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Sample records for berry borer hypothenemus

  1. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  2. Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

  3. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  4. From forest to plantation? Obscure papers reveal alternate host plants for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...

  5. Natural parasitism of Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...

  6. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  7. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

  8. Effect of picung (Pangium edule) plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei)

    OpenAIRE

    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-01-01

    Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei) were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed...

  9. Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development ...

  10. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

  11. Keefektifan insektisida cyantraniliprole terhadap hama penggerek buah kopi ( Hypothenemus hampei pada ko pi arabika ( Effectiveness cyantraniliprole against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampeion arabica coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A trial on cyantraniliprole 10% against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei has been conducted on arabica coffee at Kalibendo Estate, in Banyuwangi regency, East Java. The altitude of the estate is about 650 m above sea level (asl. and belongs to B type of climate classification according to Schmidt and Ferguson. Composite variety of arabica coffee at about four years old planted at the location was used as plant materials. Five levels of cyantranilprole dosage and two compared insecticides i.e: carbaryl 85% and lamda cyhalothrine 25 g/L have been applied as treatments and each treatment is replicated four times. Infestation of coffee berry borer (CBB has been observed on berries in the field as well as on harvested berries and green coffee. The results revealed that cyantraniliprole 10% was very effective in suppressing infestation and population of CBB on coffee berries in the field as well as on harvested parchment and green coffee. The dosage of 2,000 ml/ha was the most effective and the highest level of efficacy against CBB until the last observation during 14 weeks trial. Application of cyantraniliprole 10% also has increased the production of green coffee harvested. The highest increase occurred on the treatment of cyantraniliprole 10% with a dosage of 1000 ml/ha, which it reached 62.87% higher compared to untreated treatment. Carbaryl and lamda cyhalothrine have effectiveness and efficacy level lower than the highest dosage of cyantraniliprole 10%.

  12. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature r...

  13. Cloning and expression of an endo-1,4-β-xylanase from the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

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    Padilla-Hurtado Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was

  14. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    KAUST Repository

    Vega, Fernando E.

    2015-07-31

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.

  15. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Brown, Stuart M; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Brodie, Eoin L; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies. PMID:26228545

  16. Effect of picung (Pangium edule plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation and one negative control treatment (aquades. The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol. The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used. Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.

  17. The genus Hypothenemus, with emphasis on H. hampei, the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Hypothenemus consists of approximately 180 species that occur worldwide throughout the tropics and in warm temperate areas. Female Hypothenemus adults burrow into their host plant and deposit eggs within galleries. All species in the genus are quite small (0.6-2.8 mm) and exhibit inbreed...

  18. Influence of age and diet on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

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    Jaime Gómez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of age and feeding on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae was investigated in the laboratory. Groups of female parasitoids were subject to the following treatments: a group fed during one, five and ten days after emergence of adults with coffee borer larvae; another group fed only with honey solution during five days after emergence; and as a control, a third group was kept without food for five days. At the end of each treatment, survivorship, parasitoid activity (walking and flying capacity in an arena, search capacity for finding coffee borer-infested berries, host feeding and oviposition (on immature hosts, were assessed. Unfed females showed a significant decrease in survivorship compared to individuals that were fed. The type of meal (insects or honey did not significantly influence parasitoid activity, search and oviposition capacities. Females fed with honey solution significantly consumed less immature coffee borers. Younger females (one day old walked and flew out of the arena significantly faster than older ones (5 and 10 days old. Implications of these results are discussed on the performance of C. stephanoderis as a biological control agent of the coffee berry borer.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of an alpha-amylase cDNA highly expressed in major feeding stages of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, C. A.; Macedo, L. L. P.; Amorim, T. M. L.; Santos, V. O.; Fragoso, R. R.; Lucena, W. A.; Meneguim, A. M.; Valencia-Jimenez, A.; Engler, Gilbert; Silva, M.C.M.; Albuquerque, E. V. S.; Grossi-de-Sa, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    alpha-Amylases are common enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing starch. Insect-pests, whose larvae develop in seeds, rely obligatorily on alpha-amylase activity to digest starch, as their major food source. Considering the relevance of insect alpha-amylases and the natural alpha-amylase inhibitors present in seeds to protect from insect damage, we report here the molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the full-length AmyHha cDNA of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, a major inse...

  20. Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E.; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35°C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20–30°C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32°C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1–2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1°C rise in thermal optimum (Topt.), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (rmax) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255

  1. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei: predictions of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20-30 degrees C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32 degrees C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1-2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1 degrees C rise in thermal optimum (T(opt., the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (r(max will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2.

  2. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei and coffee production in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model. In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.

  3. Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

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    Flávio Neves Celestino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate botanical oils, mineral oils and an insecticide that contained azadirachtin (ICA for the control of Hypothenemus hampei, in addition to the effects of residual castor oil. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn, soybean and castor, two mineral oils (assist® and naturol®, and the ICA for the control of H. hampei. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 3.0% (v v-1. The median lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated with Probit analysis. The oil of castor bean and extract of castor bean cake were also evaluated at concentrations of 3.0% (v v-1 and 3.0% (m v-1, respectively. The mortality rates for H. hampei caused by the ICA and the castor oil were 40.8 and 53.7%, with LC50 values of 6.71 and 3.49% (v v-1, respectively. In the castor oil, the methyl esters of the fatty acids were palmitic (1.10%, linoleic (4.50%, oleic (4.02%, stearic (0.50% and ricinoleic acids (88.04%. The extract of the castor bean cake was not toxic to H. hampei. The persistence of the castor oil in the environment was low, and the cause of mortality for H. hampei was most likely the blockage of the spiracles, which prevented the insects from breathing.

  4. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  5. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  6. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  7. Genome Sequence of the Mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis Strain BR58, a Biopesticide Product Effective against the Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetti, Janaina; Ricietto, Ana P. S.; da Silva, Carlos R. M.; Wolf, Ivan R.; Neves, Pedro M. O. J.; Meneguim, Ana M.; Vilas-Boas, Laurival A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important microbial control agent against insect pests. The draft genome sequence of the Brazilian strain BR58 described here contains the insecticidal genes cry4A, cry4B, cry10A, cry11A, cry60A, cry60B, and cyt1A, which show toxicity to both Aedes aegypti and Hypothenemus hampei larvae. PMID:26659669

  8. Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Neves Celestino; Dirceu Pratissoli; Lorena Contarini Machado; Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Junior; Vagner Tebaldi de Queiroz; Leonardo Mardgan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate botanical oils, mineral oils and an insecticide that contained azadirachtin (ICA) for the control of Hypothenemus hampei, in addition to the effects of residual castor oil. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn, soybean and castor, two mineral oils (assist® and naturol®), and the ICA for the control of H. hampei. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 3.0% (v v-1). The median lethal concentration (L...

  9. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  10. Inhibidores de α- amilasas de la broca del cafe Hypothenemus hampei en diferentes especies de vegetales α-Amylase inhibitors of the cofee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei in different plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Elena Padilla; José Ricardo Acuña Z; Claudia S Velásquez; José David Rubio G

    2006-01-01

    La antibiosis es uno de los mecanismos de resistencia de las plantas al ataque de insectos, en el cual están involucradas proteínas de defensa como los inhibidores de α- amilasas. Estas se encuentran principalmente en especies vegetales como gramíneas y leguminosas. En Phaseolus vulgaris L. var radical se ha registrado un inhibidor de α- amilasas de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei, con más de 80% de inhibición, el cuál también inhibe las α- amilasas de mamíferos. Siend...

  11. Ants defend coffee from berry borer colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier, DJ; Ennis, KK; Philpott, SM; Vandermeer, J; Perfecto, I.

    2013-01-01

    Ants frequently prevent herbivores from damaging plants. In agroecosystems they may provide pest control services, although their contributions are not always appreciated. Here we compared the ability of eight ant species to prevent the coffee berry borer from colonizing coffee berries with a field exclusion experiment. We removed ants from one branch (exclusion) and left ants to forage on a second branch (control) before releasing 20 berry borers on each branch. After 24 h, six of eight spec...

  12. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  13. Coffee Berry Borer Resistance in Coffee Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Hiroshi Sera; Tumoru Sera; Dhalton Shiguer Ito; Claudionor Ribeiro Filho; Amador Villacorta; Fabio Seidi Kanayama1; Clayton Ribeiro Alegre; Leandro Del Grossi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the coffee germplasm of the Paraná Agronomic Institute (IAPAR) for resistance to the coffee-berry-borer. Preliminary field evaluation was performed in August 2004 and the fruits of less damaged genotypes in the field were evaluated under controlled condition with obligated and free choice experiments established in a randomized complete design with three replications. The genotypes were evaluated fifteen days after infestation with one borer per fruit in ...

  14. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  15. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  16. Bioecologia da broca-do-café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867 (Coleoptera: Scolytidae, no agroecossistema cafeeiro do cerrado de Minas Gerais Bioecology of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867 (Coleoptera: Scolytidae in a cerrado agrossistem of Cerrado in Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Ferreira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar aspectos da bioecologia da broca-do-café nas condições de cerrado do estado de Minas Gerais. Os levantamentos foram realizados em três propriedades cafeeiras nos municípios de Patrocínio e Carmo do Paranaíba, MG. Coletaram-se, mensalmente, no período de abril de 1999 a dezembro de 2000, amostras de frutos de café (três litros/amostra em um lote experimental de aproximadamente 0,3 ha em cada propriedade. Esses frutos foram levados ao laboratório, onde foram dissecados para determinação do índice de infestação e contagens quanto às diferentes fases do ciclo biológico da broca-do-café e de seus parasitóides. Durante o período da safra, os frutos foram coletados nas plantas e, na entressafra, foram coletados frutos residuais, após a colheita, nas plantas e no solo. Mesmo com as condições climáticas predominantemente secas no período de abril a outubro de 1999, a broca-do-café encontrou condições favoráveis à sua sobrevivência. Isso contribuiu para que se observassem no final da safra de 2000 (julho/2000 populações elevadas da praga que resultaram em infestações que variaram de 15,8 a 48,4% de frutos broqueados. Não foram encontrados parasitóides da broca-do-café nas amostras de frutos coletadas nas propriedades no período avaliado. De acordo com os índices populacionais registrados em todas as fases de seu ciclo biológico, nas áreas estudadas, foi verificado que a broca-do-café encontra ambiente favorável para sua multiplicação no cerrado, requerendo, portanto, medidas para o seu controle.This research focused to study the bioecology of the coffee berry borer and its parasitoids in an area of "Cerrado" in Minas Gerais State. Monitoring was carried out in three coffee fields in the counties of Patrocínio and Carmo do Paranaíba, MG. Samples of coffee fruits (three liters/sample were collected monthly, from April 1999 to December 2000 in an area of approximately 0

  17. Identification of proteases produced by entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. strain CG432 previously activated in coffee berry borer alive (Hypothenemus hampei)
    Identificação de proteases produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. Cepa CG432 previamente ativada em insetos vivos de broca do café ((Hypothenemus hampei))

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe Protásio Pereira; Diogo Maciel de Magalhães; Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos; Dalva Trevisan; Eliana Tiemi Ito; Jurandir Pereira Pinto; Vanessa Hitomi Sugahara; Geni Silva Varéa; Jakeliny Akemi Yamamoto Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Conídios de fungos entomopatogênicos atravessam o exoesqueleto do inseto pela ação mecânica do tubo germinativo e produção de múltiplas isoformas de proteases, quitinases e lipases em resposta à composição da cutícula do inseto. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi extrair, purificar e caracterizar a estrutura de proteases produzidas em cultivo submerso por Beauveria bassiana CG432 previamente ativada em adultos vivos de broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei). Uma suspensão contendo 106 con...

  18. Identification of proteases produced by entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill. strain CG432 previously activated in coffee berry borer alive (Hypothenemus hampeiIdentificação de proteases produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill. Cepa CG432 previamente ativada em insetos vivos de broca do café ((Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Filipe Protásio Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conídios de fungos entomopatogênicos atravessam o exoesqueleto do inseto pela ação mecânica do tubo germinativo e produção de múltiplas isoformas de proteases, quitinases e lipases em resposta à composição da cutícula do inseto. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi extrair, purificar e caracterizar a estrutura de proteases produzidas em cultivo submerso por Beauveria bassiana CG432 previamente ativada em adultos vivos de broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei. Uma suspensão contendo 106 conídios ativados/mL foi inoculada em meio de cultura líquido a 28ºC, 150 rpm por 3 dias. O extrato de proteases (EP foi obtido da centrifugação a 8000 g por 20 minutos, fracionado e concentrado por ultrafiltração em membrana de porosidade controlada 100 kDa e 3 kDa, respectivamente. A cromatografia de gel filtração em Sephadex G-100 separou um pico proteico (Pico II que apresentou 56% de resíduos do aminoácido ácido aspártico quando analisado por HPLC em coluna de fase reversa ODS-C18; atividade específica 43 vezes superior ao EP sobre soro albumina bovina; atividade de protease tipo-subtilisina e uma única banda proteica revelada por nitrato de prata e Coomassie Brilhant Blue em zimograma sobre gelatina por eletroforese PAGE em condições nativas. A homogeneidade do Pico II foi confirmada pela revelação de uma única banda durante a determinação do pH isoelétrico igual a 4,5, porém a determinação da massa molecular separou 2 bandas de 23 e 26 kDa por eletroforese PAGE-2D. As proteases foram caracterizadas como serino proteases com resíduo cisteína importante para a atividade, pois foram inibidas por fluoreto fenil-metil-sufonil e ácido p-cloromercúriobenzóico. As proteases do Pico II apresentaram Km 4x10-4 sobre substrato tipo-subtilisina.

  19. Chemical cues from the coffee berry borer influence the locomotory behaviour of its bethylid parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu-Alvarado, P; Valle-Mora, J; Rojas, J C

    2010-12-01

    Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta are two bethylid wasps released into several Latin American countries for classical biological control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most serious insect pest of coffee worldwide. Recent studies on the host location behaviour of these parasitoids have shown that females of both species are attracted to volatile compounds released by immature stages and dust and frass of H. hampei. In this study, we investigated the role of the contact chemicals present in dust and frass of H. hampei on the behaviour of P. nasuta and C. stephanoderis females. Parasitoids remained longer on patches treated with methanol extracts than on acetone and hexane extracts. Females spent more time on the patch treated with the methanol extract of dust and frass than on the patches treated with the methanol extract of dry coffee and methanol control. The concentration of the methanol extracts from dust and frass influenced the locomotory activity of parasitoids of both species. The time that females spent in the patch tended to increase as the concentration of the methanol extracts increased. A further experiment aimed to identify other behavioural descriptors and gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response of parasitoids to methanol extracts was performed. Females of both species spent more time, covered more distance, turned more (per unit time and per unit distance), and decreased their speed when they contacted patches treated with methanol extracts in comparison to patches treated with methanol control. PMID:20307343

  20. Crafting traps with attractant alcoholics an alternative for monitoring and control of borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari 1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agramont Richard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to incorporate an alternative, for monitoring and control of the borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Choleoptera: Curculionidae to be feasible for the use of the coffee producers, in the community Choro, Coripata municipality, second section of Nor Yungas province, La Paz Bolivia. It was evaluated the capture of adult borer coffee individuals using 45 traps into 1,5 hectares distributed at random with four repetitions. It was used three types of craft traps, built with disposable plastic bottles of soft drinks, with the traps Casera, Brocap and Yessica, were evaluated three treatments: mixture of alcohols methyl (M and ethylic (E in proportions 3:1; mix 1:1 of (M and (E; mix 1:1:1 of (M (E and coffee fresh cherry liquated (CFCL and water as a witness. The largest captures of adult individuals, were present in the crafting traps with mixture of (M(E 3:1 with overalls (± standard deviation adults/traps/ten days of 3414,5±3227,7 being superior to the other treatments. The crafting trap is one of the alternatives for the control and monitoring of the borer in the coffee plantations. The use of crafting traps with alcoholic attractants for the capture of adult individuals, is present as a low cost alternative, being feasible the successful use by the producers into the management integrated programs.

  1. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010, coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids, chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi, and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions.

  2. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Bustillo, Alex E.; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions. PMID:26848690

  3. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  4. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei. PMID:26487745

  5. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan R Morris; John Vandermeer; Ivette Perfecto

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the...

  6. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  7. Effect of Pollen Feed on Parasitization and Predatism of Cephalonomia stephanoderis onHypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suci Rahayu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampeiusing parasitoid Cephalonomia stephanoderishas been developed through the improvement of the parasitoid role may using pollens as feed source. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cover crop and weed pollens on parasitization and predatism of C. stephanoderis.The applied treatments were pollens of Turnera ulmifolia, Arachis pintoi, Ageratum conyzoidesadded in glass tube that consist of 10 CBB pupaes and a mated female of C. stephanoderis. Number of pupae parasitized and pupae preyed were observed. The result showed that addition of A. Pintoi pollen increased the number of pupae parasitized at 135% whereas addition of T. ulmifolia and A. conyzoides pollens did not affect parasitization of C. Stephanoderis. The predatismof C. stephanoderiswas higher than parasitization to pupae of H. hampei which showed that the behavior of C. stephanoderiswas parasitization. Addition of T. ulmifolia, A. pintoi, and A. conyzoidespollens increased the number of pupae predatism at 132%, 102%, and 225%, respectively. Key words: Ageratum conyzoides, Arachis pintoi, Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Hypothenemus hampei,parasitization, predatism, pollens, Turnera ulmifolia

  8. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Morris

    Full Text Available Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82% than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  9. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems. PMID:26562676

  10. Antimicrobial properties of berries

    OpenAIRE

    Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta

    2007-01-01

    Berries, especially their antimicrobial properties, have been studied intensively at VTT over the past ten years in several research projects. In these in vitro studies phenolic berry extracts of common Nordic berries selectively inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria and human intestinal pathogens, without affecting the growth of beneficial lactic acid bacteria.

  11. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exo...

  12. Bioactive berry phenolics

    OpenAIRE

    Heinonen, Marina

    2007-01-01

    Compositional data on phenolic compounds in berries has been rapidly accumulating and readily included in the national food composition data base. Among the different bioactive substances in berries, phenolic compounds including flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids have received considerable interest due to their effects in food and health.

  13. Spatio-temporal modelling of coffee berry borer infestation patterns accounting for inflation of zeroes and missing values Modelagem espaço-temporal do padrão de infestação da broca do café levando em consideração excesso de zeros e dados faltantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ruiz-Cárdenas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of pest distributions in space and time in agricultural systems provides important information for the optimization of integrated pest management programs and for the planning of experiments. Two statistical problems commonly associated to the space-time modelling of data that hinder its implementation are the excess of zero counts and the presence of missing values due to the adopted sampling scheme. These problems are considered in the present article. Data of coffee berry borer infestation collected under Colombian field conditions are used to study the spatio-temporal evolution of the pest infestation. The dispersion of the pest starting from initial focuses of infestation was modelled considering linear and quadratic infestation growth trends as well as different combinations of random effects representing both spatially and not spatially structured variability. The analysis was accomplished under a hierarchical Bayesian approach. The missing values were dealt with by means of multiple imputation. Additionally, a mixture model was proposed to take into account the excess of zeroes in the beginning of the infestation. In general, quadratic models had a better fit than linear models. The use of spatially structured parameters also allowed a clearer identification of the temporal increase or decrease of infestation patterns. However, neither of the space-time models based on standard distributions was able to properly describe the excess of zero counts in the beginning of the infestation. This overdispersed pattern was correctly modelled by the mixture space-time models, which had a better performance than their counterpart without a mixture component.O estudo da distribuição de pragas em espaço e tempo em sistemas agrícolas fornece informação importante para a otimização de programas de manejo integrado de pragas e para o planejamento de experimentos. Dois problemas estatísticos comumente associados à modelagem espa

  14. The Berry's connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A course on the Berry's connection is presented. The main steps leading to the Berry's discovery are reviewed and the obtained equations are examined. Some applications of Berry's formulation are presented. They include diatomic molecules, dipole-quadrupole interaction in spherical mucleus and diabolic pair transfer. The experimental results presented are the spectrum of the Na3 molecule, the propagation of photons in an helical optical fiber and the neutron spin rotation. Non-abelian problems and the Aharonow-Anandan phase are discussed

  15. Supersymmetric Berry index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilinskii, K N; Melezhik, V S; Ilinski, K N; Kalinin, G V; Melezhik, V V

    1994-01-01

    We revise the sequences of SUSY for a cyclic adiabatic evolution governed by the supersymmetric quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. The condition (supersymmetric adiabatic evolution) under which the supersymmetric reductions of Berry (nondegenerated case) or Wilczek-Zee (degenerated case) phases of superpartners are taking place is pointed out. The analogue of Witten index (supersymmetric Berry index) is determined. As the examples of suggested concept of supersymmetric adiabatic evolution the Holomorphic quantum mechanics on complex plane and Meromorphic quantum mechanics on Riemann surface are considered. The supersymmetric Berry indexes for the models are calculated.

  16. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide. It infests crops in most coffee producing countries, and is of particular concern in developing countries where coffee comprises a significant component of gross domestic product. Of more than 850 i...

  17. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  18. Rejoinder to Borer on the NAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Borer (2010 launches a spirited attack on my own promulgation and defense of the non aggression principle (NAP as the lynchpin of libertarianism, as adumbrated in several of my published papers (Block, 2009A, 2010. The two of us, Borer and me, in my opinion, achieve real disagreement, a goal not always reached in the libertarian debates. That is, Borer (2010 is succinct, on point, and offers a real challenge to those of us in the Rothbardian tradition, who see the NAP as the very basis of the libertarian philosophy. The present paper is an attempt to refute each and every one of the challenges offered by Borer

  19. Berry phase in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2016-01-01

    We propose the lattice QCD calculation of the Berry phase which is defined by the ground state of a single fermion. We perform the ground-state projection of a single-fermion propagator, construct the Berry link variable on a momentum-space lattice, and calculate the Berry phase. As the first application, the first Chern number of the (2+1)-dimensional Wilson fermion is calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation.

  20. Bioactive constituents in aronia berries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate some of the potential health benefits of aronia berries with main focus on the phenolic substances. Extractions and fractionations of aronia berries were performed to obtain several crude extracts and subfractions. In addition, well known constituents of aronia berries (anthocyanins, procyanidins and phenolic acids) were isolated. The different samples obtained were then tested in various in vitro bioassays to determine their biological activities as ...

  1. Berry Fermi Liquid Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We develop an extension of the Landau Fermi liquid theory to systems of interacting fermions with non-trivial Berry curvature. We propose a kinetic equation and a constitutive relation for the electromagnetic current that together encode the linear response of such systems to external electromagnetic perturbations, to leading and next-to-leading orders in the expansion over the frequency and wave number of the perturbations. We analyze the Feynman diagrams in a large class of interacting quantum field theories and show that, after summing up all orders in perturbation theory, the current-current correlator exactly matches with the result obtained from the kinetic theory.

  2. Rejoinder to Borer on the NAP

    OpenAIRE

    Walter E. Block

    2010-01-01

    Borer (2010) launches a spirited attack on my own promulgation and defense of the non aggression principle (NAP) as the lynchpin of libertarianism, as adumbrated in several of my published papers (Block, 2009A, 2010). The two of us, Borer and me, in my opinion, achieve real disagreement, a goal not always reached in the libertarian debates. That is, Borer (2010) is succinct, on point, and offers a real challenge to those of us in the Rothbardian tradition, who see the NAP as the very basis of...

  3. Qubit rotation and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has the spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them results the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states. (author)

  4. Berry's Phase in Noncommutative Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. Alavi

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the perturbative aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics. Then we study Berry's phase within the framework of noncommutative quantum mechanics. The results show deviations from the usual quantum mechanics, which depend on the parameter of space/space noncommutativity.

  5. Roy Fuentes: Fuentes Berry Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As president of Fuentes Berry Farms, Rogelio (Roy) Fuentes is one of many independent growers producing organic berries for Driscoll’s—a company that was initiated more than a century ago by two strawberry farmers on California’s Central Coast, and has since evolved into an international concern devoted to research, breeding, production, sales and distribution of conventionally and organically farmed strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries. Driscoll’s CEO Miles Reiter and his ...

  6. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Zuzana Mašková; Soňa Felšöciová; Miroslava Císarová

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine) on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar). The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal ...

  7. Evaluation of kinetic parameters of chitinases produced by Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. /
    Avaliação de parâmetros cinéticos de quitinases produzidas por Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Mita; Vanessa Hitomi Sugahara; Jo I Wu; Pedro Manoel Oliveira Janeiro Neves; Dalva Tomoe Miyagui; Geni Varéa-Pereira; Danieli Cristina Sassá; Evelyn Kamogawa

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent for agricultural pests. The infection process involves extracellular enzymes such as proteases and chitinases that degrade the cuticle of the insects. The objective of this work was to evaluate kinetic parameters of pH, temperature, ionic concentration and time of reaction on chitinases activity. The fungus B. bassiana CG432 was cultivated on coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) and the conidia grow...

  8. Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E.; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P.; Rubio, José D.; Herrera, Juan C; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H.; Egan, Ashley N.; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a...

  9. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Javier A. Ceja-Navarro; Fernando E. Vega; Karaoz, Ulas; Hao, Zhao; Jenkins, Stefan; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Kosina, Petr; Infante, Francisco; Northen, Trent R.; Eoin L. Brodie

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide with its infestations decreasing crop yield by up to 80%. Caffeine is an alkaloid that can be toxic to insects and is hypothesized to act as a defence mechanism to inhibit herbivory. Here we show that caffeine is degraded in the gut of H. hampei, and that experimental inactivation of the gut microbiota eliminates this activity. We demonstrate that gut microbiota in H. hampei specimens from sev...

  10. Berry's phase in noncommutative spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Alavi, S A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the perturbative aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics. Then we study the Berry's phase in the framework of noncommutative quantum mechanics. The results show deviations from the usual quantum mechanics which depend on the parameter of space/space noncommtativity.

  11. Capture of hypothenemus hampei ferrari (coleoptera, scolytidae in response to trap characteristics Captura da broca-do-café, hypothenemus hampei (coleoptera, scolytidae, em resposta a características de armadilhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cloclet da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Traps lured with semiochemical have been proposed to manage the coffee berry borer, coffee planting is however made under several environmental conditions that may affect the efficacy of traps. Several trap designs and variations were proposed and, therefore, a series of field experiments was carried out to capture coffee berry bores in traps disposed in a low density coffee plantations in the Northern part of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Traps were composed of plastic bottles (2 L with a window (13 × 18 cm. Ethanol (E, Methanol (M and coffee oil alone did not improve the capture when transparent traps with a 2 mm hole in the vial dispenser were used; traps lured with E : M mixtures (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 caught similar and higher number of insects than the control. There was synergism with the mixing of E and M; the addition of coffee oil to the mixtures did not improve the capture. Trap lured with E : M (1:1 mixtures at 342, 400, 428 and 710 mg caught similar numbers of insects. Transparent green trap, transparent trap and red trap lured with 642 mg day-1 of the E + M (1:1 mixture caught similar numbers of insects. Interaction between colors (transparent green, transparent and red and semiochemical release rates (540, 720 and 1100 mg day-1 was observed. Transparent green trap, when lured with 720 mg day-1 of the 1 : 1 E : M mixture caught 2.3 and 4.4 times more insects than 540 and 1100 mg day-1; and caught 3.2 times more insects than transparent and red trap at the same release rates.Armadilhas iscadas com semioquímicos têm sido propostas para manejo da broca-do-café. O cafeeiro é cultivado em condições ambientais diversas que podem afetar a eficiência das armadilhas. Vários modelos de armadilha e variações nos modelos são utilizados. Uma série de experimentos de campo objetivou avaliar capturas da broca-do-café em armadilhas numa lavoura de café semi-adensado no Norte do Paraná. Uma garrafa plástica (2 L com uma abertura (13 × 18

  12. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera

  13. Flight behavior of European corn borer infected with Nosema pyrausta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microsporidian Nosema pyrausta is a common and widespread pathogen of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), in North America and Europe. Nosema negatively affects European corn borer longevity and fecundity. In this study, we used flight mills to examine the effects of Nosema infec...

  14. Yield performance of the European Union Maize Landrace Core Collection under multiple corn borer infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Padilla Alonso, Guillermo; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...

  15. The Berry phase in frustrated spin glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter we have pointed out that frustration in spin glass is realized through the Berry phase due to the conflict between the spin ordering in the course of parallel transport. We came to the point that the Berry phase depicting the chiral change of helicity of a quantized spinor is prominent only in the presence of frustration. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 51.904 - Shot berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shot berries. 51.904 Section 51.904 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.904 Shot berries....

  17. Anatomy of Vitis Berries During Their Coloring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yi-zhen; HE Pu-chao

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-1999, the course of the berry coloring and the development of the pigment cells from veraison to ripeness were studied by freeze sectioning 43 accessions of 12 Vitis species (including 10 Chinese wild species). External observation showed that the berries of most species began coloring on the fruit top surface or on the sun-lit surface, and the berry surface color was evenly distributed when the berry was ripe.Internal observation revealed that the pigment cells in a few layers between cuticle and sub-cuticle colored first, the cuticle colored from inner layers to outer layers while the sub-cuticle from outer to inner, and the cuticle cells began coloring a little earlier than the sub-cuticle ones in most species. The pigment cells developed unevenly during the berry ripening. In the beginning of berry coloring, the cell pigment density among the layers or among the cells in the same layer was different. Both the numbers of the pigmented cells and the cell pigment density increased during the berry coloring, while the former lasted a short time; however, the latter kept increasing from veraison to ripeness, and they reached the deepest color when the berry was ripe.

  18. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned berries. 145.120 Section 145.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... percent, calculated as calcium, of the weight of the finished canned berries. (iii) Organic acids....

  19. Decision making by Berry's flux

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Benjamin O.; Lawler, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Order by disorder is a decision making process for frustrated systems but often leads to simple answers. We study order by disorder in the kagome Kondo model known for its complexity seeking rich decision making capabilities. At half filling and large Kondo coupling to hopping ratio $J_K/t$, the full manifold of 120$^o$ kagome ground states are degenerate at second order in $t/J_K$. We show this degeneracy lifts at sixth order when a fermion can hop around a hexagon and feel the Berry flux in...

  20. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  1. Berry Phases and Quantum Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamma, A

    2006-01-01

    We study the connection between Berry phases and quantum phase transitions of generic quantum many-body systems. Consider sequences of Berry phases associated to sequences of loops in the parameter space whose limit is a point. If the sequence of Berry phases does not converge to zero, then the limit point is a quantum critical point. Quantum critical points are associated to failures of adiabaticity. We discuss the remarkable example of the anisotropic XY spin chain in a transverse magnetic field and detect the XX region of criticality.

  2. Interview with Jo Berry, 6 May 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the following interview, Jo Berry remembers and reflects on the Brighton bombing which killed her father, Sir Anthony Berry thirty years ago in 1984. She describes her first meeting with one of the bombers, Pat Magee, her growing and unexpected friendship with him and her journey into healing and forgiveness. She elaborates how her understanding of forgiveness has changed and become more nuanced over the years. She also offers reflections on what justice means for her.

  3. Measuring Berry curvature with quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodrubetz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Berry curvature and its descendant, the Berry phase, play an important role in quantum mechanics. They can be used to understand the Aharonov-Bohm effect, define topological Chern numbers, and generally to investigate the geometric properties of a quantum ground state manifold. While Berry curvature has been well-studied in the regimes of few-body physics and non-interacting particles, its use in the regime of strong interactions is hindered by the lack of numerical methods to solve it. In this paper we fill this gap by implementing a quantum Monte Carlo method to solve for the Berry curvature, based on interpreting Berry curvature as a leading correction to imaginary time ramps. We demonstrate our algorithm using the transverse-field Ising model in one and two dimensions, the latter of which is non-integrable. Despite the fact that the Berry curvature gives information about the phase of the wave function, we show that our algorithm has no sign or phase problem for standard sign-problem-free Hamiltonians...

  4. Distribution and growth of wood-borers in Bombay offshore waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Wagh, A.B.

    The borer population comprised of 7 species of teredinid borers. Species composition varied with depth; Bankia carinata and B. campanellata were abundant at 2 m, B. carinata and Lyrodus pedicellatus at 22 m, L. pedicellatus at 42 m and L...

  5. The impact of predators on maize stem borers in coastal Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Bonhof, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many are not effective or feasible for small-scale subsistence farmers to practice. Consequently, stem borers are rarely actively controlled. Although natural mortality of stem borers may be high, this is not sufficient to keep dens...

  6. BlackBerry All-in-One for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sarigumba, Dante; Petz, William

    2010-01-01

    Go beyond BlackBerry basics and get everything your BlackBerry can deliver. BlackBerry is the leading smartphone for business users, and its popularity continues to explode. When you discover the amazing array of BlackBerry possibilities in this fun and friendly guide, you'll be even happier with your choice of smartphones. BlackBerry All-in-One For Dummies explores every feature and application common to all BlackBerry devices. It explains the topics in depth, with tips, tricks, workarounds, and includes detailed information about cool new third-party applications, accessories, and downloads

  7. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway. PMID:25920225

  8. CrackBerry The Tales of BlackBerry Use and Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Michaluk, Kevin J; Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A delayed train, a dip in the conversation, an early morning hour with no sleep - during these moments, do you feel an overwhelming urge to grab your BlackBerry? Do you know someone else who does? If the answer is yes, then look no further than this one-of-a-kind book...CrackBerry: True Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse covers the phenomenon of "BlackBerry Addiction," offering true-life accounts of BlackBerry dependence and mishaps. You'll find comfort and humor in the unbelievable tales of BlackBerry abuse and also learn some valuable tips along the way. * The definitive guide to respons

  9. 75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined...: We are amending the emerald ash borer regulations by adding portions of Kentucky, Michigan,...

  10. Corn borers (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae; Crambidae) in Northwestern Spain: Population dynamics and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Monetti, L; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana

    2007-01-01

    Corn borers are an important maize (Zea mays L.) pest in northwestern Spain. In order to use methods of control or to breed plant material against corn borers it is necessary to know the life cycle and behavior of this pest. The objectives of this work were to complete the study of the incidence of corn borers in northwestern Spain, to study the behavior of the two species of corn borers inside the plant, and to relate the abundance of borers with climatic factors. To monitor the incide...

  11. Northern berries are superfruits - how to increase consumption and appreciation?

    OpenAIRE

    Tahvonen, Raija

    2010-01-01

    Health effects of Northern berries have been studied intensively already for years. Different berries show different health effects. Beneficial effects have been found in weight management, glucose metabolism, liver and eye health, immune function, oxidative metabolism (cancer prevention) and lipid metabolism. However, results of different studies are unanimous due to differences in test materials (whole berries / different berry fractions) and methods (in vitro studies, cell s...

  12. Berry fruits for cancer prevention: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that edible small and soft-fleshed berry fruits may have beneficial effects against several types of human cancers. The anticancer potential of berries has been related, at least in part, to a multitude of bioactive phytochemicals that these colorful fruits contain, including polyphenols (flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins, gallotannins, phenolic acids), stilbenoids, lignans, and triterpenoids. Studies show that the anticancer effects of berry bioactives are partially mediated through their abilities to counteract, reduce, and also repair damage resulting from oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, berry bioactives also regulate carcinogen and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various transcription and growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and subcellular signaling pathways of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis. Berry phytochemicals may also potentially sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting pathways that lead to treatment resistance, and berry fruit consumption may provide protection from therapy-associated toxicities. Although a wide variety of berry fruits are consumed worldwide, this paper focuses on those commonly consumed in North America, namely, blackberries, black raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, red raspberries, and strawberries. In addition, a large body of studies on singly purified berry bioactives is available, but this paper focuses on studies of "whole berries" per se, that is, as berry extracts and purified fractions, juices, and freeze-dried powders. Potential mechanisms of anticancer action and bioavailability of berry phenolics, as well as gaps in knowledge and recommendations for future berry research, are also briefly discussed. PMID:18211019

  13. Ekologi Penggerek Buah Kopi (Hypothenemus Hampei) Pada Tanaman Kopi Arabika (Coffea Arabica)Di Kabupaten Pakpak Bharat

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Normauli

    2011-01-01

    Ecology Research Coffee Pod Borer (Hypotenemus hampei) at Arabica Coffee Plants (Coffea arabica) in District Pakpak Bharat had been conducted in March 2010 - April 2010. Research in the form of this survey sampled at 5 height is: A ≤ 700, 700 1000 meters above sea level. This study aims to (a) know H.hampei distribution pattern, (b) measuring the intensity of attacks H.hampei, (c) the composition of stadia development in H.hampei connect with...

  14. Photon Drag Effect due to Berry Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kei; Ohno, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    A theoretical investigation reveals that the photon drag effect (PDE) is induced in a grating slab with deformation by the Berry curvature in phase space. It drifts the momentum of light, and gives asymmetric PDE signals in momentum space. Large PDE signals are observed even near the Γ point. This characteristic agrees well with our theoretical results.

  15. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  16. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

  17. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  18. Resistance of Some Timbers of Andhra Pradesh Against Marine Borer Attack at Four Ports on India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalyanasundaram

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the underwater durability of thirteen species of times growth in Andhra Pradesh against marine borer attack at four ports of Naval interest are recorded. Intensity of borer attack was found to vary from port to port, maximum observed being at Port Blair, with Goa, Bombay and Visakhapatnam following in that order. Comparison of borer activity in the harbours studies with past observations has revealed that a change in eco-systems may be occurring at Visakhapatnam harbour.

  19. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during this study. The product presented qood quality criteria and it was highly appreciated by consumers who tasted it. This study presents a valuable method to preserve fresh widberries in honey over a long period of time. The economical value of this experiment resides in making these fruits available outside the harvesting season.

  20. Control of virus diseases of berry crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2015-01-01

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top-tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all certified plants are produced, usually after multiple cycles of propagation. In certification schemes, efforts are made to produce plants free of the targeted pathogens to provide plants of high health status to berry growers. This is achieved using a systems approach to manage virus vectors. Once planted in fruit production fields, virus control shifts to disease control where efforts are focused on controlling viruses or virus complexes that result in disease. In fruiting fields, infection with a virus that does not cause disease is of little concern to growers. Virus control is based on the use of resistance and tolerance, vector management, and isolation. PMID:25591882

  1. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Subash; Musthafa Mohamed Essa; Samir Al-Adawi; Mushtaq A.Memon; hTamilarasan Manivasagam; Mohammed Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegen-erative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kae-mpferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneifcial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents.

  3. Three elaborations on Berry's connection, curvature and phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss how symmetries and conservation laws are affected when Barry's phase occurs in a quantum system: symmetry transformations of coordinates have to be supplemented by gauge transformations of Berry's connection, and consequently constants of motion acquire terms beyond the familiar kinematical ones. They show how symmetries of a problem determine Berry's connection, curvature and, once a specific path is chosen, the phase as well. Moreover, higher order corrections are also fixed. They demonstrate that in some instances Berry's curvature and phase can be removed by a globally well-defined, time-dependent canonical transformation. Finally, the authors describe how field theories anomalies may be viewed as manifestations of Berry's phase

  4. BerryMeat - New market perspectives using herbs and berries in organic meat products. What has been achieved?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grevsen, Kai; Fenger, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to increase the portfolio of organic meat products for the consumer, by supplying new products preserved by organic grown herbs and berries. The consumers will benefit from a growing range of new, attractive, organic meat products, the Danish producers of organic meat products will benefit form a growing market and the producers of organic herbs and berries will experience an increasing demand for organic grown herbs and berries. The project has bee...

  5. The Politics of Thinking About China: 1. Mary Berry on China. 2. Shanker Versus Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mary; Shanker, Albert

    1978-01-01

    Mary Berry's speech suggesting that America had much to learn from Chinese education prompted a sharply critical letter from Albert Shanker, head of the American Federation of Teachers. Parts of the speech and the subsequent exchange with Shanker are reprinted here. (LBH)

  6. Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers

    Science.gov (United States)

    European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of diverse inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Ce...

  7. Gradient Nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Lee, Jongwon; Nookala, Nishant; Belkin, Mikhail A; Alù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach to plasmonic metasurfaces loaded by highly nonlinear multi-quantum well substrates, establishing a platform to control the nonlinear wavefront at will based on giant localized nonlinear effects. We apply this approach to design flat nonlinear metasurfaces for efficient second-harmonic radiation, including beam steering, focusing, and polarization manipulation. Our findings open a new direction for nonlinear optics, in which phase matching issues are relaxed, and an unprecedented level of local wavefront control is achieved over thin devices with giant nonlinear responses.

  8. Gradient Nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Gomez-Diaz, J. Sebastian; Lee, Jongwon; Nookala, Nishant; Belkin, Mikhail A.; Alù, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    We apply the Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach to plasmonic metasurfaces loaded by highly nonlinear multiquantum-well substrates, establishing a platform to control the nonlinear wave front at will based on giant localized nonlinear effects. We apply this approach to design flat nonlinear metasurfaces for efficient second-harmonic radiation, including beam steering, focusing, and polarization manipulation. Our findings open a new direction for nonlinear optics, in which phase matching issues are relaxed, and an unprecedented level of local wave front control is achieved over thin devices with giant nonlinear responses.

  9. Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.

  10. White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don

    2015-02-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern United States that is also planted ornamentally. Four of 20 mature ornamental white fringetrees examined in the Dayton, Ohio area showed external symptoms of emerald ash borer attack, including the presence of adult exit holes, canopy dieback, and bark splitting and other deformities. Removal of bark from one of these trees yielded evidence of at least three generations of usage by emerald ash borer larvae, several actively feeding live larvae, and a dead adult confirmed as emerald ash borer. PMID:26470141

  11. Crossing experiments between European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), and Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), to explore the possibility of hybrid sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In individual pair tests it was possible to obtain progeny from all possible combinations of males and females of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), and the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee). In most instances, the sex ratio of the progeny was skewed in favour of the males. In all crosses, the egg hatch was in the normal range. No evidence was found for the existence of hybrid sterility in the F1 progeny of these crosses. (author). 2 tabs

  12. Berry Phase Physics in Free and Interacting Fermionic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Berry phase plays an important role in many non-trivial phenomena over a broad range of many-body systems. In this thesis we focus on the Berry phase due to the change of the particles' momenta, and study its effects in free and interacting fermionic systems. We start with reviewing the semi-classical kinetic theory with Berry phase for a non-interacting ensemble of fermions -- a Berry Fermi gas -- which might be far-from-equilibrium. We particularly review the famous Berry phase contribution to the anomalous Hall current. We then provide a concrete and general path integral derivation for the semi-classical theory. Then we turn to the specific example of Weyl fermion, which exhibits the profound quantum phenomenon of chiral anomaly; we review how this quantum effect, and its closely related chiral magnetic effect and chiral vortical effect, arise from Berry phase in the semi-classical kinetic theory. We also discuss how Lorentz symmetry in the kinetic theory of Weyl fermion, seemly violated by the Berry phas...

  13. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  14. Berry's Phase for Standing Wave Near Graphene Edge

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Ken-ichi; Wakabayashi, Katsunori; Enoki, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Standing waves near the zigzag and armchair edges, and their Berry's phases are investigated. It is suggested that the Berry's phase for the standing wave near the zigzag edge is trivial, while that near the armchair edge is non-trivial. A non-trivial Berry's phase implies the presence of a singularity in parameter space. We have confirmed that the Dirac singularity is absent (present) in the parameter space for the standing wave near the zigzag (armchair) edge. The absence of the Dirac singu...

  15. The insecticide resistance in stripped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The stripped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker) is one of the major insect pests of rice in China. Chemical control has been a common practice in SSB management since 1950s. Insecticides used included BHC before 1983;organophosphorus insecticides (methyl-parathion, trichophon, methamidophos, and monocrotophos), and chlordimeform in mid-1970s-1980s; Shachongshuang (dimehypo) and Shachongdan (monousltap) since early 1980s. In recent years, SSB population and its damage to rice increased rapidly and failures on control has been reported. To find out the cause of failure and to put forward the suitable control methods, we studied the resistance of SSB to major insecticides used in China.

  16. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  17. Berry's phase for standing waves near graphene edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standing waves near zigzag and armchair edges, and their Berry's phases, are investigated. It is suggested that the Berry's phase for the standing wave near the zigzag edge is trivial, while that near the armchair edge is nontrivial. A nontrivial Berry's phase implies the presence of a singularity in parameter space. We have confirmed that Dirac singularity is absent (present) in parameter space for the standing wave near the zigzag (armchair) edge. The absence of Dirac singularity has a direct consequence in the local density of states near the zigzag edge. The transport properties of graphene nanoribbons observed by recent numerical simulations and experiments are discussed from the point of view of Berry's phases for standing waves.

  18. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  19. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrovankova, Sona; Sumczynski, Daniela; Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC). They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits. PMID:26501271

  20. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-04-13

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  1. Inactivation of Enteric Viruses in Minimally Processed Berries and Herbs▿

    OpenAIRE

    Butot, S.; Putallaz, T.; Amoroso, R; Sánchez, G.

    2009-01-01

    Several hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks due to consumption of contaminated berries and vegetables have recently been reported. Model experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of freeze-drying, freeze-drying combined with heating, and steam blanching for inactivation of enteric viruses that might be present on the surface of berries and herbs. Inactivation of HAV and inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate for HuNoV, were assessed by viral ...

  2. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Ageeva N. M.; Suprun I. I.; Prakh A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire s...

  3. Association of charecters on yield and shoot and fruit borer resistance in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Praneetha*, V. Rajashree and L.Pugalendhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty one brinjal genotypes (nine parents and 72 hybrids were evaluated for 14 characters. Results showed that marketableyield per plant had significant positive association for both at genotypic and phenotypic level with all the characters studied viz.,plant height, number of branches per plant, fruit girth, calyx length, number of fruits per plant, single fruit weight, protein contentand total phenol content. The earliness showed positive association with fruit borer infestation both at genotypic and phenotypiclevel. The marketable yield per plant had significant negative association both at genotypic and phenotypic level with shoot andfruit borer infestation. Neither positive nor negative significant correlation was registered by shoot borer infestation with othercharacters. The shoot borer infestation showed negative relation with ascorbic acid content, protein content of fruit and totalphenol content at vegetable maturity.

  4. Damage and economical threshold of yellow stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas) on rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHuadi; ZHANGZuosheng

    1997-01-01

    Systematic measurements to damage and yield loss due to yellow stem borer (YSB) were made in the single crop and double crop areas of Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Huzhou cities,northern Zhejiang Province in 1987-1994.

  5. Resistance to reduce corn borer damage in maize for bread, in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Sandoya Miranda, Germán; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana

    2009-01-01

    In northwestern Spain, the grounded whole kernel of flint maize (Zea mays L.) landraces is traditionally used for making bread and other bakery products. We have identified some local varieties appropriate for traditional bakery. Thus far, evaluations have been made under low corn borer pressure, but to know their ability to compete for yield and quality in a wider area, evaluations should be done under higher corn borer, specifically targeting Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) an...

  6. Studies on chromosomal aberrations and inherited sterility in Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F1 sterility and chromosomal aberrations in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), were induced by different doses of gamma radiation. The chromosome number of the Asian corn borer is n = 31 pairs. The results showed that chromosomal aberrations in spermatocytes of the F1 generation were directly related to high F1 sterility; however, the sterility was observed for only one generation and fertility was recovered in the next generation. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    OpenAIRE

    Justin G A Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A.; Pierluigi Bonello

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in ...

  8. Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P; Rubio, José D; Herrera, Juan C; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H; Egan, Ashley N; Doyle, Jeffrey J; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2012-03-13

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or "false berry borer"), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices. PMID:22371593

  9. Seasonal occurrence and response of maize inbred lines to pink stem borer in the northwest of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Alvarez, A.

    1994-01-01

    The most important pest of maize (Zea mays L) in North America and Europe is the European com borer (Os¬trinia nubilalis Hbn). However, in southern Europe another com borer species, the pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagri¬oides Lef.), also causes significant damage to maize. The dam¬age caused by the pink stem borer in the northwest of Spain was not important a few years ago, but today this damage has increased considerably. Few studies about this pest have been made thus far. The first objectiv...

  10. Ampelographic description of cluster, berry and seed of merlot cultivar (Vitis vinifera L.) and its selected clones

    OpenAIRE

    Vujović Dragan S.; Žunić Dragoljub M.; Pejin Boris M.; Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2016-01-01

    During a four-year period, ampelographic experiments focusing on the berry cluster (average length of grape cluster, number of grape clusters per shoot, number of berries per grape cluster and length of peduncle), berry (length of berry and berry juice yield), length of pedicel and seed (length of berry seed) of Merlot cultivar (used as a relevant standard) and 11 clones (Nos. 022, 023, 025, 026, 027, 028, 029, 030, 031, 033 and 034) were performed in order...

  11. Sterility inheritance in the irradiated European Corn Borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inherited sterility in F1 and F2 of the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses of 10 and 15 Krad has been studied at Research Institute for Cereals and Industrial Crops, Fundulea, Romania. Irradiations were done with a 60 Co source delivering 1,805 roentgen/h/m in containers of 23 mm diameter and 125 mm height, placed apart from the 60 Co source. Following irradiation of male parent generation, no significant differences were recorded in F1 and F2 referring to the number of deposited egg-batches and adult longevity. Nevertheless, there was a significant decrease of the percentage of viable eggs and an increase of the number of sterile couples. (author)

  12. The inherited sterility of the corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guen.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inherited sterility of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guen.) irradiated with substerilizing doses of 200-300 Gy has been studied in Beijing, China. The irradiated male parents were substerile and females were fully sterile. The females were more sensitive to radiation. Experiments for mating competitiveness and release from field cages demonstrated that the irradiated male moths had a stronger level of competitiveness, and it was found that a ratio of 1:5 or more could suppress the native population effectively. The F1 generation was more sterile than the parents and the sex ratio was changed to significantly more males than females. Inherited sterility could be maintained up to the F2 generation and fertility recovered in the F3 generation. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  13. Preservation of beauveria bassiana (balsam) vuillemin (moniliales: moniliaceae) pathogenicityagainst the coffee borer in different systems

    OpenAIRE

    T. Bahamón; E. Aycardi; Orozco, J; Marín, P. (Pedro); Bustillo, A.

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar técnicas de preservación de patogenicidad en el laboratorio, que permitan almacenar por tiempos prolongados cultivos de B. bassiana de manera que se puedan utilizar en la preparación de un producto industrial sin tener que recurrir tan frecuentemente a pases sobre poblaciones de Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) para mantener su efectividad en el control de esta plaga. Existen numerosos trabajos sobre la preservación de la viabilid...

  14. New observations on the integrity, structure and physiology of flesh cells from fully ripened grape berry

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, N.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Gerós, H.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological/structural status of the soft ripened berry is still a matter of debate. In this paper isolated mesocarp cells from ripened berries of both wine and table varieties were studied by bright-field, fluorescence and confocal microscopy and flow cytometry to highlight the organization of berry flesh cell, function and viability. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that protoplasting from grape berry mesocarp tissue yields a single heterogenous population of intact and viable cells....

  15. Berry phases for interacting spins in composite environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Da-Bao; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Due to the potential application in quantum information process, geometric phase of interacting system arouse many interests. Some physicists concentrate on the system in pure classical envi- ronment, while others study the system in pure quantized environment. So a natural question is asked: how about an interacting system in composite environments made up of both classical and quantized field. In this letter, we analyze a quantum system composed of two interacting spins, of which one is in classical magnetic field and the other is in quantized field. First, classical magnetic field driven Berry phases for the whole system and subsystem are studied. The effect of couplings between particles and photon on these phases are analyzed. In comparison with the dynamical quantized field, We find that even a static quantized field in its vacuum state can also have an effect on Berry phase. Second, quantized field driven Berry phases for the whole system and sub- system are formulated, including both one and two mode ...

  16. BlackBerry PlayBook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Corey

    2011-01-01

    Use your BlackBerry PlayBook for work and for play—this book shows you how For all you business road warriors who don't go anywhere without your BlackBerrys, the road just got a little more comfortable. The BlackBerry PlayBook is a tablet is your go-to-gadget for working on the go. Learn how to take full advantage of this powerful newcomer to the tablet market with this full-color For Dummies guide. You'll discover how to use your PlayBook to connect to corporate systems, manage your finances, keep track of your travel and other schedules—even how to use the PlayBook as an e-reade

  17. Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-02-01

    The importance of food consumption in relation to human health has increased consumer attention in nutraceutical components and foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Berries are a rich source of a wide variety of non-nutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive compounds from berries have potent antioxidant, anticancer, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health. PMID:24012283

  18. Post Harvest Handling, Storage, and Treatment for Fresh Market of Berry Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A perfect berry growing in the field may not reach the consumer in the same flawless condition. Producing high-quality berry fruit is only the first step. Delivering them to market in premium condition is also essential to command the buyer’s attention. The handling of berries during harvesting, sor...

  19. Berry Curvature of interacting bosons in a honeycomb lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun; Sengupta, Pinaki; Batrouni, George G.; Miniatura, Christian; Grémaud, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    We consider soft-core bosons with onsite interaction loaded in the honeycomb lattice with different site energies for the two sublattices. Using both a mean-field approach and quantum Monte-Carlo simulations, we show that the topology of the honeycomb lattice results in a non-vanishing Berry curvature for the band structure of the single-particle excitations of the system. This Berry curvature induces an anomalous Hall effect. It is seen by studying the time evolution of a wavepacket, namely ...

  20. Berry syndrome in association with familial limb malformation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    We describe a newborn boy diagnosed with Berry syndrome consisting of a distal aortopulmonary septal defect, aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery, and interruption of the aorta. The child was noted to have reduplication of the right thumb. The child\\'s mother had a claw malformation of her left hand but a normal cardiovascular status. Genetic analysis for TBX5 and SALL4 mutations were negative in both the patient and his mother. This case describes the first ever report of Berry syndrome in an infant with reduplication of the right thumb and familial limb malformation.

  1. 75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... introduction and spread of EAB, a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks ash trees, in the United States... Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... emerald ash borer in the United States. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or...

  2. Ecological and physiological aspects of aestivation-diapause in the larvae of twe pyralid stalk borers of maize in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are des

  3. Observations on the ecology and epidemiology of Xyleborus destruens Bldf., the near-primary borer in teak plantations in Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, L.G.E.

    1961-01-01

    While looking for a suitable plot for girth-increment investigations in a thriving 8-year old teak plantation near Batang, Central Java, in June 1918, officers of the Forest Research Institute discovered an unknown, rather conspicuous borer infestation of the trunks. The borer, recognized to be a Xy

  4. Preliminary Study on Resistance of the Rice Stem Borer (Chilo Suppressalis) to Fipronil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wei-hua; HAN Zhao-jun; HAO Ming-li

    2005-01-01

    By means of topical application, fipronil resistance was surveyed in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, from 12 diferent areas in east China from 2001 to 2004. The rice stem borers in most regions of Jiangsu and Anhui were still susceptible to fipronil. But in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province and Cixi, Zhejiang Province, their sensitivity became decreased (resistance ratios were 3.1 and 3.6,respectively), and the medium level of resistance (resistance ratio was 21.2) was found in Cangnan, Zhejiang Province. So, it was still at the early stage for fipronil resistance development in this pest. Synergism experiments showed that piperonyl butoxide(PBO) had a little effect on both susceptible and resistant borers (synergism ratios were 1.1-1.2). Tho ugh triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl meleate (DEM) had no effect on the susceptible borers, they had significant synergism on fipronil in the resistant population to fipronil (synergism ratios were 1,8 and 1.6, respectively), indicating esterase and glutathion S-transferase may be involved in the resistance mechanism. Bioassay with currently used insecticides indicated that triazophos (because of high resistance), trichlorphon and acephate had very low toxicity to resistant borers. But diazinon, pyridaphenthion, decamethrin and avermeotin showed high toxicity and had no cross resistance to fipronil, which could be considered as substitute insecticides in the resistance managment.

  5. Biology and damage traits of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA WEI; YUN WU; RICHARD REARDON; TIE-HUAN SUN; MIN LU; JIANG-HUA SUN

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire)(Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a major stem borer of ash (Fraxinus spp.). It is univoltine in Tianjin, while it is semivoltine in Heilongjiang Province, and both univoltine and semivoltine in Changchun, Jilin Province,where the majority is univoltine. The longevity of emerald ash borer adults is 17.2 ± 4.6 days (n = 45), eggs 9.0 ± 1.1 days (n = 103), univoltine larvae 308 days, semivoltine larvae 673 days, and pupae 61.2± 1.6 days (n = 45). It takes about 100 days from the time larvae bore into the phloem to when they complete the pupal cell. In a 10-year-old velvet ash (Fraxinus velutina Torr.) plantation in Tianjin, emerald ash borer preferred to oviposit on the regions of boles from 50-150 cm above ground, accounting for 76.7% of the total girdling.Girdling on the south side of the tree boles accounted for 43.40% of the total girdling. The emerald ash borer population density is higher at the edge of the plantation compared with the center.

  6. Kairomones for trapping shot hole borer infesting tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) is an important perennial pest of tea in the mid and low elevation areas of southern India. It is a tiny beetle that belongs to the family Scolitidae, measures 2 to 2.5 mm long with a strong sclerotized body and well developed wings and mouthparts. Adults and grubs of E. fornicates feed on the fungus fusarium bugnicourtii (Bryford) that grows inside the stem galleries. The construction of galleries in the tea stem results in the breakage of the stem and consequent crop loss. Currently, medium type of pruning, selective surgery, post prune insecticide application, manuring with high levels of K2O in the pruned year, assessment of infestation in the second year of pruning cycle and mid cycle insecticide application are recommended for the management of this pest. Considerable reduction in borer damage is noticed in tea gardens where these measures are strictly implemented. It is well known that chemical control measures alone cannot offer satisfactory solutions to any pest problem. The pest has to be tackled in an integrated way by adopting biological, cultural and chemical control measures. Recently, cut stems of a jungle plant, Montanoa bipinnatifida C. Koch. (Compositae) attracted large numbers of SHB beetles in the tea fields. Studies were initiated on the chemicals emanating from cut stems of M. bipinnatifida attracting SHB. Chemicals released by cut stems of different age were captured in the Porapak Q medium by aeration technique. The medium was washed with dichloromethane (DCM), concentrated and injected into GC-MS. Peak area and retention times of identified compounds were compared with the standards. In all the runs, compounds belonging to monoterpene, sesquiterpene and cyclodiene groups were found. Synthetic compounds and total bark extracts were tested in a wind tunnel at different ratios to find out the intensity of attraction. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies were also conducted to

  7. Rice stem borers in Malaya. A proposal to use mutation breeding for their control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of rice stem borers: Among the various problems in the rice crop the loss caused by the larvae of lepidopterous stem borers seems to be very serious. In some districts of the Kurian area, the rate of damage has been as much as 100%. It is not unlikely that the stem borer threat will become worse with the introduction of double cropping in many areas. The control of stem borers has mainly been through the application of various insecticides, namely DDT, BHC, Endrin, dieldrin and gamma-BHC, and this has met with a certain amount of success. The chemical method of control, however, is not fully satisfactory because of: (a) The high recurrent cost in application; (b) The danger of hazard to man by residues; (c) The toxic effects to fish and mammals in the paddy fields; (d) The poisoning of the natural parasites of the borers; (e) The difficulties for proper application, exact concentrations etc. by untrained farmers; and (f) The probability for development of insecticide resistance in stem borers. Apparently there is an urgent need for some control free from chemical hazards. Scientists in various countries have turned to breeding for varietal resistance, among other approaches, to save the crop from damage by stem borers. The development of a variety of rice resistant to stem borers will provide an effective control operative at all levels of insect population without additional cost and inconvenience to the farmer. The research project: To achieve this objective a research project has recently been started as a co-operative venture at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. This project involves (a) Detailed ecological studies of boxers in different varieties of rice grown commonly in the various parts of the country; (b) A study of parasites of borers for possible biological control; and (c) Production of rice varieties resistant to stem borers through induction of mutations and hybridization with locally used types

  8. Field Temperature and Anthocyanins in Merlot Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    On field-grown vines, temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled from pre-veraison until harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation exposure were applied, and resulting ...

  9. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Haavik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus. On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface, yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2. In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus, exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.

  10. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064

  11. Social licence for the utilization of wild berries in the context of local traditional rights and the interests of the berry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Peltola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Everyman’s right, as applied in Finland and other Nordic countries, allows the picking of natural products (wild berries, mushrooms, etc. regardless of land ownership. Harvesting and selling natural products has been an important source of income in rural areas of northern Finland. As household berry picking has more or less replaced small-scale commercial berry picking, foreign seasonal pickers are now supplying raw material for the berry industry. This has aroused vivid discussions about the limits of everyman’s right and inhabitants’ rights to local natural resources. Critics claim that commercially organized berry picking makes it difficult for inhabitants to fully use natural resources. In this article, we present the results of a survey aimed at nature-oriented, mainly northern residents of Finland and a telephone and e-mail service to which residents of northern Finland sent feedback regarding foreign berry pickers. The results of the survey and the feedback show that, in general, organized berry picking by foreign labourers is accepted if some basic guidelines or rules are respected. These guidelines may stem from local customary laws or traditions which have regulated berry picking. Another factor which would improve local acceptance and promote social licence for organized berry picking by foreign and non–local labourers is the distribution of benefits. At present, the advantages of organized berry picking are seen as benefiting stakeholders outside the local community, whereas local communities have to bear the costs: for example, increased berry picking activity in areas which they have utilized for a prolonged time, sometimes through generations.

  12. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  13. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603

  14. Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of berry phenolics--a Finnish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2007-06-01

    In Finland, berries are part of the traditional diet significantly contributing to the intake of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Compositional data on phenolic compounds in berries has been rapidly accumulating and included in the national food composition database. Among the different bioactive substances in berries, phenolic compounds including flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids have received considerable interest due to their effects in food and health. A great amount of in vitro evidence exists showing that berry phenolics are powerful antioxidants. However, the antioxidant effect of berry phenolics is strongly dependent on the choice of berry raw material, as the antioxidant activity differs between the different phenolic constituents, including anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins. In foods, the antioxidant effect is also influenced by the structure of food. Tannin-containing berries exhibit antimicrobial properties against pathogenic bacteria, thus offering many new applications for food industry. Much of the interest in berry phenolics has focused on cranberries and both cultivated and wild blueberries, although also other berries including black currants, cloudberries, lingonberries, and red raspberries possess promising bioactivities that may have relevance to human health. Antioxidant activity of berry phenolics, in addition to other mechanisms, may contribute to human health, but the possible relationship remains yet to be scientifically substantiated. PMID:17492800

  15. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva N. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire spectrum of yeast. The grown colonies after preliminary microscoping were separated into the cultures and subjected to testing according to the culturalmorphological signs, being guided by determinants and benefits. It was established the specific variety of microflora on the surface of the berries of grapes of all investigated types, without dependence on the place of their growth. Obtained data showed that the group of yeast, which constantly is present in the complex of the epiphytic microorganisms of grapes of Saccharomyces, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora was characteristic for all types of grapes in all investigated regions. The heterogeneity of the taxonometric composition of microflora is shown. Prevailed yeasts were of family Saccharomycetaceae, form Saccharomyces vini. A quantity of yeast of Saccharomyces vini decreases in a number of Myskhako-Caucasus-Fanagoriya, that as a whole will be coordinated with the climatic conditions. Only the type of Pinot nuar grapes had yeasts of Brettanomyces Dekkera. On the berries of Cabernets and Karaburnu we have discovered yeasts of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus, causing acid-reduction. On the berries of the grapes, which grew in joint stock company APF “Fanagoriya” we haven’t revealed the presence of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts of the form of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus. In the same farm the smallest quantity of yeastswreckers is noted, which we the forms of Pichia and

  16. Revegetation of oil sands tailings. Growth improvement of silver-berry and buffalo-berry by inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, S.; Danielson, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of actinorhizal shrubs to tolerate inhospitable conditions while improving soil fertility and organic matter status has led to increased usage of these plants for land reclamation and amenity planting purposes. Silver-berry and buffalo-berry are two such shrubs being tested as potential candidates for the revegetation of the oil sands tailings in northeastern Alberta. Associated with the roots of silver-berry and buffalo-berry are two symbiants, the N/sub 2/-fixing actimomycete Frankia and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Numerous studies have demonstrated that, particularly in nutrient-limited conditions, mycorrhization and nodulation can result in significantly better plant performance as a consequence of improved N and P nutrition. It was found in this study that in Alberta, silver-berry and buffalo-berry are strictly VA mycorrhizal; that they are highly dependent on their symbiants for optimum growth; and that the VAM inoculum potential of both stockpiled and undisturbed muskeg peak is negligible, due to the absence of VAM hosts. Means to increase the inoculum potential of peat have been studied. The efficacy of inoculating seedlings grown in greenhouses with VAM and Frankia has been demonstrated. Overwinter mortality was higher for inoculated shrubs, but after one growing season, shoot-weights of silver-berry were 3 to 7 times greater than for uninoculated shrubs, and shoot weights of buffalo-berry were 3 to 5 times greater. 122 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Pod Borer of Peanut and Potential Entomopathogenic Fungi for its Control in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reflinaldon Reflinaldon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pod borer (Etiella zinckenella is a serious pest on peanuts in West Sumatera since the last four years. The larvae lived and bored on pods under soil surfaces and it is often undetected.  E. zinckenella is very limited reporting as a pest on peanuts especially in Indonesia. We described about pod borer attacking in West Sumatera and as alternative strategic control using entomopathogenic fungi bicontrol agents is  safety and more efective and it will be promoted for controlling of  larvae in pods under soil. The objective of this research were to determine severity of damage of pod borer with survey and  observation methods , and to find out potential entomopathogenic fungi  by in both of baiting and  dilution method. The severity of attacking of pod borer on groundnut was 14 to 70%. Five group of fungi i.e: Metharizium sp, Aspergillus sp, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Paecillomyces were isolated from soil of groundnut’s rhizosphere in  several districts of West Sumatera and they were able to infected of Tribolium molitor 8-30%.

  18. Diallel Analysis of Southwestern Corn Borer Leaf Feeding Damage in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwestern corn borer [Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar)] is an important pest of maize in the southern United States. It feeds extensively within the leaf whorls of plants in the vegetative stages of growth. This reduces both the quantity and quality of harvestable grain. Germplasm lines with resistan...

  19. Maize defense response against the european corn borer (Ostrinia nubilaslis): a losing battle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to understand how maize stems respond to European corn borer (ECB) damage and how these defense tactics affect the invading ECB. We measured the levels of the plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene, as well as the transcript levels of their key biosynthetic en...

  20. Managing the Risk of European Corn Borer Resistance to Transgenic Corn: An Assessment of Refuge Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Terrance M.; Silvia Secchi; Babcock, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.

  1. Maize Cob Rot in Kenya and Its Association with Stalk Borer Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cob rots are a major cause of crop loss in areas such as western Kenya that experience prolonged rainfall during the period of crop maturation. Cob rot fungi cause spoilage of the grain and some of them produce mycotoxins which can pose a health risk to humans and animals consuming foods prepared from contaminate grain. survey conducted in western Kenya in 1998 showed that cob rot incidence exceeded 20%. In the following year when rainfall was greater around the harvest period, cob rot fungi affected 68% of cobs. in 1998 stalk borer larvae (mainly Busseola fusca) damaged 20% of the cobs and there was a strong correlation (R= 0.87) between cob rot incidence and borer damage. In 1999 almost half of the cobs sampled showed evidence of borer damage. The result indicate that the high cob rot incidence in this pert of Kenya is due to stalk bore damage, which predisposes the cobs to fungal infection, and that management of the borer would greatly decrease cob rot incidence

  2. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  3. Re-evaluation of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) bioeconomics in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key insect pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., grown in Louisiana. For more than 40 years Louisiana sugarcane farmers have used a value of 10% internodes bored at harvest as the Economic Damage level (ED) because damage l...

  4. Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

  5. 76 FR 3077 - Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... accordance with Sec. 305.3(a)(1), we published a notice \\2\\ in the Federal Register on August 25, 2010 (75 FR... Emerald Ash Borer AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public of our decision to revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash...

  6. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  7. Feasibility of grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, larval acoustic detection in Florida vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...

  8. Orientation of European corn borer first instar larvae to synthetic green leaf volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer (ECB) neonate larvae are capable of orienting toward maize odors and of avoiding spinach odors. We previously reported that maize odors attraction was dependent on the stimulus regime. This led us to propose that maize odors could have a repellent or attractive effect depending o...

  9. Observation of Berry's Phase in a Superconducting Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, P. J.; Fink, J. M.; Blais, A.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Wallraff, A.

    2008-03-01

    In quantum information science, the phase of a wavefunction plays an important role in encoding information. While most experiments in this field rely on dynamic effects to manipulate this information, an alternative approach is to use geometric phase, which has been argued to have potential fault tolerance [1]. Here we demonstrate the controlled accumulation of a geometric phase, Berry's phase, in a superconducting qubit, manipulating the qubit geometrically using microwave radiation, and observing the accumulated phase in an interference experiment [2]. This is achieved utilising the excellent phase coherence and qubit control possible in Circuit QED [3]. We find excellent agreement with Berry's predictions, and also observe a geometry dependent contribution to dephasing. [1] J.A. Jones et al, Nature 403, 869 (2000) [2] P.J. Leek et al, Science, 22 November 2007 (10.1126/science.1149858) [3] A. Wallraff et al, Nature 431, 162 (2004)

  10. Berry curvature of interacting bosons in a honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Sengupta, Pinaki; Batrouni, George G.; Miniatura, Christian; Grémaud, Benoît.

    2015-10-01

    We consider soft-core bosons with on-site interaction loaded in the honeycomb lattice with different site energies for the two sublattices. Using both a mean-field approach and quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the topology of the honeycomb lattice results in a nonvanishing Berry curvature for the band structure of the single-particle excitations of the system. This Berry curvature induces an anomalous Hall effect when driving the system out of equilibrium. It is seen by studying the time evolution of a wave packet, namely, a superfluid ground state in a harmonic trap, subjected either to a constant force (Bloch oscillations) or to a sudden shift of the trap center.

  11. Steroidal glycoalkaloids from the berries of Solanum distichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzid, Sameh; Fawzy, Nermeen; Darweesh, Nebal; Orihara, Yutaka

    2008-01-20

    Two steroidal glycoalkaloids, Solanidine 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'' --> 4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1' --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (1) and Solanidine 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'' --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (2) commonly known as alpha-chanonine and beta 2-chanonine, were isolated from the berries of Solanum distichum. The structures of the isolated compounds were studied by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and FAB MS analysis. The 13C NMR signal assignments and direct elucidation of the glycoside linkages were established. Glycoalkaloids level in the dried berries, determined by a simple colorimetric method, was found to be 5.08 +/- 0.18 g%. PMID:18075898

  12. Functional haplodiploidy: a mechanism for the spread of insecticide resistance in an important international insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, L O; Stuart, J; Gaudichon, V; Aronstein, K; French-Constant, R H

    1995-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide and has an unusual life history that ensures a high degree of inbreeding. Individual females lay a predominantly female brood within individual coffee berries and because males are flightless there is almost entirely full sib mating. We investigated the genetics associated with this interesting life history after the important discovery of resistance to the cyclodiene type insecticide endosulfan. Both the inheritance of the resistance phenotype and the resistance-associated point mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor gene Rdl were examined. Consistent with haplodiploidy, males failed to express and transmit paternally derived resistance alleles. Furthermore, while cytological examination revealed that males are diploid, one set of chromosomes was condensed, and probably nonfunctional, in the somatic cells of all males examined. Moreover, although two sets of chromosomes were present in primary spermatocytes, the chromosomes failed to pair before the single meiotic division, and only one set was packaged in sperm. Thus, the coffee berry borer is "functionally" haplodiploid. Its genetics and life history may therefore represent an interesting intermediate step in the evolution of true haplodiploidy. The influence of this breeding system on the spread of insecticide resistance is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568233

  13. Berry Phases, Quantum Phase Transitions and Chern Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, H. A.; Reyes-Lega, A. F.

    2007-01-01

    We study the relation between Chern numbers and Quantum Phase Transitions (QPT) in the XY spin-chain model. By coupling the spin chain to a single spin, it is possible to study topological invariants associated to the coupling Hamiltonian. These invariants contain global information, in addition to the usual one (obtained by integrating the Berry connection around a closed loop). We compute these invariants (Chern numbers) and discuss their relation to QPT. In particular we show that Chern nu...

  14. Measurement of topological Berry phase in highly disordered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaceur, K.; Guillemette, J.; Lévesque, P. L.; Cottenye, N.; Mahvash, F.; Hemsworth, N.; Kumar, Abhishek; Murata, Y.; Heun, S.; Goerbig, M. O.; Proust, C.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Gervais, G.; Szkopek, T.

    2015-09-01

    We have observed the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in highly disordered graphene at magnetic fields up to 65 T. Disorder was introduced by hydrogenation of graphene up to a ratio H/C ≈0.1 %. The analysis of SdH oscillations and QHE indicates that the topological part of the Berry phase, proportional to the pseudospin winding number, is robust against introduction of disorder by hydrogenation in large-scale graphene.

  15. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies de...

  16. Antioxidant capacities and anthocyanin characteristics of the black-red wild berries obtained in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengyong; Su, Shang; Wang, Lijin; Wu, Jie; Tang, Zhongqiu; Xu, Yanjun; Shu, Qingyan; Wang, Liangsheng

    2016-08-01

    Various edible berries widely accessible in nature in Northeast China are poorly exploited. The compositions and contents of anthocyanins in black (Padus maackii, Padus avium, Lonicera caerulea, and Ribes nigrum) and red (Ribes rubrum, Sambucus williamsii, Rubus idaeus, and Ribes procumbens) wild berries in Northeast China were firstly characterized by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2). Twenty-three anthocyanins were detected and identified. Cyanidin glycosides were dominant in both berries. Six anthocyanins were reported for the first time in P. avium, R. rubrum, and Sambucus. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) ranged from 10mg/100gfreshweight (FW) (R. procumbens) to 1058mg/100gFW (P. maackii) among berries. The TACs and antioxidant activities assessed by DPPH and FRAP assays were much higher in black than in red berries. Black-red berries, especially P. maackii and P. avium, can be used in developing functional foods and in improving breeding programs. PMID:26988488

  17. Berry Curvature and Chiral Plasmons in Massive Dirac Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Justin; Rudner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    In the semiclassical model of carrier dynamics, quasiparticles are described as nearly free electrons with modified characteristics modified characteristics such as effective masses which may differ significantly from those of an electron in vacuum. In addition to being influenced by external electric and magnetic fields, the trajectories of electrons in topological materials are also affected by the presence of an interesting quantum mechanical field - the Berry curvature - which is responsible for a number of anomalous transport phenomena recently observed in Dirac materials including G/hBN, and MoS2. Here we discuss how Berry curvature can affect the collective behavior of electrons in these systems. In particular, we show that the collective electronic excitations in metallic massive Dirac materials can feature a chirality even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The chirality of these plasmons arises from the Berry curvature of the massive Dirac bands. The corresponding dispersion is split between left- and right-handed modes. We also discuss experimental manifestations.

  18. A biophysical model of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alistair J; Minchin, Peter E H; Clearwater, Michael J; Génard, Michel

    2013-12-01

    A model of kiwifruit berry development is presented, building on the model of Fishman and Génard used for peach fruit. That model has been extended to incorporate a number of important features of kiwifruit growth. First, the kiwifruit berry is attached to the stem through a pedicel/receptacle complex which contributes significantly to the hydraulic resistance between the stem and the fruit, and this resistance changes considerably during the season. Second, much of the carbohydrate in kiwifruit berries is stored as starch until the fruit matures late in the season, when the starch hydrolyses to soluble sugars. This starch storage has a major effect on the osmotic potential of the fruit, so an existing model of kiwifruit starch dynamics was included in the model. Using previously published approaches, we also included elasticity and extended the modelling period to cover both the cell division and cell expansion phases of growth. The resulting model showed close simulation of field observations of fresh weight, dry matter, starch, and soluble solids in kiwifruit. Comparison with continuous measurements of fruit diameter confirmed that elasticity was needed to adequately simulate observed diurnal variation in fruit size. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the model is particularly sensitive to variation in inputs relating to water (stem water potential and the humidity of the air), and to parameters controlling cell expansion (cell wall extensibility). Some limitations in the model structure were identified, suggesting that a revised model including current apoplastic/symplastic concepts needs to be developed. PMID:24123250

  19. Lantana camara berry for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brajesh; Kumar; Kumari; Smita; Luis; Cumbal; Alexis; Debut

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize the silver nunoparticles(AgNPs) by reduction of silver ions into nano silver,using ripened berry extract of Lantana camara and evaluate its antioxidant activity against 1.1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl.Methods:The prepared AgNPs were characterized by visual,UV-visible spectrophotometer.dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction.Results:Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis confirmed the AgNPs are spherical and 75.2 nm average sized.Selected area electron diffraction analysis supports that the obtained nanoparticles were in crystalline form.In addition,the antioxidant efficacy of prepared AgNPs was found to be higher than berry extract against 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.Conclusions:From the results obtained it is suggested that surface modified AgNPs at lower concentration,showed higher antioxidant activity than berry extract against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and could be used effectively in future ethno pharmacological concerns.

  20. Other Kinds of Violence: Wendell Berry, Industrialism, and Agrarian Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Major

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the need to understand pacifism and environmentalism as essentially consonant philosophies and practices, just as a proper theorization of ecocide must also include the violence inherent to industrialism and militarism. Few contemporary writers understand the stakes involved in this conflation as well as Wendell Berry, and few have had more occasion to enact the entwined values of pacifism and environmentalism than he has. Berry therefore marries pacifist politics to a land ethic of care, a union from which emerges an environmentalism highly critical of the violence of American corporate capitalism and militarism, the apotheosis of which can be seen in the guise of war (Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, the “War on Terror”. Moreover, such violence has its domestic ecocidal analogy, best evidenced by strip mining and mountaintop removal. Berry’s union of peaceableness and agrarian environmentalism does, however, deserve critical examination, for it often rests upon the construction of a sometimes frustrating disconnection between a precious and benign domesticity and a theoretically corrupt public sphere. To be sure, in his reworking of the fluid boundaries between the private and public through which his agrarian ethics is often articulated, Berry simultaneously invokes and disavows a separation he clearly understands to be artificial. In Berry’s peaceful agrarian vision, then, the agrarian pacifist who is also by definition an environmentalist must draw upon enormous internal resources if she is to revolutionize the economies of ruin that characterize modern life.

  1. Grape berry vacuole : a complex and heterogeneous membrane system specialized in the accumulation of solutes

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, N.; Gerós, H.; Delrot, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Vacuoles fulfill highly specialized functions depending on cell type and tissue and plant developmental stage. This complex and dynamic organelle is the main reservoir of grape berry cells, playing a major role during fruit development and ripening. Berry development is accompanied by modifications in size, composition, color, texture, flavor, and pathogen susceptibility, primarily because of changes in vacuolar content. Most aroma and flavor compounds are not evenly distributed in the berry,...

  2. Inhibition of adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial cells by berry juice polyphenolic fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Toivanen, Marko; Huttunen, Sanna; Lapinjoki, Seppo; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Adhesion of pathogens to host tissues is the requirement for the initiation of the majority of infectious diseases. We recently showed that the binding of Neisseria meningitidis pili to immobilised human epithelial cells is inhibited by molecular size fractions (10?100 kDa) of berry juices. Additionally, the isolated meningococcal pili bound to polyphenolic fractions of berry juices. In the present study we investigated the antiadhesive effects of berry juice polyphenolics...

  3. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa; Florica Ranga; Dumitriţa Rugină; Loredana Leopold; Oana Pop; Dan Vodnar; Lucian Cuibus; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was d...

  4. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    OpenAIRE

    Pranabendu Mitra; Venkatesh Meda; Rick Green

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon be...

  5. Seed-specific stable expression of the alpha-AI1 inhibitor in coffee grains and the in vivo implications for the development of the coffee berry borer

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, E. V. S.; Bezerra, C. A.; Romero, J. V.; Valencia, J. W. A.; Valencia-Jimenez, A.; Pimenta, L. M.; Barbosa, Aead; Silva, M. C. M.; Meneguim, A. M.; Sa, M. E. L.; Engler, G.; de Almeida-Engler, J.; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-De-Sa, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alpha-AI1) gene. The alpha-AI1 inhi...

  6. Seed-Specific Stable Expression of the α-AI1 Inhibitor in Coffee Grains and the In Vivo Implications for the Development of the Coffee Berry Borer

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Érika V. S.; Bezerra, Caroline A.; Romero, Juan V.; Valencia, Jorge W. A.; Valencia-Jiménez, Arnubio; Pimenta, Lucas M.; Barbosa, Aulus E. A. D.; Silva, Maria C. M.; Meneguim, Ana M.; Sá, Maria Eugênia L.; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the α-amylase inhibitor-1 (α-AI1) gene. The α-AI1 inhibitor shows ...

  7. Measurement of Berry Phase Associated with Higher Dimensional Orbital Angular Momentum of Light by Interference Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry phase of higher-dimensional orbital angular momentum of light is studied. When an Nth order orbital state, described by a vector in (N + 1)-dimensional space, evolves through a closed path in space of orbital states, there will exist a higher order orbital Berry phase. We calculate this phase by using the matrix transformation theory. A direct measurement of the higher-order orbital Berry phase is also carried out by the interference method. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical description, which shows that the Berry phase is proportional to the orbital angular momentum of light

  8. Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6 ± 8.2 g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9 ± 31.7 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

  9. Studies on shoot and leaf characters of brinjal plants and their quantitative relationships with brinjal shoot and fruit borer

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, H; Rahman, M.H.; Haque, K.S; K.S. Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The field experiment was conducted with twenty brinjal varieties/lines during October 2007 to May 2008 to identify shoot and leaf characteristics of brinjal plants for their susceptibility/resistance against brinjal shoot and fruit borer infestation. Borer infestation was influenced by different characters of plant shoot and leaf. Various parameters like plant height, stem diameter, number of branches and leaves plant-1, third leaf length and width were recorded from different varieties used....

  10. The History of Attack and Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on White Fringetree in Southwestern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Danielle; Lopez, Vanessa; Ray, Ann M; Cipollini, Don

    2016-08-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive insect that has caused widespread mortality of ash species in North America. The ability of emerald ash borer to utilize white fringetree as an alternate host was reported recently. We aimed to determine how long white fringetree has been under attack from emerald ash borer, the degree of attack, and the overall success of this beetle on this novel host. Stems from three of nine infested white fringetrees collected from the Dayton and Cincinnati, OH, areas in the winter of 2015 yielded four live adult emerald ash borers after being held in rearing containers, and numerous older exit holes were observed. Measurement and aging of feeding galleries on these stems indicated that emerald ash borer has been using this species since 2011, at least, with peak gallery densities reached in 2012 and 2013 on most of the harvested trees. On average, 32 galleries per square meter were found in these stems with about one-third of them being indicative of fourth-instar larvae. This supports the assertion that emerald ash borer has been using white fringetree as a host plant with moderate to good success for as long as ash species in these particular areas have been utilized. PMID:27325628

  11. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  12. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  13. Correlation of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to oxygen radical scavenging activities in berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds. In addition to the usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, berry fruits are also rich in flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, flavones, and their glycosides. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of...

  14. Miracle Berry for Increasing Health Benefits of beta-Glucan Soluble Fiber Functional Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum) is known for its taste modification of sour materials to give them an excellent sweetening taste. Although miracle berry was known in West African since the 1800’s, the earliest chemical composition studies were first performed in 1965 by Inglett and co-workers...

  15. On Membership, Humility, and Pedagogical Responsibilities: A Correspondence on the Work of Wendell Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusewicz, Rebecca A.; Edmundson, Jeff; Kahn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Wendell Berry is a novelist, essayist, conservation activist and farmer who has had a lot to say over the last half century about the impact of modern industrial society on small farm communities and the land especially since WWII. In this three-way conversation, the authors take up central aspects of Berry's work to think about how it has…

  16. Changes in ginsenoside composition of ginseng berry extracts after a microwave and vinegar process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Shin-Jung; Kim, Ju-Duck; Ko, Sung-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    MGB-20 findings show that the ginseng berry extracts that had been processed with microwave and vinegar for 20 min peaked in the level of ginsenoside Rg2 (2.28%) and Rh1 (1.28%). MGB-1 peaked in the level of ginsenoside Rg3 (1.13%) in the ginseng berry extract processed with microwave and vinegar for 1 min.

  17. Time and Frequency Domain Response of Grape Berries to Nondestructive Impact during the Harvesting Period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Pavloušek, P.; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2016), s. 24-33. ISSN 0022-4901 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : berry´s response * dominant frequency * elastic modulus * grape berries Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com

  18. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Berry Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. Application of Berry's Phase to the Effective Mass of Bloch Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rave, M. J.; Kerr, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Berry's phase, although well known since 1984, has received little attention among textbook authors of solid state physics. We attempt to address this lack by showing how the presence of the Berry's phase significantly changes a standard concept (effective mass) found in most solid state texts. Specifically, we show that the presence of a non-zero…

  20. Bragg-Berry mirrors: reflective broadband q-plates

    CERN Document Server

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh

    2016-01-01

    We report on the experimental realization of flat mirrors enabling the broadband generation of optical vortices upon reflection. The effect is based on the geometric Berry phase associated with the circular Bragg reflection phenomenon from chiral uniaxial media. We show the reflective optical vortex generation from both diffractive and nondiffractive paraxial light beams using spatially patterned chiral liquid crystal films. The intrinsic spectrally broadband character of spin-orbit generation of optical phase singularities is demonstrated over the full visible domain. Our results do not rely on any birefringent retardation requirement and consequently foster the development of a novel generation of robust optical elements for spin-orbit photonic technologies.

  1. Measurement of Topological Berry Phase in Highly Disordered Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Bennaceur, K.; Guillemette, J.; Lévesque, P. L.; Cottenye, N.; Mahvash, F.; Hemsworth, N.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Murata, Y; Heun, S.; Goerbig, M. O.; Proust, C.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Gervais, G.; Szkopek, T.

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in highly disordered graphene at magnetic fields up to 65 T. Disorder was introduced by hydrogenation of graphene up to a ratio H/C $\\approx 0.1\\%$. The analysis of SdH oscillations and QHE indicates that the topological part of the Berry phase, proportional to the pseudo-spin winding number, is robust against introduction of disorder by hydrogenation in large scale graphene.

  2. The Pioneer's Anomalous Doppler Drift as a Berry Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales, J L

    2004-01-01

    The detected anomalous frequency drift acceleration in Pioneer's radar data finds its explanation in a Berry phase that obtains the quantum state of a photon that propagates within an expanding space-time. The clock acceleration is just the adiabatic expansion rate and an analogy between the effect and Foucault's experiment is fully suggested. In this sense, light rays play a similar role in the expanding space than Foucault's Pendulum does while determining Earth's rotation. On the other hand, one could speculate about a suitable future experiment at "laboratory" scales able to measure the local cosmological expansion rate using the procedure of outlined in this paper.

  3. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m). The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire le...

  4. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns...... related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste......This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...

  5. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  6. Berry phases in the three-level atoms driven by quantized light fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mai-Lin Liang; Zong-Cheng Xu; Bing Yuan

    2008-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of Berry's phases is given for the three-level atoms interacting with external one-mode and two-mode quantized light fields. Three main results are obtained: (i) There is a Berry phase which vanishes in the classical limit or this Berry phase is completely induced by the field quantization; (ii) Berry's phases for the one-mode field and the two-mode field can be equal so long as the photon numbers of the two-mode field are properly chosen; (iii) In the two-mode case, Berry phases of the atom interacting with one mode is affected by the other mode even if the photon number of the other mode is zero.

  7. Berry phase of the Rabi model beyond the rotating-wave approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berry phase of the Rabi model beyond the rotating-wave approximation is investigated. By use of two unitary transformations, the analytical expressions of the Berry phase are obtained approximately for the Rabi model. The obtained analytical solutions reproduce accurately the high-accuracy numerical results of the Berry phase in the strong coupling regime. It is found that the Berry phase of the ground state is relevant to the second-order terms of the coupling strength, and the Berry phases of the first and second excited states are mainly relevant to the first-, second- and third-order terms of the coupling strength when the effect of the counter-rotating-wave terms is taken into account. (paper)

  8. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Guerrero C; Luigi Ciampi P; Andrea Castilla C; Fernando Medel S; Heidi Schalchli S; Emilio Hormazabal U; Emma Bensch T; Miren Alberdi L

    2010-01-01

    It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC),...

  9. Quality evaluation of the mass reared Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.D. Guthrie et al. reported that the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis Huebner, mass reared continuously on a meridic diet for over 14 generations, will eventually lose its virulence to susceptible inbred lines of maize. However, the present paper indicates that this is not the case with the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis Guenee, when mass reared on a semi-artificial diet developed by the first author. Larvae reared continuously for as many as 26 generations still maintain their ability to cause serious whorl and stalk damage to susceptible maize materials. It cannot be concluded, however, that the diet and rearing technique for ACB are superior to those for ECB unless the two diets are used to rear the two Ostrinia species at the same time and under the same rearing conditions. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs

  10. Status and potential of F1 sterility for control of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In certain lepidopterous insects partially gamma-ray-sterilized males mated with normal females produce progeny which are more sterile than their male parents. Inherited sterility has been observed in numerous pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb. The most important discoveries contributing the development of this techniques are reviewed. The studies on the European corn borer have revealed a dramatic inherited sterility effect when pupae have been irradiated with a low dose of 100 or 150 Gy. Data on the growth, development and behaviour of F1 individuals indicate that the treated insects are highly competitive with the normal insects. Field tests of the inherited sterility technique in isolated O. nubilalis infestations have indicated that this method is effective and a small eradication has been done. These studies are continuing. (author)

  11. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Vega, Fernando E; Karaoz, Ulas; Hao, Zhao; Jenkins, Stefan; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Kosina, Petr; Infante, Francisco; Northen, Trent R; Brodie, Eoin L

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide with its infestations decreasing crop yield by up to 80%. Caffeine is an alkaloid that can be toxic to insects and is hypothesized to act as a defence mechanism to inhibit herbivory. Here we show that caffeine is degraded in the gut of H. hampei, and that experimental inactivation of the gut microbiota eliminates this activity. We demonstrate that gut microbiota in H. hampei specimens from seven major coffee-producing countries and laboratory-reared colonies share a core of microorganisms. Globally ubiquitous members of the gut microbiota, including prominent Pseudomonas species, subsist on caffeine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Pseudomonas caffeine demethylase genes are expressed in vivo in the gut of H. hampei, and re-inoculation of antibiotic-treated insects with an isolated Pseudomonas strain reinstates caffeine-degradation ability confirming their key role. PMID:26173063

  12. Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Jian J Duan; Paula M Shrewsbury

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populati...

  13. Lethal and sublethal effects of lufenuron on sugarcane borer Diatraea flavipennella and its parasitoid Cotesia flavipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana Paula Pereira; Marques, Edmilson Jacinto; Torres, Jorge Braz; Silva, Liliane Marques; Siqueira, Herbert Álvaro Abreu

    2015-11-01

    The combination of chemical and biological controls is a historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved due to lethal and sublethal impact of insecticides on natural enemies altering their performance. In this context, the susceptibility of the yellow sugarcane borer, Diatraea flavipennella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to the insect growth regulator lufenuron and the consequent effects upon its endoparasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) encountering exposed but surviving larvae were studied. Neonate and 10-day-old larvae were subjected to one of seven concentrations of lufenuron (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100 mg a.i./L). Further, effects of lufenuron to the host larvae and to the parasitoid were assessed using low lethal LC20 and LC50. Lufenuron at concentrations up to 12.5 mg a.i./L allowed partial survival of borer larvae; and concentrations over 12.5 mg a.i./L caused 100 % larval mortality before pupation in both ages. Neonate larvae exhibited lower pupal weights only at concentrations 12.5 mg a.i./L; while 10-day-old larvae treated with the LC50 exhibited delayed development. Egg viability was reduced for adult borers from surviving larvae of both ages treated with low lethal concentrations. The parasitoid C. flavipes successfully parasitized surviving low lethal treated larvae. Among the studied life history characteristics of C. flavipes, only a delayed development was observed. The results showed that lufenuron can be effective against D. flavipennella at concentrations over 25 mg a.i./L, and that surviving larvae can be successfully parasitized by C. flavipes. The insecticide lufenuron and the parasitoid C. flavipes seem to be compatible for sugarcane borer control. PMID:26250937

  14. Association of charecters on yield and shoot and fruit borer resistance in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S.Praneetha*, V. Rajashree and L.Pugalendhi

    2011-01-01

    Eighty one brinjal genotypes (nine parents and 72 hybrids) were evaluated for 14 characters. Results showed that marketableyield per plant had significant positive association for both at genotypic and phenotypic level with all the characters studied viz.,plant height, number of branches per plant, fruit girth, calyx length, number of fruits per plant, single fruit weight, protein contentand total phenol content. The earliness showed positive association with fruit borer infestation both at g...

  15. A High-Resolution Map of Emerald Ash Borer Invasion Risk for Southern Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoria Valenta; Dietmar Moser; Michael Kuttner; Johannes Peterseil; Franz Essl

    2015-01-01

    Ash species (Fraxinus spp.) in Europe are threatened by the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB), an invasive wood boring beetle native to East Asia and currently spreading from European Russia westwards. Based on a high-resolution habitat distribution map (grid cell size: 25 × 25 m) and data on distribution and abundance of Common Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), the most widespread and highly susceptive host species of EAB in Europe, we assess the spatial distribution of EAB invasion risks...

  16. Analysis of Gene Expression in Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Using Quantitative Real Time-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America.EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the ...

  17. Composição química e atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) sobre a broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei) Ferrari

    OpenAIRE

    M.R.A. Santos; R.A. Lima; A. G. SILVA; D.K.S. Lima; L.A.P. Sallet; C.A.D. Teixeira; V.A. Facundo

    2013-01-01

    O óleo essencial das folhas de Schinus terebinthifolius foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG-EM. O rendimento do óleo foi de 0,8%, sendo identificados 37 constituintes químicos. Os componentes principais foram germacreno D (25,0%), (E)-β-cariofileno (17,5%) e δ -elemeno (10,5%). O óleo essencial foi diluído em acetona nas concentrações de 10-2 a 10-8 e aplicado aos insetos (Hypothenemus hampei) por aplicação tópica e exposição em superfície contaminada. As taxas de mortalidade fo...

  18. Screening of tomato genotypes for resistance to tomato fruit borer (helicoverpa armiger hubner) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato genotypes viz., Roma Local, Rio Grande, Tanja, Chico III, Long Tipped, Red-Top, FS-8001, FS-8002, Tropic, Pakit, Peelo, NARC-1, Roma VFN, Pant Bahr, Ebein, Nova Mech, Rockingham, Nagina, Shalkot-96, Pomodoro, Manik, Gressilesse, Nadir, Early Mech, Tommy, Pusha Rubi, Tropic boy, Big Long, Sahil, Sun 6002, Money-Maker and Royesta were evaluated to screen out the suitable resistant/susceptible genotypes against the fruit borer in Pakistan. The results imparted that the percentage of fruit infestation and larval population per plant on tested genotypes of tomato varied significantly. Roma VF, NARC-1 and FS-8002 were categorized as susceptible genotypes with fruit infestation (37.69%, 37.08% and 36.41%, respectively) and larval population per plant (1.02%, 1.02% and 0.84 %, respectively). Whereas, the genotypes Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb had fruit infestation (12.30%, 13.14% and 13.96%, respectively) and larval population per plant (0.42%, 0.42% and 0.43%, respectively) and declared as resistant genotypes to tomato fruit borer. Lower values of host plant susceptibility indices (HPSI) were recorded on resistant genotypes. Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb could be used as a source of resistance for developing tomato genotypes resistant to tomato fruit borer. (author)

  19. Field Evaluation of the Asian Corn Borer Control in Hybrid of Transgenic Maize Event MON 810

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; WEN Li-ping; BAI Shu-xiong; ZHOU Da-rong; ZHU Qing-hua

    2003-01-01

    In this study,a transgenic Bt maize hybrid(event MON 810 from Monsanto Company)expressing Cry1Ab protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)and its negative isoline hybrid were evaluatrial. Maize plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of Asian corn borer at the mid-whorl(firstgeneration),pre-tassel(first-and/or second-generation),and silk(second-generation)growth stages.The transgenic Bt maize hybrid sustained significantly less leaf feeding damage(rating 1.0±0.0)than its negative isoline control(rating 7.3±0.1).With the Bt maize,1.3-6.8%of plants were damaged by corn borer tunneling with<0.5 cm tunneling per stalk under different levels of infestation,compared with 100%of plants damaged with 9.3-25.0 cm tunneling per stalk for the negative isoline control. On average,transgenic Bt maize hybrids had only 0.01-0.05 tunnels per stalk and no stems were broken.In contrast,the negative isoline control had 3.11-8.36 tunnels per stalk and 31.2-73.9% of stems broken.Yields were significantly higher in trahsgenic Bt maize than in the control. These results demonstrate that transgenic Bt maize can significantly minimize yield losses caused by the Asian corn borer through resistance to the first-and second-generation larvae.

  20. Chemical quality parameters and bioactive compound content of brazilian berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing consumer demand for higher healthy foods such as berries which are a rich source of phenolic compounds. The current work evaluated blackberry cultivars: Cherokee, Tupy and Xavante; raspberry cultivars: Heritage, Fallgold and Black; and the hybrid Boysenberry. All berries were grown under homogenous subtropical conditions in Brazil. Black raspberry, Cherokee and Tupy blackberry cultivars showed the highest ratio between soluble solid contents and titratable acidity, and Fallgold and Heritage raspberry showed the highest titratable acidity. Total phenolic content ranged from 2.03 to 5.33 g kg–1 fresh weight and total anthocyanin content registered values from 0.41 to 1.81 g kg–1 fresh weight. The most common phenolic acids were gallic, p-coumaric and ellagic, and for anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvinidin-3-glucoside. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 14.13 to 21.51 mol equivalent trolox kg–1 fresh weight. Black raspberry, all blackberry cultivars and the Boysenberry hybrid are appropriate to be consumed fresh, while Fallgold and Heritage raspberries are recommended to the food industry. Due to their phenolic richness and antioxidant properties, these fruits are of great interest to the fresh fruit market and to pharmaceutical industries. These results could help breeders and growers when planning the cultivar selection according to their foreseeable destination.

  1. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  2. ACROPOLIS - NEWEST WINE WHITE BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest aromatic wine white berry grape variety Acropolis was breeded by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece by professors P.Zamanidi and L.Troshinym in 2006 by crossing the Greek variety Kidonitsa with European Riesling. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics it is related to the eco-geographical group of Black Sea. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Degree of ripening vines is very high: over the entire length, except for the top. Length of production period 146-155 days. High yield 25-30 t / ha. Average weight of cluster is 360 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with common varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is androgynous. Bunch is medium, conical, medium density. Berry is medium, spherical, greenish-yellow color with a thick waxy coating. Cuticle of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice are with pronounced varietal type taste of Riesling. Sugar content is very high: up to 24% more. Bunches of variety Acropolis continuously stored in the bushes. Variety is intended for manufacturing dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines, suitable for production of high quality aromatic juices

  3. AGAPI - NEWEST WINE WHITE BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Newest aromatic white berry wine grape variety Agapi was breeded by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece by professors P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskiy in 2006 by crossing the Greek varieties Afiri white with central European variety Traminer pink. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Level of ripening vines is very high: over the entire length except the top. Length of production period 146-155 days. Productivity is very high: 25-30 t / ha. Average weight of cluster 300 g. Characterized by a high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases compared to varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is androgynous. Bunch is medium, conical, medium density. Berry is medium, short elliptical or spherical, greenish-yellow in color, with a thick waxy coating. Cuticle of medium thickness, dense, and durable. Pulp and juice are with pronounced varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. The sugar content is very high, more than 24%. Clusters of Agapi variety regardless of autumn weather conditions persist for a long time in the bushes. Variety intended for the manufacturing dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high quality fragrant juices

  4. Volatiles induced by the larvae of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in maize plants affect behavior of conspecific larvae and female adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Hong Huang; Feng-Ming Yan; John A.Byers; Rong-Jiang Wang; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) volatiles induced by larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), on the orientation behaviors of Asian corn borer larvae and oviposition of the females were investigated. Nineteen volatile chemicals, with terpenes being the major components, were identified from maize plants attacked by third instar Asian corn borer larvae. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses revealed some electroantennographic differences between female and male Asian corn borer antennae in response to larvae-induced maize volatiles; female responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and three unknown compounds while the male only responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal and one unknown compound. In laboratory orientation bioassays, Asian corn borer neonate larvae were attracted to extracts collected from Asian corn borer-damaged plants as well as to synthetic famesene, but were repelled by (Z)-3-hexen- 1-ol. In laboratory oviposition bioassays, gravid females laid fewer eggs on plants damaged by larvae than on mechanically damaged plants or undamaged plants. Adult Asian corn borer females deposited fewer eggs on wax paper treated with (E)-2-hexenal or (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol than on wax paper treated with hexane (control). The results suggest that Asian corn borer can affect the behaviors of conspecific larvae and adults by changing host plant volatiles.

  5. Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in the Born–Oppenheimer hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.D. [National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Yi, X.X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Fu, L.B., E-mail: lbfu.iapcm@gmail.com [National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in the Born–Oppenheimer (BO) hybrid systems and obtain their algebraic expressions in terms of one form connection. The semiclassical relation of Berry phase and Hannay’s angle is discussed. We find that, besides the usual connection term, the Berry phase of quantum BO composite system also contains a novel term brought forth by the coupling induced effective gauge potential. This quantum modification can be viewed as an effective Aharonov–Bohm effect. Moreover, the similar phenomenon is founded in Hannay’s angle of classical BO composite system, which indicates that the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle possess the same relation as the usual one. An example is used to illustrate our theory. This scheme can be used to generate artificial gauge potentials for neutral atoms. Besides, the quantum–classical hybrid BO system is also studied to compare with the results in full quantum and full classical composite systems. -- Highlights: •We have derived the Berry phase and Hannay’s angle in BO hybrid systems. •The Berry phase contains a novel term brought by the effective gauge potential. •This mechanism can be used to generate artificial gauge potentials for neutral atoms. •The relation between Hannay’s angles and Berry phases is established.

  6. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  7. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  8. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Recent Progress in Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetes Effect of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with "beyond antioxidant" functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27058561

  10. Vacuum induced Berry phases in single-mode Jaynes-Cummings models

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yu; Jia, W Z; Liang, J Q

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 220404 (2002)] for detecting the vacuum-induced Berry phases with two-mode Jaynes-Cummings models (JCMs), we show here that, for a parameter-dependent single-mode JCM, certain atom-field states also acquire the photon-number-dependent Berry phases after the parameter slowly changed and eventually returned to its initial value. This geometric effect related to the field quantization still exists, even the filed is kept in its vacuum state. Specifically, a feasible Ramsey interference experiment with cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) system is designed to detect the vacuum-induced Berry phase.

  11. Vacuum-induced Berry phases in single-mode Jaynes-Cummings models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 220404 (2002)] for detecting the vacuum-induced Berry phases with two-mode Jaynes-Cummings models (JCMs), we show here that, for a parameter-dependent single-mode JCM, certain atom-field states also acquired photon-number-dependent Berry phases after the parameter slowly changed and eventually returned to its initial value. This geometric effect related to the field quantization still exists, even if the field is kept in its vacuum state. Specifically, a feasible Ramsey interference experiment with a cavity quantum electrodynamics system is designed to detect the vacuum-induced Berry phase.

  12. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 107 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  13. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  14. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  15. [Susceptibility of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gómez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endoparasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10(7) conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. PMID:19943017

  16. Holographic Josephson Junctions and Berry holonomy from D-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Domokos, Sophia K; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    We construct a holographic model for Josephson junctions with a defect system of a Dp brane intersecting a D(p+2) brane. In addition to providing a geometrical picture for the holographic dual, this leads us very naturally to suggest the possibility of non-Abelian Josephson junctions characterized in terms of the topological properties of the branes. The difference between the locations of the endpoints of the Dp brane on either side of the defect translates into the phase difference of the condensate in the Josephson junction. We also add a magnetic flux on the D(p+2) brane and allow it evolve adiabatically along a closed curve in the space of the magnetic flux, while generating a non-trivial Berry holonomy.

  17. Anthocyanins in berries of Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Muñoz, Orlando; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2006-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of berries of Maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz] was determined by HPLC with photodiode array and MS detection. Eight pigments corresponding to the 3-glucosides, 3,5-diglucosides, 3-sambubiosides and 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin were identified, the principal anthocyanin being delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (34% of total anthocyanins). The average total anthocyanin content was 137.6 +/- 0.4mg/100g of fresh fruit (211.9 +/- 0.6 mg/100g of dry fruit). The relative high anthocyanin content and the important presence of polar polyglycosylated derivatives makes the fruits of A. chilensis an interesting source of anthocyanin extracts for food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:16454470

  18. Luttinger liquid with complex forward scattering: Robustness and Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Moessner, Roderich

    2016-02-01

    Luttinger liquids (LLs) are one-dimensional systems with well-understood instabilities due to Umklapp or backscattering. We study a generalization of the Luttinger model, which incorporates a time reversal symmetry breaking interaction producing a complex forward scattering amplitude (g2 process). The resulting low energy state is still a LL and belongs to the family of interacting Schulz-Shastry models. Remarkably, it becomes increasingly robust against additional perturbations—for purely imaginary g2, both Umklapp and local backscattering are always irrelevant. Changing the phase of the interaction generates a nontrivial Berry phase, with a universal geometric phase difference between ground and a one boson excited state depending only on the LL parameter.

  19. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G A Whitehill

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp. that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER, and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  20. Expression of a Modified Crylle Gene in E.Coli and in Transgenic Tobacco Confers Resistance to Corn Borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Jun LIU; Fu-Ping SONG; Kang-Lai HE; Yuan YUAN; Xiao-Xia ZHANG; Peng GAO; Jian-Hua WANG; Guo-Ying WANG

    2004-01-01

    The wild-type Crylle gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was modified for its efficient expression in transgenic plants. Modified Cry1 Ie gene (designated as Cry1 Iem) was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28b and its expression in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. Bioassays using crude expression products in E. coli revealed that Cry1 Iem protein had a similar toxicity to corn borer as wild-type Cry1 Ie. Cry1 Iem gene was then inserted downstream of the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter in plant expression vector p3301. Transgenic tobacco plants carrying Cry1 Iem showed insecticidal activity against com borer.

  1. Characterization of a multifunctional caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase activated in grape berries upon drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Debora; Provenzano, Sofia; Ferrandino, Alessandra; Vitali, Marco; Pagliarani, Chiara; Roman, Federica; Cardinale, Francesca; Castellarin, Simone D; Schubert, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Drought stress affects anthocyanin accumulation and modification in vegetative and reproductive plant tissues. Anthocyanins are the most abundant flavonoids in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) coloured berry genotypes and are essential markers of grape winemaking quality. They are mostly mono- and di-methylated, such modifications increase their stability and improve berry quality for winemaking. Anthocyanin methylation in grape berries is induced by drought stress. A few caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferases (CCoAOMTs) active on anthocyanins have been described in grape. However, no drought-activated O-methyltransferases have been described in grape berries yet. In this study, we characterized VvCCoAOMT, a grapevine gene known to induce methylation of CoA esters in cultured grape cells. Transcript accumulation of VvCCoAOMT was detected in berry skins, and increased during berry ripening on the plant, and in cultured berries treated with ABA, concomitantly with accumulation of methylated anthocyanins, suggesting that anthocyanins may be substrates of this enzyme. Contrary as previously observed in cell cultures, biotic stress (Botrytis cinerea inoculation) did not affect VvCCoAOMT gene expression in leaves or berries, while drought stress increased VvCCoAOMT transcript in berries. The recombinant VvCCoAOMT protein showed in vitro methylating activity on cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. We conclude that VvCCoAOMT is a multifunctional O-methyltransferase that may contribute to anthocyanin methylation activity in grape berries, in particular under drought stress conditions. PMID:26851572

  2. Organic production: does it enhance the health-promoting compounds in berries?

    OpenAIRE

    Anttonen, Mikko; Karjalainen, Reijo

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed phenolic compounds from organically and conventionally grown blackcurrants and strawberries to test the idea if organically grown berries contain a higher amount of health-promoting phenolic compounds.

  3. THE ESTIMATION OF DEPENDENCY OF FRESH BERRIES PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES ON STORAGE AND PROCESSING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sandulachi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available strawberries and raspberries in different level of ripeness. Here are presented: physico-chemical composition of the investigated samples, dry matter content, pH, anthocyanin content, polyphenols, ascorbic acid and K coefficient, which evidence oxido-reducing state of berries. It has been studied, also, the oxido-reducing state of this berries during storage condition.It was found that berries are rich in bioantioxidants. From physico-chemical point of view these fruits are in a reduced state, characterized by high values of index K. Biological value expressed by the oxidation-reducing state of berries depends on the ripeness level. Samples spectral analysis showed that depreciation of strawberries aspect and appearance of brown color is determined by anthocyans and polyphenols degradation and brown compounds formation.

  4. Berries from South America: a comprehensive review on chemistry, health potential, and commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckinger, Maria Elisa; Lotton, Jennifer; Lila, Mary Ann; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-04-01

    Dietary intake of berry fruits has been demonstrated to positively impact human health. Interest in exploring new and exotic types of berries has grown in recent years. This article provides botanical descriptions and reviews the chemistry, biological activities, and commercialization of berry-producing plants from South America, specifically Aristotelia chilensis, Euterpe oleracea, Malpighia emarginata, Ugni molinae, Fragaria chiloensis, Rubus glaucus, Rubus adenotrichus, and Vaccinium floribundum. These species possess a rich and diversified composition of bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. The most significant health benefits have been attributed to phenolic compounds and vitamin C, potentially protective against cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although both traditional folk medicine and composition of these berries suggest significant health benefits, few studies to date have investigated these potentials. PMID:20170356

  5. The Symmetry Protected Piecewise Berry Phases, Enhanced Pumping and Non-reciprocity in Trimer Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xuele

    2016-01-01

    Finding new phase is a fundamental task in physics. Landau's theory explained the deep connection between symmetry breaking and phase transition commonly occurring in magnetic, superconducting and super uid systems. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect led to Z topological phases which could be different for same symmetry and are characterized by the discrete values of the Berry phases. By studying 1D trimer lattices we report new phases characterized by Berry phases which are piecewise continuous rather than discrete numbers. The phase transition occurs at the discontinuity point. With time-dependent changes, trimer lattices also give a 2D phases characterized by very specific 2D Berry phases of half period. These Berry phases change smoothly within a phase while change discontinuously at the transition point. We further demonstrate the existence of adiabatic pumping for each phase and gain assisted enhanced pumping. The non-reciprocity of the pumping process makes the system a good optical diode.

  6. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC, total anthocyanins (TA, and total phenols (TP of wild and cultivated berries in different localities of La Araucanía and Los Ríos Regions in Chile. These parameters were analyzed by using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH method, pH-differential, and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Percentages of DPPH discoloration of different berries studied were between 67.8% and 95.3% for red sarsaparilla and rosehip, respectively. Maqui berries showed a significantly higher TA content (2240.2 and 1445.3 mg L-1 cyanidin 3-glucoside than other berries, and a mean for all berries of 335.5 mg L-1. Higher phenol content levels were obtained in two cultivars of saskatoon (773.9 and 1001.9 mg L-1 gallic acid and wild rosehip (1457.0 and 1140.4 mg L-1 gallic acid. We conclude that there are significant differences in antioxidant capacity of wild and cultivated Chilean berries in this study which show a strong correlation between AC and TP content.Por medio del consumo de berries es posible incorporar al organismo una gran cantidad de antioxidantes capaces de prevenir múltiples enfermedades generadas por la acción de los radicales libres. Los antioxidantes actúan neutralizando los radicales libres y de esta forma protegen al organismo del daño oxidativo de lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Entre variadas frutas y hortalizas, se destacan los berries como una de las fuentes más ricas en fitonutrientes antioxidantes. El objetivo de esta investigaci

  7. Berry and Citrus Phenolic Compounds Inhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV: Implications in Diabetes Management

    OpenAIRE

    Junfeng Fan; Johnson, Michelle H.; Mary Ann Lila; Gad Yousef; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial health effects of fruits and vegetables in the diet have been attributed to their high flavonoid content. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a serine aminopeptidase that is a novel target for type 2 diabetes therapy due to its incretin hormone regulatory effects. In this study, well-characterized anthocyanins (ANC) isolated from berry wine blends and twenty-seven other phenolic compounds commonly present in citrus, berry, grape, and soybean, were individually investigated for thei...

  8. Experimental Determination of the Berry Phase in a Superconducting Charge Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Möttönen, Mikko; Vartiainen, Juha J.; Pekola, Jukka P.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first measurements of the Berry phase in a superconducting Cooper pair pump. A fixed amount of Berry phase is accumulated to the quantum-mechanical ground state in each adiabatic pumping cycle, which is determined by measuring the charge passing through the device. The dynamic and geometric phases are identified and measured quantitatively from their different response when pumping in opposite directions. Our observations, in particular, the dependencies of the dynamic and geom...

  9. American Ginseng Berry Juice Intake Reduces Blood Glucose and Body Weight in ob/ob Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, J.T.; Wang, C.Z.; Ni, M.; Wu, J.A.; Mehendale, S.R.; Aung, H.H.; Foo, A.; Yuan, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic metabolic disease and has a significant impact on patients' lives and the health care system. We previously observed that the organic solvent extract of American ginseng berry possessed significant antidiabetic effects in obese diabetic ob/ob mice after intraperitoneal injection. If American ginseng berry is useful as a dietary supplement, simple preparation and oral intake would be a convenient, safe, and practical means for consumers. In this study, the simply ...

  10. MIR – NEWEST HIGHT QUALITY BLACK BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Newest wine black berry with painted pulp and juice grape variety called Mir was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece) by Zamanidi P., Troshin L. and Radchevsky P. in 2006 by crossing the Ukrainian variety of Odessa black (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon) with new Greek black berry variety Iliad. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period - 146-155 days. Strong gro...

  11. In Vitro and in Vivo Anti-Diabetic Effects of Anthocyanins from Maqui Berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo, Leonel E.; Ribnicky, David; Logendra, Sithes; Poulev, Alex; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Kuhn, Peter; Dorn, Ruth; Grace, Mary H; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    We used a murine model of type II diabetes, which reproduces the major features of the human disease, and a number of cellular models to study the antidiabetic effect of ANC, a standardised anthocyanin-rich formulation from maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis). We also isolated delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (D3S5G), a characteristic anthocyanin from maqui berry, and studied its antidiabetic properties. We observed that oral administration of ANC improved fasting blood glucose levels a...

  12. Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum): Composition and Health Effects – a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kulczyński Bartosz; Gramza-Michałowska Anna

    2016-01-01

    Goji berries contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds which allowed to classify them as superfruits. A short description of the fruits is presented together with cultivation requirements. The chemical composition of the berries and their health-promoting properties are described later in this literature review. Based on the available data, their potentially beneficial application in dietary prevention of diseases of affluence, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, is ela...

  13. In vitro cultures of grape tissues : new possibilities to study grape berry physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Grape berries suffer important morphological, biochemical and physiological changes during its development and maturation. It is known that photoassimilates translocated from leaves serve as the major source of carbon and energy to support fruit needs, but recent findings revealed that, at least in the green phase, grape berries show high photosynthetic activity especially in the exocarp. The contribution of fruit photosynthesis for fruit growth and production of organic compounds is far from...

  14. Optical characterization of topological insulator surface states: Berry curvature-dependent response

    OpenAIRE

    Hosur, Pavan

    2010-01-01

    We study theoretically the optical response of the surface states of a topological insulator, especially the generation of helicity-dependent direct current by circularly polarized light. Interestingly, the dominant current, due to an interband transition, is controlled by the Berry curvature of the surface bands. This extends the connection between photocurrents and Berry curvature beyond the quasiclassical approximation where it has been shown to hold. Explicit expressions are derived for t...

  15. Berries and anthocyanins: promising functional food ingredients with postprandial glycaemia-lowering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Acosta, Monica L; Lenihan-Geels, Georgia N; Corpe, Christopher P; Hall, Wendy L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D. PMID:27170557

  16. The Role of Bee Pollinators in Improving Berry Weight and Coffee Cup Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca H.N. Karanja; Njoroge, Grace N; John M. Kihoro; Mary W. Gikungu; L.E. Newton

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted at Kiambu County in Kenya. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pollination improves the coffee yield and quality of processed coffee in terms of taste and aroma. Among the parameters evaluated when grading coffee for sale in world market are berry weight and cup quality. No previous work in Kenya describes the role of bee pollinators in enhancement of coffee yields and quality. Data on berry weights and the resulting processed coffee quality from different...

  17. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    OpenAIRE

    Šárka Nedomová; Vojtěch Kumbár; Pavel Pavloušek; Roman Pytel; Jaroslav Začal; Jaroslav Buchar

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, ...

  18. Impact of irrigation regime on berry development and flavonoids composition in Aragonez (Syn. Tempranillo) grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrouk, Olfa; Francisco, Rita; Pinto-Marijuan, Marta; Brossa, Ricardo; Santos, Raquen Raissa; Pinheiro, Carla; Costa, Joaquim M.; Lopes, Carlos M.; Chaves, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, field grown Aragonez (Syn. Tempranillo) grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were subjected to three irrigation regimes (conventional sustained deficit irrigation (DI), regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and non-irrigated (NI)) during two successive seasons (2007–2008). An integrative study was performed in grape berry skin tissues at four phenological stages of grape berry (pea size, véraison, mid-ripening and full maturation). The accumulation of flavonoid compou...

  19. Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1982-02-15

    The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

  20. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues. PMID:26721288

  2. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. PMID:26321727

  3. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was determinate using ORAC assay which measures the decrease of AAPH-radical level by the scavenging action of the antioxidant substance. In addition, the vitamin C content and total tannins of the berries extracts were determined using spetophomotmetric methods. The phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of analyzed berries did not varied considerably. The highest amounts of TPC and the strongest antioxidant activities were found in blueberry and blackberries (678 GAE mg/100 g FW, 442 mg/100g FW respectively. Vitamin C content was found in higher concentration in raspberries 21.7 mg/100 g FW while the lower concentration was found in blackberry.  All berries contain higher levels of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or tannins which are responsible for their antioxidant potential and bring their nutritional value, being highly recommended for daily consumption.

  4. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  5. Inherited sterility for area-wide control of corn stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The corn stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.) feeds almost exclusively on corn, Zea maiz and causes economic losses. The corn stem borer is often the key pest of corn in all corn growing governorates in the middle of Iraq. Various control tactics were proposed to reduce damages inflicted by this pest, such as cultural practices, chemical and biopesticides and resistant varieties. As a further step in consideration of an area-wide integrated control programme for corn stem borer, the present investigation shows the results of the induction of inherited sterility in F1 and F2 individuals. Male pupae of 8-10 days old were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gray. All possible combinations of mating types were done for F1 and F2 adults. The following parameters were recorded: Adult longevity, percent mated females, female fecundity and egg hatchability. The results indicated the following: 1. Irradiation of male pupae did not affect significantly spermatophore transfer to the females, and this was noticed also in F1 and F2 adults. 2. There were no significant differences in average male longevity at parental, 1st and 2nd generations. 3. At all doses used, there was a noticeable reduction in fecondity at all mating types of 1st and 2nd generations. 4. Significant reduction in eggs hatching at all mating types of 1st and 2nd generations. 5. It was clear that 1st generation adults were more sterile than their parents at all irradiation levels. 6. The level of induced sterility in 1st generation females was higher than that of the males. 7. The males and females of the 2nd generation were less sterile than that of the 1st generation, but still more than that of the parent. 8. The females of the 2nd generation were less sterile than males of the same generation. It was documented that the success of any sterile insect release programme depends on a number of irradiated individuals that mate normally with native ones. The results indicated that mating percentage in all

  6. A synopsis of the pin-hole borers of Thailand (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, R A; Liu, L Y

    2013-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of the pin-hole borers of Thailand is summarised to provide a basis for future studies of the fauna and its economic importance in forestry and timber production. A checklist of the fauna is provided with information on local and world distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. Six faunal elements based on geographical distribution, and the host preferences of species are discussed. Ninety-two species have now been recorded in Thailand, of which forty-three are recorded here for the first time. Three species are endemic to Thailand. The following new combinations are given: Dinoplatypus piniperda (Schedl), Treptoplatypusfulgens (Schedl), both transferred from Platypus. PMID:26213774

  7. Life history studies of the old house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Kevin Francis

    1982-01-01

    The old house borer has been present in the u.s. for over 200 years. During this time limited biological studies have been conducted. The biological data contained in these studies are based on casual field observations and reports from Europe and South Africa. The data presented here represent the first attempt in the U.S. to colonize and study the ORB under field and laboratory conditions. It is evident from this research that the ORB exhibits an extreme amount of biological plasticity. ...

  8. Le Berry antique - De la carte au modèle-chorème Ancient berry – from map to chorematic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Batardy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available L’Atlas du Berry réalisé à l’aide d’un système d’information géographique (SIG a posé les bases d’une analyse géographique de la cité des Bituriges Cubes. La chorématique peut permettre d’aller au-delà.The Atlas du Berry achieved with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS lays the foundations for a geographical analysis of the town of Bituriges Cubes. Chorematic techniques can enable us to go further.

  9. Developmental and metabolic plasticity of white-skinned grape berries in response to botrytis cinerea during noble rot

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Ulate, B; Amrine, KCH; Collins, TS; Rivero, RM; Vicente, AR; Morales-Cruz, A; Doyle, CL; Ye, Z.; Allen, G.; Heymann, H; Ebeler, SE; Cantu, D.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for ...

  10. Effect of decoherence on the Berry phase of a spin-half in a rotating magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIN; Shi, Yu

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the decoherence effect of a bosonic bath on the Berry phase of a spin-1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, without making the Markovian approximation. A two-cycle process resulting in a pure Berry phase is considered. The low-frequency quantum noise significantly affects the Berry phase. In the adiabatic limit, the high-frequency quantum noise only has a small effect. The result is also valid in some more general situations.

  11. Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Ryan J.; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Clarke, Simon J.; Rogiers, Suzy Y.; Bobek, Gabriele; Price, William S

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry developmen...

  12. The Effect of Bark Borer Herbivory on BVOC Emissions in Boreal Forests and Implications for SOA Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Celia; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Holopainen, Jarmo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kokkola, Harri; Blande, James; Guenther, Alex; Virtanen, Annele

    2015-04-01

    Herbivore outbreaks are expected to increase as a result of climate change. These outbreaks can have significant effects on the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) from vegetation, which contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We have synthesized the published results investigating changes to BVOC emissions from herbivory by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis--a bark borer herbivore. Previous lab experiments have shown that bark borer herbivory on Scots pine trees increases monoterpene emissions 4-fold and sesquiterpene emissions 7-fold. Norway spruce exhibits a similar response. The BVOCs most impacted were linalool, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, and sesquiterpenes like beta-farnesene, beta-bourbonene, and longifolene. The quantitative results from these studies were used to estimate potential impacts of bark borer herbivory on BVOC emissions at a regional scale using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). MEGAN was run under baseline and herbivore outbreak conditions for a typical boreal forest environment in spring. Emissions output from MEGAN was used to run a microphysical box model to estimate the SOA formation potential under baseline and outbreak conditions. This estimate could provide us with an upper limit to the potential impact of bark borer outbreaks on SOA formation in a boreal forest.

  13. Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Linden, van der A.; Swarts, H.J.; Visser, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely

  14. Screening of different insecticides against maize shoot fly atherigona soccata (Rond.) and maize borer. chilo partellus (swinh.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies were carried out in the research area of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to determine the most effective maize seed treatment against maize shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Rond.) and insecticide against maize borer Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Trials were conducted following RCBD and replicated three times during 2005-2006. Two seed treatments Confider (imidacloprid) 70 WS and pensidor 72% WP (5 and 7 mg/kg seed) along with Confider (imidaclorid) 200 SC at the rate 40 ml/acre in the trial against maize shoot fly whereas, flubendiamide 48%, emamection 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC. carbofuran 3 G, indoxacarb 150 SC, alphacypermethrine 20 EC, monomehypo 5 G, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap 4G, cyhalothrine 2.5 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC at the rate 20 ml, 150 ml, 40 ml, 8 kg, 150 ml, 200 ml, 5 kg, 150 ml, 6 kg. 250 ml and 300 ml per acre against maize borer were treated keeping one plo ast untreated check. Treatments were repeated as borer infestation reached above 5% level. All the seed treatments showed significant control of maize shoot fly in spite of dose 5 or 7 mg/kg seed along with foliar spray of confider 200 SC. The insecticides viz. flubendiamide 48% SC. emamectin 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC and carbofuran 3 G. indoxacarb 150 SC. alpha cypermethrin 20 EC, not only responded highest yield 5765, 5294, 5289, 5215, 5168 and 5025 kg/ha respectively but also manage the maize borer below ETL. (author)

  15. Effect of age and mating status on adult European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) dispersal from small-grain aggregation plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is often controlled with genetically modified corn hybrids [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn] in the U.S. If Bt-resistant moths are detected in the field, mitigation-remediation tactics must be implemented to sustain the efficacy of insecticidal...

  16. Factors influencing the temporal and spatial patterns of dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in newly planted apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temporal and spatial patterns of infestation by larval dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was studied during 2002–2004 in two newly planted apple orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards contained several rootstock-variety combinations grown under different cultural manage...

  17. Erianthus: A sugarcane relative with potential as a source of resistance to the stem borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant resistance can play an important role in IPM strategies to reduce damage from infestations of stem borers. However, resistance, when it is present, is often negatively associated with yield potential. There exists then, a need to identify sources of resistance that have no adverse effect on su...

  18. Agrilus rubensteini, a new species from the Philippines related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...

  19. Effects of host plant and larval density on intraspecific competition in larvae of the Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many insects, competition for food, mate, and/or space among different individuals of the same species is a pervasive phenomenon with ecological consequences such as density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Col...

  20. The effectivenes of irradiation-substerile-technique for controlling corn borer population on MO-PAN-SHAN-island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectivenss of releasing irradiated substerile insects for controlling corn borer population on a small island, 'MO-PAN-SUAN', Liaoning province has been studied. The pupae of 1-2 days before emergence were irradiated with 25-30 KR of 60Co-gamma ray. After irradiation the pupae were stored in a refrigerator at 15 deg C and released next day. The irradiated moths could mix with the wild population, and their dispersion ability was the same as the wild moths. Moths could not make non-stop flight over 1700 meters once. The release tests were made for three years, The results show that the substerile moths have a stronger mating competitiveness in fields. The ratio of the releasing moths to the wild was 0.64:1, and the rate of the sterile and substerile eggs was about 44%. In comparison with control, the number of corn borer in the field was decreased by 34.2%, suggesting that the irradiated moths have an effect of genetic sterility. The effect will be increased with increasing the number of releasing moths. So, the releasing of irradiated substerile corn borer is an effectice method for controlling the corn borer population

  1. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  2. Extension Master Gardeners and other citizen volunteers mobilize to help inform the public about emerald ash borer

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Cooperative Extension Master Gardeners and other citizen volunteers will canvass Northern Virginia neighborhoods to help educate home and property owners about the emerald ash borer (EAB) - a destructive, green metallic beetle that has killed millions of ash trees in the eastern United States since 2002.

  3. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990’s. Although host plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources ...

  4. An in vivo Experimental System to Study Sugar Phloem Unloading in Ripening Grape Berries During Water Deficiency Stress

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, ZHEN‐PING; Deloire, Alain; CARBONNEAU, Alain; FEDERSPIEL, BRIGITTE; Lopez, François

    2003-01-01

    An in vivo experimental system—called the ‘berry‐cup’ technique—was developed to study sugar phloem unloading and the accumulation of sugar in ripening grape berries. The berry‐cup system consists of a single peeled grape berry immersed in a buffer solution in a cup prepared from a polypropylene syringe. A small cross‐incision (2 mm in length) is made on the stylar remnant of a berry during its ripening phase, the skin of the berry then being easily peeled off, exposing the dorsal vascular bu...

  5. Geostatistical Analysis on the Temporal Patterns of the Yellow Rice Borer, Tryporyza incertulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhe-ming; WANG Zhi; HU Xiang-yue

    2005-01-01

    In order to comprehend temporal pattern of the larvae population of the yellow rice borer, Tryporyza incertulas, and provide valuable information for its forecast model, the data series of the population for each generation and the over-wintered larvae from 1960 to 1990 in Dingcheng District, Changde City, Hunan Province, were analyzed with geostatistics. The data series of total number,the 1 st generation, the 3rd generation and the over-wintered larvae year to year displayed rather better autocorrelation and prediction.The data series of generation to generation, the 2nd generation and the 4th generation year to year, however, demonstrated poor autocorrelation, especially for the 4th generation, whose autocorrelation degree was zero. The population dynamics of the yellow rice borer was obviously intermittent. A remarkable cycle of four generations, one year, was observed in the population of generation to generation. Omitting the certain generation or interposing the over-wintered larvae only resulted in a less or slight change of autocorrelation of the whole data series generation to generation. Crop system, food, climate and natural enemies, therefore, played more important roles in regulating the population dynamics than base number of the larvae. The basic techniques of geostatistics applied in analyzing temporal population dynamics were outlined.

  6. Overwintering biology and limits of cold tolerance in larvae of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Šimek, P; Koštál, V

    2016-08-01

    Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season. Their supercooling points (SCPs) ranged between -19.4 and -22.7°C from October to February. Larvae were able to survive 24 h exposures to -15°C anytime during the cold season. During December and January, larvae were undergoing quiescence type of dormancy caused probably by low ambient temperatures and/or changes in host tree physiology (tree dormancy). Larvae attain highest cold tolerance (high survival at -20°C) during dormancy, which offers them sufficient protection against geographically and ecologically relevant cold spells. High cold tolerance during dormancy was not associated with accumulation of any low-molecular mass cryoprotective substances. The SCP sets the limit of cold tolerance in pistachio twig borer, meaning that high mortality of overwintering populations can be expected only in the regions or years where or when the temperatures fall below the average larval SCP (i.e., below -20°C). Partial mortality can be expected also when temperatures repeatedly drop close to the SCP on a diurnal basis. PMID:27063868

  7. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses. PMID:26453718

  8. BIO-EFFICACY OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST FRUIT BORER (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Katroju,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment carried out during kharif, 2012 at Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG @11 g a.i. ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 22 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @ 500 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @1000 g a.i. ha-1, spinosad 45 SC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis @ 25 g a.i. ha-1against tomato fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera. Among all the insecticides, profenophos (1000 g a.i. ha-1 was found to be the most effective one with a maximum reduction in fruit borer population (65.20%, minimum per cent of fruit damage (28.80% and maximum yield (26.43 kg/20 m2 followed by bifenthrin @ 100 g a.i.ha-1 with reduced larval population of 64.51% and damaged fruits 32.60%.

  9. Interaction between N-fertilizer and water availability on borer-rot complex in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo da Rocha Pannuti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrogen availability in fertigation and rainfed management, as well as their interactions with the incidence of and damage caused by D. saccharalis and red rot in sugarcane. The experiment consisted of four treatments (0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer with irrigation; 0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer in rainfed management in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The evaluated parameters were the number of holes and internodes with red rot per meter of cultivation, stalk yield and sugar content. In the laboratory (T = 25 ± 2 °C; R.H. = 70 ± 10%: 12:12-L:D, we evaluated the attractiveness and consumption of fragments of stalks from the different treatments for fourth instar larvae through choice and no-choice tests in a randomized complete block design with ten replications. Nitrogen fertilization via irrigation has favorable effects on borer-rot complex and leads to higher gains in stalk and sugar yields when compared to rainfed management. The increments of stalk and sugar yields due to nitrogen fertilization compensates for the increase in borer-rot complex infestation. In laboratory tests, D. saccharalis larvae were similarly attracted to all treatments regardless of the doses of N-fertilizer or the water regimes evaluated. However, fragments of sugarcane stalks produced with nitrogen fertilization were consumed more by D. saccharalis in both water regimes.

  10. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  11. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  12. On Berry's conjectures about the stable order in PCF

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    PCF is a sequential simply typed lambda calculus language. There is a unique order-extensional fully abstract cpo model of PCF, built up from equivalence classes of terms. In 1979, G\\'erard Berry defined the stable order in this model and proved that the extensional and the stable order together form a bicpo. He made the following two conjectures: 1) "Extensional and stable order form not only a bicpo, but a bidomain." We refute this conjecture by showing that the stable order is not bounded complete, already for finitary PCF of second-order types. 2) "The stable order of the model has the syntactic order as its image: If a is less than b in the stable order of the model, for finite a and b, then there are normal form terms A and B with the semantics a, resp. b, such that A is less than B in the syntactic order." We give counter-examples to this conjecture, again in finitary PCF of second-order types, and also refute an improved conjecture: There seems to be no simple syntactic characterization of the stable ...

  13. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  14. Ginseng Berry Extract Promotes Maturation of Mouse Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Ginseng extract has been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor and immune-activating effects. However, the immunostimulatory effect of ginseng berry extract (GB has been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of GB on the activation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. GB treatment induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Interestingly, GB induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation than ginseng root extract (GR at the same concentrations. Moreover, in vivo administration of GB promoted up-regulation of CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen DCs. GB also promoted the generation of Th1 and Tc1 cells. Furthermore, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway were essential for DC activation induced by GB. In addition, GB strongly prompted the proliferation of ovalbumin (OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, GB induced DC activation in tumor-bearing mice and the combination of OVA and GB treatment inhibited B16-OVA tumor cell growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that GB is a novel tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC and T cell activation.

  15. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  16. Laboratory studies of biology and life history of Balcha indica (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), an ectoparasitoid attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical biological control efforts against emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB) in North America primarily have focused on introduction and releases of exotic parasitoid species collected from northern parts of China. Recently, field surveys in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio and ...

  17. Partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during the whole berry growth maintain yield and berry quality in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Domingo, Rafael; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Rosario Conesa Saura, M.°

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during post-veraison and the whole berry growth on water relations, yield and berry quality, one experiment was conducted in a commercial vineyard of 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Five irrigation treatments were imposed: (i) Control (CTL) irrigated to 110% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), (ii) regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated at 50% of CTL during the non- critical period of post-verasion, (iii) continuous deficit irrigation (DIc), irrigated at 50% of CTL throughout the whole berry growing season, (iv) partial root-zone drying (PRD), irrigated similar to RDI, but alternating the irrigation applied in the dry side every 10-14 days; and (v) continuous partial root-zone drying (PRDc), irrigated as DIc but alternating the irrigation in the dry side every 10-14 days. RDI and PRD received 24% and 28% less water than CTL, respectively. These reductions were higher in DIc and PRDc (65% and 53%, respectively). Total yield was not affected by any DI strategy. Only significantly lower values were observed in the weight and height's berries in respect to CTL. However, the colour parameters evaluated increased in all DI treatments, being slightly higher in DIc and PRDc compared with RDI and PRD. In addition, total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in DIc, compared to other irrigated counterparts. Our findings showed that the application of water deficit during the whole berry growth through the use of DIc and PRDc, can be considered for irrigation scheduling in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  18. Composição química e atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae sobre a broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.A. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das folhas de Schinus terebinthifolius foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG-EM. O rendimento do óleo foi de 0,8%, sendo identificados 37 constituintes químicos. Os componentes principais foram germacreno D (25,0%, (E-β-cariofileno (17,5% e δ -elemeno (10,5%. O óleo essencial foi diluído em acetona nas concentrações de 10-2 a 10-8 e aplicado aos insetos (Hypothenemus hampei por aplicação tópica e exposição em superfície contaminada. As taxas de mortalidade foram avaliadas após 24 e 48 horas do início do experimento. A aplicação em superfície contaminada resultou em 25% de mortalidade no controle, enquanto nas diluições de 10-2 a 10-8 foram observados 100,0 a 30,0% de mortalidade. Na aplicação tópica, observou-se 27,5% de mortalidade no controle e 97,5 a 77,5% nas diluições de 10-2 a 10-8.

  19. PCR-based Synthesis of Codon Optimized cry2Aa Gene for Production of Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) Resistant Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Rahul

    2005-01-01

    Brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) is a major limiting factor in commercial cultivation of eggplant in southeast Asia. Extensive use of pesticides as well as the conventional breeding methods have been ineffective in controlling the borer so there is a need for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies for its control. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known to produce a variety of insecticidal crystal proteins toxic to lepidopteran, dipteran and coleopteran pests. The...

  20. Per se perforformance and heterosis for shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Gn) resistance and yeild in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S.Praneetha , T.Sarasvathy, D.Veeraragavathatham and L.Pugalendhi

    2013-01-01

    Nine parents involving full diallel mating design was used to obtain the hybrids. Heterosis effect on different charactersalong with fruit yield and shoot and fruit borer resistance in brinjal was estimated. The cross EP 12 x MDU 1 recorded thehighest heterobeltiosis per cent followed by EP 65 x Pusa Uttam and the best parent heterosis was maximum in EP 65 xPusa Uttam for marketable yield per plant. For shoot borer infestation the highest negative heterobeltiosis was recorded inthe hybrid EP ...

  1. Effect of Sugar Treatment on Stability of Anthocyanin Pigments in Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nikkhah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are natural pigments widely distributed in nature. Anthocyanin color molecules are a subclass of flavonoids. They are responsible for the reds, purples and blues in many flowers, fruits and vegetables. Fruits and berries are the most sample sources of anthocyanins in nature. Berries and fruits are an important part of the Finnish diet. In many researches the positive effect of fruit and berry intake on human health has been reported. Anthocyanins are considered to contribute to the healthiness of fruits and berries for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties for example. Anthocyanins can also improve the nutritional value of processed foods by preventing oxidation of lipids and proteins in the food products. However, the stability of anthocyanins becomes most significant also in this case, as in the case of color quality. In this study the anthocyanin pigment was extracted from the three different berries (Morus nigra L., Morus alba var. nigra and Fragaria L.. Using the soaking and wetting in ethanol (1% acidified. The extracted anthocyanin pigments then were exposed to three different concentration of sugar (sucrose (20, 40 and 60%. Three groups of anthocyanin solutions keeping in darkness and refrigerator for 63 days and per 3 week, the quantity of anthocyanin absorbance recorded in 520 nm. In this study, according to statistical analysis, primary concentration (20% of sugar (sucrose has protective effect on Anthocyanins, but in higher concentration this effect is decreased.

  2. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  3. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels. PMID:27447714

  4. Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M

    2015-10-01

    We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. PMID:26314014

  5. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  6. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  7. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (map) on the quality of sea buckthorn berry fruits during postharvest storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of the berry fruits of sea buckthorn (SBT) during refrigerated storage was investigated. SBT berries were packaged in 160 and 525 oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films or in vented clamshell containers (air control) and stored at 10C fo...

  8. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Shen-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Liu, Jia; Chen, Zi-Yu

    2008-12-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the Δ-ɛ plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  9. Vacuum-induced Berry phases in single-mode Jaynes-Cummings models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wei, L. F.; Jia, W. Z.; Liang, J. Q.

    2010-10-01

    Motivated by work [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.89.220404 89, 220404 (2002)] for detecting the vacuum-induced Berry phases with two-mode Jaynes-Cummings models (JCMs), we show here that, for a parameter-dependent single-mode JCM, certain atom-field states also acquired photon-number-dependent Berry phases after the parameter slowly changed and eventually returned to its initial value. This geometric effect related to the field quantization still exists, even if the field is kept in its vacuum state. Specifically, a feasible Ramsey interference experiment with a cavity quantum electrodynamics system is designed to detect the vacuum-induced Berry phase.

  10. Potentials of small, lightweight and low cost Multi-Echo Laser Scanners for detecting Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuricic, A.; Weinmann, M.; Jutzi, B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile sensor devices offer great opportunities for automatic scene analysis and object recognition. Nowadays a new generation of ranging devices is available, like laser scanners which are small and light weighted. Concerning these improvements specific applications can be tackled. In this contribution we focus on vineyard monitoring for detecting and counting grape berries with a small, lightweight and low cost multi-echo laser scanner. Therefore a Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW laser range finder is utilized for capturing the data in close range up to 1m. In order to process the data the following methodology is proposed: after smoothing and morphological techniques are applied on the laserscanning intensity and range images the number of visible grape berries is determined from the resulting segments. The approach performs with a detection accuracy of above 84%. The results reveal the high potential of such close range ranging devices for locating and counting grape berries. Thus, the methodology provides practical support for viticulture applications.

  11. A new method to calculate Berry phase in one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Based on the residue theorem and degenerate perturbation theory, we derive a new, simple and general formula for Berry phase calculation in a two-level system for which the Hamiltonian is a real symmetric matrix. The special torus topology possessed by the first Brillouin zone (1 BZ) of this kind of systems ensures the existence of a nonzero Berry phase. We verify the correctness of our formula on the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Then the Berry phase of one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator (1DQAHI) is calculated analytically by applying our method, the result being -π/2 -π/4 sgn (B) [ sgn (Δ - 4 B) + sgn (Δ) ]. Finally, illuminated by this idea, we investigate the Chern number in the two-dimensional case, and find a very simple way to determine the parameter range of the non-trivial Chern number in the phase diagram.

  12. Berry curvature and four-dimensional monopoles in the relativistic chiral kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Pu, Shi; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2013-06-28

    We derive a relativistic chiral kinetic equation with manifest Lorentz covariance from Wigner functions of spin-1/2 massless fermions in a constant background electromagnetic field. It contains vorticity terms and a four-dimensional Euclidean Berry monopole which gives an axial anomaly. By integrating out the zeroth component of the 4-momentum p, we reproduce the previous three-dimensional results derived from the Hamiltonian approach, together with the newly derived vorticity terms. The phase space continuity equation has an anomalous source term proportional to the product of electric and magnetic fields (FσρF[over ˜]σρ∼EσBσ). This provides a unified interpretation of the chiral magnetic and vortical effects, chiral anomaly, Berry curvature, and the Berry monopole in the framework of Wigner functions. PMID:23848865

  13. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants. PMID:27451151

  14. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  15. Gamma radiation effects on immature stages of the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to determine the gamma radiation dose capable of avoiding emergency of adults of the orange fruit borer Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) applied to the orange fruit after harvesting, in the packing house. The experiments were performed with infested fruits irradiated with dose of 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 Gy of gamma radiations and maintained under controlled environmental conditions into a rearing chamber between 23 and 25 degC. From all irradiated insects only ten insects from 275 fruits turned into adults and even these insects came from fruits irradiated with less than 400 Gy which has been considered the disinfestation dose for this species. (author)

  16. Evaluation of advanced chickpea genotypes for resistance to pod borer, helicoverpa armigera (hubner) (lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the comparative varietal resistance in thirteen advanced desi chickpea genotypes against chickpea pod borer (CPB), Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2007-2008. Weekly observations showed that mean larval population of CPB in different genotypes ranged from 0.33 to 4.33 per meter row from first week of March to third week of April, where the pod damage varied from 7.4 to 14.2%. The results manifest that among the tested genotypes, B 8/02, showed the maximum resistant to CPB along with B 8/03, CH 4/02 and CH 9/02 with highest resistant to CPB, less larval population per plant, minimum pod damage and highest grain yield with increase of 256.8 to 285.7% with respect to check. Therefore, conclude that these genotypes can be used in crossing/evolving new elite chickpea varieties. (author)

  17. Induced sterility of sugarcane steam borer Chilo auricilius (dudgeon) by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sery of experiments have been conducted to obtained the optimum radiation dose for sterilizing the moth of sugarcane stem borer. Both male and female pupae of 5 to 6 day-old were irradiated separetelly by gamma rays from Gammacel-220 irradiator. The results shows that gamma rays exposed to pupae stage significantly, influenced the pupae viability, morphological alterations, longevity, and sterility of moths. The effects of gamma irradiation on insect somatic cell clearly seen at the dose of 300 Gy and increse at doses 400 and 500 Gy. No differences were found in the radiation susceptibility of males and females for pupae viability and morphological alterations. While for the sterility, male was significantly more resistant than female. The dose of 150 Gy given to a male and a female pupae caused moth sterility of 89.97% and 100% respectively. (authors). 14 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Field dispersal ability and taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 male Asian corn borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones

  19. Niche of insect borers within Pinus massoniana infected by pine wood nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jiying; LUO Youqing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiaosu; CHEN Weiping; JIANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    In November 2003 and June 2004,the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City,in East China's Zhejiang Province,where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found.The niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying trees were computed.Results show that five insect species infect and damage Pinus massoniana,which had been infected by pine wood nematodes,among which four are wood boring beetles and one termite.Species within host trees vary from winter to summer and all the species have their own niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap.They can achieve competitive equilibrium and coexistence according to their biological characteristics and life habits.

  20. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways-VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT-were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full maturity

  1. Study of polyphenols in grape berries by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, O; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Slowing, K; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-02-18

    Several polyphenols have been tested in grape berries from Spain. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas resveratrol has been proved to be an antifungal, antiinflammatory and an anticarcinogenic compound. A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and applied to determine resveratrol, quercetine, quercitrine and rutine content in several grape berries samples in a single analysis. Covering the grapes with a preservative paper yields a healthier product, but one which has a lower polyphenol content than unprotected grapes. PMID:10722101

  2. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Eunhui Seo; Sunmi Kim; Sang Jun Lee; Byung-Chul Oh; Hee-Sook Jun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old) were maintained on a regular diet (CON) or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD) for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016) and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.012), suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic isl...

  3. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  4. Hypoglycaemic activity of Embelia ribes berries (50% etoh) extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Ashok; Vyas, Keshav Bihari; Vyas, Surendra Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Oral administration of Embelia ribes berries (50% EtoH) reduced blood sugar level significantly. In intact rats, blood sugar levels were decreased by 13.1% and 20.3% after 3 hrs. and 5 hrs. of treatment respectively. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats blood glucose levels were decreased after 3 hours and 5hours by 28.1% and 34.5% respectively. Hypoglycaemic action of Embelia ribes berries may be due to its direct action on tissue or due to increase in insulin secretion.

  5. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  6. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a topological Bloch band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitenberg, Christof; Flaeschner, Nick; Rem, Benno; Tarnowski, Matthias; Vogel, Dominik; Luehmann, Dirk-Soeren; Sengstock, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Employing fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineer the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and measure it with full momentum resolution. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  7. Observation of Berry's phase in a superconducting qubit embedded in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In quantum information science, the phase of a wavefunction plays an important role in encoding information. While most experiments in this field rely on dynamic effects to manipulate this information, an alternative approach is to use geometric phase, which has been argued to have potential fault tolerance. Here we demonstrate the controlled accumulation of a geometric phase, Berry's phase, in a superconducting qubit, manipulating the qubit geometrically using microwave radiation, and observing the accumulated phase in an interference experiment. This is achieved using the excellent phase coherence and qubit control possible in circuit QED. We find excellent agreement with Berry's predictions, and also observe a geometry dependent contribution to dephasing

  8. Acculturation and mental health--empirical verification of J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, M W; Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, C

    2004-01-01

    identity as Greenlander and how well the respondents speak Greenlandic and Danish. The statistical methods included binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no connection between Berry's definition of acculturation and mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark. On the other hand, our findings showed...... examine whether Berry's hypothesis about the connection between acculturation and mental health can be empirically verified for Greenlanders living in Denmark and to analyse whether acculturation plays a significant role for mental health among Greenlanders living in Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The...

  9. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  10. The influence of pinching on some technological characteristics of cluster and berry of Italia grape variety

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Božinović, Zvonimir; Beleski, Klime; Boskov, Krum

    2007-01-01

    The aim of investigation was to confirm the influence of pinching on some technological characteristics of Italia grape variety: dimension and shape of cluster and berry, mechanical characteristics of berry, and chemical content of must (sugar and total acids). Pinching was applied in two terms (before and after blooming) with two ways: by cutting 1/2 and 1/3 of bunch (P1, P2, P3, P4) and control (K). From the results we can concluded that the time and the way of pinching has the influe...

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin binding to brush border membrane vesicles of rice stem borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Edwin P; Aguda, Remedios M; Curtiss, April; Dean, Donald H; Cohen, Michael B

    2004-04-01

    The receptor binding step in the molecular mode of action of five delta-endotoxins (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, Cry2A, and Cry9C) from Bacillus thuringiensis was examined to find toxins with different receptor sites in the midgut of the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and yellow stem borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Homologous competition assays were used to estimate binding affinities (K(com)) of (125)I-labelled toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). The SSB BBMV affinities in decreasing order was: Cry1Ab = Cry1Ac > Cry9C > Cry2A > Cry1C. In YSB, the order of decreasing affinities was: Cry1Ac > Cry1Ab > Cry9C = Cry2A > Cry1C. The number of binding sites (B(max)) estimated by homologous competition binding among the Cry toxins did not affect toxin binding affinity (K(com)) to both insect midgut BBMVs. Results of the heterologous competition binding assays suggest that Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac compete for the same binding sites in SSB and YSB. Other toxins bind with weak (Cry1C, Cry2A) or no affinity (Cry9C) to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac binding sites in both species. Cry2A had the lowest toxicity to 10-day-old SSB and Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were the most toxic. Taken together, the results of this study show that Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac could be combined with either Cry1C, Cry2A, or Cry9C for more durable resistance in transgenic rice. Cry1Ab should not be used together with Cry1Ac because a mutation in one receptor site could diminish binding of both toxins. PMID:15027071

  12. Sugarcane giant borer transcriptome analysis and identification of genes related to digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sousa Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; de Góis, Luiz Avelar Brandão; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus), a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB) transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN) cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control. PMID:25706301

  13. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  14. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  15. Ampelographic description of cluster, berry and seed of merlot cultivar (Vitis vinifera L. and its selected clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Dragan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a four-year period, ampelographic experiments focusing on the berry cluster (average length of grape cluster, number of grape clusters per shoot, number of berries per grape cluster and length of peduncle, berry (length of berry and berry juice yield, length of pedicel and seed (length of berry seed of Merlot cultivar (used as a relevant standard and 11 clones (Nos. 022, 023, 025, 026, 027, 028, 029, 030, 031, 033 and 034 were performed in order to establish the differences among them. These experiments were actually conducted in the third phase of individual clonal selection of Merlot cultivar carried out in Serbia. The lengths of grape cluster and pedicel as well as berry must yields differed significantly among the examined clones. The cluster and principal component analyses classified 12 samples into three divergent clusters/groups, respectively. The clones belonging to the cluster II /the second group/ had significantly higher values of numbers of grape clusters per shoot and berries per grape cluster; lengths of peduncle and berry; berry must yield and length of pedicel, compared both to standard Merlot /the cluster I, the first group/ and the clones of the cluster III /the third group/. The phenological observations showed no significant differences in the beginnings and durations of phenological stages and vegetation period of the examined clones. The obtained results indicate the real need for further research work focused both on the agrobiological and technological properties of the grapes and wines aiming to better describe the selected clones. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 0719, br. 46009 i br. 172053

  16. Effect of Rice Volatiles on the Orientation Behavior of the Striped Stem Borer,Chilo suppressalis Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-mei; CHEN Hua-cai; LIAO Min; LOU Yong-gen; LIU Wei-ping; CHENG Jia-an; Susanne KLOSE; SHEN Qun-chao

    2004-01-01

    The orientation behavior of the 1st and the 3rd instar larvae of the striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppessalis, to the volatiles emitted from rice plants was studied with a Y-tube olfactometer. The treatments included healthy plants vs clean air (HP vs CA), striped stem borer damaged plants vs clean air (SSB-DP vs CA), rice leaf folder damaged plants vs clean air (RLF-DP vs CA),HP vs SSB-DP, HP vs RLF-DP and SSB-DP vs RLF-DP. Volatiles from all rice plants had significant attraction for both of the 1st and the 3rd instar larvae. The orientation selection of larvae to the volatiles from rice plants treated differentially (HP, SSB-DP, and RLF-DP) did not impose any significant influence.

  17. Farmers knowledge and perception on maize stem borers and their indigenous control methods in south western region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Oben, Esther Obi; Ntonifor, Nelson Neba; Kekeunou, Sevilor; Abbeytakor, Martin Nkwa

    2015-01-01

    Background Agriculture is a major contributor to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Cameroon, The South West region of Cameroon is known for its potential in the production of major agricultural commodities, but farmers’ yields from various speculations are low, dwindling over time due to some major constraints. Maize production is hampered by adverse socio-economic factors, several pests and diseases as well as high rainfall with low solar radiation. Lepidopterous maize stem borers are a ma...

  18. The side effect of Paecilomyces fumosoroseusapplication on the black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus, the predator of Helopeltis antoniiand cocoa pod borer

    OpenAIRE

    Endang Sulistyowai; Endang Mufrihati; Bekti Andayani

    2006-01-01

    Paecilomyces fumosoroseuswas known as one of the effective biological agents of cocoa pod borer and Helopeltis antonii. To find out the side effect of application of P. fumosoroseuson black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus, a series of observations were carried out at the Laboratory of Pest and Diseases Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) and in a cocoa plantation of Glenmore, Banyuwangi district, since June until October, 2004. Laboratory research used four concentrations of P...

  19. Optimizing Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) releases to control European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in bell pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Anna Virginia

    2007-01-01

    The effective dispersal ability of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma ostriniae Pang and Chen was assessed in potato fields on the Eastern Shore of Virginia in spring 2005 and 2006. Approximately 0.5 million T. ostriniae were released from a central release point in separate potato fields. Dispersal was monitored using yellow sticky card traps and European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, egg mass sentinels. Adult T. ostriniae dispersed quickly throughout the 0.4 ha (1 acre) sampling area...

  20. Utilizing wild relative ((Solanum viarum) as resistant source to shoot and fruit borer in brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    L.Pugalendhi, D.Veeraragavathatham, S.Natarjan and S. Praneetha

    2010-01-01

    Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.) has very important place in Indian curries and also in China, Japan and Southern Europianrecipies. High yield combined with good quality as well as resistance to shoot and fruit borer in a brinjal variety is the ultimateaim in the most of the brinjal breeding programme. Solanum viarum is closely related to Solanum melongena and both are crosscompatible. Therefore hybridization was undertaken in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with Solanum viarum to transfer th...

  1. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta; Picanço Marcelo Coutinho; Zanuncio José Cola; Bacci Leandro; Silva Ézio Marques da

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM) in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides), IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved), and control (no pesticide was applied). IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less ...

  2. Transcriptome Sequencing, and Rapid Development and Application of SNP Markers for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Margam, Venu M.; Brad S Coates; Bayles, Darrell O.; Richard L. Hellmich; Tolulope Agunbiade; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Weilin Sun; Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Ibrahim Baoua; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Ramasamy Srinivasan; Joel Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analy...

  3. The Legacy of Past Tree Planting Decisions for a City Confronting Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Christopher S.; Millward, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Management decisions grounded in ecological understanding are essential to the maintenance of a healthy urban forest. Decisions about where and what tree species to plant have both short and long-term consequences for the future function and resilience of city trees. Through the construction of a theoretical damage index, this study examines the legacy effects of a street tree planting program in a densely populated North American city confronting an invasion of emerald ash borer (Agrilus pla...

  4. Origin and taxonomic status of the Palearctic population of the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moyal, Pascal; Tokro, P.; BAYRAM, A.; Savopoulou-Soultani, M.; Conti, E; Eizaguirre, M.; Le Rü, Bruno; Avand-Faghih, A.; Frerot, B.; Andreadis, S

    2011-01-01

    The major pest of maize in Mediterranean Europe, the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has a fragmented distribution, north and south of the Sahara. The present study aimed: (1) to clarify the uncertain taxonomic status of the Palearctic and sub-Saharan populations which were first considered as different species and later on as subspecies (Sesamia nonagrioides nonagrioides and Sesamia nonagrioides botanephaga) and (2) to investigate the origin of the Palear...

  5. European Corn Borer life stage model: Regional estimates of pest development and spatial distribution under present and future climate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, M.; Muška, F.; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Kocmánková, E.; Žalud, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 207, 2-4 (2007), s. 61-84. ISSN 0304-3800 R&D Projects: GA MZe QG60051; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0125 Grant ostatní: 6th FP EU(XE) GOCE 037005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Corn borer * ECAMON * GCMs * Degree day model * Climate change impacts Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2007

  6. Influence of Mortality Factors and Host Resistance on the Population Dynamics of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Urban Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer. PMID:26308819

  7. Transcriptional analysis of susceptible and resistant European corn borer strains and their response to Cry1F protoxin

    OpenAIRE

    Nanoth Vellichirammal, Neetha; Wang, Haichuan; Eyun, Seong-il; Moriyama, Etsuko N.; Coates, Brad S.; Miller, Nicholas J.; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a number of recent reports of insect resistance to transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), little is known about the mechanism of resistance to these toxins. The purpose of this study is to identify genes associated with the mechanism of Cry1F toxin resistance in European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner). For this, we compared the global transcriptomic response of laboratory selected resistant and susceptible O. nubilalis stra...

  8. Combining abilities for maize stem antibiosis, yield loss and yield under infestation and no infestation with pink stem borer

    OpenAIRE

    Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Vales, M I; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    1999-01-01

    The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is the main pest of maize (Zea mays L.) in northwestern Spain. Little is known about combining ability for antibiosis and tolerance to this pest. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to estimate general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), and reciprocal effects for stem damage traits, yield, and yield loss by a complete diallel of 10 inbreds and to determine the most useful trait for evaluating the level of defense ...

  9. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions. PMID:19568811

  10. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  11. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus R Campos

    Full Text Available The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2 = 0.71. Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51 indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully

  12. Diversity and phylogenetic analysis of endosymbiotic bacteria of the date palm root borer Oryctes agamemnon (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Wael S.; Ibrahim, Reda A

    2015-01-01

    Background The date palm root borer Oryctes agamemnon (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the major pests of palms. In Saudi Arabia, both larvae and adults of Oryctes are particularly troublesome, especially during the establishment of young date palm orchards. Endosymbiotic bacteria are known to have a key role in food digestion and insecticide resistance mechanisms, and therefore are essential to their host insect. Identification of these bacteria in their insect host can lead to developme...

  13. Phylogeography and population genetics of the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sezonlin, Michel; Dupas, Stéphane; Le Ru, Bruno; Le Gall, Philippe; Moyal, Pascal; Calatayud, Paul-André; Giffard, I; Faure, N; Silvain, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The population genetics and phylogeography of African phytophagous insects have received little attention. Some, such as the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca, display significant geographic differences in ecological preferences that may be congruent with patterns of molecular variation. To test this, we collected 307 individuals of this species from maize and cultivated sorghum at 52 localities in West, Central and East Africa during the growing season. For all collected individuals, we seque...

  14. The trapping catches of sex pheromone lure of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis at different storage duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a serious pest of rice plants in China. Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16: Ald), Z-13-octadecenal (Z13-18: Ald), and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16: Ald) were the major components of female sex pheromone. There is few study related to the lure storage duration on the trap catches of C. suppressalis. Test of storage duration was necessary for utilizing sex pheromone as a control agent.

  15. INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner ON CORN HYBRIDS IN NORTH-WEST AND EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvjezdana Augustinović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.

  16. Utilizing wild relative ((Solanum viarum as resistant source to shoot and fruit borer in brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Pugalendhi, D.Veeraragavathatham, S.Natarjan and S. Praneetha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn. has very important place in Indian curries and also in China, Japan and Southern Europianrecipies. High yield combined with good quality as well as resistance to shoot and fruit borer in a brinjal variety is the ultimateaim in the most of the brinjal breeding programme. Solanum viarum is closely related to Solanum melongena and both are crosscompatible. Therefore hybridization was undertaken in brinjal (Solanum melongena L. with Solanum viarum to transfer theresistance trait of shoot and fruit borer and combine the resistance trait with high yield of brinjal.. Hybridization was made andF1 hybrid plants were raised. Subsequently in each generation selfing was done followed by selection to obtain F9 generation. InF9 generation selection was done in the plants with high marketable yield along with very low or negligible shoot and fruit borerinfestation. The direct derivatives of EP 65 x Solanum viarum were evaluated upto F9 . Two recombinant progenies viz., 7 and 9were selected in F9 generation for carrying forward to the next generation based on their high marketable yield and the leastinfestation of shoot and fruit borer. Molecular study with RAPD primers also revealed the introgression of the genes from donorparent Solanum viarum to brinjal.

  17. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Chilo auricilius and comparison with three other rice stem borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-09-15

    The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths. PMID:25042162

  18. Phenolics and antioxidant activity of Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) pomace extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiqi; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Rayaprolu, Srinivas; Eswaranandam, Satchithanandam; Howe, Bruce; Davis, Mike; Jha, Alok

    2014-03-01

    Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) have significantly higher levels of anthocyanins (ACY) among berries with potential health benefits. The pomace is a by-product of juice extracted from berries and is a potential source of inexpensive polyphenols. The objectives of this study were to extract the maximum amount of total phenolics from saskatoon pomace, to determine the antioxidant activity, and to identify individual phenolic components. Pomace extracts showed high content of total phenolics, total ACY, and total flavonoids of 43.3, 2.8, and 10.3 g/kg of dried weight (DW) of pomace. A high oxygen radical absorbing capacity value of 119.4 μmol Trolox equivalents/g DW and free radical scavenging activity of pomace extract (200 ppm, 86.8%) were observed. Five major ACY, two flavonols, and three chlorogenic acids were identified and quantified in pomace extracts. This study shows that saskatoon berries pomace rich in antioxidant phenolics could be extracted by "green" solvents (water and ethanol) and used as suitable food product applications. PMID:24476215

  19. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin; Liu, Jinyu; Graf, David; Radmanesh, Seyed; Adams, Daniel; Chuang, Alyssa; Wang, Yu; Chiorescu, Irinel; Wei, Jiang; Spinu, Leonard; Mao, Zhiqiang

    The recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear π Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. We report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state, including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich (LK) formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted. Supported by the DOE (DE-SC0012432) and the NSF (EPS- 1003897).

  20. Does the Berry phase in a quantum optical system originate from the rotating wave approximation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berry phase (BP) in a quantized light field demonstrated more than a decade ago (Fuentes-Guridi et al., 2002 [9]) has attracted considerable attention, since it plays an important role in the cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, it is argued in Larson (2012) [15] that such a BP is just due to the rotating wave approximation (RWA) and the relevant BP should vanish beyond this approximation. Based on a consistent analysis we conclude in this letter that the BP in a generic Rabi model actually exists, no matter whether the RWA is applied. The existence of BP is also generalized to a three-level atom in the quantized cavity field. - Highlights: • Non-zero Berry phases for the Rabi model (without rotating wave approximation) are verified. • A general formulation of Berry phases for both the JC model and the Rabi model is presented. • The claim of vanishing Berry phase in the Rabi model is a result of improper semiclassical approximation. • Analytic solutions for the Rabi model is presented in the semiclassical approximation

  1. Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols are an important class of secondary metabolites with significant benefits to human nutrition and health. As a part of our effort to assess grape germplasm for its potential health and nutrition value, we evaluated the polyphenolic profiles in the ripe berry samples of 344 European grape ...

  2. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  3. Inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid grape cross population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation patterns and inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid table grape cross population were investigated in two successive years. The population segregated for three different ploidy levels: dipolids, triploids, and tetraploids. A total of 28 different a...

  4. 137Cs in Finnish wild berries, mushrooms and game meat in 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of 137Cs in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat were measured in samples collected during 2000-2005 in areas with varying 137Cs deposition levels in Finland. Depending on the 137Cs deposition levels in the sampling areas, the areal-mean activity concentrations of 137Cs were 10-230 Bq kg-1 in wild berries, 20-240 Bq kg-1 in moose meat and 10-3000 Bq kg-1 in all mushroom species. Compared with the 137Cs level of samples collected in 1986 in the corresponding areas, the reduction in the 137Cs level was about one third for wild berries, equal to the rate of radioactive decay of 137Cs. More reduction was observed in the activity concentrations of 137Cs in moose meat, on average up to 50% since 1986. The aggregated transfer coefficients from soil to wild berries showed no change since 1986-1988, while there was about one third reduction in those from soil to game meat. (orig.)

  5. Berry phase effects in the dynamics of Dirac electrons in doubly special relativity framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) generalization of Dirac equation in an external potential in the Magueijo-Smolin base. The particles obey a modified energy-momentum dispersion relation. The semiclassical diagonalization of the Dirac Hamiltonian reveals the intrinsic Berry phase effects in the particle dynamics

  6. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents' Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…

  7. On the Developmental and Environmental Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Vaccinium spp. Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Katja; Zoratti, Laura; Nguyenquynh, Nga; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries, and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental, and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype × environment (G×E) interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes. PMID:27242856

  8. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. PMID:27536526

  9. Application of Berry's phase to the effective mass of Bloch electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry's phase, although well known since 1984, has received little attention among textbook authors of solid state physics. We attempt to address this lack by showing how the presence of the Berry's phase significantly changes a standard concept (effective mass) found in most solid state texts. Specifically, we show that the presence of a non-zero Berry curvature in Bloch systems makes the traditional concept of an inverse effective mass tensor M-1 problematic, since a routine application of Newton's second law leads to a circular definition. As a consequence, the related concept of cyclotron effective mass m* also requires modification. It is shown that m* is magnetic-field dependent in non-inversion symmetric systems. This has important ramifications for cyclotron resonance experiments, since such experiments yield m* and thereby purportedly give the components of M-1. This work represents a 'case study' in how Berry's phase effects can modify 'standard' solid-state topics in ways that students and instructors may find surprising.

  10. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  11. The Martha Berry Digital Archive Project: A Case Study in Experimental pEDagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Schlitz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the Martha Berry Digital Archive Project as an exploratory case study, this article discusses experimental methods in digital archive development, describing how and why a small project team is leveraging undergraduate student support, a participatory (crowdsourced editing model, and free and open source software to digitize and disseminate a large documentary collection.

  12. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  13. Classical geometric phase of gyro-motion is a coherent quantum Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongxuan

    2016-01-01

    We show that the geometric phase of the gyro-motion of a classical charged particle in a uniform time-dependent magnetic field described by Newton's equation is a coherent quantum Berry phase for the coherent states of the Schr\\"odinger equation or the Dirac equation. This equivalence is established by constructing coherent states for a particle using the energy eigenstates on the Landau levels and proving that the coherent states can maintain their status of coherent states during the slow varying of the magnetic field. It is discovered that orbital Berry phases of the eigenstates interfere coherently such that a coherent Berry phase for the coherent states can be naturally defined, which is exactly the geometric phase of the classical gyro-motion. This technique works for particles with and without spin. For particles with spin, on each of the eigenstates that makes up the coherent states, the Berry phase consists of two parts that can be identified as those due to the orbital and the spin motion. It is the...

  14. Polar Constituents and Biological Activity of the Berry-Like Fruits from Hypericum androsaemum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Alunno, Alessia; Beghelli, Daniela; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Bramucci, Massimo; Frezza, Claudio; Iannarelli, Romilde; Papa, Fabrizio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Tirillini, Bruno; Venditti, Alessandro; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum androsaemum, also known as Tutsan, is a small evergreen shrub common in the Mediterranean basin where it is traditionally used as diuretic and hepatoprotective herbal drug. This plant possesses the peculiarity to produce fleshy and berry-like fruits that ripen from red to shiny black. In the present work, the chemical constituents of methanolic extracts and infusions of red and black fruits were analyzed by HPLC, and correlated with their antioxidant properties which were evaluated by the DPPH, β-Carotene/linoleic acid, and hypochlorous acid tests. In addition, the red pigment of the fruit was isolated by column chromatography and structurally elucidated by NMR. Results showed that H. androsaemum fruits contain high amounts of shikimic and chlorogenic acids, while their color was given by a tetraoxygenated-type xanthone, reported for the first time in Hypericum species. The red berries infusion gave the highest content of total phenolic compounds, DPPH, and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching. Cytotoxicity of the berries extracts on three human tumor cell lines (malignant melanoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and colon carcinoma) was evaluated by MTT assay, and relevant inhibition on colon carcinoma cells (IC50 value of 8.4 μg/mL) was found. Finally, the effects of red berries extract on the immune system were evaluated by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay that revealed a strong stimulation on lymphocytes at low doses (0.4–6 μg/mL). PMID:26973675

  15. Optimisation of an HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A; Alexandersson, Erik O; Gouws, Liezel M; Young, Philip R; Vivier, Melané A

    2012-02-15

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to profile major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries. Sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries were extracted by chloroform/polyvinylpolypyrrolidone purification. The extracts were chromatographed on an Aminex HPX-87H ion-exchange HPLC column with 5mM sulphuric acid as mobile phase. Chromatography was visualised via a diode array detector combined with a refractive index detector. The analysis was calibrated using external standard calibration and a novel equation was used to calculate the concentrations of malic acid and fructose from unresolved separation. For the method to be utilised for analysing a large numbers of berry samples, each sample was directly injected after sample extraction and the extraction step was downscaled to allow the use of small amounts of sample material. The concentrations of sugars and organic acids in grapevine berry samples were normalised to the internal standard concentrations obtained after extraction of an internal standard mixture. The analysis method exhibits a good precision and a high analyte recovery from samples spiked with the standard mixture and is suitable for the profiling of major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berry samples at different stages of berry development. This is the first report on the combined profiling of the major sugars and organic acids in grapevine berries using milligram amounts of plant material with direct injection after sample extraction. PMID:22265666

  16. Potential Benefits of Edible Berries in the Management of Aerodigestive and Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishayee, Anupam; Haskell, Yennie; Do, Chau; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Mohandas, Nima; Sethi, Gautam; Stoner, Gary D

    2016-07-26

    Epidemiological reports as well as experimental studies have demonstrated the significant health benefits provided by regular berry consumption. Berries possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potential against several chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. Berries owe their health benefits to phytoconstituents, such as polyphenolic anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and a diverse array of phytochemicals bestowed with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the ability to engage a multitude of signaling pathways. This review highlights the principal chemical constituents present in berries and their primary molecular targets. The article presents and critically analyzes the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of berry extracts, fractions, and bioactive components on various cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including esophageal, stomach, intestinal, and colorectal cancers as well as cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as oral cancer. The current status of clinical studies evaluating berry products in several aforementioned cancers is presented. Various emerging issues including dose-ranging and dosage forms, the role of synergy and the usage of combination therapy as well as other relevant areas essential for the development of berry phytoconstituents as mainstream chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against aerodigestive and GIT cancers are critically discussed. PMID:25781639

  17. Colonization of grapes berries by Alternaria sp. and their ability to produce mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research focused on identify the Alternaria species from grapes (surface sterilized berries and non-surface sterilized berries of Slovak origin and characterize their toxinogenic potential in in vitro conditions. We analyzed 47 samples of grapes, harvested in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species, the method of direct plating berries and surface-sterilized berries (using 1 % freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar was used. For each analysis was used 50 berries. Only undamaged berries have been used for analysis. The cultivation was carried at 25 ±1°C, for 5 to 7 days in dark. After incubation, the colonies of Alternaria were transferred on PCA - potato-carrot agar and CYA - Czapek-yeast extract agar and cultured for 7 days at room temperature and natural light. A total 4 species-groups of the genus Alternaria were isolated from grapes berries: Alternaria alternata (1369 isolates, Alternaria arborescens (734 isolates, Alternaria infectoria (143 isolates, and Alternaria tenuissima (3579 isolates. According to European Union legislation mycotoxins produced by species genus Alternaria are not monitored in foods and food commodities. Mycotoxins such as alternariol and alternariol monomethylether are mutagenic and genotoxic in various in vitro systems. Selected strains were tested for production of altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol. In neither case of A. infectoria species-group isolates was confirmed the production of tested mycotoxins in in vitro conditions by TLC method. The ability to produce altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol in in vitro conditions was detected in isolates of Alternaria alternata, Alternaria arborescens and Alternaria tenuissima species-groups. Isolates of Alternaria alternata species-group (44 tested isolates were able to produce altenuene (24 isolates, alternariol monomethyleter (42 isolates

  18. Characterization and transcriptional analyses of cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases in Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major corn borer pest and a target of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in South America and the U.S. mid-southern region. With a major role in dietary protein digestion, midgut serine proteinases are essential for insect growth and development. ...

  19. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Amrine, Katherine C H; Collins, Thomas S; Rivero, Rosa M; Vicente, Ariel R; Morales-Cruz, Abraham; Doyle, Carolyn L; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Cantu, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  20. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  1. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. Hossain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries. The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content.

  2. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2016-01-01

    The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries). The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content. PMID:27023503

  3. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, Malverina, Laurot, and Hibernal harvested during six consecutive weeks. Mechanical behaviour was measured using compression and puncture tests using of TIRATEST 27025 testing machine. Skin mechanical properties were evaluated using a puncture test carried out on the equatorial side. The dependence of these properties on the chemical composition has been evaluated. These parameters of force/time curves were studied by puncture test: the berry skin break force, the needle displacement at the skin break and the berry skin break energy. The crushing force, the plate displacement at the crushing strength and the berry crushing energy were studied from force/time curves by compression test. Results of the puncture test shows that there the skin break strength and the acidity content are monotonic functions of the time. A comparison of different varieties from the point of the value of the crushing force was obtained by vertical and transversal loading. The crushing force is monotonically decreasing function of the harvesting time like the break force evaluated at the puncture test. The correlation between the skin break strength and the sugar content is significant namely for the varieties: Hibernal, Riesling, Malverina, and Cerason. 

  4. Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer. PMID:25026653

  5. NMR-based metabolomics for identification of α-amylase inhibitors in rowan berries (Sorbus spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Sofie L.; Gramsbergen, Simone; Nyberg, Nils;

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder estimated to affect millions of people all over the world.1 One way of reducing diabetes-related complications is to control postprandial glucose.2 Inhibition of the carbohydrate digestive enzyme α-amylase is a therapeutic target for maintaining low blood...... glucose levels. A study from 2011 shows that berries from Sorbus spp (rowan berries) effectively inhibit α-amylase activity and suggests that the active compounds are proanthocyanidins.3 The aim of this project is to identify the rowan berry species with highest α-amylase inhibitory activity - and to find...

  6. Impacts of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) on the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Renata A; Feliciano, Julia R; Solter, Leellen F; Delalibera, Italo

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is controlled with massive releases of the hymenopteran parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); over 3 million hectares of sugarcane are treated annually with 18 billion parasitoids. In order to meet this demand, parasitoids are produced in D. saccharalis under laboratory conditions where a Nosema sp. is reported to be an important problem in mass rearing of the host. The goals for this work were to study the pathogenicity of the Nosema sp. and the progression of the disease in the host under laboratory conditions. The average median lethal time (LT₅₀) of Nosema sp. in first instar D. saccharalis varied from 9 ± 0.3 to 42 ± 2.3 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10 spores/μl). For third instar, the average of LT50 ranged from 32 ± 0.7 to 37 ± 0.7 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-5 × 10(2) spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10(4) spores/μl in saline). The concentration necessary to cause 50% mortality (LC₅₀) of first instar larvae was 5.6 (0.9-17.6) spores/μl and the estimated LC50 for third instar larvae was 1,200 (200-4700) spores/μl. The impacts of Nosema sp. on D. saccharalis were analyzed for first instar larvae fed 0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet. Duration and viability of the larval and pupal stages, adult longevity, pupal weight and fertility life table were measured for offspring of mating pairs composed of infected females and uninfected males or infected males and uninfected females and compared to offspring of uninfected pairs. Nosema sp. infection resulted in adverse effects on all biological parameters measured except for the duration of the larval and pupal stages and the weight of the male pupae, which did not differ statistically between infected and uninfected groups. The intrinsic rates of growth (rm) were greater for uninfected pairs compared to pairs with either male

  7. Pengaruh Promosi Produk Pesaing dan Ketersediaan Fitur BlackBerry Messenger (BBM) pada Platform Lain terhadap Keputusan untuk Berhenti Menggunakan SmartphoneBlackBerry (Studi Kasus Mahasiswa Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis USU)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliani

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis pengaruhpromosi produk pesaing dan ketersediaan fitur BlackBerry Messenger (BBM) pada platform lain terhadap keputusan untuk berhenti menggunakan smartphoneBlackBerry pada mahasiswa fakultas ekonomi dan bisnis USU. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian asosiatif dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Sumatera Utara yang masih aktif kuliah yang pernah meng...

  8. Differential behavior within a grapevine cluster: decreased ethylene-related gene expression dependent on auxin transport is correlated with low abscission of first developed berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kühn

    Full Text Available In grapevine, fruit abscission is known to occur within the first two to three weeks after flowering, but the reason why some berries in a cluster persist and others abscise is not yet understood. Ethylene sensitivity modulates abscission in several fruit species, based on a mechanism where continuous polar auxin transport across the pedicel results in a decrease in ethylene perception, which prevents abscission. In grapevine, flowering takes about four to seven days in a single cluster, thus while some flowers are developing into berries, others are just starting to open. So, in this work it was assessed whether uneven flowering accounted for differences in berry abscission dependent on polar auxin transport and ethylene-related gene expression. For this, flowers that opened in a cluster were tagged daily, which allowed to separately analyze berries, regarding their ability to persist. It was found that berries derived from flowers that opened the day that flowering started--named as "first berries"--had lower abscission rate than berries derived from flowers that opened during the following days--named as "late berries". Use of radiolabeled auxin showed that "first berries" had higher polar auxin transport, correlated with lower ethylene content and lower ethylene-related transcript abundance than "late berries". When "first berries" were treated with a polar auxin transport inhibitor they showed higher ethylene-related transcript abundance and were more prone to abscise than control berries. This study provides new insights on fruit abscission control. Our results indicate that polar auxin transport sustains the ability of "first berries" to persist in the cluster during grapevine abscission and also suggest that this could be associated with changes in ethylene-related gene expression.

  9. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418

  10. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

  11. Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract (GB0710) on penile erection: evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, KS; Park, CW; Kim, CK; Jeon, HY; Kim, WG; Lee, SJ; Kim, YM; Lee, JY; Choi, YD

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have promoted the root-derived Korean red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng) as alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED), and ginsenosides are known to be the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Recent studies showed that ginseng berries produce more ginsenosides than KRG; thus, we investigated the ability of the Korean ginseng berry extract GB0710 to relax the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) in this study. As a comparative control, the results were com...

  12. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening. PMID:26218433

  13. Poor qubits make for rich physics: noise-induced quantum Zeno effects and noise-induced Berry phases

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    We briefly review three ways that environmental noise can slow-down (or speed-up) quantum transitions; (i) Lamb shifts, (ii) over-damping and (iii) orthogonality catastrophe. We compare them with the quantum Zeno effect induced by observing the system. These effects are relevant to poor qubits (those strongly coupled to noise). We discuss Berry phases generated by the orthogonality catastrophe, and argue that noise may make it easier to observe Berry phases.

  14. Influence of Bioregulator Gibberellic Acid on Some Technological Characteristics of Cluster and Berry from Some Seedless Grape Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Ivanova, Violeta; Ilieva, Fidanka; Sofijanova, Elenica

    2011-01-01

    Solutions of gibberellic acid prepared at threeconcentration levels including 5, 10 and 20 mg/L, were applied at two seedless grape varieties, Thompson and Belgrade, by spraying, during the three different periods of the vine growing: before blooming, after blooming and before veraison, in order to study their influence on some cultural technological characteristics. Dimension and shape of the cluster and berry, mechanical characteristics of the berries and chemical content of the must (sugar...

  15. iTRAQ-based protein profiling provides insights into the central metabolism changes driving grape berry development and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Esteso, María José; Vilella-Antón, María Teresa; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Valero, María Luz; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is an economically important fruit crop. Quality-determining grape components such as sugars, acids, flavors, anthocyanins, tannins, etc., accumulate in the different grape berry development stages. Thus, correlating the proteomic profiles with the biochemical and physiological changes occurring in grape is of paramount importance to advance in our understanding of berry development and ripening processes. Results: We report the developmental analysis...

  16. Impedance of the Grape Berry Cuticle as a Novel Phenotypic Trait to Estimate Resistance to Botrytis Cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Herzog; Rolf Wind; Reinhard Töpfer

    2015-01-01

    Warm and moist weather conditions during berry ripening provoke Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) causing notable bunch rot on susceptible grapevines with the effect of reduced yield and wine quality. Resistance donors of genetic loci to increase B. cinerea resistance are widely unknown. Promising traits of resistance are represented by physical features like the thickness and permeability of the grape berry cuticle. Sensor-based phenotyping methods or genetic markers are rare for such traits....

  17. Assessment of Shape Changes of Mistletoe Berries: A New Software Approach to Automatize the Parameterization of Path Curve Shaped Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Renatus Derbidge; Linus Feiten; Oliver Conradt; Peter Heusser; Stephan Baumgartner

    2013-01-01

    Photographs of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) berries taken by a permanently fixed camera during their development in autumn were subjected to an outline shape analysis by fitting path curves using a mathematical algorithm from projective geometry. During growth and maturation processes the shape of mistletoe berries can be described by a set of such path curves, making it possible to extract changes of shape using one parameter called Lambda. Lambda describes the outline shape of a path curve. ...

  18. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

  19. Expansion of the Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) into Rice and Sugarcane in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B E; Hardy, T N; Beuzelin, J M; VanWeelden, M T; Reagan, T E; Miller, R; Meaux, J; Stout, M J; Carlton, C E

    2015-06-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. Traps baited with E. loftini female sex pheromones were used to document establishment and distribution of E. loftini near sugarcane, rice, and noncrop hosts in seven southwest Louisiana parishes from 2009 to 2013. Additional field surveys documented larval infestations in commercial sugarcane and rice. After its initial detection in 2008, no E. loftini were detected in Louisiana in 2009 and only two adults were captured in 2010. Trapping documented range expansion into Cameron, Beauregard, and Jefferson Davis parishes in 2011 and Allen, Acadia, and Vermilion parishes in 2013. During the course of this study, E. loftini expanded its range eastward into Louisiana 120 km from the Texas border (≈22 km/yr). Surveys of larval infestations provided the first record of E. loftini attacking rice and sugarcane in Louisiana. Infestations of E. loftini in rice planted without insecticidal seed treatments in Calcasieu Parish reached damaging levels. PMID:26313982

  20. Critical electrolyte concentration of silk gland chromatin of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis, induced using agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S A; Fermino, F; Moreira, B M T; Araujo, K F; Falco, J R P; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C

    2014-01-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is widely known as the main pest of sugarcane crop, causing increased damage to the entire fields. Measures to control this pest involve the use of chemicals and biological control with Cotesia flavipes wasps. In this study, we evaluated the insecticides fipronil (Frontline; 0.0025%), malathion (Malatol Bio Carb; 0.4%), cipermetrina (Galgotrin; 10%), and neem oil (Natuneem; 100%) and the herbicide nicosulfuron (Sanson 40 SC; 100%) in the posterior region silk glands of 3rd- and 5th-instar D. saccharalis by studying the variation in the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC). Observations of 3rd-instar larvae indicated that malathion, cipermetrina, and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation that may consequently disable genes. Tests with fipronil showed no alteration in chromatin condensation. With the use of nicosulfuron, there was chromatin and probable gene decompaction. In the 5th-instar larvae, the larval CEC values indicated that malathion and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation. The CEC values for 5th-instar larvae using cipermetrina, fipronil, and nicosulfuron indicated chromatin unpacking. These observations led us to conclude that the quantity of the pesticide does not affect the mortality of these pests, can change the conformation of complexes of DNA, RNA, and protein from the posterior region of silk gland cells of D. saccharalis, activating or repressing the expression of genes related to the defense mechanism of the insect and contributing to the selection and survival of resistant individuals. PMID:25299111

  1. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maize-derived secondary chemical 6-methyoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) and a tritiated derivative were prepared synthetically for a detailed examination of their toxicity and toxicokinetics in the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis. During feeding trials with MBOA incorporated into meridic diets, the mean time population and adult emergence was significantly lengthened at concentrations of 1.5 mg MBOA/g diet and above. Increased mortality occurred at concentrations at 1.5 mg/g and above. A decrease in the sex ratio (female/total) and fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.5 mg/g and above. The latter observations represent new biological effects related to MBOA. In tracer studies, both uptake and excretions of MBOA administered in diets to larvae increased linearly with concentration. Body burden values indicated that the ECB larvae were capable of excreting enough compound to maintain total tissue levels at approximately 50% of the dietary concentration. Total amount of label increased with larval stage, but decreased in adults due to a large amount of label eliminated in the pupal case. In topical application studies, elimination of the label in the frass was rapid, reaching 60% by 6 hr and 82% of applied dose by 24 hr. Accumulation of label in tissues other than hemolymph was small. The results show that MBOA is toxic to ECB, but the insect has efficient methods for minimizing these effects

  2. Fabrication of Polymeric Visual Decoys for the Male Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Drew P. Pulsifer; Akhlesh Lakhtakia; Mahesh S. Narkhede; Michael J. Domingue; Beverly G. Post; Jayant Kumar; Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2013-01-01

    Through a bioreplication approach,we have fabricated artificial visual decoys for the invasive species Agrilus planipennis—commonly known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB).The mating behavior of this species involves an overflying EAB male pouncing on an EAB female at rest on an ash leaflet before copulating.The male spots the female on the leaflet by visually detecting the iridescent green color of the female's elytra.As rearing EAB and then deploying dead females as decoys for trapping is both arduous and inconvenient,we decided to fabricate artificial decoys.We used a dead female to make a negative die of nickel and a positive die of epoxy.Decoys were then made by first depositing a quarter-wave-stack Bragg reflector on a polymer sheet and then stamping it with a pair of matched negative and positive dies to take the shape of the upper surface of an EAB female.As nearly 100 artificial decoys were fabricated from just one EAB female,this bioreplication process is industrially scalable.Preliminary results from a field trapping test are indicative of success.

  3. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  4. A High-Resolution Map of Emerald Ash Borer Invasion Risk for Southern Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Valenta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ash species (Fraxinus spp. in Europe are threatened by the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB, an invasive wood boring beetle native to East Asia and currently spreading from European Russia westwards. Based on a high-resolution habitat distribution map (grid cell size: 25 × 25 m and data on distribution and abundance of Common Ash (Fraxinus excelsior, the most widespread and highly susceptive host species of EAB in Europe, we assess the spatial distribution of EAB invasion risks for southern Central Europe (Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, southern Germany, South Tyrol. We found highest F. excelsior abundance and thus invasion risks in extensive lowland floodplain forests, medium risks in zonal lowland forests and low risks in upper montane and subalpine forests. Based on average velocities of spread in Russia (13–31 km/year and North America (2.5–80 km/year from flight and human-assisted transport, EAB is likely to cover the distance (1500 km between its current range edge in western Russia and the eastern border of the study region within few decades. However, secondary spread by infested wood products make earlier introductions likely. The high susceptibility and mortality of F. excelsior leave no doubt that this beetle will become a major forest pest once it reaches Central Europe. Therefore, developing and testing management approaches with the aim to halt or at least slow down the invasion of EAB in Europe have to be pursued with great urgency.

  5. Ash Decline Assessment in Emerald Ash Borer Infested Natural Forests Using High Spatial Resolution Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Murfitt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire infects and eventually kills endemic ash trees and is currently spreading across the Great Lakes region of North America. The need for early detection of EAB infestation is critical to managing the spread of this pest. Using WorldView-2 (WV2 imagery, the goal of this study was to establish a remote sensing-based method for mapping ash trees undergoing various infestation stages. Based on field data collected in Southeastern Ontario, Canada, an ash health score with an interval scale ranging from 0 to 10 was established and further related to multiple spectral indices. The WV2 image was segmented using multi-band watershed and multiresolution algorithms to identify individual tree crowns, with watershed achieving higher segmentation accuracy. Ash trees were classified using the random forest classifier, resulting in a user’s accuracy of 67.6% and a producer’s accuracy of 71.4% when watershed segmentation was utilized. The best ash health score-spectral index model was then applied to the ash tree crowns to map the ash health for the entire area. The ash health prediction map, with an overall accuracy of 70%, suggests that remote sensing has potential to provide a semi-automated and large-scale monitoring of EAB infestation.

  6. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Praveen Mamidala; Omprakash Mittapalli

    2012-01-01

    The Emerald ash borer (EAB,Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) an exotic invasive insect pest has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) across North America and threatens billions more.We validated six A.planipennis reference genes (actin,ACT; beta tubulin,β- TUB; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase,GAPDH; ribosomal protein,RPL7; translation elongation factor 1α,TEF-1α; and ubiquitin,UBQ) using geNorm,Normfinder and BestKeeper for accurate determination of target messenger RNA levels in gene expression studies.The stability of the six reference genes was evaluated in different larval tissues,developmental stages and two treatments ofA.planipennis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Although there was no consistent ranking observed among the reference genes across the samples,the overall analysis revealed TEF-1α as the most stable reference gene.GAPDH and ACT showed least stability for all the samples studied.We conclude that TEF-1α is the most appropriate reference gene for gene expression studies inA.planipennis.Results obtained can be applicable for transcript profiling in other invasive insect pests.Further,these validated reference genes could also serve as the basis for selection of candidate reference genes in any given insect system post-validation.

  7. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  8. A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

  9. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a β-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis. PMID:25541004

  10. Components of female sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer moth,Conopomorpha cramerella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D

    1986-01-01

    The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40∶60∶4∶6∶10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393

  11. Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)

  12. Analysis of gene expression in emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) using quantitative real time-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America. EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the effective use of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to ascertain mRNA levels in different larval tissues (including midgut, fat bodies and cuticle) and different developmental stages (including 1(st)-, 2(nd)-, 3(rd)-, 4(th)-instars, prepupae and adults) of EAB. As an example, a peritrophin gene (herein named, AP-PERI1) is exemplified as the gene of interest and a ribosomal protein (AP-RP1) as the internal control. Peritrophins are important components of the peritrophic membrane/matrix (PM), which is the lining of the insect gut. The PM has diverse functions including digestion and mechanical protection to the midgut epithelium. PMID:20445495

  13. mRNA profiles of piRNA pathway genes in emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omprakash Mittapalli; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances of Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have enabled a better understanding of their putative roles in the protection of germ cells against selfish genetic elements.The germ plasm proteins namely,PIWI and VASA,are key players in regulation of piRNAs.However,the biogenesis of piRNAs remains poorly understood.We report the characterization and the transcript profiles of a PIWI and VASA gene in various tissues and developmental stages of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis),an exotic invasive insect pest that has attained a high impact status worldwide.The deduced amino acid sequences of both these genes (herein referred to "ApPIWI and ApVASA") revealed homology with similar proteins from other insect and non-insect taxa.Peak transcript levels for ApPIWI and ApVASA were observed in the ovaries (compared to the other tissues assayed) and in adults (compared to the other developmental stages assayed).To our knowledge this is the first report of profiling piRNA pathway genes in A.planipennis.These results provide new insights into the putative function of the PIWI and VASA proteins in insects.

  14. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.; Atkinson, J.; Arnason, J.T.; Philogene, B.J.R.; Morand, P.; Werstiuk, N.H.; Timmins, G.

    1988-03-01

    The maize-derived secondary chemical 6-methyoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) and a tritiated derivative were prepared synthetically for a detailed examination of their toxicity and toxicokinetics in the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis. During feeding trials with MBOA incorporated into meridic diets, the mean time population and adult emergence was significantly lengthened at concentrations of 1.5 mg MBOA/g diet and above. Increased mortality occurred at concentrations at 1.5 mg/g and above. A decrease in the sex ratio (female/total) and fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.5 mg/g and above. The latter observations represent new biological effects related to MBOA. In tracer studies, both uptake and excretions of MBOA administered in diets to larvae increased linearly with concentration. Body burden values indicated that the ECB larvae were capable of excreting enough compound to maintain total tissue levels at approximately 50% of the dietary concentration. Total amount of label increased with larval stage, but decreased in adults due to a large amount of label eliminated in the pupal case. In topical application studies, elimination of the label in the frass was rapid, reaching 60% by 6 hr and 82% of applied dose by 24 hr. Accumulation of label in tissues other than hemolymph was small. The results show that MBOA is toxic to ECB, but the insect has efficient methods for minimizing these effects.

  15. Ultrasonic courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

    2006-06-01

    Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.

  16. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  17. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  18. Phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of a natural hybrid between bilberry and lingonberry (Vaccinium × intermedium Ruthe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Anja K; Riihinen, Kaisu R; Jaakola, Laura

    2011-06-01

    Hybridization between species plays an important role in the evolution of secondary metabolites and in the formation of combinations of existing secondary metabolites in plants. We have investigated the content of phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of Vaccinium×intermedium Ruthe, which is a rare natural hybrid between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). The berries and flowers of the hybrid showed characteristics inherited from both parent species in the distribution and contents of phenolic compounds. Bilberry is known as one of the richest sources of anthocyanins and to have a profile of 15 major forms combining cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin with galactose, glucose and arabinose. Lingonberry contains only cyanidin glycosides. Hybrid berries contained all bilberry anthocyanins with pronounced cyanidin content. With regard to proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides, the hybrid inherited diverse profiles combining those of both parental species. The distribution of hydroxycinnamic acids was quite uniform in all studied berries. Of the identified compounds, 30 were detected in lingonberry, 46 in bilberry, 53 in hybrid berries and 38 in hybrid flowers. Hence, compared with the parent species, hybrid berries possess a more diverse profile of phenolic compounds and, therefore, can offer interesting material for breeding purposes. PMID:21382629

  19. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-03-01

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  20. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  1. Improvement of the composition of Tunisian myrtle berries (Myrtus communis L.) alcohol extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Ahmed; Hayet, Ben Haj Koubaier; Essaidi, Ismahen; Zgoulli, Slim; Moncef, Chaabouni Mohamed; Thonart, Phillipe; Bouzouita, Nabiha

    2012-01-18

    Different extracts from myrtle berries were obtained using alcohol-water mixtures as an extraction medium in the range of 60-90% (v/v) to study the extraction efficiency in the preparation of myrtle liqueur. Flavonoids and anthocyanins were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry and quantified during the maceration period by HPLC coupled with ultraviolet/visible detection. The antioxidant activity was tested by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Dry matter, pH, and color parameters (L, a, b) were also analyzed. At the end of the maceration period, EE80 showed better anthocyanins stability and the highest total antioxidant activity (87.5%). These results suggest that the use of ethanol 80% provides the extract with the best characteristics for liqueur preparation. The present study contributes significantly to increase the marketing appeal of myrtle berries. PMID:22050534

  2. Observation of Berry's phase in a superconducting qubit embedded in a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leek, Peter; Fink, Johannes; Bianchetti, Romeo; Goeppl, Martin; Wallraff, Andreas [Department of Physics, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Blais, Alexandre [Departement de Physique, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Gambetta, Jay [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo (Canada); Departments of Applied Physics and Physics, Yale University (United States); Schuster, David; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert [Departments of Applied Physics and Physics, Yale University (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In quantum information science, the phase of a wavefunction plays an important role in encoding information. While most experiments in this field rely on dynamic effects to manipulate this information, an alternative approach is to use geometric phase, which has been argued to have potential fault tolerance. Here we demonstrate the controlled accumulation of a geometric phase, Berry's phase, in a superconducting qubit, manipulating the qubit geometrically using microwave radiation, and observing the accumulated phase in an interference experiment. This is achieved using the excellent phase coherence and qubit control possible in circuit QED. We find excellent agreement with Berry's predictions, and also observe a geometry dependent contribution to dephasing.

  3. Optical manipulation of Berry phase in a solid-state spin qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Yale, Christopher G; Zhou, Brian B; Auer, Adrian; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D

    2015-01-01

    The phase relation between quantum states represents an essential resource for the storage and processing of quantum information. While quantum phases are commonly controlled dynamically by tuning energetic interactions, utilizing geometric phases that accumulate during cyclic evolution may offer superior robustness to noise. To date, demonstrations of geometric phase control in solid-state systems rely on microwave fields that have limited spatial resolution. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical method based on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage to accumulate a geometric phase, the Berry phase, in an individual nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Using diffraction-limited laser light, we guide the NV center's spin along loops on the Bloch sphere to enclose arbitrary Berry phase and characterize these trajectories through time-resolved state tomography. We investigate the limits of this control due to loss of adiabiaticity and decoherence, as well as its robustness to noise intentionally introduced into t...

  4. Antioxidants and bioactivities of free, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolics from berry seed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Maha; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-04-15

    Phenolic compounds present in the free, soluble ester and insoluble-bound forms of blackberry, black raspberry and blueberry were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation multistage mass spectrometry. The total phenolics, scavenging activity against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, the reducing power and chelating capacity were, in general, in the decreasing order of blackberry>black raspberry>blueberry. Amongst fractions, the order was insoluble-bound>esterified>free. These trends were the same as those found against copper-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation and supercoiled plasmid DNA strand breakage inhibition induced by both peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Extracts were found to contain various levels of phenolic compounds that were specific to each berry seed meal type. Berry seed meals should be considered as a good source of phenolics with potential health benefits. Their full exploitation may be helpful for the food industry and consumers. PMID:26616944

  5. Long Range Topological Order, the Chiral Condensate, and the Berry Connection in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, H B

    2014-01-01

    Topological insulators are substances which are bulk insulators but which carry current via special "topologically protected" edge states. The understanding of long range topological order in these systems is built around the idea of a Berry connection, which is a gauge connection obtained from the phase of the electron wave function transported over momentum space rather than coordinate space. The phase of a closed Wilson loop of the Berry connection around the Brillouin zone defines a topological order parameter which labels discrete flux vacua. The conducting states are surface modes on the domain walls between discrete vacua. Evidence from large-$N_c$ chiral dynamics, holographic QCD, and Monte Carlo observations has pointed to a picture of the QCD vacuum that is very similar to that of a topological insulator, with discrete quasivacua labelled by $\\theta$ angles that differ by mod $2\\pi$. In this picture, the domain walls are membranes of Chern-Simons charge, and the quark condensate consists of surface ...

  6. Topological insulators and the QCD vacuum: the theta parameter as a Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, H B

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence, based on large $N_c$ chiral dynamics, holographic QCD, and Monte Carlo studies, that the QCD vacuum is permeated by discrete quasivacua separated by domain walls across which the local value of the topological $\\theta$ parameter jumps by $\\pm2\\pi$. In the 2-dimensional $CP^{N-1}$ sigma model, a pointlike charge is a domain wall, and $\\theta$ describes the background electric flux and the polarization of charged pairs in the vacuum. We show that the screening process, and the role of $\\theta$ as an order parameter describing electric polarization, are naturally formulated in terms of Bloch wave eigenstates of the Dirac Hamiltonian in the background gauge field. This formulation is similar to the Berry phase description of electric polarization and quantized charge transport in topological insulators. The Bloch waves are quasiperiodic superpositions of localized Dirac zero modes. They define a Berry connection around the Brillouin zone of the zero mode band which describes the lo...

  7. Phenolic Compound Profiles in Berry Skins from Nine Red Wine Grape Cultivars in Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang-Yun Cui; Chang-Qing Duan; Jian-Jun He; He-Qiong Bi; Zan-Min Jin

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Мускат...

  8. Comment on "Higher Order Pancharatnam-Berry Phase and the Angular Momentum of Light"

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Masato; Oka, Kazuhiko; Toda, Yasunori; Morita, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    In a recent letter, Milione et al. reported the Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP) on a higher-order Poincar\\'e sphere (HOPS) [Phys. Rev. Lett, 108, 190401 (2012)]. They used two spin-orbit converters (SOCs) to make a trajectory along the HOPS. However, the SOCs actually do not make a path on the HOPS. We briefly discuss a way of acquiring a PBP made by SOCs.

  9. Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Ariane Renee

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation, Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography interrogates how pornography, from the 1930s to the present, functions as an essential site in the production of black female sexuality. Closely reading a diverse pool of primary pornographic visual materials, across print, moving image and the internet, such as photographs, magazines, trade magazines, videos, DVDs, and internet website viewings, I argue that pornograph...

  10. Berry Flesh and Skin Ripening Features in Vitis vinifera as Assessed by Transcriptional Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Lijavetzky, Diego; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Grimplet, Jérôme; Bravo, Gema; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Oliveros, Juan C.; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar ‘Muscat Hamburg’ to determine tissue-specific as well as common de...

  11. Biochemical changes throughout grape berry development and fruit and wine quality

    OpenAIRE

    CONDE,C; Silva, Paulo; Fontes, N.; Dias, Alberto Carlos Pires; Tavares, R. M.; Sousa, Maria João; Agasse, A.; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, H.

    2007-01-01

    Wine is made up of more than one thousand compounds, the majority of which, such as vitamins and minerals, come from the grapes, while others, like ethanol and glycerol, are products of the winemaking process. Although sugars are either partially or completely transformed, sugar import and accumulation into the ripening berry is a major parameter of wine quality. Sugar status is directly related to the final alcoholic content of wine, and regulates several genes responsible for the developmen...

  12. Distinctive symptoms differentiate four common types of berry shrivel disorder in grape

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnow, Mark N.; Matthews, Mark A.; Smith, Rhonda J; Benz, Jason; Weber, Ed; Shackel, Ken A.

    2010-01-01

    There are several causes of shriveled fruit in vineyards, including sunburn, dehydration, bunchstem necrosis (BSN), and a recently described sugar accumulation disorder (SAD). Due to the similarities in fruit appearance these disorders are often confused with one another, but they can easily be distinguished by the location and/or composition of the shriveled fruit and by the condition of the rachis. Sunburn is typically exhibited only on berries that are exposed to direct sunlight, and BSN...

  13. Responses of Compact Coffee Clones Against Coffee Berry and Coffee Leaf Rust Diseases in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Deusdedit L. Kilambo; Shazia O. W. M. Reuben; Delphina P. Mamiro

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of resistant Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) varieties is considered as the most economical control for coffee berry disease (CBD) and coffee leaf rust (CLR) in Tanzania. The resistance levels of varieties at field and laboratory conditions were assessed through their phenotypic disease reaction response to CBD and CLR. In this study sixteen (16) compact hybrids of C. arabica plus four (4) standard cultivars were evaluated under a range of environmental conditions in on-statio...

  14. Antiaggregation potential of berry fractions against pairs of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii

    OpenAIRE

    Riihinen, Kaisu Ristiina; Ryynanen, Anu; Toivanen, Marko; Kononen, Eija; Torronen, Riitta; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Coaggregation is an interspecies adhesion process which is central to the development of dental plaque. Here we studied the antiaggregation effect and the composition of the soluble solids in the berry juice molecular size fractions [100 kDa fraction (FIII)] derived from apple, bilberry, blackcurrant, cloudberry, crowberry, and lingonberry. We investigated their ability to inhibit and reverse coaggregation of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces...

  15. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    OpenAIRE

    Michael James Considine; Christine Helen Foyer

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to th...

  16. A 2d in vivo approach to study photosynthesis in grape berry

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Vieira, S.; Silva, J. Marques da; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Is argued that fruit photosynthesis serves mainly as a respiratory CO2 refixation mechanism [1] but its contribution to growth and metabolism, localization and dynamics during fruit development are poorly known. Unlike the leaves, fruit volume imposes a constraint to photosynthesis by limiting light penetration. However, the patterns of chlorophyll distribution are apparently independent of a light intensity gradient. Microscopic observations of transversal slices of green stage grape berries...

  17. Studies on control of yellow stem borer, Tryporyza incertulas, a serious pest of paddy. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of pest management with emphasis on rice insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egg parasitism is the chief biotic factor regulating paddy stem borer populations. However, effective suppression of the borer through their natural enemies is not evident in practice. Studies were undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of releasing sterile yellow stem borer females into the field to increase host egg densities as these females would lay nonviable eggs. (a) Paddy fields were surveyed for the incidence of egg parasitism. (b) Attempts were made to rear yellow stem borer larvae on cut stem pieces of field grown rice plants. (c) Trichogramma japonicum, the natural egg parasite of the stem borer was reared in the laboratory using eggs of Corcyra cephalonica and Ephestia cautella as alternate host material. Mass rearing of yellow stem borer larvae on paddy plants grown under laboratory conditions does not appear practically feasible. Borer larvae reared on cut stem pieces with intact roots did not yield satisfactory adults as far as their reproductive behaviour was concerned. Though some of the dietary compositions contained natural host material, they failed to support the larval establishment. Probably some highly specific phagostimulants need to be incorporated in the diets. T. japonicum could be reared on radiation killed Ephestia eggs. The female parasite was unable to discriminate between eggs laid by radiation sterilized host females and those laid by normal ones

  18. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  19. Spatio-temporal variability of Borer Polychaetes in Posidonia oceanica beds and its relation to meadow structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. VASAPOLLO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posidonia oceanica forms an extremely productive and complex ecosystem in the coastal Mediterranean Sea providing a suitable habitat for hundreds of plant and animal species. Among motile invertebrates associated to Posidonia meadows,  polychaete borers of the plant sheaths represent a unique group which exploit a peculiar microhabitat. They belong to the family Eunicidae with three dominant species, Lysidice collaris, L. ninetta and L. unicornis. Due to their strong association with Posidonia shoots, these animals are particularly suitable to study the plant and animal spatial relationships and their pattern of variability. The aim of this work was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of these animals (Index of Borer, IB at different spatial and temporal (summer vs winter scales in two Posidonia meadows off the Ischia Island (Gulf of Naples, Italy, which are exposed to different degrees of human impact and of hydrological conditions. Results showed IB values of L. collaris (the most abundant species significantly different between meadows and at scales from 10s to 100s of meters, as well as between summer and winter. The IB of L. ninetta showed significant differences only at scales of 10s of meters while, on the contrary, the IB of L. unicornis (the less abundant species did not show variability at any spatial and temporal scales. Most of the variance was at the more impacted and less water movement exposed meadow, suggesting higher level of small and intermediate scales of patchiness of borers at this meadow. These variation patterns  are discussed in relation  to local environmental differences between the studied Posidonia beds.

  20. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close. PMID:24690169

  1. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  2. Polarization transport of transverse acoustic waves: Berry phase and spin Hall effect of phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, K. Yu.; Freilikher, V. D.

    2006-11-01

    We carry out a detailed analysis of the short-wave (semiclassical) approximation for the linear equations of the elasticity in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the polarization properties of the transverse waves are completely analogous to those of electromagnetic waves and can be considered as spin properties of optical phonons. In particular, the Hamiltonian of the transverse waves contains an additional term of the phonon spin-orbit interaction arising from the Berry gauge potential in the momentum space. This potential is diagonal in the basis of the circularly polarized waves and corresponds to the field of two “magnetic monopoles” of opposite signs for phonons of opposite helicities. This leads to the appearance of the Berry phase in the equation for the polarization evolution and an additional “anomalous velocity” term in the ray equations. The anomalous velocity has the form of the “Lorentz force” caused by the Berry gauge field in momentum space and gives rise to the transverse transport of waves of opposite helicities in opposite directions. This is a manifestation of the spin Hall effect of optical phonons. The effect directly relates to the conservation of total angular momentum of phonons and also influences reflection from a sharp boundary (acoustic analog of the transverse Ferdorov-Imbert shift).

  3. Ginseng berry extract supplementation improves age-related decline of insulin signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunhui; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sang Jun; Oh, Byung-Chul; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old) were maintained on a regular diet (CON) or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD) for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016) and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.012), suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007). Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (p = 0.047), and protein kinase B (AKT) (p = 0.037), were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) (p = 0.036) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) (p = 0.032), which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice. PMID:25912041

  4. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old were maintained on a regular diet (CON or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016 and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR (p = 0.012, suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007. Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 (p = 0.047, and protein kinase B (AKT (p = 0.037, were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 (p = 0.036 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (p = 0.032, which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  5. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

  6. The Role of Bee Pollinators in Improving Berry Weight and Coffee Cup Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca H.N. Karanja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Kiambu County in Kenya. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pollination improves the coffee yield and quality of processed coffee in terms of taste and aroma. Among the parameters evaluated when grading coffee for sale in world market are berry weight and cup quality. No previous work in Kenya describes the role of bee pollinators in enhancement of coffee yields and quality. Data on berry weights and the resulting processed coffee quality from different pollination levels in organically grown coffee were analyzed. Results from this study indicate that coffee benefits immensely from pollinators. The highest berry weight and coffee cup quality were recorded in open pollinated and cross pollinated coffee. There were significant differences in weight and cup quality (p<0.001 between open pollinated coffee and wind pollination, self pollination and autogamy. The study concludes that pollination not only improves the coffee yields but also enhance the coffee cup taste and aroma. High quality coffee fetches higher prices in the world coffee market.

  7. Modifications of 'Gold Finger' Grape Berry Quality as Affected by the Different Rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhongxin; Sun, Hong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Qingjie; Yao, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    Berry qualities of the grafted 'Gold Finger' grapevines were determined to evaluate the impacts of the resistant rootstocks on fruit quality. Compared to the own-rooted vines, berry and cluster weights and skin color were altered by the rootstocks to varying extents. The rootstock of 101-14M maintained TSS/TA and the contents of fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and SO4 decreased these parameters. 101-14M and 3309C increased and reduced the resveratrol content, respectively. SO4, 5BB, and 3309C decreased the total free amino acid content, along with the changes in amino acid composition. The amounts of aroma components were widely altered by the rootstocks. Additionally, a digital gene expression tag profiling revealed that the biological processes were largely altered by 3309C and 101-14M, including sugar, amino acid, and aroma metabolisms. In summary, the rootstock of 101-14M generally maintained berry quality, and SO4, 5BB, and 3309C imparted varying influences on different quality parameters. PMID:27088562

  8. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Brown

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents, the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer.

  9. MIR – NEWEST HIGHT QUALITY BLACK BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Newest wine black berry with painted pulp and juice grape variety called Mir was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by Zamanidi P., Troshin L. and Radchevsky P. in 2006 by crossing the Ukrainian variety of Odessa black (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with new Greek black berry variety Iliad. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period - 146-155 days. Strong growth of arms (2,1-3,0 m. Percentage of productive shoots - over 90. Productivity is very high: 20-30 t / ha. The average mass of clusters is 260 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Lobes, the stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Bunch medium, often with tapered wing, the average density. Berry small, round, blue-black, with a thick waxy coating. The peel is medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice intensely colored. Sugar content is very high. Prolonged preservation of different crop on bushes. Variety intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines; and is suitable for the manufacture of high quality strong colored juices. When used in blends with other varieties, it enhances color, flavor and improves the bouquet of wine

  10. Solute accumulation differs in the vacuoles and apoplast of ripening grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Shrestha, Pradeep M

    2014-03-01

    Phloem unloading is thought to switch from a symplastic route to an apoplastic route at the beginning of ripening in grape berries and some other fleshy fruits. However, it is unclear whether different solutes accumulate in both the mesocarp vacuoles and the apoplast. We modified a method developed for tomato fruit to extract apoplastic sap from grape berries and measured the changes in apoplastic and vacuolar pH, soluble sugars, organic acids, and potassium in ripening berries of Vitis vinifera 'Merlot' and V. labruscana 'Concord'. Solute accumulation varied by genotype, compartment, and chemical species. The apoplast pH was substantially higher than the vacuolar pH, especially in Merlot (approximately two units). However, the vacuole-apoplast proton gradient declined during ripening and in Merlot, but not in Concord, collapsed entirely at maturity. Hexoses accumulated in both the vacuoles and apoplast but at different rates. Organic acids, especially malate, declined much more in the vacuoles than in the apoplast. Potassium accumulated in the vacuoles and apoplast of Merlot. In Concord, by contrast, potassium increased in the vacuoles but decreased in the apoplast. These results suggest that solutes in the fruit apoplast are tightly regulated and under developmental control. PMID:24310282

  11. The Effects of European corn borer on whole-plant yieldand root knot nematode fitness in corn

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Siddharth

    2007-01-01

    Field studies were conducted over two growing seasons to evaluate the effect of different levels of third instar European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on whole-plant dry matter in corn grown for silage. Mean (± SEM) whole-plant dry matter was significantly greater by 18.8% in uninfested control plants than in plants with an infestation level of 6 larvae/plant in 2004. Whole-plant dry matter in 2005 was significantly greater by 10.5% in control plants tha...

  12. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

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    Paul-André Calatayud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species. This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  13. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sweetman Crystal; Wong Darren CJ; Ford Christopher M; Drew Damian P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes...

  14. Long-term in vitro culture of grape berries and its application to assess the effects of sugar supply on anthocyanin accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zhan Wu; Meddar, Messaoud; Renaud, Christel; Merlin, Isabelle; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Grape berry development and ripening are under complex regulation by the nutrients, hormones, and environment cues sensed by the berry. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these types of regulation are poorly understood. A simplified but realistic model system that enables fruit growth conditions to be modulated easily will facilitate the deciphering of these mechanisms. Here, an in vitro culture system of intact detached grape berries was developed by coupling the pr...

  15. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

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    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  16. Effects of ABA Content on the Development of Abscission Zone and Berry Falling After Harvesting of Grapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-lin; ZHANG Run-guang

    2009-01-01

    The commodity price of grape reduces as berry falling after harvest. It is crucial to prevent grape from berry falling during storage. In this article, the structure change of grape cells in the abscission zone was observed, the ABA content and the activities of cellulase and polygalacturonase (PG) were measured, and the relationship of ABA and berry falling was investigated. The results suggest that cells in the abscission zone grow into a separation layer soon after the grapes are cut off. According to the level of development, we designed 6 grades to sort the different development stages. The grade 3 plays an important role in berry falling. ABA enhances the activities of cellulase and polygalacturonase, and accelerates the decomposition of cellulose and pectin, which determines the level of development of abscission zone and berry falling. If ABA ratio is less than 20 ng g-1 fresh weight (FW), the abscission zone is not developed to the grade 3, and the berry falling is effectively stopped. We treated grape bunches with nine plant growth regulators and two chemicals. The results indicated that 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) can (a) inhibit the generation of ABA significantly, (b) inactivate the activities of cellulase and PG, (c) delay the development of the grade 3 of abscission zone, and (d) stop berry falling. Indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) caused similar results as TIBA. Chlorocholine chloride (CCC), dimethyl amino succinamic acid (B9), chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) and exogenous ABA showed opposite effects.

  17. Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

    2006-06-01

    This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

  18. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

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    Venu M Margam

    Full Text Available We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes.

  19. THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER (OSTRINIA NUBILALIS HÜBNER REVIEW OF RESULTS FROM CROATIA

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    Marija Ivezić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available European Corn Borer (ECB - (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner is one of the most important pest on corn in Croatia. In the last decade corn production was on over 400 000 ha, in Eastern Croatia. Although ECB is present every year, with no such a low intensity, their control is not implemented. Corn is grown in monoculture, at 40% of cornfields, which also has influence on spreading of ECB. In the last ten years average attack of ECB was 51.5%; been done three different kinds of trials for controlling ECB. First trials were carried out in DeKalb hybrids, and ECB was controlled by Biobit XL, on the base of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Intensity of attack was decreased for 46%. Second trial was carried out in ten hybrids, in order to determine the tolerance of hybrids against ECB. It was identified that several domestic hybrids (OSSK 382, OSSK 664 and BC 462 are tolerant to ECB. The third trial was carried out with GM hybrids. Experiments included Pioneer hybrids Evelina Bt, and Landia Bt. Intensity of attack at Evelina standard was 52%, while in Evelina Bt, ECB wasn't present at all. At Landia standard ECB was present on 98%, while in Landia Bt, intensity of attack was 21%. At both Bt hybrids, number of larvae and tunnels was lower comparing to standard hybrids. Length of damage in Landia check was 20.66 cm, while in Landia Bt it was 0.45 cm. The yield was increased for 10.27% at Evelina Bt, and for 26.67% in Landia Bt comparing to their standards. This kind of experiments will be continued in the future, not only because of its agronomic importance, but also because of its ecological relevance.

  20. Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

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    Löfstedt Christer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary

  1. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

  2. Female sex pheromone of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis blend optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, A; Alam, S N; Das, A; Das, C S; Ghosh, G C; Farman, D I; Hall, D R; Maslen, N R; Vedham, K; Phythian, S J; Rouf, F M; Srinivasan, K

    2001-09-01

    The brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is the major pest of eggplant in South Asia. Analysis of female pheromone gland extracts prepared from insects of Indian and Taiwanese origin confirmed (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (E11-16:Ac) as the major pheromone component with 0.8 to 2.8% of the related (E)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (E11-16:OH), as previously reported from Sri Lanka. The average quantity of E11-16:Ac extracted per female was estimated to be 33 ng, with a range of 18.9 to 46.4 ng when collected 2 to 3 hr into the scotophase. In field trials conducted in India, blends containing between 1 and 10% E11-16:OH caught more male L. orbonalis than E11-16:Ac alone. At the 1,000 microg dose, on white rubber septa, addition of 1% E11-16:OH to E11-16:Ac was found to be more attractive to male L. orbonalis than either 0.1 or 10% E11-16:OH. Trap catch was found to be positively correlated with pheromone release rate, with the highest dose tested, 3,000 microg, on white rubber septa catching more male moths than lower doses. Field and wind tunnel release rate studies confirmed that E11-16:OH released from white rubber septa and polyethylene vials at approximately twice the rate of E11-16:Ac and that the release rate of both compounds was doubled in polyethylene vials compared to white rubber septa. This difference in release rate was reflected in field trials conducted in Bangladesh where polyethylene vial dispensers caught more male moths than either black or white rubber septa, each loaded with the same 100:1 blend of E11-16:Ac and E11-16:OH in a 3,000 microg loading. PMID:11545376

  3. Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section. PMID:25266165

  4. Tissue-specific transcriptomics of the exotic invasive insect pest emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis.

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    Omprakash Mittapalli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp. primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248and trypsin (98 domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85 and protein kinase (123 domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis.

  5. Identification of odor-processing genes in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

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    Praveen Mamidala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs, including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons. Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72% did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc. putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi

  6. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Jennings

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp. since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  7. Synthesis and Field Evaluation of the Sex Pheromone Analogues to Soybean Pod Borer Leguminivora glycinivorella

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    Xing Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop efficient lures for soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura in China, (E,E-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate (EE-8,10-12:Ac, the main component of the pheromone of L. glycinivorella, and 12 structurally-related compounds were synthesised in good overall yields, regiospecificities, and stereo-selectivities via coupling reactions catalysed by Li2CuCl4. The effect of different synthetic compounds, alone or in combination with EE-8,10-12:Ac, on numbers of captured L. glycinivorella males was evaluated. EE-8,10-12:Ac, (E-10-dodecenyl acetate (E-10-12:Ac, (E-8-dodecenol (E-8-12:OH, tetradecyl acetate (14:Ac, and (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z-9-14:Ac alone displayed different attractiveness to L. glycinivorella males. 14:Ac, E-8-12:OH, E-10-12:Ac, (E,E-8,10-dodecadienal (EE-8,10-12:Ald, (E-8-dodecenal (E-8-12:Ald, (E-10-dodecenal (E-10-12:Ald and Z-9-14:Ac all showed a synergistic effect to EE-8,10-12:Ac at certain dosages. The binary mixtures of EE-8,10-12:Ac and E-10-12:Ald, Z-9-14:Ac,14:Ac, E-8-12:Ald, EE-8,10-12:Ald, E-8-12:OH, or E-10-12:Ac in suitable ratios give 17.00-, 10.98-, 10.67-, 6.73-, 5.54-, 4.30- and 4.50-fold increases in trap catch, respectively, over the standard pheromone lure, and as novel pheromone blends, demonstrated potential use in pheromone traps to monitor or control L. glycinivorella populations in China.

  8. New artificial diet for continuous rearing of the bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero ( 1993 ), called the "D-OO diet." However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15-25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata. PMID:24785903

  9. A Biologically Active Analog of the Sex Pheromone of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J

    2015-03-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ω-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption. PMID:25786893

  10. Possibilities of using radiation induced F1 sterility for control of European corn borer in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were undertaken to develop the foundation for control in the future of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), with a pest management system based on sterility expressed to the greatest extent during the F1 generation of progeny of moths irradiated with gamma rays. As a basis for the mass rearing of the pest, a diet was developed from locally available ingredients. The ingredients are bean meal, wheat bran, brewe's yeast, milk powder substitute for calves, salt mixture used in poultry production, sugar, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, glacial acetic acid, formaldehyde, agar and water. Using this diet, 1000 moths can be reared for as little as one US dollar. Complete sterility induced by exposure to gamma rays occurs at a lower dose in females than in males. When males that are exposed as six-day-old pupae to 150 Gy are mated to untreated females, 67.5% of the eggs hatch. Further, when the sons of treated males are mated to untreated females, 42.8% of the eggs hatch, when daughters of treated males are mated to untreated males, 40.7% of the eggs hatch, and when sons and daughters of treated males are mated to each other, 9.1% of the eggs hatch. The amount of mortality following egg hatch was not recorded. However, in field cage experiments, F1 larvae damaged 4, 8 and 0% of corn stalks for these respective crosses compared with the 76% damage by larvae from untreated parents. The corresponding yield of kernels of corn in grammes per plant was 57, 42, 46, and 27. In order to mark moths for filed studies they were reared on diet containing Calco red dye. Traps baited with the various enantiomers of the sex pheromone were used to study the dispersal of released moths and the dates of adult moth emergence in various regions of Romania. (author). 20 refs, 12 tabs

  11. Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner pheromone reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckel David G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner, is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males from each strain exhibit phenotypic differences in peripheral physiology. Both strains possess co-localized pheromone-sensitive olfactory sensory neurons characterized by a larger amplitude action potential (spike responding to the major pheromone component, and a smaller spike amplitude cell responding to the minor component, i.e. the opposite isomer. These differences in amplitude correspond to differences in dendritic diameter between the two neurons. Previous studies showed that behavioral response to the pheromone blend was sex-linked, but spike amplitude response to pheromone components matched autosomal, not sex-linked inheritance. Results As part of a larger study to finely map the loci responsible for pheromone communication in this species, we have reanalyzed peripheral physiology among parental, and first and second generation hybrids between the two pheromone strains using tungsten electrode electrophysiology. Our results reveal that differences in spike amplitude ratio between male pheromone-sensitive sensory neurons in O. nubilalis races are controlled, at least partially, by sex-linked genes that exhibit E-strain dominance. Conclusions We propose that peripheral olfactory response in O. nubilalis may be affected both by autosomal and sex-linked genes exhibiting a cross-locus dominance effect, and suggest that the genetic basis for pheromone reception and response in the species is more closely linked than previously thought.

  12. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

  13. Geographical susceptibility of Louisiana and Texas populations of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidopetera: Crambidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    The susceptibility of 18 field populations of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) to two sources of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein was determined by laboratory bioassays. Fifteen of the 18 field populations were collected from seven locations across Louisiana and the other 3 popula...

  14. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which has killed millions of ash trees since it was first detected in Michigan. A native parasitoid like A. cappaerti...

  15. Biology, life history and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazajac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the US. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus ...

  16. Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

  17. Genome-wide association study reveals a set of genes associated with resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides L.) in a maize diversity panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn borers are the primary maize pest in many environments; their feeding on the pith of the stem results in yield losses because stem damage interferes with assimilate movement to developing kernels. In this study, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify SNPs associated with ...

  18. Describing head shapes of white stem borers (Schirpophaga innotata Walker that are able to survive on different rice types using Landmark based geometric morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queenilyn B. Albutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice stem borers are considered as the most serious insect pest of rice in Asia. It infects itsplant host by burrowing into the stem using its mandible. However, apart from the mandible, the head ofrice stem borers is also associated in the incursion process since it facilitates the entry of larvae to the riceplant. Differences in the head capsules have a direct effect on the ability of the insects to ingest hardfoods rapidly. Different rice varieties in the Philippines serve as plant host for this pest and infestationoccurred in different geographical location. Variations in habitat and plant host were thought to generateenvironmental variation in morphometric traits and host adapted herbivore phenotype respectively.Landmark based geometric morphometric analysis was used to assess the hypothesis that the head shapeof white stem borer differ between populations with respect to different rice varieties and geographicallocation where it was obtained. Relative warp analysis showed variation in the head shape betweendifferent white stem borer (Schirpophaga innotata Walker populations infesting different varieties of rice.Non-significant head shape variations were obtained between geographically separated populations. Theseresults indicate that the rice host varieties play an important role in the selection of individuals that areable to counteract the resistance factors in plants.

  19. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  20. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetreault, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, /sup 14/C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle.

  1. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, 14C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle

  2. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  3. Taiwanese Trichogramma of Asian Corn Borer: Morphology, ITS-2 rDNA Characterization, and Natural Wolbachia Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Hsin; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Thomson, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are natural enemies of many lepidopteran borers in agricultural areas around the world. It is important to identify the correct species and ideally focus on endemic Trichogramma for pest control in particular crops. In this study, Trichogramma wasps were collected from parasitized eggs of Asian corn borer in Southwestern Taiwan. Three Trichogramma species, Trichogramma ostriniae Pang and Chen, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, and T. sp. y, were identified based on morphology and the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) region of rDNA. Although T. ostriniae and T. sp. y appear to be morphologically similar, ITS-2 identity between these two taxa is only 89%. Surprisingly, a commercially released Trichogramma colony thought to be T. chilonis possessed 99% identity (ITS-2) with the field T. sp. y individuals. This suggests past contamination leading to subsitution of the laboratory-reared T. chilonis colony by T. sp. y. Natural populations of all three Trichogramma species were found to be infected by a single Wolbachia strain which was identified using a wsp gene sequence. PMID:26896674

  4. New insights into an RNAi approach for plant defence against piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichao; Guan, Ruobing; Guo, Huimin; Miao, Xuexia

    2015-11-01

    Insect double-stranded (ds)RNA expression in transgenic crops can increase plant resistance to biotic stress; however, creating transgenic crops to defend against every insect pest is impractical. Arabidopsis Mob1A is required for organ growth and reproduction. When Arabidopsis roots were soaked in dsMob1A, the root lengths and numbers were significantly suppressed and plants could not bolt or flower. Twenty-four hours after rice roots were immersed in fluorescent-labelled dsEYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein), fluorescence was observed in the rice sheath and stem and in planthoppers feeding on the rice. The expression levels of Ago and Dicer in rice and planthoppers were induced by dsEYFP. When rice roots were soaked in dsActin, their growth was also significantly suppressed. When planthoppers or Asian corn borers fed on rice or maize that had been irrigated with a solution containing the dsRNA of an insect target gene, the insect's mortality rate increased significantly. Our results demonstrate that dsRNAs can be absorbed by crop roots, trigger plant and insect RNAi and enhance piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect mortality rates. We also confirmed that dsRNA was stable under outdoor conditions. These results indicate that the root dsRNA soaking can be used as a bioinsecticide strategy during crop irrigation. PMID:25828885

  5. Application of indoxacarb for managing shoot and fruit borer of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimandir, Jayakrishnan; Gopal, Madhuban

    2009-03-01

    Indoxacarb was applied at 75 and 150 g a.i. ha(-1) for two years to an eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) crop grown in the field plots in order to evaluate its efficacy for management of the lepidopteron pest, shoot and fruit borer. The residues of the insecticide were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean initial deposits of indoxacarb on eggplant fruits were found to be 2.60-2.634 mg kg(-1) and 3.64-3.68 mg kg(-1) from the two rates of applications, respectively. They declined with time and reached to non-detectable (Codex maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.5 mg kg(-1) thereby achieving a maximum safety and minimum risk to consumers. The best combination of chemicals for decontamination of indoxacarb was found to be by washing with a mixture of alkali and potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) thereby resulting in the removal of 67.5% and 59.2 % residues for 5 and 10 microg g(-1) spiking doses, respectively. Major products formed on reaction of indoxacarb with alkali were identified by electron spray ionization chromatography/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). The per cent reduction on the weight and number basis of treated eggplant plots were compared to those observed in control plots to demonstrate the effectiveness of indoxacarb treatment on shoot and fruit borer population. PMID:19280483

  6. Disinfestation of litchi stem-end borer Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley with irradiation for export of litchi fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larvae of the litchi stem-end borer, Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley, in litchi fruits were exposed to 60Co gamma irradiation doses ranging from 0-400 Gy as a quarantine treatment. Criterion of effectiveness of the irradiation dose was based on preventing adults emerging from treated fruits infested with the larvae. Probit analysis showed that the irradiation dose that caused 99.5% mortality of larvae was 254 Gy (220-289 Gy) and 99.9968% mortality of the 3rd instars was 267 Gy (184-351 Gy) with 95% fiducial limits. The mortality of litchi stem-end borer increased when the irradiation treatment was coupled with extended cool storage (76 deg. C). Hatching of eggs was decreased with increasing dosages to the eggs of 250-600 Gy. Prepupae treated at 300-600 Gy were more radiosensitive than 4-5 days old pupae. The results of visual quality observation indicated that the rotten fruit rate of litchi fruits was reduced by 250-350 Gy treatment. (author)

  7. A FISH-based chromosome map for the European corn borer yields insights into ancient chromosomal fusions in the silkworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Y; Ohno, M; Shibata, F; Jouraku, A; Nakano, R; Ishikawa, Y; Sahara, K

    2016-01-01

    A significant feature of the genomes of Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the high conservation of chromosome organization. Recent remarkable progress in genome sequencing of Lepidoptera has revealed that syntenic gene order is extensively conserved across phylogenetically distant species. The ancestral karyotype of Lepidoptera is thought to be n=31; however, that of the most well-studied moth, Bombyx mori, is n=28, and diverse studies suggest that three chromosomal fusion events occurred in this lineage. To identify the boundaries between predicted ancient fusions involving B. mori chromosomes 11, 23 and 24, we constructed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based chromosome maps of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (n=31). We first determined a 511 Mb genomic sequence of the Asian corn borer, O. furnacalis, a congener of O. nubilalis, and isolated bacterial artificial chromosomes and fosmid clones that were expected to localize in candidate regions for the boundaries using these sequences. Combined with FISH and genetic analysis, we narrowed down the candidate regions to 40 kb-1.5 Mb, in strong agreement with a previous estimate based on the genome of a butterfly, Melitaea cinxia. The significant difference in the lengths of the candidate regions where no functional genes were observed may reflect the evolutionary time after fusion events. PMID:26264548

  8. 黑莓企业服务平台架设结构%The Frame Structure of BlackBerry Enterprises' Service Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨微微

    2012-01-01

      Black Berry English referred to as BlackBerry, it is the Canadian RIM Company launched a terminal of mobile E-mail system. 1, The first problem is guided into what's BlackBerry business and its business characteristics, let every-body understand it; 2, And then, expressed the internal division component and service independently accomplished of their respective functions of BES server, analyzes BES. Then through the BlackBerry enterprise service system structure diagram to present the frame structure of BlackBerry service.; 3, Expressed BlackBerry's cell phone types and the characteristics of the mobile phone used and more press closed to BlackBerry; 4, Through the BlackBerry's mobile E-mail and office solutions and banking system solutions to further BlackBerry, analyzing its use. 5, Finally, an overview to Blackberry advantages and current social development of domestic situation and future trends.%  黑莓英文简称 BlackBerry,它是加拿大 RIM 公司推出的一种移动电子邮件系统终端.一、首先问题导入什么是 BlackBerry业务与 BlackBerry 业务的特点,让大家对其有所了解.二、之后表述 BES 服务器的内部划分组件和服务独立完成各自的功能,剖析BES.随之通过 BlackBerry 的企业服务系统框架图来呈现 BlackBerry 的服务架设.三、表述 BlackBerry 的手机类型及其手机的特点与使用,更加贴近黑莓手机.四、通过 BlackBerry 移动邮件及办公解决方案与银行业金融系统解决方案来深入黑莓,解析其用途.五、最后总述黑莓的优点与当前社会发展国内现状及未来走向.

  9. Estimation of genetic divergence in rice (oryza sativa l) germplasms on the basis of paddy yield and rice stem borer's (pyralidae: lepidoptera) resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field trials were carried out to estimate resistance along with paddy yield in 55 rice germplasm lines (35 aromatic and 20 non-aromatic genotypes) for rice stem borers (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) to expose their potential in pest management approach. The results expressed significant differences for pest damage build-up and paddy yield among the rice germplasm lines. The findings clearly portrayed that based upon the percentage of pest invasions (dead hearts and white heads damage), no genotype was exclusively resistant to stem borers damage under field conditions. Two aromatic genotypes, Jajai-15A/97 and Basmati-Cr-34, exhibited least borers prevalence and amplified paddy yield while Sonehri Sugdasi (P) and Sada Gulab (P) pointed out a peak pest invasion and declined paddy yield. The estimation of pest incidence build-up and paddy productivity within non-aromatic genotypes confirmed that IR8 (P), IR6-15-2 and IR6 (P) were mainly proficient for bearing condensed pest invasion and augmented paddy yield. IR8-2.5-4, IR6-15-10 and IR6-20-9 demonstrated elevated pest susceptibility and gave poor yield. Rest of the germplasms appeared to be least tolerant or vulnerable to pest build-up and reduced paddy production. The tolerant and high yielding genotypes should be popularised in rice borers endemic areas and can be used in varietals resistance breeding strategy. The outcome of current studies necessitates the integration of existing host plant tolerance along with other management strategies to accomplish a suitable control of rice stem borers and enhance paddy yield. (author)

  10. Effects of different N fertilizers on the activity of Glomus mosseae and on grapevine nutrition and berry composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, N; Nikolaou, N; Ipsilantis, I; Zioziou, E

    2007-12-01

    Grapevine N fertilization may affect and be affected by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and change berry composition. We studied the effects of different N fertilizers on AM fungal grapevine root colonization and sporulation, and on grapevine growth, nutrition, and berry composition, by conducting a 3.5-year pot study supplying grapevine plants with either urea, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, or ammonium nitrate. We measured the percentage of AM fungal root colonization, AM fungal sporulation, grapevine shoot dry weight and number of leaves, nutrient composition (macro- and micronutrients), and grapevine berry soluble solids (total sugars or degrees Brix) and total acidity. Urea suppressed AM fungal root colonization and sporulation. Mycorrhizal grapevine plants had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaves than non-mycorrhizal and with a higher growth response with calcium nitrate as the N source. For the macronutrients P and K, and for the micronutrient B, leaf concentration was higher in mycorrhizal plants. Non-mycorrhizal plants had higher concentration of microelements Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu than mycorrhizal. There were no differences in soluble solids ( degrees Brix) in grapevine berries among mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. However, non-mycorrhizal grapevine berries had higher acid content with ammonium nitrate, although they did not have better N nutrition and vegetative growth. PMID:17987325

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE PEDICEL DETACHING AND CRUSHING FORCES OF GRAPE BERRIES TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMAL MECHANICAL HARVESTING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carrara

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical harvesting of grapes is an important operation in order to contain the operating costs of the viticultural farms. One of the limits of the mechanical harvesting of grapes is represented by the production of juice that is mostly due to the energetic action of the shakers that knocks against the grape clusters to allow the detachment of the berries. As a consequence, under the same structural conditions of the plants, the production of grape juice depends on the physical-mechanical characteristics of the berry and particularly on its breaking strength and on its detachment from the pedicel. In this paper the strength of the berry to the compression force is evaluated through the measurement of the crushing force and the strength of the berry linked to its pedicel measuring its detaching force. The study was performed on two variety of grapes very widespread in Sicily: Catarratto comune and Nero d’Avola. The research showed that the evaluation of the breaking strength of the berry and its pedicel detachment resistance, correlated with the sugar content, allows to find out the optimal mechanical harvesting time in order to obtain a low production of grape juice and, then, wines of quality from mechanically harvested grapes.

  12. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F

    2007-11-01

    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:18065095

  13. Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zheng Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  14. Influence of canopy-applied chitosan on the composition of organic cv. Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon berries and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarin, Paola; Chinnici, Fabio; Donnini, Silvia; Liquori, Enrico; Riponi, Claudio; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The effects of canopy-applied chitosan on grapes and derived wine were evaluated in an organically managed mature vineyard. The experiment was performed on Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon red grape cultivars, the application of a chitosan solution was compared to water spraying. Each treatment was applied 3 times (beginning and end of veraison, and pre-harvest) in a randomized block experimental design. Significant differences in (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 amounts in berries and wines were detected in Cabernet Sauvignon but not in Sangiovese. Chitosan did not influence the berry skin anthocyanin and flavonol amount or t-resveratrol concentration in both skins and wines. A considerable increase in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), together with some other amino acids, ammonium and amines was observed in the berry flesh of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The increase in phenolic acids and nitrogenous compounds, especially GABA, in the pulp of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes suggests changes in stress response. PMID:27211677

  15. Inheritance of growth habit and berry colour in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L. Dunal – A medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Deore* and P.Manivel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetics studies were studied for the two qualitative character ivz., growth habit (Erect × Procumbent and for berry (fruit colour (Yellow × Red in ashwagandha. The inheritance of the growth habit was controlled by single gene and the procumbent was dominant over the erect type. The gene symbol P for procumbent and p for erect is proposed. Inheritance studies of yellow versus red berry colour indicated that the trait was in control of classical duplicate recessive epitasis and followed the ratio of 9:7 (yellow: red. The berry colour in this cross is controlled by two genes (Y1 and Y2 with complementary recessive epitasis and gene symbols are proposed.

  16. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berry skin, pulp, and seeds in 13 grapevine varieties grown in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelić, Milica M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Davidović, Sonja M; Todić, Slavica R; Bešlić, Zoran S; Gašić, Uroš M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2016-11-15

    Phenolic profile of 13 grapevine varieties was determined, with respect to three different parts of berries: skin, seed and pulp. Identification and quantification of the phenols was done using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The most abundant phenols in grape seeds were found to be flavan-3-ols, most of which are gallocatechin gallate and catechin. The skins were characterized mostly by flavonols, i.e. quercetin and myricetin. Characterization of anthocyanins in the berry skin by UHPLC coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer revealed a total of twenty derivatives of malvidin, delphinidin, petunidin, cyanidin, and peonidin. To the extent of our knowledge this is the first work that shows the presence of malvidin 3,5-O-dihexoside in the berry skin of 'Merlot', 'Cabernet Franc', 'Shiraz' 'Sangiovese', 'Pinot Noir' and 'Prokupac', untypical for Vitis vinifera Linneo species. PMID:27283628

  17. Use of ionizing radiations to prolong the storage life of fruit and berries (review of work in the USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of fruit is considered as a factor influencing the microflora of fruits and the physiological and biochemical processes occurring during the storage of fruit. Accordingly, the survey presents the results of experiments studying the effect of irradiation on: (a) Microorganisms which cause fruit and berries to spoil; (b) The spoiling of fruits caused by repeated infection by microflora; (c) The biochemical processes occurring in fruit while stored; (d) The ripening of fruit during storage; (e) The periods for which fruits of varying degrees of ripeness can be stored; (f) Opportunities for the industrial processing of fruit. In conclusion, it gives the results of experiments on the storage of irradiated fruits and berries: strawberries, raspberries, blackcurrants, cherries, apricots, peaches, tomatoes, grapes, mandarines and subtropical persimmons and figs. Recommendations are made as to optimum irradiation doses for prolonging the periods during which these fruits and berries can be stored. (author). 12 refs, 10 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Experimental Realization of Tunable Photonic Spin Hall Effect by Tailoring the Pancharatnam-Berry Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Xiaohui; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2013-01-01

    Tunable photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) is experimentally realized in this work by tailoring the space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP). It is demonstrated that vector beams whose polarization with a tunable spatial inhomogeneity can contribute to steering the space-variant PBP, thereby realizing a tunable photonic SHE with any desired spin-dependent splitting. Our scheme provides a convenient degree of freedom to manipulate the photon spin states and can be extrapolated to other physical systems due to the similar topological origins.

  19. A new picrotoxane sesquiterpene from the berries of Baccaurea ramiflora with antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, Yun-Fei; Ding, Tao; Luo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Three picrotoxane sesquiterpenes including one new glycoside and two known constituents, sapidolide A (2) and picrotoximaesin (3), were isolated from the berries of Baccaurea ramiflora. The structure of the new sesquiterpene glycoside, ramifloside (1), was elucidated as 2-one-6α-hydroxy-13-nor-11-picrotoxen-3(15β)-olide 10-O-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides with MICs of 12.5, 12.5 and 50 μg/mL. PMID:25583324

  20. The development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Blaž

    2014-01-01

    The diploma paper presents in detail the development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5, i. e. the path from idea to product. First, it examines the previously mentioned platform, the technologies used (HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript) and environments for development (NetBeans, GIMP). The central part is dedicated to the development of our product (Game Time Attacker), which includes a description of the program code, implementation and publication of the game. The usefulness of ou...