Berry defines it plays a lesser role for mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark than socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. Therefore we cannot empirically verify Berry's hypothesis.

  14. Thomas Hobbes: la resistencia política al Leviatán || Thomas Hobbes: Political Resistance To Leviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Fernández Peychaux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el presente artículo se presentan cuatro claves de lectura de la obra de Thomas Hobbes desde las que fundamentar una noción de resistencia. Este aporte busca, en otras palabras, crear las condiciones de posibilidad de un debate filosófico ofuscado por el mito recurrente sobre el supuesto monstruo de Malmesbury. Una vez hecho esto, se propone delinear las bases de un enfoque metodológico que parta de dicha noción de resistencia. De ese modo, se fundamentaría el primer paso hacia una apropiación ?o expropiación? contemporánea de la matriz hobbesiana de la relación obediencia-seguridad   ABSTRACT This article presents four key of readings about Thomas Hobbes's work, from which it supports a particular notion of resistance. In others words, this contribution searches to create the conditions of posibility for a philosophical debate obfuscated by the recurrent myth about the monster of Malmesbury. Once done that, I offer setting the bases of a metodological aproach which stars from this notion of resistance. Thus, I would back the first step towards a contemporary appropriation ?or expropriation? of the obedience-security relationship within the Hobbesian matrix.  

  15. First record of Histiotus laephotis Thomas (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae from Brazil Primeiro registro de Histiotus laephotis Thomas (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 from Brazil is reported here. An adult male was caught with a mist net in a barn located within an Araucaria pine forest in the municipality of Passos Maia, State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil (26º46'48"S and 52º03'34"W. This record extends the distribution of this species in South America. Morphological and taxonomic notes of this species are described as well.O primeiro registro de Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 o Brasil é aqui reportado. Um macho adulto foi coletado com rede de neblina (em abrigo artificial nos domínios da Floresta com Araucária, no Município de Passos Maia, Estado de Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil (26º46'48"S e 52º03'34"W. Este registro amplia a distribuição da própria espécie na América do Sul. Aspectos morfológicos e taxonômicos desta espécie são também descritos.

  16. Thomas Hobbes: la resistencia política al Leviatán || Thomas Hobbes: Political Resistance To Leviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Fernández Peychaux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el presente artículo se presentan cuatro claves de lectura de la obra de Thomas Hobbes desde las que fundamentar una noción de resistencia. Este aporte busca, en otras palabras, crear las condiciones de posibilidad de un debate filosófico ofuscado por el mito recurrente sobre el supuesto monstruo de Malmesbury. Una vez hecho esto, se propone delinear las bases de un enfoque metodológico que parta de dicha noción de resistencia. De ese modo, se fundamentaría el primer paso hacia una apropiación ?o expropiación? contemporánea de la matriz hobbesiana de la relación obediencia-seguridad   ABSTRACT This article presents four key of readings about Thomas Hobbes's work, from which it supports a particular notion of resistance. In others words, this contribution searches to create the conditions of posibility for a philosophical debate obfuscated by the recurrent myth about the monster of Malmesbury. Once done that, I offer setting the bases of a metodological aproach which stars from this notion of resistance. Thus, I would back the first step towards a contemporary appropriation ?or expropriation? of the obedience-security relationship within the Hobbesian matrix.

  17. Melatonin Enhances Phenolics Accumulation Partially via Ethylene Signaling and Resulted in High Antioxidant Capacity in Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the primary impacts of exogenous melatonin (MT treatment on grape berry metabolism. Exogenous MT treatment increased the endogenous MT content and modified berry ripening. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the processes of polyphenol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis and signaling were the three most significantly altered biological processes upon MT treatment. Further experiments verified that MT treatment increased the contents of total anthocyanins, phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in berries. Additionally, the contents of 18 of the 22 detected individual phenolic compounds were enhanced by MT treatment; particularly, the resveratrol content was largely increased concomitantly with the up-regulation of STS gene expression. Meanwhile, MT treatment enhanced the antioxidant capacity of berries. On the other hand, it was indicated that ethylene participated in the regulation of polyphenol metabolism and antioxidant capacity under MT treatment in grape berries. In summary, MT enhances the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of grape berries partially via ethylene signaling.

  18. Characterization and functional properties of new everbearing strawberry (Fragaria x ananasa Duch. cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nagai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, a new everbearing strawberry cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ was cultivated to supply the strawberries in pre-harvest season from July to October in Japan. For highly research and development of processing of this cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries, the objective of this study was to characterize these berries, with relation to chemical parameters, total phenols, total flavonoids, total vitamin C, and total anthocyanins, and was to investigate the solubility and the stability of anthocyanins from the berries. Moreover, the functional properties such as antioxidative activity, active oxygen species scavenging activity, and antihypertensive activity were also evaluated. Methods: Chemical analysis, colour measurement, and sensory evaluation of new everbearing strawberry cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries were performed. Next, the solubility of anthocyanins from the berries and stability of these against pH, temperature, and an incandescent lighting were investigated. Moreover, functional properties of the extracts prepared from berries were elucidated using 5 different methods. Results: The contents of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and ash were the same as those of other cultivar berries. The sugar-acid ratio in the berries was low; these were acidulous. By sensory evaluation, the main factors were vivid red colour, aroma, and acidity. The berries were rich in phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, and anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of the berries Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2014; 4(1:1-22 Page 2 of 22 became unstable by heat treatment and light exposures such as visible rays. On the other hand, the extracts prepared from the berries showed the functionalities such as antioxidant activity, active oxygen species scavenging activities, and antihypertensive activity. Conclusions: The strawberry cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries were the most suitable for processing ingredient of strawberry-derived products

  19. Thomas Mofolo: the man, the writer and his contexts | Gill | Tydskrif ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thomas Mofolo: the man, the writer and his contexts. Stephen Gill. Abstract. A substantial corpus of research has been published on Thomas Mofolo since the 1930s. Earlier portraits of Mofolo as a person leave much room for further amplification and improvement. The present research seeks to greatly enhance our ...

  20. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  1. 76 FR 58033 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  2. 75 FR 78335 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Thomas Lawrence: Regency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7268] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Thomas Lawrence: Regency Power and Brilliance'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Thomas Lawrence: Regency Power and Brilliance...

  3. 78 FR 45958 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13406; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke...

  4. 77 FR 46117 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-10823; 2200-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  5. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service... and associated funerary objects in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

  6. 78 FR 11675 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-12080;2200-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  7. 78 FR 50443 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13482; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke...

  8. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY: National Park... human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington...

  9. 78 FR 59963 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13770; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of..., Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

  10. 76 FR 58034 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  11. 76 FR 58031 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

  12. 76 FR 58039 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke...

  13. 78 FR 44595 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13407; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke...

  14. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13881; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of.... SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has...

  15. 78 FR 50109 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13483; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum... Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), in consultation...

  16. 75 FR 434 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National... items in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum (Burke Museum), University...

  17. Thomas Hiärne - nimi Rootsi Läänemereprovintside varasest ajalookirjutusest / Piret Lotman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Piret, 1950-

    2008-01-01

    Thomase isa Erlandi karjäärist. Thomas Hiärne headest suhetest Eestimaa kindralkuberneri Bengt Horniga. Thomas Hiärne kandideerimisest Ingerimaa rüütelkonna sekretäri kohale. Tema tegevusest Virtsu mõisa inspektorina. Hiärne kroonikast ja ajalookäsitlusest

  18. How to detect Berry phase in graphene without magnetic field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koochaki Kelardeh, Hamed; Apalkov, Vadym; Stockman, Mark I.

    2017-09-01

    We discuss the topological properties of graphene superlattices excited by ultrafast circularly-polarized laser pulses with strong electric field amplitude, aiming to directly observe of the Berry phase, a geometric quantum phase encoded in the graphene's electronic wave function. As a continuing research on our recent paper, Phys. Rev. B 96, 075409, we aim to show that the broken symmetry system of graphene superlattice and the Bragg reflection of electrons creates diffraction and "which way" interference in the reciprocal space reducing the geometrical phase shift and making it directly observable in the electron interferograms. Such a topological phase shift acquired by a carrier moving along a closed path of crystallographic wave vector is predictably observable via time and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (tr-ARPES). We believe that our result is an essential step in control and observation of ultrafast electron dynamics in topological solids and may open up a route to all-optical switching, ultrafast memories, and petahertz-scale information processing technologies.

  19. Berry curvature and dynamics of a magnetic bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic bubbles have been the subject of intensive studies aiming to investigate their applications to memory devices. A bubble can be regarded as the closed domain wall and is characterized by the winding number of the in-plane components or the skyrmion number N sk , which are related to the number of Bloch lines (BLs). For the magnetic bubbles without BLs, the Thiele equation assuming no internal distortion describes the center-of-mass motion of the bubbles very well. For the magnetic bubbles with BLs, on the other hand, their dynamics is affected seriously by that of BLs along the domain wall. Here we show theoretically, that the distribution of the Berry curvature b z , i.e., the solid angle formed by the magnetization vectors, in the bubble plays the key role in the dynamics of a bubble with {N}{sk}=0 in a dipolar magnet. In this case, the integral of b z over the space is zero, while the nonuniform distribution of b z and associated Magnus force induce several nontrivial coupled dynamics of the internal deformation and center-of-mass motion as explicitly demonstrated by numerical simulations of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. These findings give an alternative view and will pave a new route to design the bubble dynamics.

  20. Grape juice, berries, and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Willis, Lauren M

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that individuals consuming a diet containing high amounts of fruits and vegetables exhibit fewer age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Research from our laboratory has suggested that dietary supplementation with fruit or vegetable extracts high in antioxidants (e.g. blueberries, strawberries, walnuts, and Concord grape juice) can decrease the enhanced vulnerability to oxidative stress that occurs in aging and these reductions are expressed as improvements in behavior. Additional mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of fruits and vegetables include enhancement of neuronal communication via increases in neuronal signaling and decreases in stress signals induced by oxidative/inflammatory stressors (e.g. nuclear factor kappaB). Moreover, collaborative findings indicate that blueberry or Concord grape juice supplementation in humans with mild cognitive impairment increased verbal memory performance, thus translating our animal findings to humans. Taken together, these results suggest that a greater intake of high-antioxidant foods such as berries, Concord grapes, and walnuts may increase "health span" and enhance cognitive and motor function in aging.

  1. Physical data from CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON and the THOMAS WASHINGTON in support of the Marathon 2 Project from 05 May 1985 to 07 September 1987 (NODC Accession 9400131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profiles were collected from CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON and the THOMAS WASHINGTON. Data were collected...

  2. Associationism without associative links: Thomas Brown and the associationist project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, Mike

    2015-12-01

    There are two roles that association played in 18th-19th century associationism. The first dominates modern understanding of the history of the concept: association is a causal link posited to explain why ideas come in the sequence they do. The second has been ignored: association is merely regularity in the trains of thought, and the target of explanation. The view of association as regularity arose in several forms throughout the tradition, but Thomas Brown (1778-1820) makes the distinction explicit. He argues that there is no associative link, and association is mere sequence. I trace this view of association through the tradition, and consider its implications: Brown's views, in particular, motivate a rethinking of the associationist tradition in psychology. Associationism was a project united by a shared explanandum phenomenon, rather than a theory united by a shared theoretical posit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Jefferson InterProfessional Education Center, Thomas Jefferson University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenson, Christine; Rose, Molly; Lyons, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson University initiated the Jefferson InterProfessional Education Center in early 2007. The Center facilitates many diverse student and faculty projects on interprofessional education yearly. Faculty development programs include, most recently, the second Jefferson Interprofessional Education conference, IPE scholarly lecture series, an IPE and care practicum, and multiple lecture/discussions to select faculty/administrative groups. At present, there is no external funding for any of the programs. The Health Mentor Program is one of the major student programs. It is a required two-year longitudinal interprofessional chronic illness program for all medical, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, pharmacy and couples and family therapy students. It began in the fall of 2007 and is integrated into existing coursework in each of the participating disciplines.

  4. Las revoluciones de Thomas Kuhn, una mirada discontinuista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Melogno

    Full Text Available Resumen Se discuten algunas divergencias entre La revolución copernicana (1957 y La estructura de las revoluciones científicas (1962, de Thomas Kuhn. Se muestra que presentan una consideración diferente de los factores extracientíficos, que tienen en la primera un peso explicativo mayor. Se propone que en 1957 Kuhn maneja una historiografía casuística, centrada en la revolución copernicana, y en 1962 una historiografía estructural, centrada en los rasgos invariantes de las revoluciones científicas. Se concluye que las diferencias entre las dos obras son lo suficientemente profundas como para no considerarlas expresión de una misma visión de la ciencia.

  5. [Is there still a soul? Thomas Aquinas and modern psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, K

    1984-10-01

    The various solutions that have been proposed with respect to the body-mind problem can be more or less regarded as variations on three traditional models. Since the time of Descartes the philosophical position of hylomorphism has been almost forgotten and the influence of the dualist point of view has also been greatly reduced. In contrast, reductionism in the form of materialistic monism has gained immense popularity, especially in psychiatric circles. The present paper summarizes these different approaches but primarily focuses on certain aspects of a modified form of hylomorphism as developed by Thomas Aquinas. These latter considerations are then drawn upon as the basis for a critique of Kurt Schneiders so-called aristotelean-scholastic or metagenic interpretation with regard to the endogenous psychoses.

  6. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

    2010-04-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  7. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, Heath B.

    2010-01-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  8. Green leviathan? Thomas hobbes, joel bakan and Arnold schwarzenegger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G

    2007-02-01

    Thomas Hobbes postulates that men are driven by "a perpetual and restless desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in death." The miserable consequences of this drive for power and the competing "desire of ease and sensual delight" and "fear of death and wounds" lead them to establish and obey. Substituting "profit" for "power" yields a description of the modern corporation, but without the desires or fears of natural persons. Such "unnatural persons" lack the Hobbesian ground of obligation, yet have appropriated the privileges and protections of natural persons. They challenge or undermine the sovereign wherever it limits their profits. Governor Schwarzenegger's re-election in California, however, on a strong anti-CO(2) program, suggests a willingness by threatened natural persons to re-empower Leviathan.

  9. Improving access: modifying Penchansky and Thomas's Theory of Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Access is defined as the degree of fit between the user and the service; the better the fit, the better the access. Using the theory developed by Penchansky and Thomas, access is optimized by accounting for the different dimensions of access: accessibility; availability; acceptability; affordability; and adequacy in service design, implementation and evaluation. These dimensions are independent yet interconnected and each is important to assess the achievement of access. However, I argue that one dimension is missing - awareness. I propose that awareness is integral to access, that it should become a permanent part of the theory, and be applied whenever using the theory to develop, implement, or evaluate health care services and access more generally. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Thomas C. Schelling: la paradoja de un economista errante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Salazar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explica dos enigmas asociados a la carrera científica de Thomas C. Schelling, premio Nobel de Economía 2005: ¿cómo explicar su capacidad para producir nuevas ideas?, y ¿por qué sus ideas precursoras han tenido más impacto en otras ciencias sociales y no en la economía? A los que responde con tres hipótesis: la poca influencia del conocimiento heredado en su trabajo teórico, una heurística que privilegió siempre la relación entre hechos inéditos y ángulos inusuales, y la creación de una red de conocimiento espontánea que entrelazó diversas disciplinas dedicadas al estudio de la interacción social.

  11. Thomas Young's investigations in gradient-index optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Charman, W Neil

    2011-05-01

    James Clerk Maxwell is usually recognized as being the first, in 1854, to consider using inhomogeneous media in optical systems. However, some 50 years earlier, Thomas Young, stimulated by his interest in the optics of the eye and accommodation, had already modeled some applications of gradient-index optics. These applications included using an axial gradient to provide spherical aberration-free optics and a spherical gradient to describe the optics of the atmosphere and the eye lens. We evaluated Young's contributions. We attempted to derive Young's equations for axial and spherical refractive index gradients. Raytracing was used to confirm accuracy of formula. We did not confirm Young's equation for the axial gradient to provide aberration-free optics but derived a slightly different equation. We confirmed the correctness of his equations for deviation of rays in a spherical gradient index and for the focal length of a lens with a nucleus of fixed index surrounded by a cortex of reducing index toward the edge. Young claimed that the equation for focal length applied to a lens with part of the constant index nucleus of the sphere removed, such that the loss of focal length was a quarter of the thickness removed, but this is not strictly correct. Young's theoretical work in gradient-index optics received no acknowledgment from either his contemporaries or later authors. Although his model of the eye lens is not an accurate physiological description of the human lens, with the index reducing least quickly at the edge, it represented a bold attempt to approximate the characteristics of the lens. Thomas Young's work deserves wider recognition.

  12. Thomas-Fermi theory for atomic nuclei revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centelles, M.; Schuck, P.; Vinas, X.

    2007-01-01

    The recently developed semiclassical variational Wigner-Kirkwood (VWK) approach is applied to finite nuclei using external potentials and self-consistent mean fields derived from Skyrme interactions and from relativistic mean field theory. VWK consists of the Thomas-Fermi part plus a pure, perturbative h 2 correction. In external potentials, VWK passes through the average of the quantal values of the accumulated level density and total energy as a function of the Fermi energy. However, there is a problem of overbinding when the energy per particle is displayed as a function of the particle number. The situation is analyzed comparing spherical and deformed harmonic oscillator potentials. In the self-consistent case, we show for Skyrme forces that VWK binding energies are very close to those obtained from extended Thomas-Fermi functionals of h 4 order, pointing to the rapid convergence of the VWK theory. This satisfying result, however, does not cure the overbinding problem, i.e., the semiclassical energies show more binding than they should. This feature is more pronounced in the case of Skyrme forces than with the relativistic mean field approach. However, even in the latter case the shell correction energy for e.g., 208 Pb turns out to be only ∼-6 MeV what is about a factor two or three off the generally accepted value. As an ad hoc remedy, increasing the kinetic energy by 2.5%, leads to shell correction energies well acceptable throughout the periodic table. The general importance of the present studies for other finite Fermi systems, self-bound or in external potentials, is pointed out

  13. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Grape Berry in Response to Root Restriction during Developmental Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Leng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Root restriction improved berry quality by being involved in diverse aspects of grapevine life. However, the molecular mechanism driving this process is not understood very well. In this study, the ‘Summer Black’ grape berry (Vitis vinifera × V. labrusca under root restriction was investigated, which showed an increase of total soluble solids (TSS, color index of red grapes (CIRG value, anthocyanins accumulation, total phenolics and total procyanidins contents during berry development compared with those in control berries. The transcriptomic changes induced by root restriction in ‘Summer Black’ grape over the course of berry development were analyzed by RNA-Seq method. A total of 29,971 genes were generated in ‘Summer Black’ grape berry during development, among which, 1606 genes were significantly responded to root restriction. Furthermore, 1264, 313, 141, 246 and 19 sequences were significantly changed at S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 sample points, respectively. The gene (VIT_04s0023g02290 predicted as a salicylate O-methyltransferase was differentially expressed in all developmental stages. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment showed that response to organic nitrogen, response to endogenous stimulus, flavonoid metabolic process, phenylpropanoid biosynthetic process and cell wall macromolecule metabolic process were the main significant differential categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichment revealed plant–pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis and glucosinolate biosynthesis were the main significant differential pathways. The results of the present study provided a genetic base for the understanding of grape berry fruit quality improvement under root restriction.

  14. PLASTICITY OF THE BERRY RIPENING PROGRAM IN A WHITE GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dal Santo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices, defined as terroir, which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture and composition. These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation

  15. Colonization of grapes berries and cider by potential producers of patulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect potential producers of mycotoxin patulin from grapes (berries, surface sterilized berries - endogenous mycobiota and grape juice of Slovak origin. We analyzed 47 samples of grapes, harvested in 2011, 2012 and 2013 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating berries and surface-sterilized berries (using 1% freshly pre-pared chlorine berries on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. For the determination of fungal contamination of grape juice we used plate-dilution method and DRBC and DG18 (Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar as media. The cultivation in all modes of inoculation was carried at 25 ±1 °C, for 5 to 7 days. After incubation Aspergillus and Pencillium isolates were inoculated on the identification media. The potential producers of patulin were isolated from 23 samples berries, 19 samples of surface-sterilized berries and 6 samples of grape juice. Overall, the representatives of producers of patulin were detected in 32 (68.1% samples (75 isolates. In this work we focused on the detection of potential producers of patulin, Penicillium expansum (the most important producer of patulin in fruits, Penicillium griseofulvum and Aspergillus clavatus were isolated. Chosen isolates of potential patulin producers were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using thin layer chromatography method. The ability to produce patulin in in vitro condition was detected in 82% of isolates of Penicillium expansum, 65% of Penicillium griseofuvum and 100% of Aspergillus clavatus. Some isolates of Penicillium expansum were able to produce citrinin and roquefortine C, Penicillium griseofulvum cyclopiazonic acid, griseofulvin and roquefortin C, also.

  16. Effect of lyophilised Vaccinium berries on memory, anxiety and locomotion in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria Rosana; Izquierdo, Ivan; do Carmo Bassols Raseira, Maria; Zuanazzi, José Angelo; Barros, Daniela; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha

    2005-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that diets with a high intake of vegetables and fruits may reduce the incidence of degenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Berries are some of the popular fruits consumed worldwide. They are considered to be rich in anthocyanin pigments, a group belonging to the flavonoids, a widespread class of phenolic compounds. Anthocyanins have notorious pharmacological properties, and have been used in humans for therapeutic purposes. The present experiments were performed to study the possible effects of prolonged administration of lyophilised Vaccinium berries (blueberry, bilberry) on cognitive performance using step-down inhibitory avoidance, open field, elevated plus-maze, and radial maze tasks. During this experiment the rats consumed approximately 3.2 mg kg(-1)day (oral), of the anthocyanins. The lyophilised berries were administered for 30 days before first training. The present study showed that lyophilised berries significantly enhanced short-term memory, but not long-term memory in the inhibitory avoidance task, and induced an increase in the number of crossings in the first exposure to the open field. However, treated rats did not present any improvement of memory retention in open field habituation. Additionally, prolonged treatment with lyophilised berries did not have any significant effects in the elevated plus-maze task. Another interesting finding was that lyophilised berries improved working memory in the radial maze, with significant differences observed during sessions 1-2 and 4, but did not alter reference memory in this task. These results suggest that lyophilised berries may be beneficial in the prevention of memory deficits, one of the symptoms related to AD, and corroborate previous findings showing that flavonoids present effects in several learning paradigms.

  17. Aronia Berry Extract Ameliorates the Severity of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sa-Haeng; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Moon, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Dae-Geun; Kim, Wook; Myung, Hyun; Kim, Jong-Sung; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Jin, Jong-Sik

    2017-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. UC is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon and rectum that includes intervals of acute exacerbation. Although recent studies have suggested that proinflammatory cytokines might have initiated the inflammatory responses in UC, its etiology remains unclear. Aronia berries are rich in dietary polyphenols such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins with various health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiaging activities. The objective of this study was to determine whether Aronia berry can be an effective intervention for the treatment of UC. BALB/c mice were administered 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce UC. They were then given Aronia berry extracts at concentrations of 10 or 100 mg/kg. During the induction of UC, the expression levels of nuclear factor-kappa B were increased in colonic epithelial cells and immune cells, leading to increased proinflammatory cytokine levels. Aronia berry extract significantly improved the clinical signs of DSS-induced UC, including body weight loss, colon length shortening, and disease activity index increase, with histological markers of colon injury. Furthermore, oral administration of Aronia berry extract inhibited prostaglandin E 2 production in DSS-induced colitis and decreased the levels of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. These results suggest that Aronia berry extract could efficiently ameliorate clinical signs and inflammatory mediators of UC. Therefore, Aronia berry might be a promising natural treatment for UC.

  18. A comparative study of ripening among berries of the grape cluster reveals an altered transcriptional programme and enhanced ripening rate in delayed berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthu, Satyanarayana; O'Neil, Shawn T; Di, Yanming; Ansarolia, Mitra; Megraw, Molly; Deluc, Laurent G

    2014-11-01

    Transcriptional studies in relation to fruit ripening generally aim to identify the transcriptional states associated with physiological ripening stages and the transcriptional changes between stages within the ripening programme. In non-climacteric fruits such as grape, all ripening-related genes involved in this programme have not been identified, mainly due to the lack of mutants for comparative transcriptomic studies. A feature in grape cluster ripening (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir), where all berries do not initiate the ripening at the same time, was exploited to study their shifted ripening programmes in parallel. Berries that showed marked ripening state differences in a véraison-stage cluster (ripening onset) ultimately reached similar ripeness states toward maturity, indicating the flexibility of the ripening programme. The expression variance between these véraison-stage berry classes, where 11% of the genes were found to be differentially expressed, was reduced significantly toward maturity, resulting in the synchronization of their transcriptional states. Defined quantitative expression changes (transcriptional distances) not only existed between the véraison transitional stages, but also between the véraison to maturity stages, regardless of the berry class. It was observed that lagging berries complete their transcriptional programme in a shorter time through altered gene expressions and ripening-related hormone dynamics, and enhance the rate of physiological ripening progression. Finally, the reduction in expression variance of genes can identify new genes directly associated with ripening and also assess the relevance of gene activity to the phase of the ripening programme. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Whole Plant Temperature Manipulation Affects Flavonoid Metabolism and the Transcriptome of Grapevine Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Chiara; Dal Santo, Silvia; Zenoni, Sara; Movahed, Nushin; Allegro, Gianluca; Valentini, Gabriele; Filippetti, Ilaria; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista

    2017-01-01

    Among environmental factors, temperature is the one that poses serious threats to viticulture in the present and future scenarios of global climate change. In this work, we evaluated the effects on berry ripening of two thermal regimes, imposed from veraison to harvest. Potted vines were grown in two air-conditioned greenhouses with High Temperature (HT) and Low Temperature (LT) regimes characterized by 26 and 21°C as average and 42 and 35°C as maximum air daily temperature, respectively. We conducted analyses of the main berry compositional parameters, berry skin flavonoids and berry skin transcriptome on HT and LT berries sampled during ripening. The two thermal conditions strongly differentiated the berries. HT regime increased sugar accumulation at the beginning of ripening, but not at harvest, when HT treatment contributed to a slight total acidity reduction and pH increase. Conversely, growing temperatures greatly impacted on anthocyanin and flavonol concentrations, which resulted as strongly reduced, while no effects were found on skin tannins accumulation. Berry transcriptome was analyzed with several approaches in order to identify genes with different expression profile in berries ripened under HT or LT conditions. The analysis of whole transcriptome showed that the main differences emerging from this approach appeared to be more due to a shift in the ripening process, rather than to a strong rearrangement at transcriptional level, revealing that the LT temperature regime could delay berry ripening, at least in the early stages. Moreover, the results of the in-depth screening of genes differentially expressed in HT and LT did not highlight differences in the expression of transcripts involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids (with the exception of PAL and STS) despite the enzymatic activities of PALs and UFGT being significantly higher in LT than HT. This suggests only a partial correlation between molecular and biochemical data in our conditions and

  20. Nests of the Brazilian squirrel Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae Ninhos do esquilo brasileiro Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele A. Alvarenga

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901 nests are not available in the literature. In this study, a survey was made of the distribution of S. ingrami nests in a woodlot located near to the headquarters of the Serra do Caraça Reserve, in state of Minas Gerais, where there is a high concentration of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman palm tree, among other exotic tree species. The nest-building behaviour and the nest characteristics, such as height from the ground, total circumference, diameter of the entrance, and the position of the nest in the tree - in the crown, along the trunk or in a side branch, were described.Não existe na literatura a descrição de ninhos de Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901. Neste estudo, foi examinada a distribuição espacial de ninhos desta espécie, localizados em área de vegetação de crescimento secundário, próxima a área construída da Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Caraça, Minas Gerais, onde há grande concentração da palmeira Syagrus romanzoffiana (Chamisso Glassman, entre outras espécies exóticas de árvores. O comportamento de construção e as características dos ninhos, tais como, altura em relação ao solo, circunferência total, diâmetro da entrada e a posição dos ninhos na árvore foram descritos.

  1. Evidence for substantial maintenance of membrane integrity and cell viability in normally developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Mark; Matthews, Mark; Shackel, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used as a vital stain to assay membrane integrity (cell viability) in mesocarp tissue of the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry in order to test the hypothesis that there is a substantial loss of compartmentation in these cells during ripening. This technique was also used to determine whether loss of viability was associated with symptoms of a ripening disorder known as berry shrivel. FDA fluorescence of berry cells was rapid, bright, and stable for over 1 h at room temperature. Confocal microscopy detected FDA staining through two to three intact surface cell layers (300-400 mum) of bisected berries, and showed that the fluorescence was confined to the cytoplasm, indicating the maintenance of integrity in both cytoplasmic as well as vacuolar membranes, and the presence of active cytoplasmic esterases. FDA clearly discriminated between living cells and freeze-killed cells, and exhibited little, if any, non-specific staining. Propidium iodide and DAPI, both widely used to assess cell viability, were unable to discriminate between living and freeze-killed cells, and did not specifically stain the nuclei of dead cells. For normally developing berries under field conditions there was no evidence of viability loss until about 40 d after veraison, and the majority (80%) of mesocarp cells remained viable past commercial harvest (26 degrees Brix). These results are inconsistent with current models of grape berry development which hypothesize that veraison is associated with a general loss of compartmentation in mesocarp cells. The observed viability loss was primarily in the locule area around the seeds, suggesting that a localized loss of viability and compartmentation may occur as part of normal fruit development. The cell viability of berry shrivel-affected berries was similar to that of normally developing berries until the onset of visible symptoms (i.e. shrivelling), at which time viability declined in visibly shrivelled

  2. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and In Vitro Availability of Four Different Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marhuenda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols from berries have proved healthy effects after “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies, such as preventing tumor growing and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. We compared four different kinds of berries—strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and blueberry—with the aim to distinguish their phenolic composition, concerning their antioxidant capacity along with their “in vitro” availability. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant capacity was measured by ORAC method. Moreover, the determination of anthocyanins was accomplished with an HPLC-DAD. Finally, we carried out an “in vitro” digestion to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion. All berries showed good antioxidant capacity with significant differences, besides high total phenolic compounds. Content of anthocyanins measured by HPLC-DAD varied between the different berries, namely, blackberries and strawberries which showed higher anthocyanin concentration. After “in vitro” digestion, berries showed poor bioavailability of the analysis of anthocyanins (9.9%–31.7%. Availability of total phenolic compounds was higher than anthocyanins (33%–73%. Moreover, strawberries and blackberries presented the less availability grade. Decrease in antioxidant activity measured by ORAC method was about 90% in all berries studied. Therefore, bioavailability of phenolic compounds remains unclear and more correlation between “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies seems to be necessary.

  3. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  4. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  5. Biochemical Properties and Neuroprotective Effects of Compounds in Various Species of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species of berries, such as blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., have attracted much scientific attention in recent years, especially due to their reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Berries, as with other types of plants, have developed metabolic mechanisms to survive various environmental stresses, some of which involve reactive oxygen species. In addition, the fruits and leaves of berries have high amounts of polyphenols, such as flavonoids, which act as potent antioxidants. These compounds could potentially be beneficial for brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders. There are now several studies documenting the beneficial effects of various berries in cell models of neurotoxicity as well as in vivo models of neurodegenerative disease. In the current review, we discuss the metabolic strategies that plants and animals have developed in order to combat reactive oxygen species. We then discuss issues of bioavailability of various compounds in mammals and provide a synopsis of studies demonstrating the neuroprotective ability of berries and polyphenols. We also summarize findings from our own research group. For example, we have detected various polyphenols in samples of blueberries and lingonberries and have found that the leaves have a much higher antioxidant capacity than the fruits. Extracts from these species have also demonstrated neuroprotective effects in cellular models of toxicity and inflammation, which are being further pursued in animal models.

  6. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.

  7. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R.; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A.; Vivier, Melané A.

    2016-01-01

    Light quantity and quality modulate grapevine development and influence berry metabolic processes. Here we studied light as an information signal for developing and ripening grape berries. A Vitis vinifera Sauvignon Blanc field experiment was used to identify the impacts of UVB on core metabolic processes in the berries under both high light (HL) and low light (LL) microclimates. The primary objective was therefore to identify UVB-specific responses on berry processes and metabolites and dist...

  8. The light bulb, cystoscopy, and Thomas Alva Edison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2010-09-01

    Thomas Alva Edison was an icon of American achievement who literally invented the 20th century. Although best known as the inventor of the electric light bulb, the phonograph, and motion pictures, he also left a lasting legacy via peripheral developmental applications, such as endoscopes. A review of published urologic writings about incandescent cystoscopes was cross-referenced to writings about or from Edison. Important events that allowed transference of technology from the Edison laboratory to clinical practice were emphasized. Edison was born in 1847 while Lincoln was serving in Congress; he died in 1931 when Hoover struggled with the Great Depression. Edison's life spanned the formative period of America that Henry Adams called the "coming of age." Edison received a Sprengel vacuum device in late 1879, and as usual, he was able to tweak the machine to better performance. For 5 days in October, 16 to 21, he improved the vacuum from 1/100,000 to 1/1,000,000 atm, and his first incandescent bulb burned softly. On December 21, 1879, he leaked the story to N.Y. Herald journalist Marshall Fox, and the world was notified of the light bulb. Special Christmas light visits started in Menlo Park just 4 days later. Edison patented the screw cap for easy changes, and the first bulbs sold for 40 cents (cost $1.40). 100,000 bulbs sold in 1882, 4 million by 1892, and 45 million in 1903. Immediately, competitors and specialty manufacturers entered the market. Dr. Henry Koch and Charles Preston in Rochester, N.Y., developed a smaller, low amperage bulb that could be fitted to medical devices. No discussion of electricity and modern applications would be complete without some discussion of Thomas Alva Edison and his sentinel contributions. The first church, post office, and ship were illuminated in 1892. The first hotel, theater, and electric sign were in 1893. The rapidity of dispersal and secondary applications of Edison's inventions is typified by the rise of cystoscopes

  9. Acculturation and mental health--empirical verification of J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, M W; Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, C

    2004-01-01

    to examine whether Berry's hypothesis about the connection between acculturation and mental health can be empirically verified for Greenlanders living in Denmark and to analyse whether acculturation plays a significant role for mental health among Greenlanders living in Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS...... identity as Greenlander and how well the respondents speak Greenlandic and Danish. The statistical methods included binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no connection between Berry's definition of acculturation and mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark. On the other hand, our findings showed...... a significant relation between mental health and gender, age, marital position, occupation and long-term illness. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that acculturation in the way Berry defines it plays a lesser role for mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark than socio-demographic and socio-economic factors...

  10. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Shenping; Zhang Guofeng; Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu

    2008-01-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the Δ-ε plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  11. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu Shenping; Zhang Guofeng; Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, School of Science, BeiHang University, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: chenzy@buaa.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the {delta}-{epsilon} plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  12. Potentials of small, lightweight and low cost Multi-Echo Laser Scanners for detecting Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuricic, A.; Weinmann, M.; Jutzi, B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile sensor devices offer great opportunities for automatic scene analysis and object recognition. Nowadays a new generation of ranging devices is available, like laser scanners which are small and light weighted. Concerning these improvements specific applications can be tackled. In this contribution we focus on vineyard monitoring for detecting and counting grape berries with a small, lightweight and low cost multi-echo laser scanner. Therefore a Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW laser range finder is utilized for capturing the data in close range up to 1m. In order to process the data the following methodology is proposed: after smoothing and morphological techniques are applied on the laserscanning intensity and range images the number of visible grape berries is determined from the resulting segments. The approach performs with a detection accuracy of above 84%. The results reveal the high potential of such close range ranging devices for locating and counting grape berries. Thus, the methodology provides practical support for viticulture applications.

  13. Path-integral Monte Carlo method for the local Z2 Berry phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Yuichi; Todo, Synge

    2013-02-01

    We present a loop cluster algorithm Monte Carlo method for calculating the local Z(2) Berry phase of the quantum spin models. The Berry connection, which is given as the inner product of two ground states with different local twist angles, is expressed as a Monte Carlo average on the worldlines with fixed spin configurations at the imaginary-time boundaries. The "complex weight problem" caused by the local twist is solved by adopting the meron cluster algorithm. We present the results of simulation on the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on an out-of-phase bond-alternating ladder to demonstrate that our method successfully detects the change in the valence bond pattern at the quantum phase transition point. We also propose that the gauge-fixed local Berry connection can be an effective tool to estimate precisely the quantum critical point.

  14. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (map) on the quality of sea buckthorn berry fruits during postharvest storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of the berry fruits of sea buckthorn (SBT) during refrigerated storage was investigated. SBT berries were packaged in 160 and 525 oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films or in vented clamshell containers (air control) and stored at 10C fo...

  15. Brix, pH and anthocyanin content determination in whole Port wine grape berries by hyperspectral imaging and neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Armando M.; Franco, Camilo; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of measuring pH, sugars, and anthocyanin content of whole grape berries. The spectrum of each sample, composed of six whole grape berries, was collected using hyperspectral imaging in reflectance mode from 380 to 1028 nm. The spectra were converted to enological par...

  16. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  17. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  18. 75 FR 38129 - The Berry Company LLC, a Subsidiary of Local Insight Media Holdings, Inc., Formally Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration The Berry Company LLC, a Subsidiary of Local Insight Media Holdings... Local Insight Media Holdings, Inc., formally known as Local Insight Yellow Pages, including on-site... at the Hudson, Ohio, location of The Berry Company, a subsidiary of Local Insight Media Holdings, Inc...

  19. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  20. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  1. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  2. An afternoon snack of berries reduces subsequent energy intake compared to an isoenergetic confectionary snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lewis J; Funnell, Mark P; Milner, Samantha

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies suggest that increased fruit and vegetable consumption can contribute to weight maintenance and facilitate weight loss when substituted for other energy dense foods. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of berries on acute appetite and energy intake. Twelve unrestrained pre-menopausal women (age 21 ± 2 y; BMI 26.6 ± 2.6 kg m(-2); body fat 23 ± 3%) completed a familiarisation trial and two randomised experimental trials. Subjects arrived in the evening (~5pm) and consumed an isoenergetic snack (65 kcal) of mixed berries (BERRY) or confectionary sweets (CONF). Sixty min later, subjects consumed a homogenous pasta test meal until voluntary satiation, and energy intake was quantified. Subjective appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption) was assessed throughout trials, and for 120 min after the test meal. Energy intake was less (Pconsumption of the BERRY snack (691 ± 146 kcal) than after the CONF snack (824 ± 172 kcal); whilst water consumption was similar (P=0.925). There were no trial (P>0.095) or interaction (P>0.351) effects for any subjective appetite ratings. Time taken to eat the BERRY snack (4.05 ± 1.12 min) was greater (Psnack (0.93 ± 0.33 min). This study demonstrates that substituting an afternoon confectionary snack with mixed berries decreased subsequent energy intake at dinner, but did not affect subjective appetite. This dietary strategy could represent a simple method for reducing daily energy intake and aiding weight management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical Analysis of Extracts from Newfoundland Berries and Potential Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Hossain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V. angustifolium, lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea and black currant (Ribes lacustre. Anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides in powdered extracts from Ribes lacustre and the Vaccinium species were identified using the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC separation method with mass spectrometric (MS detection. The identified compounds were extracted from dried berries by various solvents via ultrasonication followed by centrifugation. A reverse-phase analytical column was employed to identify the retention time of each chemical component before submission for LC–MS analysis. A total of 21 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the three species. Further, we tested the effects of the lingonberry extract for its ability to protect neurons and glia from trauma utilizing an in vitro model of cell injury. Surprisingly, these extracts provided complete protection from cell death in this model. These findings indicate the presence of a wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols in berries that grow natively in Newfoundland. These powdered extracts maintain these compounds intact despite being processed from berry fruit, indicating their potential use as dietary supplements. In addition, these recent findings and previous data from our lab demonstrate the ability of compounds in berries to protect the nervous system from traumatic insults.

  4. Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Ryan J; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Clarke, Simon J; Rogiers, Suzy Y; Bobek, Gabriele; Price, William S

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry development, and in plant tissues with contrasting oil content. In this study, the fruit of Vitis vinfera L. cv. Semillon at seven different stages of berry development, from four weeks post-anthesis to over-ripe, were imaged using diffusion tensor and transverse relaxation MRI acquisition protocols. Variations in diffusive motion between these stages of development were then linked to known events in the morphological development of the grape berry. Within the inner mesocarp of the berry, preferential directions of diffusion became increasingly apparent as immature berries increased in size and then declined as berries progressed through the ripening and senescence phases. Transverse relaxation images showed radial striation patterns throughout the sub-tissue, initiating at the septum and vascular systems located at the centre of the berry, and terminating at the boundary between the inner and outer mesocarp. This study confirms that these radial patterns are due to bands of cells of alternating width that extend across the inner mesocarp. Preferential directions of diffusion were also noted in young grape seed nucelli prior to their dehydration. These observations point towards a strong association between patterns of diffusion within grape berries and the underlying tissue structures across berry development. A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content. This study demonstrates that diffusion MRI is a powerful and

  5. GLOBALIZACIÓN Y DIFUSIÓN. COMENTARIOS A LA PONENCIA DEL PROFESOR BERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario García

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo desarrolla algunos aspectos de la ponencia de Albert Berry y se centra en la debilidad teórica del movimiento hacia la liberalización y la globalización. Utiliza algunos avances recientes en la teoría de las convenciones, para explicar el proceso de difusión de tales tendencias.The article develops some aspects of Albert Berry's paper, focusing on the theoretical weakness of the movement towards liberalisation and globalisation. Recent advances in the theory of conventions are used in order to explain the difussion process of the liberalising tendencies

  6. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article in response to: Barber-Meyer, S. (2015) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12338. We used multiple data sets and study areas as well as several lines of evidence to investigate potential trophic linkages in Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that a trophic cascade from wolves to elk to berry production to berry consumption by grizzly bears may now be underway in the Park. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  7. 210Po and 210Pb in Forest Soil and in Wild Berries in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Lehto, Jukka; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of 210 Po and 210 Pb was investigated in forests in the Southern Finland site and in the Northern Finland site. Sampling sites were in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. Maximum activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soil columns were found in organic layers. According to preliminary results of wild berry samples, the lowest 210 Po concentrations were found in berries. The highest concentration of 210 Po was found in stems of the blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) samples

  8. Kaolin foliar application has a stimulatory effect on phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways in grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Conde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought, elevated air temperature and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways – VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT - were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, flavonol synthase (FLS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT were about 2-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially

  9. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  10. Male and Female Buying Decision Making Processes Seen From BlackBerry Messenger Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Deviana Stefani; Ibrahim, Jusuf I

    2014-01-01

    This study observes the male and female buying decision making processes seen from BlackBerry Messenger texts. It focuses on the way of how male and female customers make a buying decision in the online shop via BlackBerry Messenger. The data are analyzed by using the theory of the consumer decision-making process by Lamb, Hair, McDaniel (2003) which includes five stages. I found that the female customers have almost two times total more than male customers in the four stages in consumer deci...

  11. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  12. Invoking Thomas Kuhn: What Citation Analysis Reveals about Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Cathleen C.; Cobern, William W.

    This paper analyzes how Thomas Kuhn's writings are used by others, especially science education researchers. Previous research in citation analysis is used to frame questions related to who cites Kuhn, in what manner and why. Research questions first focus on the variety of disciplines invoking Kuhn and to what extent Structure of Scientific Revolutions (SSR) is cited. The Web of Science database provides material from 1982 for this analysis. The science education literature is analyzed using back issues from 1985 of the Journal of Research in Science Teaching and Science Education. An article analysis reveals trends in terms of what Kuhnian ideas are most frequently invoked. Results indicate a wide array of disciplines from beekeeping to law cite Kuhn - especially generic citations to SSR. The science education journal analysis reveals pervasive use of the term paradigm, although use is quite varied. The two areas of research in science education most impacted by Kuhn appear to be conceptual change theory and constructivist epistemologies. Additional uses of Kuhn are discussed. The degree to which Kuhn is invoked in ways supporting the theoretical framework of citation analysis, whether his work is misappropriated, and the impact of Kuhn are discussed.

  13. Tacit knowledge in philosophy of science of Thomas Kuhn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Norambuena Ureta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on a fundamental piece of the theoretical framework where the work ofThomas Kuhn develops, tacit knowledge. The importance of such a kind of knowledge, that is notpossible (nor necessary to reduce into rules and definitions, and that is not acquired with exclusiverecourse to logic is essential for Kuhn within Science. The article investigates the origins of this idea inkuhnian work, searching for influences exerted by Gestalt psychology and the second Wittgenstein. Itexamines the relation between this idea and Kuhn’s most known and important philosophicalcontributions, the concept of paradigm (exemplar and the incommensurability of scientific theories;confirming that without the utilization of a kind of knowledge of this nature such ideas would not havehad the necessary support to be stated. At the end of the article, the importance of tacit knowledgethrough the use of metaphor and thought experiments is revised, as vehicles through which the scientistcan put himself in touch with this dimension of knowledge.

  14. The many encounters of Thomas Kuhn and French epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    The work of Thomas Kuhn has been very influential in Anglo-American philosophy of science and it is claimed that it has initiated the historical turn. Although this might be the case for English speaking countries, in France an historical approach has always been the rule. This article aims to investigate the similarities and differences between Kuhn and French philosophy of science or 'French epistemology'. The first part will argue that he is influenced by French epistemologists, but by lesser known authors than often thought. The second part focuses on the reactions of French epistemologists on Kuhn's work, which were often very critical. It is argued that behind some superficial similarities there are deep disagreements between Kuhn and French epistemology. This is finally shown by a brief comparison with the reaction of more recent French philosophers of science, who distance themselves from French epistemology and are more positive about Kuhn. Based on these diverse appreciations of Kuhn, a typology of the different positions within the philosophy of science is suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An improved Thomas--Fermi treatment of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    I want to tell you about an improved Thomas-Fermi method for calculating shell-averaged nuclear properties, such as density distributions, binding energies, etc. A shell-averaged statistical theory is useful as the macroscopic component of microscopic-macroscopic theories of nuclei, such as the Strutinsky method, as well as in theories of nuclear matter in the bulk, relevant in astrophysical applications. In nuclear physics, as well as in atomic and molecular problems, the following question often has to be answered: you are given a potential well, say a deformed Woods-Saxon potential, into which you put N quantized fermions into the lowest N eigenstates, up to a ''Fermi energy'' To. You square the wave functions of the particles and add them up to get the total density ρ( r → ) = Σ i N |ψ i | 2 . Is there some simple way of estimating ρ( r → ) without going through the misery of numerically solving N partial differential Schroedinger equations for the N particles?

  16. Thomas Willis, the Restoration and the First Works of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Louis

    2015-10-01

    This article provides a new consideration of how Thomas Willis (1621-75) came to write the first works of 'neurology', which was in its time a novel use of cerebral and neural anatomy to defend philosophical claims about the mind. Willis's neurology was shaped by the immediate political and religious contexts of the English Civil War and Restoration. Accordingly, the majority of this paper is devoted to uncovering the political necessities Willis faced during the Restoration of the English monarchy in 1660, with particular focus on the significance of Willis's dedication of his neurology and natural philosophy to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert Sheldon. Because the Restoration of Charles II brought only a semblance of order and peace, Willis and his allies understood the need for a coherent defense of the authority of the English church and its liturgy. Of particular importance to Sheldon and Willis (and to others in Sheldon's circle) were the specific ceremonies described in the Book of Common Prayer, a manual that directed the congregation to assume various postures during public worship. This article demonstrates that Willis's neurology should be read as an intervention in these debates, that his neurology would have been read at the time as an attempt to ground orthodox worship in the structure of the brain and nerves. The political necessities that helped to shape Willis's project also help us to better understand Willis's innovative insistence that philosophical statements about the mind should be formulated only after a comprehensive anatomical investigation of the brain and nerves.

  17. A modified Thomas-Fermi treatment of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    An improved nuclear Thomas-Fermi theory is studied in which, rather than adding density-gradient corrections to the standard expression for the kinetic energy density (proportional to ρ 5/3 , where ρ is the density) one simply modifies this ρ 5/3 function to reflect the fact that the kinetic energy density becomes negative for small values of ρ when, in a typical nuclear problem, one is dealing with the outer fringes of the surface region. The net result of this study is simply stated: In order to find the density associated with a given nuclear potential, one exponentiates this potential instead of raising its depth with respect to the chemical potential to the three-halves power, as in the standard treatment. An improved description of the nuclear surface profile is obtained, including the quantal halo in the classically forbidden region. But since density derivatives are not involved, there is no need to solve a partial differential equation in order to find the density. (orig.)

  18. Thomas Alva Edison (170th Anniversary of His Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Samokhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the major technical achievements of Thomas Edison, an outstanding American inventor, author of more than 1,000 US patents and several thousand patents in other countries, honorary academician of the USSR. Presents biographical information and details of the formation of Edison, his work as a telegrapher, organizing the world's first industrial research laboratory for the continuous development of technological innovations, as well as some interesting facts about his life and work. This includes pioneering work on the creation of Edison incandescent lighting, the distribution system for their power and cinema. Edison can be considered the founder of the multimedia technology, as it was the beginning of the invention of the phonograph of phonics and disc phonograph recording of depth was the basis of mechanical recording. Name Edison are geographic features, a lot of companies and educational institutions. He was a member of many Academies of Sciences and entered the list of "100 most outstanding people for 1,000 years." Bust open in the Hall of Fame of great Americans, and a bronze statue - sculptures at the National Hall on Capitol Hill.

  19. Red blotch disease alters grape berry development and metabolism by interfering with the transcriptional and hormonal regulation of ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Hopfer, Helene; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Ye, Zirou; Rivero, Rosa M.; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Koyama, Renata; Anderson, Michael M.; Smith, Rhonda J.; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a major threat to the wine industry in the USA. GRBaV infections (aka red blotch disease) compromise crop yield and berry chemical composition, affecting the flavor and aroma properties of must and wine. In this study, we combined genome-wide transcriptional profiling with targeted metabolite analyses and biochemical assays to characterize the impact of the disease on red-skinned berry ripening and metabolism. Using naturally infected berries collected from two vineyards, we were able to identify consistent berry responses to GRBaV across different environmental and cultural conditions. Specific alterations of both primary and secondary metabolism occurred in GRBaV-infected berries during ripening. Notably, GRBaV infections of post-véraison berries resulted in the induction of primary metabolic pathways normally associated with early berry development (e.g. thylakoid electron transfer and the Calvin cycle), while inhibiting ripening-associated pathways, such as a reduced metabolic flux in the central and peripheral phenylpropanoid pathways. We show that this metabolic reprogramming correlates with perturbations at multiple regulatory levels of berry development. Red blotch caused the abnormal expression of transcription factors (e.g. NACs, MYBs, and AP2-ERFs) and elements of the post-transcriptional machinery that function during red-skinned berry ripening. Abscisic acid, ethylene, and auxin pathways, which control both the initiation of ripening and stress responses, were also compromised. We conclude that GRBaV infections disrupt normal berry development and stress responses by altering transcription factors and hormone networks, which result in the inhibition of ripening pathways involved in the generation of color, flavor, and aroma compounds. PMID:28338755

  20. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  1. Characterization of a multifunctional caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase activated in grape berries upon drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Debora; Provenzano, Sofia; Ferrandino, Alessandra; Vitali, Marco; Pagliarani, Chiara; Roman, Federica; Cardinale, Francesca; Castellarin, Simone D; Schubert, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Drought stress affects anthocyanin accumulation and modification in vegetative and reproductive plant tissues. Anthocyanins are the most abundant flavonoids in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) coloured berry genotypes and are essential markers of grape winemaking quality. They are mostly mono- and di-methylated, such modifications increase their stability and improve berry quality for winemaking. Anthocyanin methylation in grape berries is induced by drought stress. A few caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferases (CCoAOMTs) active on anthocyanins have been described in grape. However, no drought-activated O-methyltransferases have been described in grape berries yet. In this study, we characterized VvCCoAOMT, a grapevine gene known to induce methylation of CoA esters in cultured grape cells. Transcript accumulation of VvCCoAOMT was detected in berry skins, and increased during berry ripening on the plant, and in cultured berries treated with ABA, concomitantly with accumulation of methylated anthocyanins, suggesting that anthocyanins may be substrates of this enzyme. Contrary as previously observed in cell cultures, biotic stress (Botrytis cinerea inoculation) did not affect VvCCoAOMT gene expression in leaves or berries, while drought stress increased VvCCoAOMT transcript in berries. The recombinant VvCCoAOMT protein showed in vitro methylating activity on cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. We conclude that VvCCoAOMT is a multifunctional O-methyltransferase that may contribute to anthocyanin methylation activity in grape berries, in particular under drought stress conditions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  2. Proteomic analysis of grape berry cell cultures reveals that developmentally regulated ripening related processes can be studied using cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaschandra G Sharathchandra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This work describes a proteomics profiling method, optimized and applied to berry cell suspensions to evaluate organ-specific cultures as a platform to study grape berry ripening. Variations in berry ripening within a cluster(s on a vine and in a vineyard are a major impediment towards complete understanding of the functional processes that control ripening, specifically when a characterized and homogenous sample is required. Berry cell suspensions could overcome some of these problems, but their suitability as a model system for berry development and ripening needs to be established first. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report on the proteomic evaluation of the cytosolic proteins obtained from synchronized cell suspension cultures that were established from callus lines originating from green, véraison and ripe Vitis vinifera berry explants. The proteins were separated using liquid phase IEF in a Microrotofor cell and SDS PAGE. This method proved superior to gel-based 2DE. Principal component analysis confirmed that biological and technical repeats grouped tightly and importantly, showed that the proteomes of berry cultures originating from the different growth/ripening stages were distinct. A total of twenty six common bands were selected after band matching between different growth stages and twenty two of these bands were positively identified. Thirty two % of the identified proteins are currently annotated as hypothetical. The differential expression profile of the identified proteins, when compared with published literature on grape berry ripening, suggested common trends in terms of relative abundance in the different developmental stages between real berries and cell suspensions. CONCLUSIONS: The advantages of having suspension cultures that accurately mimic specific developmental stages are profound and could significantly contribute to the study of the intricate regulatory and signaling networks

  3. Thomas Carlyle and the Characteristics of Nineteenth-Century English Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    2001-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den skotske forfatter Thomas Carlyles plads i den engelske litteraturs historie og argumenterer for at hans skrift, "Characteristics" (1831), selv dramatiserer og dekonstruerer litteraturhistoriske grænsedragninger....

  4. ABC News correspondent Pierre Thomas to deliver 2004 Virginia Tech commencement address

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2004-01-01

    ABC News Justice Department Correspondent Pierre Thomas will address the 2004 graduates of Virginia Tech during the University Commencement exercises at 7:30 p.m. Friday, May 14, at Lane Stadium/Worsham Field.

  5. Transcript of presentation of Distinguished Alumni Award to James Roche and Thomas White, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Elster, Richard S.

    2001-01-01

    Transcript of the words of Provost Richard S. Elster from the September 2001 Distinguished Alumni Award recognition of Secretary of the Air Force the Honorable James Roche and Secretary of the Army the Honorable Thomas White.

  6. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this effort was to characterize the extent and magnitude of chemical contamination in the St. Thomas East End Reserves or STEER, as part of a larger...

  7. EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Saint Croix and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data for part of the submerged environs of Saint Croix and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, were produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  8. Bathymetry 1m GRID of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, 2004, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the south shore of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA...

  9. Corpus Areopagiticum dans l’interprétation de saint Thomas d’Aquin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Crîşmăreanu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I intend to highlight a fundamental difference that I have seized between Dionysius interpreted by Thomas of Aquinas and the author of Corpus Areopagiticum. In the first stage, I will present the way in which Thomas understands Dionysius as a simple Aristotelian, then the confession of faith of saint Thomas regarding that particular Dionysius from The Acts of Apostles 17, 34, without, however, noticing the fact that Dionysius invokes the Holy Trinity in his texts, a dogma established only in the first Ecumenical Council of Nicaea (325. However, the most obvious issue that radically separates the two thinkers (Dionysius and Thomas is their way of understanding theology (θεολογία.

  10. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON from 19920323 to 19921020 (NODC Accession 9700194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oxygen production, abundance of marine snow, and other data were collected from bottle and video camera casts in the Pacific Ocean from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from...

  11. Tartu ehk unbewusste Ängste / Rauno Thomas Moss ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moss, Rauno Thomas, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Rauno Thomas Mossi (1977) näitus "Silent Tartu aka Clinical" Vaal galeriis. Kunstniku eluloolisi andmeid, loomingust, alasti mehekeha kujutamisest. Töötab Tartu Ülikoolis joonistamise ja plastilise anatoomia õppejõuna. Tema lemmikkunstnikud

  12. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the south shore of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team and...

  13. NOAA TIFF Graphic- 0.5m Backscatter Mosaic of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the south shore of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands.NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team and...

  14. Thomas M. Prymak. Gathering a Heritage: Ukrainian, Slavonic, and Ethnic Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Morrissette

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Thomas M. Prymak. Gathering a Heritage: Ukrainian, Slavonic, and Ethnic Canada and the USA. U of Toronto P, 2015. xiv, 370 pp. Illustrations. Tables. Appendix. Notes. Index. $29.95, paper.

  15. Thomas Carlyle and the Characteristics of Nineteenth-Century English Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    2001-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den skotske forfatter Thomas Carlyles plads i den engelske litteraturs historie og argumenterer for at hans skrift, "Characteristics" (1831), selv dramatiserer og dekonstruerer litteraturhistoriske grænsedragninger.......Artiklen diskuterer den skotske forfatter Thomas Carlyles plads i den engelske litteraturs historie og argumenterer for at hans skrift, "Characteristics" (1831), selv dramatiserer og dekonstruerer litteraturhistoriske grænsedragninger....

  16. Questions and Answers for Ken Thomas' "Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini Spacesuits" Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian & Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intravehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  17. Improvement berry color skin profile by exogenous cyanocobalamin treatment of ‘Crimson seedless’ grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Lo'ay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of cyanocobalamin (B12 treatments (0, 3, 6, and 9 mM B12 on Vitis vinifera L. ‘Crimson seedless’ which conducted during two seasons 2014 and 2015. The study aims to regenerate berry color during growth and preserve it during shelf-life at room temperature for four days. The results showed that B12 treatments were significantly effective in reducing weight loss. Berry shatter, rachis browning index, while it preserved another quality parameter high such as berry firmness, separation force, total phenol content (TPC, total sugar content (TSC, total anthocyanin content (TAC, B-Carotene, ascorbic acid (AA and color hue angle during shelf-life for four days. The previous results were significantly observed with B12 at 9 mM compared to control and other B12 concentrations. However, total solid content (SSC%, titratable acidity (TA%, and SSC/TA ratio were significantly affected by B12 at 9 mM up to end the shelf-life period. In contrast, the lowest values of total chlorophyll (Chlab content during shelf-life compared with other B12 concentrations. Therefore, cyanocobalamin (B12 is an effective vitamin for improving or generating berry color at harvest time and maintaining cluster quality of ‘Crimson seedless’ grapes during shelf-life (marketing.

  18. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  19. Changes of polyphenols, sugars, and organic acid in 5 Vitis genotypes during berry ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenchang; Sang, Min; Fan, Peige; Wu, Benhong; Wang, Lijun; Duan, Wei; Li, Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols during berry ripening in 5 grape genotypes were analyzed using HPLC and HPLC-MS to determine which were correlated. Veraison is critical stage during grape berry development, and marks the beginning of ripening. Glucose and fructose accumulated sharply in a 1: 1ratio, though the concentration of fructose was slightly higher than that of glucose at maturation. Malic acid and tartaric acid were the dominant organic acids, and they decreased rapidly during berry ripening. The 5 cultivars contained 28 anthocyanins and 8 other polyphenols. All anthocyanins accumulated and were positively correlated with the sugars and negatively correlated with the organic acids. Hydroxycinnamic acids declined and were positively correlated with anthocyanin contents. Changes in flavanols and flavonols different among the 5 genotypes, with flavonols positively correlated with anthocyanin content, but the flavanols procyanidin B1and epicatechin negatively correlated with anthocyanins content. There were obvious differences in patterns of change of polyphenols among 5 grape genotypes. The results could be used for improving grape berry quality during ripening and developing a comprehensive database of primary and secondary metabolites in the Vitis for grape breeding. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Influence of vacuum drying temperature on: physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties of murta berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murta (Ugni molinae T.) berries were vacuum dried at a constant pressure of 15 kPa. The effects of processing temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C) on the physico-chemical characteristics, the phenolic and flavonoid compounds, the antioxidant activity (measured by DPPH and ORAC) and the sugar and ...

  1. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis H Greer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40oC for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly 3-fold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimise the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality.

  2. Soil nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium alter ß-Damascenone and other volatiles in Pinot noir berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the volatile composition of grape berries in vines subjected to varying levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) supply. Pinot Noir grapevines were grown in a pot-in-pot system for three years and fertigated with varying levels of either N, P, or...

  3. Fast and Simple Discriminative Analysis of Anthocyanins-Containing Berries Using LC/MS Spectral Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kwon, Yong Soo; Kim, Ho Kyong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Anthocyanins are potent antioxidant agents that protect against many degenerative diseases; however, they are unstable because they are vulnerable to external stimuli including temperature, pH and light. This vulnerability hinders the quality control of anthocyanin-containing berries using classical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical methodologies based on UV or MS chromatograms. To develop an alternative approach for the quality assessment and discrimination of anthocyanin-containing berries, we used MS spectral data acquired in a short analytical time rather than UV or MS chromatograms. Mixtures of anthocyanins were separated from other components in a short gradient time (5 min) due to their higher polarity, and the representative MS spectrum was acquired from the MS chromatogram corresponding to the mixture of anthocyanins. The chemometric data from the representative MS spectra contained reliable information for the identification and relative quantification of anthocyanins in berries with good precision and accuracy. This fast and simple methodology, which consists of a simple sample preparation method and short gradient analysis, could be applied to reliably discriminate the species and geographical origins of different anthocyanin-containing berries. These features make the technique useful for the food industry. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppu, Ulla; Prinz, Mira; Ojansivu, Pauliina; Laaksonen, Oskar; Sandell, Mari A

    2015-01-01

    Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3-6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44) and control (n=24) kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries) was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p≤0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman), while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children.

  5. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  6. Berry composition and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec in response to water deficit severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water supply is a production tool used in arid climates to elicit desirable, water-deficit related changes in berry composition and yield; however, response to water deficit is known to vary by cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether cultivars differed in their relations...

  7. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas, I. de; Ponce, M.; Gargantini, R.; Martinez, L.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  8. Analytical profiling of selected antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity of goji (Lycium spp.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Michele; Gualandi, Isacco; Mandrioli, Roberto; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica; Mercolini, Laura

    2017-09-05

    Goji berries and derived products represent a relevant source of micronutrients, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality of these fruits. Three brands of dried goji berries have been analysed by a multidisciplinary approach to get an insight into both their content of selected antioxidants and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The former goal has been achieved by developing a liquid chromatographic method coupled to mass spectrometry and combined to a fast solid phase extraction. Several significant representative antioxidant compounds belonging to the following classes: flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, amino acids and derivatives, and carotenoids have been taken into account. Quercetin and rutin were found to be the predominant flavonoids, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid. The AC of the goji berries has been evaluated by four analytical methods in order to estimate the contributions of different reactions involved in radicals scavenging. In particular, AC has been determined using 3 standardised methods (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC) and a recently proposed electrochemical method, which measures the scavenging activity of antioxidants towards OH radicals generated both by hydrogen peroxide photolysis and the Fenton reaction. The results obtained from chemical composition and antioxidant capacity assays confirm the high nutritional and commercial value of goji berries and highlight that the three brands do not exhibit significant differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Visualising Berry phase and diabolical points in a quantum exciton-polariton billiard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrecho, E; Gao, T; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Truscott, A G; Ostrovskaya, E A

    2016-11-25

    Diabolical points (spectral degeneracies) can naturally occur in spectra of two-dimensional quantum systems and classical wave resonators due to simple symmetries. Geometric Berry phase is associated with these spectral degeneracies. Here, we demonstrate a diabolical point and the corresponding Berry phase in the spectrum of hybrid light-matter quasiparticles-exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. It is well known that sufficiently strong optical pumping can drive exciton-polaritons to quantum degeneracy, whereby they form a macroscopically populated quantum coherent state similar to a Bose-Einstein condensate. By pumping a microcavity with a spatially structured light beam, we create a two-dimensional quantum billiard for the exciton-polariton condensate and demonstrate a diabolical point in the spectrum of the billiard eigenstates. The fully reconfigurable geometry of the potential walls controlled by the optical pump enables a striking experimental visualization of the Berry phase associated with the diabolical point. The Berry phase is observed and measured by direct imaging of the macroscopic exciton-polariton probability densities.

  10. On the developmental and environmental regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium spp. berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eKarppinen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype x environment (GxE interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes.

  11. Carotenoid composition of berries and leaves from six Romanian sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, R.M.; Weesepoel, Y.J.A.; Socaciu, C.; Pintea, A.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Berries and leaves from six varieties of Carpathians’ sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., ssp. Carpatica) were analysed for their carotenoid composition (free and esterified) using a combination of HPLC-PAD, GC–MS and UHPLC–PAD–ESI-MS techniques. GC–MS techniques revealed the fatty acid profile

  12. Iridoids, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Edible Honeysuckle Berries (Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica Sevast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Z. Kucharska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Iridoid and polyphenol profiles of 30 different honeysuckle berry cultivars and genotypes were studied. Compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS/MS in positive and negative ion modes and quantified by HPLC-PDA. The 50 identified compounds included 15 iridoids, 6 anthocyanins, 9 flavonols, 2 flavanonols (dihydroflavonols, 5 flavones, 6 flavan-3-ols, and 7 phenolic acids. 8-epi-Loganic acid, pentosyl-loganic acid, taxifolin 7-O-dihexoside, and taxifolin 7-O-hexoside were identified in honeysuckle berries for the first time. Iridoids and anthocyanins were the major groups of bioactive compounds of honeysuckle constituents. The total content of quantified iridoids and anthocyanins was between 128.42 mg/100 g fresh weight (fw (‘Dlinnoplodnaya’ and 372 mg/100 g fw (‘Kuvshinovidnaya’ and between 150.04 mg/100 g fw (‘Karina’ and 653.95 mg/100 g fw (‘Amur’, respectively. Among iridoids, loganic acid was the dominant compound, and it represented between 22% and 73% of the total amount of quantified iridoids in honeysuckle berry. A very strong correlation was observed between the antioxidant potential and the quantity of anthocyanins. High content of iridoids in honeysuckle berries can complement antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds.

  13. The effects of switching the camera module from BlackBerry Curve 9360 devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisolf, F.; Geradts, Z.; Verhoeven, D.; Klaver, C.

    A Photo-Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU) pattern is the 'fingerprint' of a digital camera, which is left in the images acquired with the camera. It can be used to identify the source of suspect images. For a case a BlackBerry phone with a camera was obtained and the question was if this phone was the

  14. Grape Berry Colonization and Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea by Indigenous Vineyard Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis bunch rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is the most important disease of grape berries, especially during transportation and storage. Biological control is a potential means of postharvest management of Botrytis bunch rot. The study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that antagonistic yeast...

  15. Proteomic profiling of German Dornfelder grape berries using data-independent acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Matthias; Fronk, Petra; Distler, Ute; Tenzer, Stefan; Decker, Heinz

    2017-09-01

    Grapevine is one of the most important fruit plants throughout the world. Sequencing of the grape genome in 2007 enabled in-depth analyses of the grape proteome. Whereas many studies addressed changes in proteomic composition of grapes during ripening, we focused on the proteome of mature grape berries from Dornfelder, a characteristic red wine grape for Germany. Current data-independent acquisition proteomics technology enables the analysis of proteomic compositions in a degree of accuracy that was unreachable only a few years ago. Using a label-free proteomics approach, we quantified 712 proteins in mature Dornfelder grape berries, of which 650 could be annotated by the Blast2GO software. Besides identification of proteins, our analysis provides protein amounts using the TOP3 absolute quantification approach. Most of the proteins (200) in mature Dornfelder grape berries are involved in stress response. In addition, all glycolytic key enzymes were detected in mature grape berries suggesting that glycolysis is still active, whereas sugar accumulation through gluconeogenesis utilizing malate as substrate seems to play a minor role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Simple rain-shelter cultivation prolongs accumulation period of anthocyanins in wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xi; He, Fei; Wang, Jun; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-09-17

    Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  17. Penicillium strains isolated from Slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Antonello; Mikušová, Petra; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Labuda, Roman; Srobárová, Antónia

    2014-11-01

    The secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in Slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. Three Slovak vine regions have been selected for this study, based on their climatic differences and national economic importance. Cultures of microfungi isolated from berries were incubated on different selective media for macro and micromorphology identification. The species Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium palitans and Penicillium polonicum were identified according to growth and morphology. The related strains were found to produce a broad spectrum of fungal metabolites, including roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin A, penitrem A, cyclopeptin, cyclopenin, viridicatin, methylviridicatin, verrucofortine, secalonic acid D, cyclopiazonic acid, fumigaclavine and mycophenolic acid. Chemotaxonomy was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Dried grape berries were also analyzed allowing to assess the presence of patulin, roquefortine C and penicillic acid; this last one has been identified in dried berries but not in vitro.

  18. Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Antioxidant Activities of Leaves and Berries of Cayratia trifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabeta, M.S.; Lin, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of fresh, thermal drying method (vacuum oven drying), and nonthermal drying method (freeze drying) on the antioxidant activities of leaves and berries of Cayratia trifolia using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) assays. The total phenolic content (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) of the leaves and berries of C. trifolia were also measured. Based on the results obtained, the TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities of the leaves and berries were arranged in the following order: freeze-dried sample with methanol extraction > vacuum-dried sample with methanol extraction > freeze-dried sample with water extraction > vacuum-dried sample with water extraction > fresh sample with methanol extraction > fresh sample with water extraction. The results showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the fresh and dried samples. In conclusion, freeze drying was found to be a good method for maintaining TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities by FRAP and DPPH methods in the leaves and berries of C. trifolia. (author)

  19. Amounts of NPK removed from soil in harvested coffee berries as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly samples of ripened improved robusta coffee berries from compact and large growth forms from three locations, which are representative of the main ecological zones where coffee is grown in Ghana, were taken for 3 years. The pulp and parchment and beans were analysed for N, P and K contents. The amounts of ...

  20. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  1. Integrated pest management of coffee berry borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: current status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges...

  2. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of Berry syndrome by fetal echocardiography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shui-Hua; Tian, Xiao-Xian; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Zuo-Jian

    2016-10-01

    We report a case in which Berry syndrome is diagnosed by fetal echocardiography. Fetal echocardiography showed that the ascending aorta, main pulmonary artery, left pulmonary artery, and right pulmonary artery were presented as a vascular complexity in the three vessels and pulmonary arterial branches view. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Coffee berry borer in conilon coffee in the Brazilian Cerrado: an ancient pest in a new environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  5. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Philip R; Eyeghe-Bickong, Hans A; du Plessis, Kari; Alexandersson, Erik; Jacobson, Dan A; Coetzee, Zelmari; Deloire, Alain; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) 'Sauvignon Blanc' berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure1

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Kari; Jacobson, Dan A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. PMID:26628747

  7. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  8. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Amrine, Katherine C H; Collins, Thomas S; Rivero, Rosa M; Vicente, Ariel R; Morales-Cruz, Abraham; Doyle, Carolyn L; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Cantu, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc., fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds and berry size (length, width contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair. Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  10. Analysis of physical properties of color and texture in goji-berry processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Pâmela Galo da; Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis, E-mail: pamela.gallo@outlook.com, E-mail: amandaramosk@gmail.com, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara, E-mail: flaviot@ymail.com [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás (IFG), Inhumas, GO (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Goji-berry is fruit native from China, found on a red berry form and keeps an excellent source of antioxidants, such as carotenoids. The consumption of goji-berry is growing on the Brazilian commerce. To allow the commercialization of this foods its necessary of these foods are free of contaminants agents which may cause damages to the consumers health. For this warranty it's required of this method does not harm the food properties and quality. For this check was made the study using goji-berry. Irradiation is one of the methods that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of some foods. Food irradiation is a technology process of exposing a particular food to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation. This study aimed compares the effects of ionizing radiation processing on physical properties of color and texture in goji-berries at different irradiation doses. Samples were bought on the retail market in the city of São Paulo and processed by ionizing radiation on Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) at doses of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 kGy and the control group. Then the samples were followed by color and texture analyses. The color assay's results showed that the irradiation process decreased red and yellow pigments. On the other hand, the sample's luminosity increased after being processed by ionizing radiation. On the texture assay was verified a decrease of the fruit compressive force, turning the fruit more softened. (author)

  11. Pest Management Strategies Against the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Francisco

    2018-03-22

    Coffee ( Coffea arabica and C. canephora) is one of the most widely traded agricultural commodities and the main cash crop in ∼80 tropical countries. Among the factors that limit coffee production, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) has been considered the main insect pest, causing losses of over U.S. $500 million dollars annually. Control of this pest has been hindered by two main factors: the cryptic nature of the insect (i.e., protected inside the coffee berry) and the availability of coffee berries in the field allowing the survival of the pest from one generation to the next. Coffee berry borer control has primarily been based on the use of synthetic insecticides. Management strategies have focused on the use of African parasitoids ( Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Prorops nasuta, and Phymastichus coffea), fungal entomopathogens ( Beauveria bassiana), and insect traps. These approaches have had mixed results. Recent work on the basic biology of the insect has provided novel insights that might be useful in developing novel pest management strategies. For example, the discovery of symbiotic bacteria responsible for caffeine breakdown as part of the coffee berry borer microbiome opens new possibilities for pest management via the disruption of these bacteria. Some chemicals with repellent propieties have been identified, and these have a high potential for field implementation. Finally, the publication of the CBB genome has provided insights on the biology of the insect that will help us to understand why it has been so successful at exploiting the coffee plant. Here I discuss the tools we now have against the CBB and likely control strategies that may be useful in the near future.

  12. Analysis of physical properties of color and texture in goji-berry processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Pâmela Galo da; Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis; Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara

    2017-01-01

    Goji-berry is fruit native from China, found on a red berry form and keeps an excellent source of antioxidants, such as carotenoids. The consumption of goji-berry is growing on the Brazilian commerce. To allow the commercialization of this foods its necessary of these foods are free of contaminants agents which may cause damages to the consumers health. For this warranty it's required of this method does not harm the food properties and quality. For this check was made the study using goji-berry. Irradiation is one of the methods that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of some foods. Food irradiation is a technology process of exposing a particular food to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation. This study aimed compares the effects of ionizing radiation processing on physical properties of color and texture in goji-berries at different irradiation doses. Samples were bought on the retail market in the city of São Paulo and processed by ionizing radiation on Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) at doses of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 kGy and the control group. Then the samples were followed by color and texture analyses. The color assay's results showed that the irradiation process decreased red and yellow pigments. On the other hand, the sample's luminosity increased after being processed by ionizing radiation. On the texture assay was verified a decrease of the fruit compressive force, turning the fruit more softened. (author)

  13. 2-Methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in grape berries and its dependence on genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alfredo; Doyle, Carolyn L; Matthews, Mark A; Williams, Larry E; Ebeler, Susan E

    2010-12-01

    2-Methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) contributes a bell pepper aroma to many grape cultivars and has a reported aroma threshold of ∼2 ng L(-1) in water. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) develop a procedure using headspace solid phase micro-extraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (HS-SPME-GC-MS-SIM) for analysis of MIBP in grape berries, and (2) determine the location of MIBP biosynthesis in grapevines by approach grafting clusters of Vitis vinifera L. cvs Cabernet Sauvignon and Muscat blanc onto each other. The soluble solids and pH of the grape juice/homogenate matrix from different grape berry developmental stages influenced the method precision; therefore, quantification via the method of standard addition was used. Using our developed method, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of MIBP were 0.1 ng L(-1) and 2 ng L(-1), respectively, measured in a model juice and non-MIBP containing Chardonnay juice. Spiked recoveries averaged between 91% and 112% in Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir homogenates and the overall relative standard deviation was less than 10%. The method was used to analyze MIBP in 29 grape cultivars and in fruit from clusters grafted to Cabernet Sauvignon or Muscat vines. Quantifiable levels were found only in Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon blanc and Semillon, providing information on the genetic connection for the occurrence of MIBP in grapes. No MIBP was detected in the berries of Muscat blanc clusters grafted onto Cabernet Sauvignon vines when sampled at fruit maturity. MIBP was detected in all berries of Cabernet Sauvignon regardless the graft configuration. The data indicate that MIBP or its precursors originate in the berry and its formation depends upon grape genotype. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Esca on the Quality of Berries, Musts and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Calzarano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the composition of berries, musts and wines in three groups of vines: 1. vines with foliar esca symptoms; 2. asymptomatic esca diseased vines; and 3. healthy vines, were studied in 2001 and 2002 in two “Trebbiano d’Abruzzo” vineyards in the Abruzzi region, Italy, to determine the effect of esca. Vines were grouped by foliar symptoms that had been recorded in annual inspections for 10 years: symptomatic vines by definition showed foliar symptoms in the sampling years (2001 and 2002; asymptomatic esca diseased vines showed no symptoms during the sampling years though they were known to be diseased because they had had foliar symptoms in at least one previous annual inspections; healthy vines were those with no symptoms at any time during the 10-year survey. The quality of berries, musts and wines obtained from vines with trunk renewal that had been restored, and of healthy unrenewed vines was compared in another vineyard of the same cultivar. Fairly similar results were obtained over the two sampling years, with a strong reduction in sugar levels of the must from symptomatic vines, leading to a lower ethanol content in the wine made from that must. These findings confirmed those of the preliminary investigation carried out in 2000. The yield pressed from symptomatic vines also had significantly higher levels of malic acid (causing higher total acidity, and of total nitrogen, potassium and total polyphenols. Berries from symptomatic vines had much higher levels of trans-resveratrol, possibly because of the spots on the leaves and berries. Small and non-significant differences between the yields of healthy vines and asymptomatic diseased vines were found, suggesting a slight loss in the quality of musts and wines from asymptomatic diseased vines. The yield of trunk-renewed vines was similar to that of healthy unrenewed vines, despite an increase of trans-resveratrol in the berries and of total nitrogen in the must of the trunk

  15. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, Malverina, Laurot, and Hibernal harvested during six consecutive weeks. Mechanical behaviour was measured using compression and puncture tests using of TIRATEST 27025 testing machine. Skin mechanical properties were evaluated using a puncture test carried out on the equatorial side. The dependence of these properties on the chemical composition has been evaluated. These parameters of force/time curves were studied by puncture test: the berry skin break force, the needle displacement at the skin break and the berry skin break energy. The crushing force, the plate displacement at the crushing strength and the berry crushing energy were studied from force/time curves by compression test. Results of the puncture test shows that there the skin break strength and the acidity content are monotonic functions of the time. A comparison of different varieties from the point of the value of the crushing force was obtained by vertical and transversal loading. The crushing force is monotonically decreasing function of the harvesting time like the break force evaluated at the puncture test. The correlation between the skin break strength and the sugar content is significant namely for the varieties: Hibernal, Riesling, Malverina, and Cerason. 

  16. Application of Computer Vision for quality control in frozen mixed berries production: colour calibration issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ricauda Aimonino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in quality control of many food processes. The appearance properties of food products (colour, texture, shape and size are, in fact, correlated with organoleptic characteristics and/or the presence of defects. Quality control based on image processing eliminates the subjectivity of human visual inspection, allowing rapid and non-destructive analysis. However, most food matrices show a wide variability in appearance features, therefore robust and customized image elaboration algorithms have to be implemented for each specific product. For this reason, quality control by visual inspection is still rather diffused in several food processes. The case study inspiring this paper concerns the production of frozen mixed berries. Once frozen, different kinds of berries are mixed together, in different amounts, according to a recipe. The correct quantity of each kind of fruit, within a certain tolerance, has to be ensured by producers. Quality control relies on bringing few samples for each production lot (samples of the same weight and, manually, counting the amount of each species. This operation is tedious, subject to errors, and time consuming, while a computer vision system (CVS could determine the amount of each kind of berries in a few seconds. This paper discusses the problem of colour calibration of the CVS used for frozen berries mixture evaluation. Images are acquired by a digital camera coupled with a dome lighting system, which gives a homogeneous illumination on the entire visible surface of the berries, and a flat bed scanner. RBG device dependent data are then mapped onto CIELab colorimetric colour space using different transformation operators. The obtained results show that the proposed calibration procedure leads to colour discrepancies comparable or even below the human eyes sensibility.

  17. Formation of merchandizing characteristics and extension of the commercial range of products from wild-growing berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Миколайович Одарченко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The methods and main parameters for the receipt of reversible phases of wild-growing berries are substantiated and its merchandizing characteristics are studied. Cryoscopic and optical properties of solid phase are studied. Based on the determination of the consumer properties of liquid and solid phases from berries the possible ways for their application in food technologies are suggested. It is also determined that electrophysical method can work as the method of express-analysis during the expertise of fresh wild-growing berries and products after their processing

  18. NMR-based identification of the phenolic profile of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries). Isolation and structural determination of a novel N-feruloyl tyramine dimer as the most abundant antioxidant polyphenol of goji berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forino, Martino; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Ciminiello, Patrizia

    2016-03-01

    Biological properties of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries) have been ascribed to their high content of nutrients and phenolics. Comprehensive studies aimed at unambiguously identifying the phenolic components in goji berries are still lacking. In this paper, we report on the isolation and NMR-based identification of the major phenolics in commercially available goji berries. Together with already known phenolics, including caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, scopoletin, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, and N-cis-feruloyl tyramine, an unreported N-feruloyl tyramine dimer was characterized as the most abundant polyphenol isolated from the berries. Usually divalent molecules show enhanced biological activities than their corresponding monomers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Llewellyn Hilleth Thomas: An appraisal of an under-appreciated polymath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John David

    2010-02-01

    Llewellyn Hilleth Thomas was born in 1903 and died in 1992 at the age of 88. His name is known by most for only two things, Thomas precession and the Thomas-Fermi atom. The many other facets of his career - astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, nonlinear problems, accelerator physics, magnetohydrodynamics, computer design principles and software and hardware - are largely unknown or forgotten. I review his whole career - his early schooling, his time at Cambridge, then Copenhagen in 1925-26, and back to Cambridge, his move to the US as an assistant professor at Ohio State University in 1929, his wartime years at the Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, then in 1946 his new career as a unique resource at IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and Columbia University until his first retirement in 1968, and his twilight years at North Carolina State University. Although the Thomas precession and the Thomas-Fermi atom may be the jewels in his crown, his many other accomplishments add to our appreciation of this consummate applied mathematician and physicist. )

  20. Waren Judas en Thomas gnostici? Het evangelie naar Johannes met gnostische ogen gelezen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van de Beek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jude and Thomas, were they Gnostics? Reading the Gospel according to John from a Gnostic perspective The discoveries of Gnostic texts since the mid of the twentieth century challenge biblical scholarship to read New Testament texts from new points of view. It is remarkable that Jesus’ disciples who are prominently present in Gnostic texts, especially Jude, Thomas and Philip are also more conspicuous characters in the Gospel of John than in the Synoptics. This challenges scholars to read these sections in relation to Gnosticism. The article aims at reading the scenes dealing with Jude and Thomas in John’s gospel with a Gnostic framework in mind. These texts gain more profile than by a traditional reading which is often based on a psychological understanding of Jude and Thomas. The article demonstrates that the author of John’s gospel uses these passages in an anti-Gnostic discourse. Thomas is a Gnostic who could fully understand Jesus’ words in a Gnostic way until he encounters the bodily risen Lord. Jude does not make such a conversion and disappears in the night. These are the option for Gnostics: either convert to the type of Christianity the Gospel of John teaches or being lost in darkness.

  1. First-principle calculations of the Berry curvature of Bloch states for charge and spin transport of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradhand, M; Fedorov, D V; Pientka, F; Zahn, P; Mertig, I; Györffy, B L

    2012-05-30

    Recent progress in wave packet dynamics based on the insight of Berry pertaining to adiabatic evolution of quantum systems has led to the need for a new property of a Bloch state, the Berry curvature, to be calculated from first principles. We report here on the response to this challenge by the ab initio community during the past decade. First we give a tutorial introduction of the conceptual developments we mentioned above. Then we describe four methodologies which have been developed for first-principle calculations of the Berry curvature. Finally, to illustrate the significance of the new developments, we report some results of calculations of interesting physical properties such as the anomalous and spin Hall conductivity as well as the anomalous Nernst conductivity and discuss the influence of the Berry curvature on the de Haas-van Alphen oscillation.

  2. A technique to dissect the alimentary canal of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei , with isolation of internal microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Ceja-Navarro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A technique for dissecting the alimentary canal of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is presented. The technique was developed to isolate and identify alimentary canal-associated microorganisms that might be involved in caffeine detoxification.

  3. The Induction of Noble Rot (Botrytis cinerea Infection during Postharvest Withering Changes the Metabolome of Grapevine Berries (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Garganega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Negri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural or induced development of noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea during the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening is used in some traditional viticulture areas to produce high-quality wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji. In this research, we wanted to verify if by changing the environmental conditions during post-harvest withering we could induce the noble rot development on harvested berries in order to positively change the wine produced from withered Garganega berries. Therefore, we exposed the berries to postharvest withering under normal or artificially humid conditions, the latter to induce noble rot. The presence of noble rot symptoms was associated with the development of B. cinerea in the berries maintained under humid conditions. The composition of infected and non-infected berries was investigated by untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We also explored the effects of the two withering methods on the abundance of volatile organic compounds in wine by yeast-inoculated micro-fermentation followed by targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed significant metabolic differences between berries withered under normal and humid conditions, indicating that noble rot affects berry metabolism and composition. As well as well-known botrytization markers, we detected two novel lipids that have not been observed before in berries infected with noble rot. Unraveling the specific metabolic profile of berries infected with noble rot may help to determine the compounds responsible for the organoleptic quality traits of botrytized Garganega wines.

  4. del Nido versus St. Thomas Cardioplegia Solutions: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis of Post Cross-Clamp Defibrillation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buel, Shane T; Striker, Carrie Whittaker; O'Brien, James E

    2016-06-01

    There are many cardioplegia solutions currently in use for pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The most common being del Nido solution. Another common cardioplegia solution used for pediatric CPB is St. Thomas. In October 2014, Children's Mercy Kansas City changed from the use of modified St. Thomas to del Nido. This study compared rates of post cross-clamp fibrillation requiring defibrillation between del Nido solution and modified St. Thomas solution stratified by weight at Children's Mercy Kansas City. This retrospective study consisted of 394 patients who underwent cardiac surgery requiring cardioplegia between January 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015. The outcome measured was defibrillation upon cross-clamp removal. Statistical significance was determined using Fishers exact test with a two-sided significance level of .05. Incidence of defibrillation post cross-clamp removal was 4.4% in the del Nido group and 26.8% in the St. Thomas group (p Thomas group (p Thomas group (p Thomas group (p 60-kg category had an incidence of defibrillation of 16.7% in the del Nido group and 63% in the St. Thomas group (p Thomas and del Nido cardioplegia solutions. Analyses of weight stratifications demonstrate a decrease in the rate of defibrillation post cross-clamp removal in all categories within the del Nido group.

  5. Effect of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction in the context of intravineyard ripeness variation under winemaking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    Significant intravineyard variation in grape berry ripening occurs within vines and between vines. However, no cell wall data are available on such variation. Here we used a checkerboard panel design to investigate ripening variation in pooled grape bunches for enzyme-assisted winemaking...... positively influence the consistency of winemaking and provides a foundation for further research into the relationship between grape berry cell wall architecture and enzyme formulations....

  6. Long-term impact of deficit irrigation on the physical quality of berries in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa, Maria R; de la Rosa, Jose M; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Dodd, Ian C; Domingo, Rafael; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    In table grapes, berry firmness influences consumer acceptance so it is important to avoid berry shattering and dehydration during their post-harvest life. Since studies of irrigation effects on table grape quality are comparatively rare, sensory evaluation aimed to identify high-quality berries obtained under different deficit irrigation treatments. A 3-year study examined the effects of deficit irrigation strategies on some physical quality attributes at harvest, after 28 days of cold storage at 0 °C and after an additional shelf-life period of 3 days at 15 °C. Control vines were irrigated to ensure non-limiting water conditions (110% of crop evapo-transpiration), while both regulated deficit irrigation treatment (RDI) and partial root-zone drying (PRD) treatments applied 35% less water post-veraison. The null irrigation treatment (NI) only received natural precipitation (72% less water than control vines). Total yield and physical quality at harvest were not significantly affected by RDI or PRD. Only severe deficit (NI) decreased berry size, and this treatment had the most dehydrated berries and the worst sensory scores post-harvest. After cold storage, increased berry shattering of the PRD treatment was correlated with lower leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentration at the time of harvest. Overall quality, especially stem browning, determined the shelf-life, and longer storage duration tended to diminish treatment differences. Only NI clusters showed lower quality than their irrigated counterparts. Neither RDI nor PRD had any noticeable effect on berry quality at the end of cold storage and shelf-life, with the slight differences detected between these treatments related to stem browning and dehydration. Sensory results were similar in RDI and PRD, which provided grapes that were more acceptable to consumers than the control. Thus, it is possible to decrease irrigation of table grapes without adversely affecting the physical quality of the berries. © 2014

  7. Dissecting the Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of a Locally Applied Heat Treatment on Developing Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Pieri, Philippe; Charon, Justine; Pillet, Jérémy; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, David

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories "stress responses," "protein metabolism" and "secondary metabolism," highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to "transport," "hormone" and "cell wall" might contribute to the postponing of veraison

  8. Changes in texture analysis parameters of wine grape berries at two ripeness stages: A study on varietal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Brillante, L.; Gaiot, F.; Lovat, L.; Giacosac, S.; Río Segade, S.; Vincenzi, S.; Torchio, F.; Rolle, L.; Tomasi, D.

    2017-01-01

    Ripening of grapes is associated with great modifications at both the chemical and physical level. The aim of this work was to describe the changes in physical-mechanical parameters associated to ripening of wine grape berries, as evaluated by texture analysis, in order to understand if these modifications are stable across cultivars, or they are cultivar-specific. Berries from 21 different cultivars were sorted by flotation in different saline solutions, separated in two ripening stages diff...

  9. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening.

  10. Characterization and functional properties of new everbearing strawberry (Fragaria x ananasa Duch.) cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Nagai; Misuzu Tamai; Masato Sato

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, a new everbearing strawberry cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ was cultivated to supply the strawberries in pre-harvest season from July to October in Japan. For highly research and development of processing of this cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries, the objective of this study was to characterize these berries, with relation to chemical parameters, total phenols, total flavonoids, total vitamin C, and total anthocyanins, and was to investigate the solubil...

  11. Berry phases for 3D Hartree-type equations with a quadratic potential and a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinets, F N; Shapovalov, A V; Trifonov, A Yu

    2007-01-01

    A countable set of asymptotic space-localized solutions is constructed for a 3D Hartree-type equation with a quadratic potential by the complex germ method in the adiabatic approximation. The asymptotic parameter is 1/T, where T >> 1 is the adiabatic evolution time. A generalization of the Berry phase of the linear Schroedinger equation is formulated for the Hartree-type equation. For the solutions constructed, the Berry phases are found in an explicit form

  12. Cocktails of ramsons and acidic berries kill E. coli in a piglet gastrointestinal model: an alternative to antibiotics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria; Grevsen, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Mixing ramsons and acidic berries enhances, in a synergistic manner, the antimicrobial activity observed for the plants separately, and make the plant cocktails of interest as a feed additives as an alternative to antibiotics in both organic and conventional pig production.......Mixing ramsons and acidic berries enhances, in a synergistic manner, the antimicrobial activity observed for the plants separately, and make the plant cocktails of interest as a feed additives as an alternative to antibiotics in both organic and conventional pig production....

  13. Obituary: Thomas C. Van Flandern (1940-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, David; Slabinski, Victor

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Thomas Charles Van Flandern, an expert in celestial mechanics and cosmology, died January 9, 2009 in Seattle, Washington, of colon cancer. He was 68. Van Flandern was an astronomer at the U.S. Naval Observatory from 1963 to 1983. He developed software to predict and analyze lunar occultations to improve lunar orbital and fundamental star catalog data. In later years he championed increasingly controversial theories. But his 1978 prediction that some asteroids have natural satellites, which was almost universally rejected, was verified when the Galileo spacecraft photographed Dactyl, a satellite of (243) Ida, during its flyby in 1993. Besides astronomy and computers, he had strong interests in biochemistry and nutrition, and he ran a business selling personal computers in the 1980s. Tom Van Flandern was born June 26, 1940 in Cleveland, Ohio, the first child of Robert F. Van Flandern and Anna Mary Haley. His father, a police officer, left the family when Tom Van Flandern was 5. His mother died when he was 16; he and his siblings then lived with their grandmother, Margery Jobe, until he went to college. Tom Van Flandern became interested in astronomy as a child. He used his first telescope, purchased with newspaper delivery earnings, to observe lunar occultations, and then learned how to predict them, sparking a life-long passion for dynamical astronomy. While attending St. Ignatius High School, Van Flandern and fellow student Thomas Petrie organized the Cleveland Moonwatch team to observe the first artificial satellites, the only team without an adult organizer. In 1958, Tom Van Flandern entered Xavier University where he led the Cincinnati Moonwatch team. He learned computer programming at a summer job with General Electric and wrote software to calculate "look angles" from orbital elements. The Cincinnati team became a top producer of observations using these predictions. Tom obtained a B.S. in mathematics from Xavier in 1962. He spent the next year at

  14. Grapevine rootstocks differentially affect the rate of ripening and modulate auxin-related genes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano eCorso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigour. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behaviour of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  15. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  16. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshen Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  17. Current evidence on the health-beneficial effects of berry fruits in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Berries belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds, which exert a synergistic and cumulative effect on promotion of human health and prevention of diseases. The present review presents the most recent findings of animal and human studies regarding the health benefits of berries in terms of prevention and treatment of obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the last years, there was a growing number of evidence from human epidemiological and interventional studies, which emphasized the role of berries in the management of metabolic diseases. Based on the results from recent clinical trials, it can be established that a berry diet rich in antioxidants and bioactive phytochemicals has beneficial effects on hepatic function, increase of insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, decrease of serum glucose and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and finally is inversely associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Numerous recent studies have shown that berries provide great benefits in preventing or mitigating metabolic disorders. The results of this review indicate that regular long-term consumption of different berries could potentially delay the progression of metabolic syndrome and comorbidities.

  18. A relativistic extended Fermi-Thomas-like equation for a self-gravitating system of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merloni, A.; Ruffini, R.; Torroni, V.

    1998-01-01

    The authors extend previous results of a Fermi-Thomas model, describing self-gravitating fermions in their ground state, to a relativistic gravitational theory in Minkowski space. In such a theory the source term of the gravitational potential depends both on the pressure and the density of the fluid. It is shown that, in correspondence of this relativistic treatment, still a Fermi-Thomas-like equation can be derived for the self-gravitating system, though the non-linearities are much more complex. No Fermi-Thomas-like equation can be obtained in the General Relativistic treatment. The canonical results for neutron stars and white dwarfs are recovered and also some erroneous statements in the scientific literature are corrected

  19. The Ecclesiological Contributions of Thomas Helwys’s Reformation in a Baptist Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Marvin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The English Separatist movement provided the background for which John Smyth and Thomas Helwys emerged to reconstitute a biblical ecclesiology. Through the study of the New Testament, they came to the position that infant baptism and covenantal theology could not be the foundation for the New Testament church. Both men embraced believer’s baptism as the basic foundation in which a recovered church should be built. Unfortunately, Smyth defected to the Mennonites, leaving Thomas Helwys to continue the fledging work known as Baptists. This article will examine the life of Thomas Helwys and his contribution to Baptist ecclesiology; it will also review selected literary works that contributed to the recovery of a New Testament church and the founding of Baptist ecclesiology.

  20. Effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; He, Yan-Nan; Chen, Wei-Kai; He, Fei; Chen, Wu; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-15

    Cluster thinning is a common practice for regulating vine yield and grape quality. The effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of V. vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon were evaluated during two seasons. Half of the clusters were removed at pea-size and veraison relative to two controls, respectively. Both cluster thinning treatments significantly increased pruning weight and decreased yield. No effects of cluster thinning on berry growth, ripeness and flavonol composition were observed. Early cluster thinning decreased the photosynthetic rate at pea-size, but the effect diminished at post-veraison. Early cluster thinning significantly promoted the biosynthesis of anthocyanins but decreased the proportion of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins at veraison. Late cluster thinning decreased the proportions of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins. Additionally, Cluster thinning showed inconsistent effects on flavan-3-ol composition over the two seasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Topological spin transport of photons: the optical Magnus effect and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliokh, K.Yu.; Bliokh, Yu.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Letter develops a modified geometrical optics (GO) of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium, which takes into account two topological phenomena: Berry phase and the optical Magnus effect. Taking into account the correspondence between a quasi-classical motion of a quantum particle with a spin and GO of an electromagnetic wave in smoothly inhomogeneous media, we have introduced the standard gauge potential associated with the degeneracy in the wave momentum space. This potential corresponds to the magnetic-monopole-like field (Berry curvature), which causes the topological spin (polarization) transport of photons. The deviations of waves of right-hand and left-hand polarization occur in the opposite directions and orthogonally to the principal direction of motion. This produces a spin current directed across the principal motion. The situation is similar to the anomalous Hall effect for electrons. In addition, a simple scheme of the experiment allowing one to observe the topological spin splitting of photons has been suggested

  2. Classical surgical approach and treatment with clips of extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Vukas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We can define extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA as bulb dilatation greater than 200% of the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA or in a case of common carotid artery (CCA greater than 150% of the diameter. Surgical intervention is required for the treatment of this disease.Case report: This study presents an open vascular surgical procedure to resolve ECAA. We report a case of 61 years old woman with an extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm, presented with a headache and dizziness when turning the head aside. Classic open surgery was performed and the lumen of berry aneurysm was separated with three clips from the lumen of ICA.Conclusions: The open surgical approach is the method of choice for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery pathological conditions.

  3. Quantum-classical correspondences of the Berry-Robnik parameter through bifurcations in lemon billiard systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, H.; Harayama, T.; Aizawa, Y.

    2001-05-01

    The quantum level statistics affected by bifurcations in classical dynamics is studied by using a one-parameter family of lemon billiard systems. The classical phase space of our system consists of regular and irregular regions. We determine an analytic solution of the phase volume for these regions as a function of the system parameter and show that the function reveals a cusp singularity at the bifurcation point. The function is compared with its quantum mechanical counterpart, the Berry-Robnik parameter. By estimating the semiclassical regime from the effective Planck constant that validates the quantum-classical correspondence of the Berry-Robnik parameter, we determine a region of the system parameter where the cusp can be reproduced by the statistical properties of the eigenenergy levels.

  4. Flavonoid Profile of Saskatoon Berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and Their Health Promoting Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Mlcek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a significant group of secondary metabolites in plants. Many of these compounds are potent antioxidants, being an important part in food products derived from the plants. The current status of research on flavonoid compounds in the fruit of Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and their health promoting effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed. The major classes of flavonoids in the fruit are flavonols (quercetin and rutin, flavanes (proanthocyanidin compounds ranging from dimers through to heptamers and even higher polymers and finally anthocyanins. The flavonoids represented the group of polyphenols that mostly contributed to the antioxidant activity of Saskatoon berries. High content of the flavoinoids antioxidants in the fruit is responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory, antidiadiabetic and chemo-protective effects.

  5. Jude the Obscure de Thomas Hardy et l’autorité de la lettre Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy and the Power of the Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Bernard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hardy is usually considered a Victorian writer. Nonetheless, his last novel Jude the Obscure, announced the era of modernity which started with the twentieth century, just before he abandoned fiction to concentrate on poetry. With modernity looming in the background, Jude the Obscure allowed for the rewriting of tragedy. Urban settings have replaced the countryside and all signs of transcendence have vanished from society. This defeat of the divine is nevertheless accompanied by a great number of biblical references. Thomas Hardy quotes and uses the Divine Letter as if to rewrite it rather than to appear faithful to the Word. The text keeps offering itself to the spell of voice: it does so when Job utters words of revolt and then worship, when Jude lets his imagination flow from his lips so that he seems to live on in the text after he is dead, or when the voice of the novelist becomes the voice of a poet.

  6. Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Ariane Renee

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation, Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography interrogates how pornography, from the 1930s to the present, functions as an essential site in the production of black female sexuality. Closely reading a diverse pool of primary pornographic visual materials, across print, moving image and the internet, such as photographs, magazines, trade magazines, videos, DVDs, and internet website viewings, I argue that pornograph...

  7. On the calculation of the Berry phase in a solvable model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulla, W.; Falkensteiner, P.; Grosse, H.

    1988-01-01

    We study fermions defined on a one-dimensional interval, for which the interaction is given by a four-parameter family of boundary conditions. We compare the full solution to the adiabatic approximation and determine the Berry phase for a number of typical orbits in parameter space. We observe the occurence of a non-trivial fundamental group and discuss the possibilities of avoided crossings and apparent crossings. 10 refs. (Author)

  8. Berry phase and shot noise for spin-polarized and entangled electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pei; Tang Weihua; Lu Dinghui; Jiang Lixia; Zhao Xuean

    2007-01-01

    Shot noise for entangled and spin-polarized states in a four-probe geometric setup has been studied by adding two rotating magnetic fields in an incoming channel. Our results show that the noise power oscillates as the magnetic fields vary. The singlet, entangled triplet and polarized states can be distinguished by adjusting the magnetic fields. The Berry phase can be derived by measuring the shot noise power

  9. Classification theorem for principal fibre bundles, Berry's phase, and exact cycle evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, A.; Boya, L.J.; Mostafazadeh, A.; Rudolph, G.

    1993-03-01

    The relation between the two mathematical interpretations of the geometric (Berry) phase is discussed, using either the fibre bundle over parameter space or over projective Hilbert space. It turns out that these two geometric constructions are linked by the classification theorem for vector bundles. The classification theorem provides the means to classify the parameter space bundles for adiabatic evolution and for non-adiabatic cyclic evolution of the statevectors

  10. Modelling of the process of micromycetus survival in fruit and berry syrups

    OpenAIRE

    L. Osipova; V. Kirillov; N. Khudenko; T. Sugachenko

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop methods for preserving fruit and berry syrup, which exclude the use of high-temperature sterilization and preservatives, the survival of spores of micromycetes (B. nivea molds) in model media with different concentration of food osmotically active substances (sucrose, ethyl alcohol, citric acid) at a certain concentration of lethal effects on microorganisms. It has been established that model media (juice based syrups from blueberries) with a mass content of 4 % and 6 % al...

  11. Effect of aronia berry honey syrup used for sweetening jams on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiecik, W; Lisiewska, Z; Jaworska, G

    2001-08-01

    The effects of sweetening agents on the quality of low sweetened jams were compared with respect to blackcurrant, raspberry, sour cherry, strawberry, and bilberry jams. The sweetening agents were sucrose, aronia berry honey syrup, and sucrose + honey syrup at a ratio of 1:1. The level of physicochemical indices, especially the content of vitamin C and anthocyanins determined directly after production and after 3- and 6-month storage, was used as the quality criterion for the evaluation of jams. Moreover, after 6-month storage the products were subjected to sensorial analysis. According to the accepted method of the investigation the produced jams were characterized by a 32-33% content of extract. During the production and 6-month storage the content of acids slightly and that of pectin considerably (from 26 to 46%) decreased, although the consistency of the jams was not affected thereby. In the case of vitamin C, its pronounced losses concerned raspberry (62-67% of the initial value), strawberry (57-61%), and sour cherry (57-58%), being distinctly smaller in blackcurrant (13-16%) and bilberry (15-35%) jams. With respect to anthocyanins a similar regularity was observed, the losses reaching 49-63% in strawberry jam, 40-56% in raspberry, 33-39% in sour cherry, 30-36% in blackcurrant, and 28-36% in bilberries. In almost all the products the losses of vitamin C and anthocyanins were higher when sweetening agent was aronia berry honey syrup. The organoleptic evaluation showed that the addition of aronia berry honey syrup to raspberry and strawberry jams slightly spoiled their colour but improved the aroma and taste. In the final score the significant differentiation in favour of the addition of aronia berry honey syrup concerned only blackcurrant, sour cherry, and bilberry jams.

  12. Dynamical Birefringence: Electron-Hole Recollisions as Probes of Berry Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter B. Banks

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct measurement of Berry phases is still a great challenge in condensed-matter systems. The bottleneck has been the ability to adiabatically drive an electron coherently across a large portion of the Brillouin zone in a solid where the scattering is strong and complicated. We break through this bottleneck and show that high-order sideband generation (HSG in semiconductors is intimately affected by Berry phases. Electron-hole recollisions and HSG occur when a near-band-gap laser beam excites a semiconductor that is driven by sufficiently strong terahertz-frequency electric fields. We carry out experimental and theoretical studies of HSG from three GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. The observed HSG spectra contain sidebands up to the 90th order, to our knowledge the highest-order optical nonlinearity reported in solids. The highest-order sidebands are associated with electron-hole pairs driven coherently across roughly 10% of the Brillouin zone around the Γ point. The principal experimental claim is a dynamical birefringence: the intensity and polarization of the sidebands depend on the relative polarization of the exciting near-infrared (NIR and the THz electric fields, as well as on the relative orientation of the laser fields with the crystal. We explain dynamical birefringence by generalizing the three-step model for high-order harmonic generation. The hole accumulates Berry phases due to variation of its internal state as the quasimomentum changes under the THz field. Dynamical birefringence arises from quantum interference between time-reversed pairs of electron-hole recollision pathways. We propose a method to use dynamical birefringence to measure Berry curvature in solids.

  13. Semiclassical approach to Regge poles trajectories calculations for nonsingular potentials: Thomas-Fermi type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, S M; Avdonina, N B; Felfli, Z; Marletta, M; Msezane, A Z; Naboko, S N

    2004-01-01

    A simple semiclassical approach, based on the investigation of anti-Stokes line topology, is presented for calculating Regge poles for nonsingular (Thomas-Fermi type) potentials, namely potentials with singularities at the origin weaker than order -2. The anti-Stokes lines for Thomas-Fermi potentials have a more complicated structure than those of singular potentials and require careful application of complex analysis. The explicit solution of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition is used to obtain approximate Regge poles. We introduce and employ three hypotheses to obtain several terms of the Regge pole approximation

  14. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Brown

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents, the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer.

  15. Solute accumulation differs in the vacuoles and apoplast of ripening grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Shrestha, Pradeep M

    2014-03-01

    Phloem unloading is thought to switch from a symplastic route to an apoplastic route at the beginning of ripening in grape berries and some other fleshy fruits. However, it is unclear whether different solutes accumulate in both the mesocarp vacuoles and the apoplast. We modified a method developed for tomato fruit to extract apoplastic sap from grape berries and measured the changes in apoplastic and vacuolar pH, soluble sugars, organic acids, and potassium in ripening berries of Vitis vinifera 'Merlot' and V. labruscana 'Concord'. Solute accumulation varied by genotype, compartment, and chemical species. The apoplast pH was substantially higher than the vacuolar pH, especially in Merlot (approximately two units). However, the vacuole-apoplast proton gradient declined during ripening and in Merlot, but not in Concord, collapsed entirely at maturity. Hexoses accumulated in both the vacuoles and apoplast but at different rates. Organic acids, especially malate, declined much more in the vacuoles than in the apoplast. Potassium accumulated in the vacuoles and apoplast of Merlot. In Concord, by contrast, potassium increased in the vacuoles but decreased in the apoplast. These results suggest that solutes in the fruit apoplast are tightly regulated and under developmental control.

  16. Impact of Procyanidins from Different Berries on Caspase 8 Activation in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Minker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope. The aim of this work is to identify which proapoptotic pathway is induced in human colon cancer cell lines, in contact with proanthocyanidins extracted from various berries. Methods and Results. Proanthocyanidins (Pcys extracted from 11 berry species are monitored for proapoptotic activities on two related human colon cancer cell lines: SW480-TRAIL-sensitive and SW620-TRAIL-resistant. Apoptosis induction is monitored by cell surface phosphatidylserine (PS detection. Lowbush blueberry extract triggers the strongest activity. When tested on the human monocytic cell line THP-1, blueberry Pcys are less effective for PS externalisation and DNA fragmentation is absent, highlighting a specificity of apoptosis induction in gut cells. In Pcys-treated gut cell lines, caspase 8 (apoptosis extrinsic pathway but not caspase 9 (apoptosis intrinsic pathway is activated after 3 hours through P38 phosphorylation (90 min, emphasizing the potency of lowbush blueberry Pcys to eradicate gut TRAIL-resistant cancer cells. Conclusion. We highlight here that berries Pcys, especially lowbush blueberry Pcys, are of putative interest for nutritional chemoprevention of colorectal cancer in view of their apoptosis induction in a human colorectal cancer cell lines.

  17. Chiral anomaly, Berry phase, and chiral kinetic theory from worldlines in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Niklas; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-03-01

    In previous work, we outlined a worldline framework that can be used for systematic computations of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Towards this end, we first expressed the real part of the fermion determinant in the QCD effective action as a supersymmetric worldline action of spinning, colored, Grassmanian point particles in background gauge fields, with equations of motion that are covariant generalizations of the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi and Wong equations. The chiral anomaly, in contrast, arises from the phase of the fermion determinant. Remarkably, the latter too can be expressed as a point particle worldline path integral, which can be employed to derive the anomalous axial vector current. We will show here how Berry's phase can be obtained in a consistent nonrelativistic adiabatic limit of the real part of the fermion determinant. Our work provides a general first principles demonstration that the topology of Berry's phase is distinct from that of the chiral anomaly confirming prior arguments by Fujikawa in specific contexts. This suggests that chiral kinetic treatments of the CME in heavy-ion collisions that include Berry's phase alone are incomplete. We outline the elements of a worldline covariant relativistic chiral kinetic theory that captures the physics of how the chiral current is modified by many-body scattering and topological fluctuations.

  18. The Encapsulation of Anthocyanins from Berry-Type Fruits. Trends in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Robert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, many berry-type fruits have been recognised as good sources of anthocyanins. Nevertheless, the use of anthocyanins in the development of food colourants and healthy and/or functional ingredients has been limited because of their low stability under given environmental conditions and interaction with other compounds in the food matrix. This review compiles information about the encapsulation of anthocyanins from twelve different berry-type fruit species as a technology for improving the stability and/or bioavailability of anthocyanins. Encapsulation by spray drying has been the primary method used to encapsulate anthocyanins, and some studies attempt to keep anthocyanin microparticles stable during storage. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to determine the stability of anthocyanin microparticles in food matrices over the product shelf life in the development of food colourants. Studies about encapsulated anthocyanins in simulated gastrointestinal models have primarily been conducted on the release of anthocyanins from microparticles to evaluate their bioavailability. However, adding anthocyanin microparticles to a food vehicle must guarantee the health properties attributed to the specific anthocyanins present in berry-type fruits.

  19. Light quality affects flavonoid biosynthesis in young berries of Cabernet Sauvignon grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Ikeda, Hiroko; Poudel, Puspa Raj; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds is known to be sensitive to light environments, which reflects the possible role of these compounds for photoprotection in plants. Herein, the effects of UV and visible light on biosynthesis of flavonoids was investigated, i.e., proanthocyanidins (PAs) and flavonols, in young berry skins of a red-wine grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Shading with light-proof boxes from the flowering stage until 49 days after treatment (DAT) partially decreased PA concentrations, and completely decreased flavonol concentrations in the berry skins. Shading decreased the transcript abundance of a flavonol-related gene more remarkably than those of PA-related genes. In addition, light exclusion influenced the composition of PAs, such as the decrease in the proportion of trihydroxylated subunits and the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) within PAs. However, solar UV exclusion did not affect the concentration and composition of PAs, whereas this exclusion remarkably decreased the flavonol concentration. Consistently, UV exclusion did not influence the transcript levels of PA-related genes, whereas it dramatically decreased that of flavonol-related genes. These findings indicated a different light regulation of the biosynthesis of these flavonoids in young berry skins of wine grape. Visible light primarily induces biosynthesis of PAs and affects their composition, whereas UV light specifically induces biosynthesis of flavonols. Distinct roles of members of a MYB transcription factor family for light regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis were proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification and localization of the bilitranslocase homologue in white grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Alberto; Peresson, Carlo; Petrussa, Elisa; Braidot, Enrico; Passamonti, Sabina; Macrì, Francesco; Vianello, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    A homologue of the mammalian bilirubin transporter bilitranslocase (BTL) (TCDB 2.A.65.1.1), able to perform an apparent secondary active transport of flavonoids, has previously been found in carnation petals and red grape berries. In the present work, a BTL homologue was also shown in white berries from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tocai/Friulano, using anti-sequence antibodies specific for rat liver BTL. This transporter, similarly to what found in red grape, was localized in the first layers of the epidermal tissue and in the vascular bundle cells of the mesocarp. In addition, a strong immunochemical reaction was detected in the placental tissue and particularly in peripheral integuments of the seed. The protein was expressed during the last maturation stages in both skin and pulp tissues and exhibited an apparent molecular mass of c. 31 kDa. Furthermore, the transport activity of such a carrier, measured as bromosulphophthalein (BSP) uptake, was detected in berry pulp microsomes, where it was inhibited by specific anti-BTL antibodies. The BTL homologue activity exhibited higher values, for both K(m) and V(max), than those found in the red cultivar. Moreover, two non-pigmented flavonoids, such as quercetin (a flavonol) and eriodictyol (a flavanone), inhibited the uptake of BSP in an uncompetitive manner. Such results strengthen the hypothesis that this BTL homologue acts as a carrier involved also in the membrane transport of colourless flavonoids and demonstrate the presence of such a carrier in different organs and tissues.

  1. Alaskan wild berry resources and human health under the cloud of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Joshua; Wang, Jinzhi; Flint, Courtney; Ribnicky, David; Kuhn, Peter; De Mejia, Elvira González; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2010-04-14

    Wild berries are integral dietary components for Alaska Native people and a rich source of polyphenolic metabolites that can ameliorate metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, five species of wild Alaskan berries (Vaccinium ovalifolium , Vaccinium uliginosum , Rubus chamaemorus , Rubus spectabilis , and Empetrum nigrum) were screened for bioactivity through a community-participatory research method involving three geographically distinct tribal communities. Compositional analysis by HPLC and LC-MS(2) revealed substantial site-specific variation in anthocyanins (0.01-4.39 mg/g of FW) and proanthocyanidins (0.74-6.25 mg/g of FW) and identified A-type proanthocyanidin polymers. R. spectabilis increased expression levels of preadipocyte factor 1 (182%), and proanthocyanidin-enriched fractions from other species reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Selected extracts reduced serum glucose levels in C57BL/6J mice by up to 45%. Local observations provided robust insights into effects of climatic fluctuations on berry abundance and quality, and preliminary site-specific compositional and bioactivity differences were noted, suggesting the need to monitor this Alaska Native resource as climate shifts affect the region.

  2. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old were maintained on a regular diet (CON or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016 and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR (p = 0.012, suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007. Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 (p = 0.047, and protein kinase B (AKT (p = 0.037, were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 (p = 0.036 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (p = 0.032, which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  3. Ginseng berry extract supplementation improves age-related decline of insulin signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunhui; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sang Jun; Oh, Byung-Chul; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2015-04-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old) were maintained on a regular diet (CON) or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD) for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016) and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.012), suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007). Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (p = 0.047), and protein kinase B (AKT) (p = 0.037), were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) (p = 0.036) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) (p = 0.032), which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  4. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behaviour and neuronal function in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Bielinski, Donna F; Lau, Francis C; Willis, Lauren M; Carey, Amanda N; Joseph, James A

    2015-11-28

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) supplementations, when fed to rats from 19 to 21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenols, including decreased stress signalling, increased neurogenesis, and increased signals involved in learning and memory. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine these mechanisms in aged animals by administering a control, 2 % SB- or 2 % BB-supplemented diet to aged Fischer 344 rats for 8 weeks to ascertain their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioural and neuronal function. The results showed that rats consuming the berry diets exhibited enhanced motor performance and improved cognition, specifically working memory. In addition, the rats supplemented with BB and SB diets showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis and expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, although the improvements in working memory performance could not solely be explained by these increases. The diverse polyphenolics in these berry fruits may have additional mechanisms of action that could account for their relative differences in efficacy.

  5. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  6. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  7. Solution of Thomas-Fermi-Dirac equation of statistical model of atom at small distances from nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirov, R.Kh.

    1993-01-01

    Nontraditional form of the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac equation is proposed. On the base of the form is obtained a solution of the equation at small distances from a nucleus. The solution represents inself generalization of the Baker solution of the Thomas-Fermi equation accounting for the exchange interaction. For determining the Baker generalized series coefficients is obtained a recursion relation

  8. A new estimate of the Khirzhnits corrections to the zero temperature Thomas-Fermi equation-of-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szichman, H.; Krumbein, A.D.; Eliezer, S.

    1984-09-01

    A method is proposed for estimating the zero temperature limit of the Khirzhnits corrections to the Thomas-Fermi equation-of-state by extrapolation of the finite-temperature results. The cold curves so obtained for Ti, Fe, Cu and Ta are compared with experimental results as well as with those calculated using other variations of the Thomas-Fermi model

  9. 75 FR 58426 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art, Tulsa, OK AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art (Gilcrease Museum), Tulsa, OK, that meet the...

  10. Peakonsul Jaanus Kirikmäe andis teenetemärgi praost Thomas Vagale / Airi Vaga ; foto: Harold Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves annetas iseseisvuspäeva puhul USA I praostkonna praostile Thomas Vagale Valgetähe IV klassi teenetemärgi. Teenetemärgi andis Thomas Vagale üle Eesti Vabariigi peakonsul Jaanus Kirikmäe

  11. COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF DRIED THREE-COMPONENT FRUIT AND BERRY PASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cherevko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Color characteristics of compositions of three-component fruit and berry pastes before and after infrared drying are determined. The compositions were prepared on the basis of apples, cranberries, and hawthorn with increased nutrition value and therapeutic and prophylactic properties, according to the suggested recipe. The ratio of the components in the first composition is 60 : 30 : 10, in the second, 65 : 25 : 10, and in the third, 55 : 40 : 5. The resulting compositions were controlled by the control (apple paste. To dry the compositions obtained, it is proposed to use a roller IR dryer based on a flexible resistive film electric heater of emitting type. The prepared paste compositions are reddish-orange according to the color characteristics determined. Color characteristics of dried three-component fruit and berry pastes are also determined. The wavelength of composition 1 is 498 nm, and those of compositions 2 and 3 are 620.5 and 589.4 nm, respectively. The first composition is bluish-purple, with tone purity 34.7 %. Composition 2 is red (34.8 %, composition 3 is bluish-red (34.6 %. The comparison of the color characteristics of compositions of three-component fruit and berry pastes before and after infrared drying as for the brightness and tone purity of the samples indicates a slight change in brightness within 2—6 %. Reduction of the color purity to almost a half is due to the drying shrinkage of the mass of raw materials and obtaining a visual color of the compositions that is attractive for a consumer. According to the results of expert evaluation of the quality indices of dried three-component fruit and berry paste compositions, a certain advantage is determined of the dried composition with the following ratio of components in the recipe: apple, cranberry, hawthorn — 60 : 30 : 10 (composition 1. The suggested compositions of dried three-component fruit and berry paste are recommended for use in food rations

  12. VvVHP1; 2 Is Transcriptionally Activated by VvMYBA1 and Promotes Anthocyanin Accumulation of Grape Berry Skins via Glucose Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tianyu; Xu, Lili; Sun, Hong; Yue, Qianyu; Zhai, Heng; Yao, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    In this work, four vacuolar H+-PPase (VHP) genes were identified in the grape genome. Among them, VvVHP1; 2 was strongly expressed in berry skin and its expression exhibited high correlations to anthocyanin content of berry skin during berry ripening and under ABA and UVB treatments. VvVHP1; 2 was transcriptionally activated directly by VvMYBA1, and VvVHP1; 2 overexpression promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves; therefore, VvVHP1; 2 mediated VvMYBA1-regulated...

  13. Suitability of black currant (Ribes nigrum L. as bred by NULES of Ukraine to machine harvesting of its berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. О. Сіленко

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors show outcome of three years observation of blackcurrant varieties bred by Study Horticulture Department NULES of Ukraine for their suitabi­ lity to machine harvesting. Blackcurrant is the most common berry crop in Ukraine. When establishing intensive industrial plantations the varieties suitable for machine harvesting should be used. During 2006-2008 limited and unlimited traits of varieties bred by NULES of Ukraine suitability to combine harvesting were studied. All parameters of the examined varieties were compared against the requirements of the «ideal variety”. Simultaneous ripening of berries was observed in varieties Dochka Vorskly – 93,6%, Hovtva, Pamyaty Leonida Myhalevskoho – 92,6%. The pick off effort required to collect berries out of their clusters for all varieties but Yarynka was within acceptable range of 67...129 g. By effort applied for berries crush only Yarynka has failed to meet the necessary requirements. All the varie­ ties but Yarynka have been found suitable by growth habit of their bush (upright and semi-spread. Insufficient number fruits (6-7 pc. in clusters for varieties Narodna and Yarynka was noted. Berries weight for all studied varieties ranged within 1.27-1.84 g, their drop-off was 3-8%, duration of harvesting period ranged from 8 to 10 days, so all the parameters of varieties suggested they were suitable for picking berries by berry harvesters. Varieties Dochka Vorskly, Universitetska, Hovtva, Pamyatna, Premiera, Narodna, Leleka and Pamyaty Leonida Myhalevskoho were selected as suitable for combine harvesting by the complex of positive parameters.

  14. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  15. Response of direct or priming defense against Botrytis cinerea to methyl jasmonate treatment at different concentrations in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaituo; Liao, Yunxia; Kan, Jianquan; Han, Lin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2015-02-02

    This study was conducted to characterize the forms of disease resistance induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in harvested grape berries and to evaluate the impact of the induced resistance on fruit quality. The results showed that MeJA treatment at concentrations from 10 to 100μmol/L could effectively induce disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and reduce disease incidence in grape berries. The induced disease resistance was tightly associated with increased H2O2 generation, enhanced expression of the defense-related gene VvNPR1.1 and accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins such as tran-resveratrol and its oligomer (trans-)ε-viniferin. The expression of the defense-related gene and synthesis of phytoalexins in 10μmol/L MeJA-treated grape berries were only significantly enhanced upon inoculating the berries with B. cinerea, whereas the 50 or 100μmol/L of MeJA treatment directly induced these defense responses. Hence, we deduce that the low concentration of MeJA (10μmol/L) triggered a priming defense mechanism, while higher concentrations of MeJA (50 or 100μmol/L) directly activated defense responses, thus enhancing disease resistance in grape berries. Moreover, the primed grape berries maintained higher contents of soluble sugars and higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power compared with those expressing direct defense responses. These results indicate that priming of defense is a cost-effective strategy to protect harvested grape berries from B. cinerea infection in terms of minimizing quality loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. iTRAQ-based protein profiling provides insights into the central metabolism changes driving grape berry development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esteso, María José; Vilella-Antón, María Teresa; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Valero, María Luz; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2013-10-24

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is an economically important fruit crop. Quality-determining grape components such as sugars, acids, flavors, anthocyanins, tannins, etc., accumulate in the different grape berry development stages. Thus, correlating the proteomic profiles with the biochemical and physiological changes occurring in grape is of paramount importance to advance in our understanding of berry development and ripening processes. We report the developmental analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat Hamburg berries at the protein level from fruit set to full ripening. An iTRAQ-based bottom-up proteomic approach followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification and quantitation of 411 and 630 proteins in the green and ripening phases, respectively. Two key points in development relating to changes in protein level were detected: end of the first growth period (7 mm-to-15 mm) and onset of ripening (15 mm-to-V100, V100-to-110). A functional analysis was performed using the Blast2GO software based on the enrichment of GO terms during berry growth. The study of the proteome contributes to decipher the biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in the development and quality traits of fruit and its derived products. These findings lie mainly in metabolism and storage of sugars and malate, energy-related pathways such as respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation, and the synthesis of polyphenolics as major secondary metabolites in grape berry. In addition, some key steps in carbohydrate and malate metabolism have been identified in this study, i.e., PFP-PFK or SuSy-INV switches among others, which may influence the final sugar and acid balance in ripe fruit. In conclusion, some proteins not reported to date have been detected to be deregulated in specific tissues and developmental stages, leading to formulate new hypotheses on the metabolic processes underlying grape berry development. These results open up new lines to decipher the

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PROCESS OF BLACK CURRANT BERRIES DRYING IN VACUUMDEVICE WITH THE MICROWAVE POWER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The mathematical model allowed to reproduce and study at qualitative level the change of berries form and the structure of the berries layer in the course of drying. The separate berry in the course of drying loses gradually its elasticity, decreases in volume, the peel gathers in folds, there appear internal emptiness. In the course of drying the berries layer decreases in thickness, contacting berries stick strongly with each other due to the coordinated folds of peel appearing, the layer is condensed due to penetration of the berries which have lost elasticity into emptiness between them. The model with high specification describes black currant drying process and therefore has a large number of the parameters available to change. Among them three most important technological parameters, influencing productivity and the drying quality are chosen: the power of microwave radiation P, thickness of the berries layer h, environmental pressure p. From output indicators of the model the most important are three functions from time: dependence of average humidity of the layer on time Wcp (t, dependence of the speed of change of average humidity on time dWcp (t/dt, dependence of the layer average temperature on time Tср (t. On the standard models classification the offered model is algorithmic, but not analytical. It means that output characteristics of model are calculated with the entrance ones, not by analytical transformations (it is impossible principally for the modeled process, but by means of spatial and temporary sampling and the corresponding calculation algorithm. Detailed research of the microwave drying process by means of the model allows to allocate the following stages: fast heating, the fast dehydration, the slowed-down dehydration, consolidation of a layer of a product, final drying, heating after dehydration.

  18. Manson Chicks and Microskirted Cuties : Pornification in Thomas Pynchon's Inherent Vice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many sexual encounters in Thomas Pynchon’s fiction have occurred beyond the mainstream, generating theatres of perversity which dramatise the death wish and enact power relations from wider arenas. However, in Inherent Vice they change in nature. With the exception of scenes which use Charles Manson

  19. Thomas Midgley, Jr., and the Development of New Substances: A Case Study for Chemical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Hélio Elael Bonini; Porto, Paulo Alves

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a history of chemistry case study focusing on selected aspects of the work of American engineer Thomas Midgley, Jr. (1889-1944): the development of tetraethyl lead as an antiknock gasoline additive and of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as fluids for refrigeration devices. One general aim of this case study is to display the complex…

  20. some aspects of fisheries ecology in thomas dam, kano nigeria 192

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    SOME ASPECTS OF FISHERIES ECOLOGY IN THOMAS DAM, KANO NIGERIA. 1*Nafiu, S. A., 1Badamasi, I., 2Ahmad, M. K., 1Abdullahi, M. T., 3Yelwa, S. I. and 1Ibrahim,. B.A.. 1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kano State Polytechnic, Kano. 2Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University Kano.