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Sample records for berry borer hypothenemus

  1. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  2. Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

  3. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  4. Natural parasitism of Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...

  5. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  6. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

  7. Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development ...

  8. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

  9. Biological control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, J; Bustillo, A E; Montoya, E C; Borgemeister, C

    2005-10-01

    The potential of the eulophid parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle to control coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) populations under field conditions in Colombia was evaluated. Parasitoid adults were released one, five and nine days after artificial infestations of 90-, 150- and 210-day-old coffee berries with H. hampei females. The position of the beetle inside the berry and the parasitism levels were assessed ten days after each P. coffea release. Parasitism of H. hampei by P. coffea was significantly affected by the age of the berries at the time of infestation, and by the position of the beetle inside the berries. Highest levels of parasitism were recorded in 150-day-old berries (75-85%) and in 90-day-old berries (75%) when P. coffea were released one day after the artificial infestation with H. hampei. In 150-day-old berries, highest levels of parasitism were recorded for H. hampei found in the outer layer of the endosperm followed by beetles penetrating the exocarp. Increasing the time of P. coffea releases after the artificial infestations with H. hampei led to decreased levels of parasitism in beetles attacking 90- and 150-day-old coffee berries. Low levels of parasitism were recorded in H. hampei females infesting older coffee berries because most of the beetles had already constructed galleries deep in the endosperm of the berries, i.e. out of reach of the parasitoid. The potential of P. coffea for biological control of coffee berry borer in Colombia is discussed. PMID:16197567

  10. Keefektifan insektisida cyantraniliprole terhadap hama penggerek buah kopi ( Hypothenemus hampei pada ko pi arabika ( Effectiveness cyantraniliprole against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampeion arabica coffee.

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    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A trial on cyantraniliprole 10% against coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei has been conducted on arabica coffee at Kalibendo Estate, in Banyuwangi regency, East Java. The altitude of the estate is about 650 m above sea level (asl. and belongs to B type of climate classification according to Schmidt and Ferguson. Composite variety of arabica coffee at about four years old planted at the location was used as plant materials. Five levels of cyantranilprole dosage and two compared insecticides i.e: carbaryl 85% and lamda cyhalothrine 25 g/L have been applied as treatments and each treatment is replicated four times. Infestation of coffee berry borer (CBB has been observed on berries in the field as well as on harvested berries and green coffee. The results revealed that cyantraniliprole 10% was very effective in suppressing infestation and population of CBB on coffee berries in the field as well as on harvested parchment and green coffee. The dosage of 2,000 ml/ha was the most effective and the highest level of efficacy against CBB until the last observation during 14 weeks trial. Application of cyantraniliprole 10% also has increased the production of green coffee harvested. The highest increase occurred on the treatment of cyantraniliprole 10% with a dosage of 1000 ml/ha, which it reached 62.87% higher compared to untreated treatment. Carbaryl and lamda cyhalothrine have effectiveness and efficacy level lower than the highest dosage of cyantraniliprole 10%.

  11. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature r...

  12. Cloning and expression of an endo-1,4-β-xylanase from the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

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    Padilla-Hurtado Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was

  13. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Brown, Stuart M; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Brodie, Eoin L; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies. PMID:26228545

  14. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    KAUST Repository

    Vega, Fernando E.

    2015-07-31

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.

  15. Coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei)—a vector for toxigenic molds and ochratoxin A contamination in coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu; Bhat, Rajeev; Gopinandhan, Thirukonda Nannier

    2010-10-01

    Coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari) is a common insect pest in coffee plantations and is a suspected vector of various mycotoxin-producing molds. In the present study, field trials were undertaken consecutively for 3 years to evaluate the impact of CBB on the microbial contamination of Arabica and Robusta coffee bean varieties, with emphasis laid toward ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing fungi. Results revealed higher microbial contamination in CBB-infested beans in both the varieties of coffee with the presence of toxigenic molds (such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus). The "timely harvested" coffee, which was infested with CBB, was found to possess comparatively lesser OTA levels than those berries left in soil or on coffee plants. Studies carried out on coffee beans collected from nine curing factories indicated the presence of OTA in almost all the CBB-infested coffee beans, irrespective of the variety. Results of the present study provide sufficient baseline information and evidence to understand and correlate the role of CBB with various OTA-producing molds in coffee beans. Understanding the role of CBB might be useful and applicable in the coffee-growing regions of the world, especially in plantations for production of quality coffee. PMID:20618085

  16. Artificial diet sandwiches reveal sub-social behavior in the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diet sandwich, consisting of coffee berry borer artificial diet within two glass panes, has been developed to elucidate the behavior of the coffee berry borer, an insect that in nature spends most of its life cycle inside the coffee berry. Various types of behavior have been observed for the first...

  17. The genus Hypothenemus, with emphasis on H. hampei, the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Hypothenemus consists of approximately 180 species that occur worldwide throughout the tropics and in warm temperate areas. Female Hypothenemus adults burrow into their host plant and deposit eggs within galleries. All species in the genus are quite small (0.6-2.8 mm) and exhibit inbreed...

  18. Influence of age and diet on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

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    Jaime Gómez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of age and feeding on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae was investigated in the laboratory. Groups of female parasitoids were subject to the following treatments: a group fed during one, five and ten days after emergence of adults with coffee borer larvae; another group fed only with honey solution during five days after emergence; and as a control, a third group was kept without food for five days. At the end of each treatment, survivorship, parasitoid activity (walking and flying capacity in an arena, search capacity for finding coffee borer-infested berries, host feeding and oviposition (on immature hosts, were assessed. Unfed females showed a significant decrease in survivorship compared to individuals that were fed. The type of meal (insects or honey did not significantly influence parasitoid activity, search and oviposition capacities. Females fed with honey solution significantly consumed less immature coffee borers. Younger females (one day old walked and flew out of the arena significantly faster than older ones (5 and 10 days old. Implications of these results are discussed on the performance of C. stephanoderis as a biological control agent of the coffee berry borer.

  19. Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E.; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35°C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20–30°C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32°C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1–2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1°C rise in thermal optimum (Topt.), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (rmax) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255

  20. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei: predictions of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20-30 degrees C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32 degrees C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1-2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1 degrees C rise in thermal optimum (T(opt., the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (r(max will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2.

  1. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei: predictions of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20-30 degrees C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32 degrees C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1-2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1 degrees C rise in thermal optimum (T(opt.)), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (r(max)) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255

  2. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei and coffee production in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model. In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.

  3. Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

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    Flávio Neves Celestino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate botanical oils, mineral oils and an insecticide that contained azadirachtin (ICA for the control of Hypothenemus hampei, in addition to the effects of residual castor oil. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn, soybean and castor, two mineral oils (assist® and naturol®, and the ICA for the control of H. hampei. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 3.0% (v v-1. The median lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated with Probit analysis. The oil of castor bean and extract of castor bean cake were also evaluated at concentrations of 3.0% (v v-1 and 3.0% (m v-1, respectively. The mortality rates for H. hampei caused by the ICA and the castor oil were 40.8 and 53.7%, with LC50 values of 6.71 and 3.49% (v v-1, respectively. In the castor oil, the methyl esters of the fatty acids were palmitic (1.10%, linoleic (4.50%, oleic (4.02%, stearic (0.50% and ricinoleic acids (88.04%. The extract of the castor bean cake was not toxic to H. hampei. The persistence of the castor oil in the environment was low, and the cause of mortality for H. hampei was most likely the blockage of the spiracles, which prevented the insects from breathing.

  4. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  5. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  6. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  7. Genome Sequence of the Mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis Strain BR58, a Biopesticide Product Effective against the Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetti, Janaina; Ricietto, Ana P. S.; da Silva, Carlos R. M.; Wolf, Ivan R.; Neves, Pedro M. O. J.; Meneguim, Ana M.; Vilas-Boas, Laurival A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important microbial control agent against insect pests. The draft genome sequence of the Brazilian strain BR58 described here contains the insecticidal genes cry4A, cry4B, cry10A, cry11A, cry60A, cry60B, and cyt1A, which show toxicity to both Aedes aegypti and Hypothenemus hampei larvae. PMID:26659669

  8. Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Neves Celestino; Dirceu Pratissoli; Lorena Contarini Machado; Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Junior; Vagner Tebaldi de Queiroz; Leonardo Mardgan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate botanical oils, mineral oils and an insecticide that contained azadirachtin (ICA) for the control of Hypothenemus hampei, in addition to the effects of residual castor oil. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn, soybean and castor, two mineral oils (assist® and naturol®), and the ICA for the control of H. hampei. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 3.0% (v v-1). The median lethal concentration (L...

  9. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  10. The role of semiochemical traps in the management of coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei/ O papel das armadilhas com semioquímicos no manejo da broca-do-café,Hypothenemus hampei

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    Lauro Morales

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Coffee berry borer (CBB is the most important pest in the coffee plantings. Losses are due to quality and quantity reductions. In most plantings, CBB is controlled using insecticides. Alternative management strategies are strongly demanded due to increasing production and demand for organic products. This paper revises the use of traps for CBB management. Color and trap designs, attractants and release rates are the factors directly related to trap efficiency. Methanol and ethanol mixture is used as attractant. Interactions among these factors in the CBB attraction are reported. Environment conditions under which the coffee plantings are conducted influence trap captures. These aspects may explain some differences in results for different studies. Conflicting results are also found in relation to traps efficiency when they are used as a unique control strategy in the field. Additional research may be encouraged to understand more deeply the interactions between the CBB and coffee plant. In the same way, we must study the interactions of the several intrinsic factors of the traps and the environment. The use of the trap, associated with other strategies to reduce pest population, is a recommended strategy for CBB management.A broca-do-café é a praga mais importante do cafeeiro. Provoca prejuízos em quantidade e qualidade da produção. Normalmente, é controlada por aplicações de inseticidas. Estratégias alternativas de manejo são necessárias principalmente pelo aumento da produção e demanda por produtos orgânicos. O uso de armadilhas para manejo da broca é revisado. A cor, o modelo da armadilha, os atraentes e as taxas de liberação são fatores diretamente relacionados com a eficiência das armadilhas. Metanol e etanol são os compostos utilizados como atraentes. Ocorrem interações entre estes fatores na atração da broca. As condições ambientais nas quais o cafeeiro é cultivado também devem influenciar as capturas

  11. Ants defend coffee from berry borer colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier, DJ; Ennis, KK; Philpott, SM; Vandermeer, J; Perfecto, I.

    2013-01-01

    Ants frequently prevent herbivores from damaging plants. In agroecosystems they may provide pest control services, although their contributions are not always appreciated. Here we compared the ability of eight ant species to prevent the coffee berry borer from colonizing coffee berries with a field exclusion experiment. We removed ants from one branch (exclusion) and left ants to forage on a second branch (control) before releasing 20 berry borers on each branch. After 24 h, six of eight spec...

  12. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  13. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  14. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  15. Bioecologia da broca-do-café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867 (Coleoptera: Scolytidae, no agroecossistema cafeeiro do cerrado de Minas Gerais Bioecology of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867 (Coleoptera: Scolytidae in a cerrado agrossistem of Cerrado in Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Ferreira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar aspectos da bioecologia da broca-do-café nas condições de cerrado do estado de Minas Gerais. Os levantamentos foram realizados em três propriedades cafeeiras nos municípios de Patrocínio e Carmo do Paranaíba, MG. Coletaram-se, mensalmente, no período de abril de 1999 a dezembro de 2000, amostras de frutos de café (três litros/amostra em um lote experimental de aproximadamente 0,3 ha em cada propriedade. Esses frutos foram levados ao laboratório, onde foram dissecados para determinação do índice de infestação e contagens quanto às diferentes fases do ciclo biológico da broca-do-café e de seus parasitóides. Durante o período da safra, os frutos foram coletados nas plantas e, na entressafra, foram coletados frutos residuais, após a colheita, nas plantas e no solo. Mesmo com as condições climáticas predominantemente secas no período de abril a outubro de 1999, a broca-do-café encontrou condições favoráveis à sua sobrevivência. Isso contribuiu para que se observassem no final da safra de 2000 (julho/2000 populações elevadas da praga que resultaram em infestações que variaram de 15,8 a 48,4% de frutos broqueados. Não foram encontrados parasitóides da broca-do-café nas amostras de frutos coletadas nas propriedades no período avaliado. De acordo com os índices populacionais registrados em todas as fases de seu ciclo biológico, nas áreas estudadas, foi verificado que a broca-do-café encontra ambiente favorável para sua multiplicação no cerrado, requerendo, portanto, medidas para o seu controle.This research focused to study the bioecology of the coffee berry borer and its parasitoids in an area of "Cerrado" in Minas Gerais State. Monitoring was carried out in three coffee fields in the counties of Patrocínio and Carmo do Paranaíba, MG. Samples of coffee fruits (three liters/sample were collected monthly, from April 1999 to December 2000 in an area of approximately 0

  16. Identification of proteases produced by entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. strain CG432 previously activated in coffee berry borer alive (Hypothenemus hampei)
    Identificação de proteases produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. Cepa CG432 previamente ativada em insetos vivos de broca do café ((Hypothenemus hampei))

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe Protásio Pereira; Diogo Maciel de Magalhães; Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos; Dalva Trevisan; Eliana Tiemi Ito; Jurandir Pereira Pinto; Vanessa Hitomi Sugahara; Geni Silva Varéa; Jakeliny Akemi Yamamoto Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Conídios de fungos entomopatogênicos atravessam o exoesqueleto do inseto pela ação mecânica do tubo germinativo e produção de múltiplas isoformas de proteases, quitinases e lipases em resposta à composição da cutícula do inseto. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi extrair, purificar e caracterizar a estrutura de proteases produzidas em cultivo submerso por Beauveria bassiana CG432 previamente ativada em adultos vivos de broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei). Uma suspensão contendo 106 con...

  17. Identification of proteases produced by entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill. strain CG432 previously activated in coffee berry borer alive (Hypothenemus hampeiIdentificação de proteases produzidas pelo fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill. Cepa CG432 previamente ativada em insetos vivos de broca do café ((Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Filipe Protásio Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conídios de fungos entomopatogênicos atravessam o exoesqueleto do inseto pela ação mecânica do tubo germinativo e produção de múltiplas isoformas de proteases, quitinases e lipases em resposta à composição da cutícula do inseto. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi extrair, purificar e caracterizar a estrutura de proteases produzidas em cultivo submerso por Beauveria bassiana CG432 previamente ativada em adultos vivos de broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei. Uma suspensão contendo 106 conídios ativados/mL foi inoculada em meio de cultura líquido a 28ºC, 150 rpm por 3 dias. O extrato de proteases (EP foi obtido da centrifugação a 8000 g por 20 minutos, fracionado e concentrado por ultrafiltração em membrana de porosidade controlada 100 kDa e 3 kDa, respectivamente. A cromatografia de gel filtração em Sephadex G-100 separou um pico proteico (Pico II que apresentou 56% de resíduos do aminoácido ácido aspártico quando analisado por HPLC em coluna de fase reversa ODS-C18; atividade específica 43 vezes superior ao EP sobre soro albumina bovina; atividade de protease tipo-subtilisina e uma única banda proteica revelada por nitrato de prata e Coomassie Brilhant Blue em zimograma sobre gelatina por eletroforese PAGE em condições nativas. A homogeneidade do Pico II foi confirmada pela revelação de uma única banda durante a determinação do pH isoelétrico igual a 4,5, porém a determinação da massa molecular separou 2 bandas de 23 e 26 kDa por eletroforese PAGE-2D. As proteases foram caracterizadas como serino proteases com resíduo cisteína importante para a atividade, pois foram inibidas por fluoreto fenil-metil-sufonil e ácido p-cloromercúriobenzóico. As proteases do Pico II apresentaram Km 4x10-4 sobre substrato tipo-subtilisina.

  18. Landscape context and scale differentially impact coffee leaf rust, coffee berry borer, and coffee root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Jacques; Romero-Gurdián, Alí; Cruz-Cuellar, Héctor F; Declerck, Fabrice A J

    2012-03-01

    Crop pest and disease incidences at plot scale vary as a result of landscape effects. Two main effects can be distinguished. First, landscape context provides habitats of variable quality for pests, pathogens, and beneficial and vector organisms. Second, the movements of these organisms are dependent on the connectivity status of the landscape. Most of the studies focus on indirect effects of landscape context on pest abundance through their predators and parasitoids, and only a few on direct effects on pests and pathogens. Here we studied three coffee pests and pathogens, with limited or no pressure from host-specific natural enemies, and with widely varying life histories, to test their relationships with landscape context: a fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, causal agent of coffee leaf rust; an insect, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Their incidence was assessed in 29 coffee plots from Turrialba, Costa Rica. In addition, we characterized the landscape context around these coffee plots in 12 nested circular sectors ranging from 50 to 1500 m in radius. We then performed correlation analysis between proportions of different land uses at different scales and coffee pest and disease incidences. We obtained significant positive correlations, peaking at the 150 m radius, between coffee berry borer abundance and proportion of coffee in the landscape. We also found significant positive correlations between coffee leaf rust incidence and proportion of pasture, peaking at the 200 m radius. Even after accounting for plot level predictors of coffee leaf rust and coffee berry borer through covariance analysis, the significance of landscape structure was maintained. We hypothesized that connected coffee plots favored coffee berry borer movements and improved its survival. We also hypothesized that wind turbulence, produced by low-wind-resistance land uses such as pasture, favored removal of coffee

  19. Exploiting the genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana for improving the biological control of the coffee berry borer through the use of strain mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Lina P; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Gongora, Carmenza E

    2006-08-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogen widely used to control the coffee berry borer in Colombia, as part of an Integrated Pest Management strategy. Traditionally, the development of fungal insect pathogens as biocontrol agents in crop pests has been oriented towards the selection and formulation of elite clonal strains. Instead, we explored the potential application of genetic diversity in B. bassiana by determining the effect of strain mixtures on coffee berry borer mortality compared to clonal isolates. Genomic DNA from 11 strains was characterized using internal transcribed spacers and beta-tubulin sequences as well as amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Cluster analysis produced three genetic groups and confirmed the low but significant intraspecific genetic diversity present among the strains. Single strain virulence towards the coffee berry borer under laboratory conditions, using 1x10(6) conidia ml(-1), ranged between 89.9 and 57.5%. All the inoculations with mixtures resulted in coinfection events. Combinations of genetically similar strains showed no significant differences when their virulences were compared. However, mixtures of genetically different strains led to both antagonism and synergism. The lowest virulence percentage (57%) was obtained by putting together the most virulent strain of each group, contrary to the highest virulence percentage (93%) that resulted from mixing the three least virulent strains. The results indicate the promising potential of designing strain mixtures as an alternative for the biocontrol of Hypothenemus hampei and other pests and provide tools for the understanding of the ecological dynamics of entomopathogen populations under natural conditions. PMID:16362818

  20. Crafting traps with attractant alcoholics an alternative for monitoring and control of borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari 1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agramont Richard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to incorporate an alternative, for monitoring and control of the borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Choleoptera: Curculionidae to be feasible for the use of the coffee producers, in the community Choro, Coripata municipality, second section of Nor Yungas province, La Paz Bolivia. It was evaluated the capture of adult borer coffee individuals using 45 traps into 1,5 hectares distributed at random with four repetitions. It was used three types of craft traps, built with disposable plastic bottles of soft drinks, with the traps Casera, Brocap and Yessica, were evaluated three treatments: mixture of alcohols methyl (M and ethylic (E in proportions 3:1; mix 1:1 of (M and (E; mix 1:1:1 of (M (E and coffee fresh cherry liquated (CFCL and water as a witness. The largest captures of adult individuals, were present in the crafting traps with mixture of (M(E 3:1 with overalls (± standard deviation adults/traps/ten days of 3414,5±3227,7 being superior to the other treatments. The crafting trap is one of the alternatives for the control and monitoring of the borer in the coffee plantations. The use of crafting traps with alcoholic attractants for the capture of adult individuals, is present as a low cost alternative, being feasible the successful use by the producers into the management integrated programs.

  1. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010, coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids, chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi, and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions.

  2. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Bustillo, Alex E; Arthurs, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers' conditions. PMID:26848690

  3. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  4. Species diversity, phenology, and temporal flight patterns of Hypothenemus pygmy borers (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothenemus are some of the most common and diverse bark beetles in natural as well as urban habitats, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Despite their ecological success and ubiquitous presence, very little is known about the habits of this genus. This study aimed to understand sp...

  5. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.

  6. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan R Morris; John Vandermeer; Ivette Perfecto

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the...

  7. Parasitismo na população da broca-do-café Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae, pelo parasitoide Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Abstract. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari attacks coffee plantations, greatly decreasing the production of coffee plants, causing quantitative and qualitative damage to the grains. Biological control of this pest has focused mostly on entomopathogenic fungi. In the state of Rondonia, studies on parasitism levels of the parasitoids of H. hampei are scarce. The parasitoid Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem is a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer and is already used as an agent of biological control in countries of Africa and Latin America. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and parasitism levels of the parasitoid in a coffee plantation in the municipality of Ouro Preto D’Oeste, State of Rondonia. Coffee beans collected directly from the plants and on the ground were analyzed weekly from January to December 2004. Parasitoid occurred in months of the highest pest infestation. During the studied period, parasitism rate in different microenvironments ranged from 2 to 24%.

  8. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  9. Effect of Pollen Feed on Parasitization and Predatism of Cephalonomia stephanoderis onHypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suci Rahayu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampeiusing parasitoid Cephalonomia stephanoderishas been developed through the improvement of the parasitoid role may using pollens as feed source. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cover crop and weed pollens on parasitization and predatism of C. stephanoderis.The applied treatments were pollens of Turnera ulmifolia, Arachis pintoi, Ageratum conyzoidesadded in glass tube that consist of 10 CBB pupaes and a mated female of C. stephanoderis. Number of pupae parasitized and pupae preyed were observed. The result showed that addition of A. Pintoi pollen increased the number of pupae parasitized at 135% whereas addition of T. ulmifolia and A. conyzoides pollens did not affect parasitization of C. Stephanoderis. The predatismof C. stephanoderiswas higher than parasitization to pupae of H. hampei which showed that the behavior of C. stephanoderiswas parasitization. Addition of T. ulmifolia, A. pintoi, and A. conyzoidespollens increased the number of pupae predatism at 132%, 102%, and 225%, respectively. Key words: Ageratum conyzoides, Arachis pintoi, Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Hypothenemus hampei,parasitization, predatism, pollens, Turnera ulmifolia

  10. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  11. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Morris

    Full Text Available Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82% than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  12. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems. PMID:26562676

  13. 7 CFR 319.73-2 - Products prohibited importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., seeds of all kinds when in pulp, including coffee berries or fruits, are prohibited importation into all... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-2 Products prohibited importation. (a) To prevent the spread of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari)...

  14. Antimicrobial properties of berries

    OpenAIRE

    Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta

    2007-01-01

    Berries, especially their antimicrobial properties, have been studied intensively at VTT over the past ten years in several research projects. In these in vitro studies phenolic berry extracts of common Nordic berries selectively inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria and human intestinal pathogens, without affecting the growth of beneficial lactic acid bacteria.

  15. Spatio-temporal modelling of coffee berry borer infestation patterns accounting for inflation of zeroes and missing values Modelagem espaço-temporal do padrão de infestação da broca do café levando em consideração excesso de zeros e dados faltantes

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    Ramiro Ruiz-Cárdenas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of pest distributions in space and time in agricultural systems provides important information for the optimization of integrated pest management programs and for the planning of experiments. Two statistical problems commonly associated to the space-time modelling of data that hinder its implementation are the excess of zero counts and the presence of missing values due to the adopted sampling scheme. These problems are considered in the present article. Data of coffee berry borer infestation collected under Colombian field conditions are used to study the spatio-temporal evolution of the pest infestation. The dispersion of the pest starting from initial focuses of infestation was modelled considering linear and quadratic infestation growth trends as well as different combinations of random effects representing both spatially and not spatially structured variability. The analysis was accomplished under a hierarchical Bayesian approach. The missing values were dealt with by means of multiple imputation. Additionally, a mixture model was proposed to take into account the excess of zeroes in the beginning of the infestation. In general, quadratic models had a better fit than linear models. The use of spatially structured parameters also allowed a clearer identification of the temporal increase or decrease of infestation patterns. However, neither of the space-time models based on standard distributions was able to properly describe the excess of zero counts in the beginning of the infestation. This overdispersed pattern was correctly modelled by the mixture space-time models, which had a better performance than their counterpart without a mixture component.O estudo da distribuição de pragas em espaço e tempo em sistemas agrícolas fornece informação importante para a otimização de programas de manejo integrado de pragas e para o planejamento de experimentos. Dois problemas estatísticos comumente associados à modelagem espa

  16. The Berry's connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A course on the Berry's connection is presented. The main steps leading to the Berry's discovery are reviewed and the obtained equations are examined. Some applications of Berry's formulation are presented. They include diatomic molecules, dipole-quadrupole interaction in spherical mucleus and diabolic pair transfer. The experimental results presented are the spectrum of the Na3 molecule, the propagation of photons in an helical optical fiber and the neutron spin rotation. Non-abelian problems and the Aharonow-Anandan phase are discussed

  17. Supersymmetric Berry index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilinskii, K N; Melezhik, V S; Ilinski, K N; Kalinin, G V; Melezhik, V V

    1994-01-01

    We revise the sequences of SUSY for a cyclic adiabatic evolution governed by the supersymmetric quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. The condition (supersymmetric adiabatic evolution) under which the supersymmetric reductions of Berry (nondegenerated case) or Wilczek-Zee (degenerated case) phases of superpartners are taking place is pointed out. The analogue of Witten index (supersymmetric Berry index) is determined. As the examples of suggested concept of supersymmetric adiabatic evolution the Holomorphic quantum mechanics on complex plane and Meromorphic quantum mechanics on Riemann surface are considered. The supersymmetric Berry indexes for the models are calculated.

  18. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide. It infests crops in most coffee producing countries, and is of particular concern in developing countries where coffee comprises a significant component of gross domestic product. Of more than 850 i...

  19. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  20. Bioactive constituents in aronia berries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate some of the potential health benefits of aronia berries with main focus on the phenolic substances. Extractions and fractionations of aronia berries were performed to obtain several crude extracts and subfractions. In addition, well known constituents of aronia berries (anthocyanins, procyanidins and phenolic acids) were isolated. The different samples obtained were then tested in various in vitro bioassays to determine their biological activities as ...

  1. Zitterbewegung and gravitational Berry phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, Giorgio, E-mail: papini@uregina.ca [Department of Physics and Prairie Particle Physics Institute, University of Regina, Regina, Sask S4S 0A2 (Canada); International Institute for Advanced Scientific Studies, 89019 Vietri sul Mare (Italy)

    2012-03-12

    Berry phases mix states of positive and negative energy in the propagation of fermions and bosons in external gravitational and electromagnetic fields and generate Zitterbewegung oscillations. The results are valid in any reference frame and to any order of approximation in the metric deviation. -- Highlights: ► Berry phases generate Zitterbewegung oscillations in the propagation of particles. ► The covariant approach applies to gravitational and electromagnetic fields. ► The curvature of space–time affects Hilbert space via Berry phases. ► Berry phases mix the positive and negative energy states of relativistic particles.

  2. Berry's Phase in Noncommutative Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. Alavi

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the perturbative aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics. Then we study Berry's phase within the framework of noncommutative quantum mechanics. The results show deviations from the usual quantum mechanics, which depend on the parameter of space/space noncommutativity.

  3. Roy Fuentes: Fuentes Berry Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As president of Fuentes Berry Farms, Rogelio (Roy) Fuentes is one of many independent growers producing organic berries for Driscoll’s—a company that was initiated more than a century ago by two strawberry farmers on California’s Central Coast, and has since evolved into an international concern devoted to research, breeding, production, sales and distribution of conventionally and organically farmed strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries. Driscoll’s CEO Miles Reiter and his ...

  4. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Zuzana Mašková; Soňa Felšöciová; Miroslava Císarová

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine) on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar). The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal ...

  5. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera

  6. Zitterbewegung and gravitational Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Papini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Berry phases mix states of positive and negative energy in the propagation of fermions and bosons in external gravitational and electromagnetic fields and generate Zitterbewegung oscillations. The results are valid in any reference frame and to any order of approximation in the metric deviation.

  7. Berry's phase in noncommutative spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Alavi, S A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the perturbative aspects of noncommutative quantum mechanics. Then we study the Berry's phase in the framework of noncommutative quantum mechanics. The results show deviations from the usual quantum mechanics which depend on the parameter of space/space noncommtativity.

  8. Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E.; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P.; Rubio, José D.; Herrera, Juan C; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H.; Egan, Ashley N.; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a...

  9. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Javier A. Ceja-Navarro; Fernando E. Vega; Karaoz, Ulas; Hao, Zhao; Jenkins, Stefan; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Kosina, Petr; Infante, Francisco; Northen, Trent R.; Eoin L. Brodie

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide with its infestations decreasing crop yield by up to 80%. Caffeine is an alkaloid that can be toxic to insects and is hypothesized to act as a defence mechanism to inhibit herbivory. Here we show that caffeine is degraded in the gut of H. hampei, and that experimental inactivation of the gut microbiota eliminates this activity. We demonstrate that gut microbiota in H. hampei specimens from sev...

  10. Evaluation of kinetic parameters of chitinases produced by Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. /
    Avaliação de parâmetros cinéticos de quitinases produzidas por Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Mita; Vanessa Hitomi Sugahara; Jo I Wu; Pedro Manoel Oliveira Janeiro Neves; Dalva Tomoe Miyagui; Geni Varéa-Pereira; Danieli Cristina Sassá; Evelyn Kamogawa

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is currently used as a biocontrol agent for agricultural pests. The infection process involves extracellular enzymes such as proteases and chitinases that degrade the cuticle of the insects. The objective of this work was to evaluate kinetic parameters of pH, temperature, ionic concentration and time of reaction on chitinases activity. The fungus B. bassiana CG432 was cultivated on coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) and the conidia grow...

  11. Capture of hypothenemus hampei ferrari (coleoptera, scolytidae in response to trap characteristics Captura da broca-do-café, hypothenemus hampei (coleoptera, scolytidae, em resposta a características de armadilhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cloclet da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Traps lured with semiochemical have been proposed to manage the coffee berry borer, coffee planting is however made under several environmental conditions that may affect the efficacy of traps. Several trap designs and variations were proposed and, therefore, a series of field experiments was carried out to capture coffee berry bores in traps disposed in a low density coffee plantations in the Northern part of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Traps were composed of plastic bottles (2 L with a window (13 × 18 cm. Ethanol (E, Methanol (M and coffee oil alone did not improve the capture when transparent traps with a 2 mm hole in the vial dispenser were used; traps lured with E : M mixtures (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 caught similar and higher number of insects than the control. There was synergism with the mixing of E and M; the addition of coffee oil to the mixtures did not improve the capture. Trap lured with E : M (1:1 mixtures at 342, 400, 428 and 710 mg caught similar numbers of insects. Transparent green trap, transparent trap and red trap lured with 642 mg day-1 of the E + M (1:1 mixture caught similar numbers of insects. Interaction between colors (transparent green, transparent and red and semiochemical release rates (540, 720 and 1100 mg day-1 was observed. Transparent green trap, when lured with 720 mg day-1 of the 1 : 1 E : M mixture caught 2.3 and 4.4 times more insects than 540 and 1100 mg day-1; and caught 3.2 times more insects than transparent and red trap at the same release rates.Armadilhas iscadas com semioquímicos têm sido propostas para manejo da broca-do-café. O cafeeiro é cultivado em condições ambientais diversas que podem afetar a eficiência das armadilhas. Vários modelos de armadilha e variações nos modelos são utilizados. Uma série de experimentos de campo objetivou avaliar capturas da broca-do-café em armadilhas numa lavoura de café semi-adensado no Norte do Paraná. Uma garrafa plástica (2 L com uma abertura (13 × 18

  12. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska's environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Hupp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild berries are a valued traditional food in Alaska. Phytochemicals in wild berries may contribute to the prevention of vascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline, making berry consumption important to community health in rural areas. Little was known regarding which species of berries were important to Alaskan communities, the number of species typically picked in communities and whether recent environmental change has affected berry abundance or quality. Objective: To identify species of wild berries that were consumed by people in different ecological regions of Alaska and to determine if perceived berry abundance was changing for some species or in some regions. Design: We asked tribal environmental managers throughout Alaska for their views on which among 12 types of wild berries were important to their communities and whether berry harvests over the past decade were different than in previous years. We received responses from 96 individuals in 73 communities. Results: Berries that were considered very important to communities differed among ecological regions of Alaska. Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and V. caespitosum, cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis were most frequently identified as very important berries for communities in the boreal, polar and maritime ecoregions, respectively. For 7 of the 12 berries on the survey, a majority of respondents indicated that in the past decade abundance had either declined or become more variable. Conclusions: Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how

  13. Lattice QCD simulation of the Berry curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2016-01-01

    The Berry curvature is a fundamental concept describing topological order of quantum systems. While it can be analytically tractable in non-interacting systems, numerical simulations are necessary in interacting systems. We present a formulation to calculate the Berry curvature in lattice QCD.

  14. Anatomy of Vitis Berries During Their Coloring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yi-zhen; HE Pu-chao

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-1999, the course of the berry coloring and the development of the pigment cells from veraison to ripeness were studied by freeze sectioning 43 accessions of 12 Vitis species (including 10 Chinese wild species). External observation showed that the berries of most species began coloring on the fruit top surface or on the sun-lit surface, and the berry surface color was evenly distributed when the berry was ripe.Internal observation revealed that the pigment cells in a few layers between cuticle and sub-cuticle colored first, the cuticle colored from inner layers to outer layers while the sub-cuticle from outer to inner, and the cuticle cells began coloring a little earlier than the sub-cuticle ones in most species. The pigment cells developed unevenly during the berry ripening. In the beginning of berry coloring, the cell pigment density among the layers or among the cells in the same layer was different. Both the numbers of the pigmented cells and the cell pigment density increased during the berry coloring, while the former lasted a short time; however, the latter kept increasing from veraison to ripeness, and they reached the deepest color when the berry was ripe.

  15. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.120 Canned berries. (a... section are prepared from stemmed fruit of the following optional varietal types of berry...

  16. Flight behavior of European corn borer infected with Nosema pyrausta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microsporidian Nosema pyrausta is a common and widespread pathogen of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), in North America and Europe. Nosema negatively affects European corn borer longevity and fecundity. In this study, we used flight mills to examine the effects of Nosema infec...

  17. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  18. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  19. Measuring Berry curvature with quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodrubetz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Berry curvature and its descendant, the Berry phase, play an important role in quantum mechanics. They can be used to understand the Aharonov-Bohm effect, define topological Chern numbers, and generally to investigate the geometric properties of a quantum ground state manifold. While Berry curvature has been well-studied in the regimes of few-body physics and non-interacting particles, its use in the regime of strong interactions is hindered by the lack of numerical methods to solve it. In this paper we fill this gap by implementing a quantum Monte Carlo method to solve for the Berry curvature, based on interpreting Berry curvature as a leading correction to imaginary time ramps. We demonstrate our algorithm using the transverse-field Ising model in one and two dimensions, the latter of which is non-integrable. Despite the fact that the Berry curvature gives information about the phase of the wave function, we show that our algorithm has no sign or phase problem for standard sign-problem-free Hamiltonians...

  20. CrackBerry The Tales of BlackBerry Use and Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Michaluk, Kevin J; Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A delayed train, a dip in the conversation, an early morning hour with no sleep - during these moments, do you feel an overwhelming urge to grab your BlackBerry? Do you know someone else who does? If the answer is yes, then look no further than this one-of-a-kind book...CrackBerry: True Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse covers the phenomenon of "BlackBerry Addiction," offering true-life accounts of BlackBerry dependence and mishaps. You'll find comfort and humor in the unbelievable tales of BlackBerry abuse and also learn some valuable tips along the way. * The definitive guide to respons

  1. BlackBerry All-in-One for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sarigumba, Dante; Petz, William

    2010-01-01

    Go beyond BlackBerry basics and get everything your BlackBerry can deliver. BlackBerry is the leading smartphone for business users, and its popularity continues to explode. When you discover the amazing array of BlackBerry possibilities in this fun and friendly guide, you'll be even happier with your choice of smartphones. BlackBerry All-in-One For Dummies explores every feature and application common to all BlackBerry devices. It explains the topics in depth, with tips, tricks, workarounds, and includes detailed information about cool new third-party applications, accessories, and downloads

  2. Distribution and growth of wood-borers in Bombay offshore waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Wagh, A.B

    The borer population comprised of 7 species of teredinid borers. Species composition varied with depth; Bankia carinata and B. campanellata were abundant at 2 m, B. carinata and Lyrodus pedicellatus at 22 m, L. pedicellatus at 42 m and L...

  3. Berry fruits for cancer prevention: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that edible small and soft-fleshed berry fruits may have beneficial effects against several types of human cancers. The anticancer potential of berries has been related, at least in part, to a multitude of bioactive phytochemicals that these colorful fruits contain, including polyphenols (flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins, gallotannins, phenolic acids), stilbenoids, lignans, and triterpenoids. Studies show that the anticancer effects of berry bioactives are partially mediated through their abilities to counteract, reduce, and also repair damage resulting from oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, berry bioactives also regulate carcinogen and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various transcription and growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and subcellular signaling pathways of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis. Berry phytochemicals may also potentially sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting pathways that lead to treatment resistance, and berry fruit consumption may provide protection from therapy-associated toxicities. Although a wide variety of berry fruits are consumed worldwide, this paper focuses on those commonly consumed in North America, namely, blackberries, black raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, red raspberries, and strawberries. In addition, a large body of studies on singly purified berry bioactives is available, but this paper focuses on studies of "whole berries" per se, that is, as berry extracts and purified fractions, juices, and freeze-dried powders. Potential mechanisms of anticancer action and bioavailability of berry phenolics, as well as gaps in knowledge and recommendations for future berry research, are also briefly discussed. PMID:18211019

  4. 75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined...: We are amending the emerald ash borer regulations by adding portions of Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota... rule is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the emerald ash borer to noninfested areas of...

  5. Ekologi Penggerek Buah Kopi (Hypothenemus Hampei) Pada Tanaman Kopi Arabika (Coffea Arabica)Di Kabupaten Pakpak Bharat

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Normauli

    2011-01-01

    Ecology Research Coffee Pod Borer (Hypotenemus hampei) at Arabica Coffee Plants (Coffea arabica) in District Pakpak Bharat had been conducted in March 2010 - April 2010. Research in the form of this survey sampled at 5 height is: A ≤ 700, 700 1000 meters above sea level. This study aims to (a) know H.hampei distribution pattern, (b) measuring the intensity of attacks H.hampei, (c) the composition of stadia development in H.hampei connect with...

  6. Photon Drag Effect due to Berry Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kei; Ohno, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    A theoretical investigation reveals that the photon drag effect (PDE) is induced in a grating slab with deformation by the Berry curvature in phase space. It drifts the momentum of light, and gives asymmetric PDE signals in momentum space. Large PDE signals are observed even near the Γ point. This characteristic agrees well with our theoretical results.

  7. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  8. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  9. BlackBerry's Long March Into China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAYET SELLAMI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Some time in the coming weeks, Research In Motion Ltd (RIM) will launch its wireless BlackBerry e-mail service on the Chinese mainland in a partnership with China Mobile Ltd, which has two-thirds of the Chinese market and is the world's biggest mobile carrier by number of subscribers. The exact date of the launch has yet to be set.

  10. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  11. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during this study. The product presented qood quality criteria and it was highly appreciated by consumers who tasted it. This study presents a valuable method to preserve fresh widberries in honey over a long period of time. The economical value of this experiment resides in making these fruits available outside the harvesting season.

  12. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  13. Control of the peachtree borer using beneficial nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of peaches and other stone fruits. Our research indicates that entomopathogenic nematodes, also known as beneficial nematodes, can be used effectively to control the insect. We conducted replicated experiments in randomized block designs ov...

  14. Curative control of the peachtree borer using entomopathogenic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of stone fruit trees in North America. Current management relies upon preventative control using broad spectrum chemical insecticides, primarily chlorpyrifos, applied in the late summer or early fall. However, due to missed applications, p...

  15. Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Subash; Musthafa Mohamed Essa; Samir Al-Adawi; Mushtaq A.Memon; hTamilarasan Manivasagam; Mohammed Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegen-erative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kae-mpferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneifcial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents.

  16. Berry ripening: recently heard through the grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nathalie; Guan, Le; Dai, Zhan Wu; Wu, Ben-Hong; Lauvergeat, Virginie; Gomès, Eric; Li, Shao-Hua; Godoy, Francisca; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Delrot, Serge

    2014-08-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a non-climacteric fruit species used as table fruit, dried raisins, and for vinification (wines) and distillation (liquors). In recent years, our knowledge of the molecular basis of ripening regulation has improved. Water status, light conditions, and temperature may hasten, delay, or enhance ripening. Hormones seem to play a central role, as their concentrations change prior to and during ripening and in response to several environmental cues. The review summarizes recent data related to the molecular and hormonal control of grape berry development and ripening, with special emphasis on secondary metabolism and its response to the environment, and pinpoints some experimental limitations. PMID:24285825

  17. Gradient Nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Lee, Jongwon; Nookala, Nishant; Belkin, Mikhail A; Alù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach to plasmonic metasurfaces loaded by highly nonlinear multi-quantum well substrates, establishing a platform to control the nonlinear wavefront at will based on giant localized nonlinear effects. We apply this approach to design flat nonlinear metasurfaces for efficient second-harmonic radiation, including beam steering, focusing, and polarization manipulation. Our findings open a new direction for nonlinear optics, in which phase matching issues are relaxed, and an unprecedented level of local wavefront control is achieved over thin devices with giant nonlinear responses.

  18. Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.

  19. 75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... emerald ash borer in the United States. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... Canada to prevent the introduction and ] spread of emerald ash borer in the United States, contact...

  20. Berry Phase Physics in Free and Interacting Fermionic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Berry phase plays an important role in many non-trivial phenomena over a broad range of many-body systems. In this thesis we focus on the Berry phase due to the change of the particles' momenta, and study its effects in free and interacting fermionic systems. We start with reviewing the semi-classical kinetic theory with Berry phase for a non-interacting ensemble of fermions -- a Berry Fermi gas -- which might be far-from-equilibrium. We particularly review the famous Berry phase contribution to the anomalous Hall current. We then provide a concrete and general path integral derivation for the semi-classical theory. Then we turn to the specific example of Weyl fermion, which exhibits the profound quantum phenomenon of chiral anomaly; we review how this quantum effect, and its closely related chiral magnetic effect and chiral vortical effect, arise from Berry phase in the semi-classical kinetic theory. We also discuss how Lorentz symmetry in the kinetic theory of Weyl fermion, seemly violated by the Berry phas...

  1. Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers

    Science.gov (United States)

    European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of diverse inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Ce...

  2. Berry Phase in an Entangled Spin Cluster with Five Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiao-Bo

    2007-01-01

    @@ The geometric phase, in particular the Berry phase, in an entangled state of five spin-1/2 particles is studied.A time-dependent magnetic field is applied to control the time evolution of the cluster. Using the method of algebraic dynamics, we calculate the non-adiabatic geometric phase or Berry phase and the degeneracy energy levels when the magnetic rotates around Z axis. Based on the exact analytical solutions, we show how the Berry phase of the entangled state of this cluster depends on the external magnetic field parameters ω (the angular velocity of the rotating magnetic field) and θ (the angle between the magnetic field and Z axis).

  3. White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don

    2015-02-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern United States that is also planted ornamentally. Four of 20 mature ornamental white fringetrees examined in the Dayton, Ohio area showed external symptoms of emerald ash borer attack, including the presence of adult exit holes, canopy dieback, and bark splitting and other deformities. Removal of bark from one of these trees yielded evidence of at least three generations of usage by emerald ash borer larvae, several actively feeding live larvae, and a dead adult confirmed as emerald ash borer. PMID:26470141

  4. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  5. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-04-13

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  6. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  7. Bioactive compounds in berries relevant to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battino, M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Denoyes-Rothan, B.; Laimer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Berries contain powerful antioxidants, potential allergens, and other bioactive compounds. Genetic and environmental factors affect production and storage of such compounds. For this reason breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to control or to increase the content of specific

  8. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Rawani, Anjali; Chowdhury, Nandita; Ghosh, Anupam; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals are widely used as biocontrol agent against vector mosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of various extracts of berries of S. nigrum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts of fresh, mature, green berries of S. nigrum were tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration was determined and the chemical nature of the active substance was evaluated. A qualitative phyt...

  9. Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra, topological parameter and Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengcheng; Xue, Kang; Gou, Lidan; Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Hu, Taotao

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a 3 × 3-matrix representation of Birman-Wenzl-Murakami (BWM) algebra has been presented. Based on which, unitary matrices A( θ, φ 1, φ 2) and B( θ, φ 1, φ 2) are generated via Yang-Baxterization approach. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary B( θ, φ) matrix. Then we study Berry phase of the Yang-Baxter system, and obtain the relationship between topological parameter and Berry phase.

  10. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  11. Berry composition and climate: responses and empirical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    Climate is a strong modulator of berry composition. Accordingly, the projected change in climate is expected to impact on the composition of berries and of the resultant wines. However, the direction and extent of climate change impact on fruit composition of winegrape cultivars are not fully known. This study utilised a climate gradient along a 700 km transect, covering all wine regions of Western Australia, to explore and empirically describe influences of climate on anthocyanins, pH and titratable acidity (TA) levels in two or three cultivars of Vitis vinifera (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Shiraz). The results showed that, at a common maturity of 22° Brix total soluble solids, berries from the warmer regions had low levels of anthocyanins and TA as well as high pH compared to berries from the cooler regions. Most of these regional variations in berry composition reflected the prevailing climatic conditions of the regions. Thus, depending on cultivar, 82-87 % of TA, 83 % of anthocyanins and about half of the pH variations across the gradient were explained by climate-variable-based empirical models. Some of the variables that were relevant in describing the variations in berry attributes included: diurnal ranges and ripening period temperature (TA), vapour pressure deficit in October and growing degree days (pH), and ripening period temperatures (anthocyanins). Further, the rates of change in these berry attributes in response to climate variables were cultivar dependent. Based on the observed patterns along the climate gradient, it is concluded that: (1) in a warming climate, all other things being equal, berry anthocyanins and TA levels will decline whereas pH levels will rise; and (2) despite variations in non-climatic factors (e.g. soil type and management) along the sampling transect, variations in TA and anthocyanins were satisfactorily described using climate-variable-based empirical models, indicating the overriding impact of climate on berry

  12. The insecticide resistance in stripped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The stripped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker) is one of the major insect pests of rice in China. Chemical control has been a common practice in SSB management since 1950s. Insecticides used included BHC before 1983;organophosphorus insecticides (methyl-parathion, trichophon, methamidophos, and monocrotophos), and chlordimeform in mid-1970s-1980s; Shachongshuang (dimehypo) and Shachongdan (monousltap) since early 1980s. In recent years, SSB population and its damage to rice increased rapidly and failures on control has been reported. To find out the cause of failure and to put forward the suitable control methods, we studied the resistance of SSB to major insecticides used in China.

  13. Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P; Rubio, José D; Herrera, Juan C; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H; Egan, Ashley N; Doyle, Jeffrey J; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2012-03-13

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or "false berry borer"), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices. PMID:22371593

  14. Experimental Measurement of the Berry Curvature from Anomalous Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, Martin; Carusotto, Iacopo; Peschel, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Geometrical properties of energy bands underlie fascinating phenomena in a wide-range of systems, including solid-state materials, ultracold gases and photonics. Most famously, local geometrical characteristics like the Berry curvature can be related to global topological invariants such as those classifying quantum Hall states or topological insulators. Regardless of the band topology, however, any non-zero Berry curvature can have important consequences, such as in the semi-classical evolution of a wave packet. Here, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time that wave packet dynamics can be used to directly map out the Berry curvature. To this end, we use optical pulses in two coupled fibre loops to study the discrete time-evolution of a wave packet in a 1D geometrical "charge" pump, where the Berry curvature leads to an anomalous displacement of the wave packet under pumping. This is both the first direct observation of Berry curvature effects in an optical system, and, more generally, the proof-of-...

  15. Damage and economical threshold of yellow stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas) on rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHuadi; ZHANGZuosheng

    1997-01-01

    Systematic measurements to damage and yield loss due to yellow stem borer (YSB) were made in the single crop and double crop areas of Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Huzhou cities,northern Zhejiang Province in 1987-1994.

  16. Association of charecters on yield and shoot and fruit borer resistance in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Praneetha*, V. Rajashree and L.Pugalendhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty one brinjal genotypes (nine parents and 72 hybrids were evaluated for 14 characters. Results showed that marketableyield per plant had significant positive association for both at genotypic and phenotypic level with all the characters studied viz.,plant height, number of branches per plant, fruit girth, calyx length, number of fruits per plant, single fruit weight, protein contentand total phenol content. The earliness showed positive association with fruit borer infestation both at genotypic and phenotypiclevel. The marketable yield per plant had significant negative association both at genotypic and phenotypic level with shoot andfruit borer infestation. Neither positive nor negative significant correlation was registered by shoot borer infestation with othercharacters. The shoot borer infestation showed negative relation with ascorbic acid content, protein content of fruit and totalphenol content at vegetable maturity.

  17. BlackBerry PlayBook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Corey

    2011-01-01

    Use your BlackBerry PlayBook for work and for play—this book shows you how For all you business road warriors who don't go anywhere without your BlackBerrys, the road just got a little more comfortable. The BlackBerry PlayBook is a tablet is your go-to-gadget for working on the go. Learn how to take full advantage of this powerful newcomer to the tablet market with this full-color For Dummies guide. You'll discover how to use your PlayBook to connect to corporate systems, manage your finances, keep track of your travel and other schedules—even how to use the PlayBook as an e-reade

  18. Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-02-01

    The importance of food consumption in relation to human health has increased consumer attention in nutraceutical components and foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Berries are a rich source of a wide variety of non-nutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive compounds from berries have potent antioxidant, anticancer, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health. PMID:24012283

  19. Berry phases for interacting spins in composite environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Da-Bao; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Due to the potential application in quantum information process, geometric phase of interacting system arouse many interests. Some physicists concentrate on the system in pure classical envi- ronment, while others study the system in pure quantized environment. So a natural question is asked: how about an interacting system in composite environments made up of both classical and quantized field. In this letter, we analyze a quantum system composed of two interacting spins, of which one is in classical magnetic field and the other is in quantized field. First, classical magnetic field driven Berry phases for the whole system and subsystem are studied. The effect of couplings between particles and photon on these phases are analyzed. In comparison with the dynamical quantized field, We find that even a static quantized field in its vacuum state can also have an effect on Berry phase. Second, quantized field driven Berry phases for the whole system and sub- system are formulated, including both one and two mode ...

  20. Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    OpenAIRE

    Justin G A Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A.; Pierluigi Bonello

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in ...

  1. Relationship between time to flowering and stalk and ear damage by second generation corn borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A

    2013-06-01

    In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack.

  2. Effect of Noise on Berry's Phase for Quantum Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景辉; 葛墨林

    2003-01-01

    Based on a new type of two-level-system reservoir, we investigate the impact of dissipation on Berry's phase of a spin trapped in a periodical external field. It is found that the existence of environmental noise could lead to a decaying term in the matrix of Berry's phase as the sign of a decoherence process, which is in agreement with the result of Nazir et al. (Phys. Rev. A 65 (2002) 042303). Particularly, in comparison with a specialized case of the traditional Leggett dissipation model, we only shows the dependence of time but not temperature in decaying term. A concrete case is exhibited by using the one-dimensional Ohmic function.

  3. Berry syndrome in association with familial limb malformation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    We describe a newborn boy diagnosed with Berry syndrome consisting of a distal aortopulmonary septal defect, aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery, and interruption of the aorta. The child was noted to have reduplication of the right thumb. The child\\'s mother had a claw malformation of her left hand but a normal cardiovascular status. Genetic analysis for TBX5 and SALL4 mutations were negative in both the patient and his mother. This case describes the first ever report of Berry syndrome in an infant with reduplication of the right thumb and familial limb malformation.

  4. Supersymmetric manipulation of quasienergy states. Application to the Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Samsonov, B F; Nieto, L M

    2003-01-01

    Time-dependent supersymmetry allows one to delete quasienergy levels for time-periodic Hamiltonians and to create new ones. We illustrate this by examining an exactly solvable model related to the simple harmonic oscillator with a time-varying frequency. For an interesting nonharmonic example we present the change of the Berry phase due to a supersymmetry transformation.

  5. Field Temperature and Anthocyanins in Merlot Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    On field-grown vines, temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled from pre-veraison until harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation exposure were applied, and resulting ...

  6. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  7. Jos Berry and Her New Avant-garde Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As the lingerie’s top trend spotter,Ms Jos Berry directs an international team of designers based in Paris-Concepts Paris-and provides the latest trends for worldwide lingerie professionals. This Paris consultancy company is devoted to a unique mix of services,such as trend book,online trend & news updates,color cards and design projects.

  8. Better-bred berries for the retail market

    Science.gov (United States)

    While there are many exciting new choices for berry cultivars for the Northwest commercial industry, very few of them are available in the retail nursery market. It’s an odd thing where the top-selling cultivars in the region haven’t seen the light of day in the retail nursery market. For many other...

  9. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-01

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of fungi and wood-borers in the coastal tropical waters of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vishwakiran, Y.; Thakur, N.L.; Raghukumar, S.; Yennawar, P.L.; Anil, A.C.

    fungi (20 Ascomycota, 1 Basidiomycota, 12 Mitosporic fungi) and 8 wood-borers (7 Teredinids and 1 Pholad) were recorded. A wide gamut of distribution patterns of fungi and wood-borers was found. A high frequency of occurrence (greater than 20%) and a...

  11. Monitoring the establishment and abundance of introduced parasitoids of emerald ash borer larvae in Maryland, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical biological control can be an important tool for managing invasive species such as emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Emerald ash borer is now widespread throughout the United States, and was first detected in Maryland in 2003. The biological control program to manage emera...

  12. Observations on the ecology and epidemiology of Xyleborus destruens Bldf., the near-primary borer in teak plantations in Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, L.G.E.

    1961-01-01

    While looking for a suitable plot for girth-increment investigations in a thriving 8-year old teak plantation near Batang, Central Java, in June 1918, officers of the Forest Research Institute discovered an unknown, rather conspicuous borer infestation of the trunks. The borer, recognized to be a Xy

  13. Susceptibility of Cry1Ab-resistant and -susceptible Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: crambidae) to Four Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a primary corn stalk borer pest targeted by transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in many areas of the mid-southern region of the United States. Recently, genes encoding for Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 Bt proteins were transferred in...

  14. Ecological and physiological aspects of aestivation-diapause in the larvae of twe pyralid stalk borers of maize in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are des

  15. Social licence for the utilization of wild berries in the context of local traditional rights and the interests of the berry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Peltola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Everyman’s right, as applied in Finland and other Nordic countries, allows the picking of natural products (wild berries, mushrooms, etc. regardless of land ownership. Harvesting and selling natural products has been an important source of income in rural areas of northern Finland. As household berry picking has more or less replaced small-scale commercial berry picking, foreign seasonal pickers are now supplying raw material for the berry industry. This has aroused vivid discussions about the limits of everyman’s right and inhabitants’ rights to local natural resources. Critics claim that commercially organized berry picking makes it difficult for inhabitants to fully use natural resources. In this article, we present the results of a survey aimed at nature-oriented, mainly northern residents of Finland and a telephone and e-mail service to which residents of northern Finland sent feedback regarding foreign berry pickers. The results of the survey and the feedback show that, in general, organized berry picking by foreign labourers is accepted if some basic guidelines or rules are respected. These guidelines may stem from local customary laws or traditions which have regulated berry picking. Another factor which would improve local acceptance and promote social licence for organized berry picking by foreign and non–local labourers is the distribution of benefits. At present, the advantages of organized berry picking are seen as benefiting stakeholders outside the local community, whereas local communities have to bear the costs: for example, increased berry picking activity in areas which they have utilized for a prolonged time, sometimes through generations.

  16. Biology and damage traits of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA WEI; YUN WU; RICHARD REARDON; TIE-HUAN SUN; MIN LU; JIANG-HUA SUN

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire)(Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a major stem borer of ash (Fraxinus spp.). It is univoltine in Tianjin, while it is semivoltine in Heilongjiang Province, and both univoltine and semivoltine in Changchun, Jilin Province,where the majority is univoltine. The longevity of emerald ash borer adults is 17.2 ± 4.6 days (n = 45), eggs 9.0 ± 1.1 days (n = 103), univoltine larvae 308 days, semivoltine larvae 673 days, and pupae 61.2± 1.6 days (n = 45). It takes about 100 days from the time larvae bore into the phloem to when they complete the pupal cell. In a 10-year-old velvet ash (Fraxinus velutina Torr.) plantation in Tianjin, emerald ash borer preferred to oviposit on the regions of boles from 50-150 cm above ground, accounting for 76.7% of the total girdling.Girdling on the south side of the tree boles accounted for 43.40% of the total girdling. The emerald ash borer population density is higher at the edge of the plantation compared with the center.

  17. Preliminary Study on Resistance of the Rice Stem Borer (Chilo Suppressalis) to Fipronil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wei-hua; HAN Zhao-jun; HAO Ming-li

    2005-01-01

    By means of topical application, fipronil resistance was surveyed in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, from 12 diferent areas in east China from 2001 to 2004. The rice stem borers in most regions of Jiangsu and Anhui were still susceptible to fipronil. But in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province and Cixi, Zhejiang Province, their sensitivity became decreased (resistance ratios were 3.1 and 3.6,respectively), and the medium level of resistance (resistance ratio was 21.2) was found in Cangnan, Zhejiang Province. So, it was still at the early stage for fipronil resistance development in this pest. Synergism experiments showed that piperonyl butoxide(PBO) had a little effect on both susceptible and resistant borers (synergism ratios were 1.1-1.2). Tho ugh triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl meleate (DEM) had no effect on the susceptible borers, they had significant synergism on fipronil in the resistant population to fipronil (synergism ratios were 1,8 and 1.6, respectively), indicating esterase and glutathion S-transferase may be involved in the resistance mechanism. Bioassay with currently used insecticides indicated that triazophos (because of high resistance), trichlorphon and acephate had very low toxicity to resistant borers. But diazinon, pyridaphenthion, decamethrin and avermeotin showed high toxicity and had no cross resistance to fipronil, which could be considered as substitute insecticides in the resistance managment.

  18. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer.

  19. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  20. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva N. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire spectrum of yeast. The grown colonies after preliminary microscoping were separated into the cultures and subjected to testing according to the culturalmorphological signs, being guided by determinants and benefits. It was established the specific variety of microflora on the surface of the berries of grapes of all investigated types, without dependence on the place of their growth. Obtained data showed that the group of yeast, which constantly is present in the complex of the epiphytic microorganisms of grapes of Saccharomyces, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora was characteristic for all types of grapes in all investigated regions. The heterogeneity of the taxonometric composition of microflora is shown. Prevailed yeasts were of family Saccharomycetaceae, form Saccharomyces vini. A quantity of yeast of Saccharomyces vini decreases in a number of Myskhako-Caucasus-Fanagoriya, that as a whole will be coordinated with the climatic conditions. Only the type of Pinot nuar grapes had yeasts of Brettanomyces Dekkera. On the berries of Cabernets and Karaburnu we have discovered yeasts of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus, causing acid-reduction. On the berries of the grapes, which grew in joint stock company APF “Fanagoriya” we haven’t revealed the presence of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts of the form of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus. In the same farm the smallest quantity of yeastswreckers is noted, which we the forms of Pichia and

  1. Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of berry phenolics--a Finnish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2007-06-01

    In Finland, berries are part of the traditional diet significantly contributing to the intake of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. Compositional data on phenolic compounds in berries has been rapidly accumulating and included in the national food composition database. Among the different bioactive substances in berries, phenolic compounds including flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids have received considerable interest due to their effects in food and health. A great amount of in vitro evidence exists showing that berry phenolics are powerful antioxidants. However, the antioxidant effect of berry phenolics is strongly dependent on the choice of berry raw material, as the antioxidant activity differs between the different phenolic constituents, including anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins. In foods, the antioxidant effect is also influenced by the structure of food. Tannin-containing berries exhibit antimicrobial properties against pathogenic bacteria, thus offering many new applications for food industry. Much of the interest in berry phenolics has focused on cranberries and both cultivated and wild blueberries, although also other berries including black currants, cloudberries, lingonberries, and red raspberries possess promising bioactivities that may have relevance to human health. Antioxidant activity of berry phenolics, in addition to other mechanisms, may contribute to human health, but the possible relationship remains yet to be scientifically substantiated. PMID:17492800

  2. Kairomones for trapping shot hole borer infesting tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) is an important perennial pest of tea in the mid and low elevation areas of southern India. It is a tiny beetle that belongs to the family Scolitidae, measures 2 to 2.5 mm long with a strong sclerotized body and well developed wings and mouthparts. Adults and grubs of E. fornicates feed on the fungus fusarium bugnicourtii (Bryford) that grows inside the stem galleries. The construction of galleries in the tea stem results in the breakage of the stem and consequent crop loss. Currently, medium type of pruning, selective surgery, post prune insecticide application, manuring with high levels of K2O in the pruned year, assessment of infestation in the second year of pruning cycle and mid cycle insecticide application are recommended for the management of this pest. Considerable reduction in borer damage is noticed in tea gardens where these measures are strictly implemented. It is well known that chemical control measures alone cannot offer satisfactory solutions to any pest problem. The pest has to be tackled in an integrated way by adopting biological, cultural and chemical control measures. Recently, cut stems of a jungle plant, Montanoa bipinnatifida C. Koch. (Compositae) attracted large numbers of SHB beetles in the tea fields. Studies were initiated on the chemicals emanating from cut stems of M. bipinnatifida attracting SHB. Chemicals released by cut stems of different age were captured in the Porapak Q medium by aeration technique. The medium was washed with dichloromethane (DCM), concentrated and injected into GC-MS. Peak area and retention times of identified compounds were compared with the standards. In all the runs, compounds belonging to monoterpene, sesquiterpene and cyclodiene groups were found. Synthetic compounds and total bark extracts were tested in a wind tunnel at different ratios to find out the intensity of attraction. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies were also conducted to

  3. Measurement of topological Berry phase in highly disordered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaceur, K.; Guillemette, J.; Lévesque, P. L.; Cottenye, N.; Mahvash, F.; Hemsworth, N.; Kumar, Abhishek; Murata, Y.; Heun, S.; Goerbig, M. O.; Proust, C.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Gervais, G.; Szkopek, T.

    2015-09-01

    We have observed the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in highly disordered graphene at magnetic fields up to 65 T. Disorder was introduced by hydrogenation of graphene up to a ratio H/C ≈0.1 %. The analysis of SdH oscillations and QHE indicates that the topological part of the Berry phase, proportional to the pseudospin winding number, is robust against introduction of disorder by hydrogenation in large-scale graphene.

  4. Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.Sampath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your high sugar levels.It has anti cancer and anti viral properties. Jamun juice has carminative and mild astringent properties. The extracts of the bark, seeds and leaves are used for the treatment of diabetes. The leaves have antibacterial properties and used for strenghthening teeths and gums.Oral administration of dried alcohalic extracts of the seeds to diabetic patients was found to reduce the level of blood sugar and glycosuria in trials conducted at CDRI, Lucknow.The bark of black berry tree is astringent, digestive, diuretic, anthelmintic and is considered useful for throat problems.A decoction of the bark and powdered seeds is believed to be very useful in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and dyspepsia.The antibiotic activity of black berry extract has been widely studied and found useful against a number of microbial agents. The fruit is also considered to be stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic.Vinegar made from black berry fruit is administered in cases of enlargement of spleen, chronic diarrhoea and urine retention for ringworm treatment, water diluted juice is used as lotion.

  5. Berry Phases, Quantum Phase Transitions and Chern Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, H. A.; Reyes-Lega, A. F.

    2007-01-01

    We study the relation between Chern numbers and Quantum Phase Transitions (QPT) in the XY spin-chain model. By coupling the spin chain to a single spin, it is possible to study topological invariants associated to the coupling Hamiltonian. These invariants contain global information, in addition to the usual one (obtained by integrating the Berry connection around a closed loop). We compute these invariants (Chern numbers) and discuss their relation to QPT. In particular we show that Chern nu...

  6. An analogue of the Berry phase for simple harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    We evaluate a variant of Berry's phase for a ‘missing’ family of the square integrable wavefunctions for the linear harmonic oscillator, which cannot be derived by the separation of variables (in a natural way). Instead, it is obtained by the action of the maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard solutions. A simple closed formula for the phase (in terms of elementary functions) is found here by integration with the help of a computer algebra system.

  7. Proposal for a Mesoscopic Optical Berry-Phase Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelykh, I. A.; Pavlovic, G.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel spin-optronic device based on the interference of polaritonic waves traveling in opposite directions and gaining topological Berry phase. It is governed by the ratio of the TE-TM and Zeeman splittings, which can be used to control the output intensity. Because of the peculiar orientation of the TE-TM effective magnetic field for polaritons, there is no analogue of the Aharonov-Casher phase shift existing for electrons.

  8. Proposal for a Mesoscopic Optical Berry-Phase Interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Shelykh, I. A.; Pavlovic, G.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel spin-optronic device based on the interference of polaritonic waves traveling in opposite directions and gaining topological Berry phase. It is governed by the ratio of the TE-TM and Zeeman splittings, which can be used to control the output intensity. Because of the peculiar orientation of the TE-TM effective magnetic field for polaritons, there is no analogue of the Aharonov- Casher phase shift existing for electrons.

  9. Jos Berry and Her New Avant-garde Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Peng

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the Iinge rie's top t rend spotte r,Ms JOS Berry directs an irite rnational team of designers based in Paris-Concepts Paris-and provides the latest trends for worldwide lingerie professionals.This Paris consultancy company iS devoted to a unique mix of services,such as trend book,online trend&news updates,color cards and design projects.

  10. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Haavik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus. On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface, yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2. In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus, exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.

  11. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  12. Lipoxygenase distribution in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patui, Sonia; Peresson, Carlo; Braidot, Enrico; Tubaro, Franco; Colussi, Alessio; Bonnländer, Bernd; Macrì, Francesco; Vianello, Angelo

    2007-10-01

    In this paper lipoxygenase (LOX) presence was investigated in coffee berries to determine its involvement in lipid degradative metabolism of plants grown in organic and conventional cultivations. An immunochemical analysis has evidenced a ca. 80 kDa protein, cross-reacting with an anti-LOX antibody, only in the pulp fraction of berries obtained from plants of both cultivations. LOX activity in this fraction could be monitored either as conjugated diene formation or reaction products (determined by HPLC) and was mainly associated with a heavy membrane fraction (HMF, enriched in tonoplast, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, and mitochondria) and a light membrane fraction (LMF, enriched in plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum, with low levels of tonoplast and mitochondria). The LOX activity of LMF from berries of both cultivations showed an optimum at pH 8.0. The HMF exhibited a different activity peak in samples from conventional (pH 8.0) and organic (pH 5.5) cultures, suggesting the presence of different isoenzymes. These findings were also confirmed by variation of the ratio of 9- and 13-hydroperoxides in organic (1:1) and conventional cultivations (1:10), indicating that the organic one was subjected to an oxidative stress in the coffee pulp fraction leading to the expression of an acidic LOX. Such de novo synthesized LOX activity could be responsible for the production of secondary metabolites, which may interfere with the organoleptic profile of coffee.

  13. Berry Curvature and Chiral Plasmons in Massive Dirac Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Justin; Rudner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    In the semiclassical model of carrier dynamics, quasiparticles are described as nearly free electrons with modified characteristics modified characteristics such as effective masses which may differ significantly from those of an electron in vacuum. In addition to being influenced by external electric and magnetic fields, the trajectories of electrons in topological materials are also affected by the presence of an interesting quantum mechanical field - the Berry curvature - which is responsible for a number of anomalous transport phenomena recently observed in Dirac materials including G/hBN, and MoS2. Here we discuss how Berry curvature can affect the collective behavior of electrons in these systems. In particular, we show that the collective electronic excitations in metallic massive Dirac materials can feature a chirality even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The chirality of these plasmons arises from the Berry curvature of the massive Dirac bands. The corresponding dispersion is split between left- and right-handed modes. We also discuss experimental manifestations.

  14. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-12-01

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies dealing with bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of apple and berry juices are emphasized in this article. A thorough literature survey indicated that various phenolic phytochemicals present in these fruit juices have the innate potential to inhibit colon cancer cell lines. This review proposes the need for more preclinical evidence for the effects of fruit juices against different colon cancer cells, and also strives to facilitate clinical studies using these juices in humans in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these apple and berry juices will be possible candidates in the campaign against colon cancer.

  15. Other Kinds of Violence: Wendell Berry, Industrialism, and Agrarian Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Major

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the need to understand pacifism and environmentalism as essentially consonant philosophies and practices, just as a proper theorization of ecocide must also include the violence inherent to industrialism and militarism. Few contemporary writers understand the stakes involved in this conflation as well as Wendell Berry, and few have had more occasion to enact the entwined values of pacifism and environmentalism than he has. Berry therefore marries pacifist politics to a land ethic of care, a union from which emerges an environmentalism highly critical of the violence of American corporate capitalism and militarism, the apotheosis of which can be seen in the guise of war (Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, the “War on Terror”. Moreover, such violence has its domestic ecocidal analogy, best evidenced by strip mining and mountaintop removal. Berry’s union of peaceableness and agrarian environmentalism does, however, deserve critical examination, for it often rests upon the construction of a sometimes frustrating disconnection between a precious and benign domesticity and a theoretically corrupt public sphere. To be sure, in his reworking of the fluid boundaries between the private and public through which his agrarian ethics is often articulated, Berry simultaneously invokes and disavows a separation he clearly understands to be artificial. In Berry’s peaceful agrarian vision, then, the agrarian pacifist who is also by definition an environmentalist must draw upon enormous internal resources if she is to revolutionize the economies of ruin that characterize modern life.

  16. Lantana camara berry for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brajesh; Kumar; Kumari; Smita; Luis; Cumbal; Alexis; Debut

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize the silver nunoparticles(AgNPs) by reduction of silver ions into nano silver,using ripened berry extract of Lantana camara and evaluate its antioxidant activity against 1.1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl.Methods:The prepared AgNPs were characterized by visual,UV-visible spectrophotometer.dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction.Results:Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis confirmed the AgNPs are spherical and 75.2 nm average sized.Selected area electron diffraction analysis supports that the obtained nanoparticles were in crystalline form.In addition,the antioxidant efficacy of prepared AgNPs was found to be higher than berry extract against 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.Conclusions:From the results obtained it is suggested that surface modified AgNPs at lower concentration,showed higher antioxidant activity than berry extract against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and could be used effectively in future ethno pharmacological concerns.

  17. Antioxidant capacities and anthocyanin characteristics of the black-red wild berries obtained in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengyong; Su, Shang; Wang, Lijin; Wu, Jie; Tang, Zhongqiu; Xu, Yanjun; Shu, Qingyan; Wang, Liangsheng

    2016-08-01

    Various edible berries widely accessible in nature in Northeast China are poorly exploited. The compositions and contents of anthocyanins in black (Padus maackii, Padus avium, Lonicera caerulea, and Ribes nigrum) and red (Ribes rubrum, Sambucus williamsii, Rubus idaeus, and Ribes procumbens) wild berries in Northeast China were firstly characterized by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(2). Twenty-three anthocyanins were detected and identified. Cyanidin glycosides were dominant in both berries. Six anthocyanins were reported for the first time in P. avium, R. rubrum, and Sambucus. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) ranged from 10mg/100gfreshweight (FW) (R. procumbens) to 1058mg/100gFW (P. maackii) among berries. The TACs and antioxidant activities assessed by DPPH and FRAP assays were much higher in black than in red berries. Black-red berries, especially P. maackii and P. avium, can be used in developing functional foods and in improving breeding programs. PMID:26988488

  18. Inhibition of adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial cells by berry juice polyphenolic fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Toivanen, Marko; Huttunen, Sanna; Lapinjoki, Seppo; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Adhesion of pathogens to host tissues is the requirement for the initiation of the majority of infectious diseases. We recently showed that the binding of Neisseria meningitidis pili to immobilised human epithelial cells is inhibited by molecular size fractions (10?100 kDa) of berry juices. Additionally, the isolated meningococcal pili bound to polyphenolic fractions of berry juices. In the present study we investigated the antiadhesive effects of berry juice polyphenolics...

  19. Grape berry vacuole : a complex and heterogeneous membrane system specialized in the accumulation of solutes

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, N.; Gerós, H.; Delrot, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Vacuoles fulfill highly specialized functions depending on cell type and tissue and plant developmental stage. This complex and dynamic organelle is the main reservoir of grape berry cells, playing a major role during fruit development and ripening. Berry development is accompanied by modifications in size, composition, color, texture, flavor, and pathogen susceptibility, primarily because of changes in vacuolar content. Most aroma and flavor compounds are not evenly distributed in the berry,...

  20. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa; Florica Ranga; Dumitriţa Rugină; Loredana Leopold; Oana Pop; Dan Vodnar; Lucian Cuibus; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was d...

  1. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    OpenAIRE

    Pranabendu Mitra; Venkatesh Meda; Rick Green

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon be...

  2. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest.

  3. Functional haplodiploidy: a mechanism for the spread of insecticide resistance in an important international insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, L O; Stuart, J; Gaudichon, V; Aronstein, K; French-Constant, R H

    1995-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide and has an unusual life history that ensures a high degree of inbreeding. Individual females lay a predominantly female brood within individual coffee berries and because males are flightless there is almost entirely full sib mating. We investigated the genetics associated with this interesting life history after the important discovery of resistance to the cyclodiene type insecticide endosulfan. Both the inheritance of the resistance phenotype and the resistance-associated point mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor gene Rdl were examined. Consistent with haplodiploidy, males failed to express and transmit paternally derived resistance alleles. Furthermore, while cytological examination revealed that males are diploid, one set of chromosomes was condensed, and probably nonfunctional, in the somatic cells of all males examined. Moreover, although two sets of chromosomes were present in primary spermatocytes, the chromosomes failed to pair before the single meiotic division, and only one set was packaged in sperm. Thus, the coffee berry borer is "functionally" haplodiploid. Its genetics and life history may therefore represent an interesting intermediate step in the evolution of true haplodiploidy. The influence of this breeding system on the spread of insecticide resistance is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568233

  4. Seed-specific stable expression of the alpha-AI1 inhibitor in coffee grains and the in vivo implications for the development of the coffee berry borer

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, E. V. S.; Bezerra, C. A.; Romero, J. V.; Valencia, J. W. A.; Valencia-Jimenez, A.; Pimenta, L. M.; Barbosa, Aead; Silva, M. C. M.; Meneguim, A. M.; Sa, M. E. L.; Engler, G.; de Almeida-Engler, J.; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-De-Sa, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alpha-AI1) gene. The alpha-AI1 inhi...

  5. Seed-Specific Stable Expression of the α-AI1 Inhibitor in Coffee Grains and the In Vivo Implications for the Development of the Coffee Berry Borer

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Érika V. S.; Bezerra, Caroline A.; Romero, Juan V.; Valencia, Jorge W. A.; Valencia-Jiménez, Arnubio; Pimenta, Lucas M.; Barbosa, Aulus E. A. D.; Silva, Maria C. M.; Meneguim, Ana M.; Sá, Maria Eugênia L.; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the α-amylase inhibitor-1 (α-AI1) gene. The α-AI1 inhibitor shows ...

  6. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, AQUATIC RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS, RUSSIAN PEAT BORER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...

  7. Pod Borer of Peanut and Potential Entomopathogenic Fungi for its Control in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reflinaldon Reflinaldon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pod borer (Etiella zinckenella is a serious pest on peanuts in West Sumatera since the last four years. The larvae lived and bored on pods under soil surfaces and it is often undetected.  E. zinckenella is very limited reporting as a pest on peanuts especially in Indonesia. We described about pod borer attacking in West Sumatera and as alternative strategic control using entomopathogenic fungi bicontrol agents is  safety and more efective and it will be promoted for controlling of  larvae in pods under soil. The objective of this research were to determine severity of damage of pod borer with survey and  observation methods , and to find out potential entomopathogenic fungi  by in both of baiting and  dilution method. The severity of attacking of pod borer on groundnut was 14 to 70%. Five group of fungi i.e: Metharizium sp, Aspergillus sp, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Paecillomyces were isolated from soil of groundnut’s rhizosphere in  several districts of West Sumatera and they were able to infected of Tribolium molitor 8-30%.

  8. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  9. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is the primary target of the widely adopted transgenic corn events MON810 and Bt11, expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxin, Cry1Ab. Resistant strains of O. nubilalis have been selected in the laboratory by exposure to Bt ...

  10. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  11. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  12. Re-evaluation of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) bioeconomics in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key insect pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., grown in Louisiana. For more than 40 years Louisiana sugarcane farmers have used a value of 10% internodes bored at harvest as the Economic Damage level (ED) because damage l...

  13. Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

  14. Diallel Analysis of Southwestern Corn Borer Leaf Feeding Damage in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwestern corn borer [Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar)] is an important pest of maize in the southern United States. It feeds extensively within the leaf whorls of plants in the vegetative stages of growth. This reduces both the quantity and quality of harvestable grain. Germplasm lines with resistan...

  15. Managing the Risk of European Corn Borer Resistance to Transgenic Corn: An Assessment of Refuge Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Terrance M.; Silvia Secchi; Babcock, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.

  16. Maize defense response against the european corn borer (Ostrinia nubilaslis): a losing battle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to understand how maize stems respond to European corn borer (ECB) damage and how these defense tactics affect the invading ECB. We measured the levels of the plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene, as well as the transcript levels of their key biosynthetic en...

  17. Orientation of European corn borer first instar larvae to synthetic green leaf volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer (ECB) neonate larvae are capable of orienting toward maize odors and of avoiding spinach odors. We previously reported that maize odors attraction was dependent on the stimulus regime. This led us to propose that maize odors could have a repellent or attractive effect depending o...

  18. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  19. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  20. Measurement of Topological Berry Phase in Highly Disordered Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Bennaceur, K.; Guillemette, J.; Lévesque, P. L.; Cottenye, N.; Mahvash, F.; Hemsworth, N.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Murata, Y; Heun, S.; Goerbig, M. O.; Proust, C.; Siaj, M.; Martel, R.; Gervais, G.; Szkopek, T.

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in highly disordered graphene at magnetic fields up to 65 T. Disorder was introduced by hydrogenation of graphene up to a ratio H/C $\\approx 0.1\\%$. The analysis of SdH oscillations and QHE indicates that the topological part of the Berry phase, proportional to the pseudo-spin winding number, is robust against introduction of disorder by hydrogenation in large scale graphene.

  1. The Pioneer's Anomalous Doppler Drift as a Berry Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales, J L

    2004-01-01

    The detected anomalous frequency drift acceleration in Pioneer's radar data finds its explanation in a Berry phase that obtains the quantum state of a photon that propagates within an expanding space-time. The clock acceleration is just the adiabatic expansion rate and an analogy between the effect and Foucault's experiment is fully suggested. In this sense, light rays play a similar role in the expanding space than Foucault's Pendulum does while determining Earth's rotation. On the other hand, one could speculate about a suitable future experiment at "laboratory" scales able to measure the local cosmological expansion rate using the procedure of outlined in this paper.

  2. Bragg-Berry mirrors: reflective broadband q-plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh; Brasselet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    We report on the experimental realization of flat mirrors enabling the broadband generation of optical vortices upon reflection. The effect is based on the geometric Berry phase associated with the circular Bragg reflection phenomenon from chiral uniaxial media. We show the reflective optical vortex generation from both diffractive and nondiffractive paraxial light beams using spatially patterned chiral liquid crystal films. The intrinsic spectrally broadband character of spin-orbit generation of optical phase singularities is demonstrated over the full visible domain. Our results do not rely on any birefringent retardation requirement and, consequently, foster the development of a novel generation of robust optical elements for spin-orbit photonic technologies. PMID:27607950

  3. Quantum Dynamics of Magnetic and Electric Dipoles and Berry's Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Furtado, C; Furtado, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of neutral particle that posseses a permanent magnetic and electric dipole moments in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The analysis of this dynamics demonstrates the appearance of a quantum phase that combines the Aharonov-Casher effect and the He-Mckellar-Wilkens effect. We demonstrate that this phase is a special case of the Berry's quantum phase. A series of field configurations where this phase would be found are presented. A generalized Casella-type effect is found in one these configurations. A physical scenario for the quantum phase in an interferometric experiment is proposed.

  4. Bragg-Berry mirrors: reflective broadband q-plates

    CERN Document Server

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh

    2016-01-01

    We report on the experimental realization of flat mirrors enabling the broadband generation of optical vortices upon reflection. The effect is based on the geometric Berry phase associated with the circular Bragg reflection phenomenon from chiral uniaxial media. We show the reflective optical vortex generation from both diffractive and nondiffractive paraxial light beams using spatially patterned chiral liquid crystal films. The intrinsic spectrally broadband character of spin-orbit generation of optical phase singularities is demonstrated over the full visible domain. Our results do not rely on any birefringent retardation requirement and consequently foster the development of a novel generation of robust optical elements for spin-orbit photonic technologies.

  5. Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States

    CERN Document Server

    Mondragón, A

    1997-01-01

    We study the complex geometric phase acquired by the resonant states of an open quantum system which evolves irreversibly in a slowly time dependent environment. In analogy with the case of bound states, the Berry phase factors of resonant states are holonomy group elements of a complex line bundle with structure group C*. In sharp contrast with bound states, accidental degeneracies of resonances produce a continuous closed line of singularities formally equivalent to a continuous distribution of "magnetic" charge on a "diabolical" circle, in consequence, we find different classes of topologically inequivalent non-trivial closed paths in parameter space.

  6. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  7. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Berry Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. Correlation of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to oxygen radical scavenging activities in berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds. In addition to the usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, berry fruits are also rich in flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, flavones, and their glycosides. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of...

  9. Miracle Berry for Increasing Health Benefits of beta-Glucan Soluble Fiber Functional Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum) is known for its taste modification of sour materials to give them an excellent sweetening taste. Although miracle berry was known in West African since the 1800’s, the earliest chemical composition studies were first performed in 1965 by Inglett and co-workers...

  10. Application of Berry's Phase to the Effective Mass of Bloch Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rave, M. J.; Kerr, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Berry's phase, although well known since 1984, has received little attention among textbook authors of solid state physics. We attempt to address this lack by showing how the presence of the Berry's phase significantly changes a standard concept (effective mass) found in most solid state texts. Specifically, we show that the presence of a non-zero…

  11. On Membership, Humility, and Pedagogical Responsibilities: A Correspondence on the Work of Wendell Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusewicz, Rebecca A.; Edmundson, Jeff; Kahn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Wendell Berry is a novelist, essayist, conservation activist and farmer who has had a lot to say over the last half century about the impact of modern industrial society on small farm communities and the land especially since WWII. In this three-way conversation, the authors take up central aspects of Berry's work to think about how it has…

  12. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Guerrero C; Luigi Ciampi P; Andrea Castilla C; Fernando Medel S; Heidi Schalchli S; Emilio Hormazabal U; Emma Bensch T; Miren Alberdi L

    2010-01-01

    It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC),...

  13. Studies on shoot and leaf characters of brinjal plants and their quantitative relationships with brinjal shoot and fruit borer

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, H; Rahman, M.H.; Haque, K.S; K.S. Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The field experiment was conducted with twenty brinjal varieties/lines during October 2007 to May 2008 to identify shoot and leaf characteristics of brinjal plants for their susceptibility/resistance against brinjal shoot and fruit borer infestation. Borer infestation was influenced by different characters of plant shoot and leaf. Various parameters like plant height, stem diameter, number of branches and leaves plant-1, third leaf length and width were recorded from different varieties used....

  14. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...... herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns...... related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste...

  15. Variability of Polyphenol Compounds in Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae Berries from Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chiaramonti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds were extracted from Myrtus communis L. berries (Myrtaceae by maceration in 70% ethanol and analysed by HPLC-DAD and electrospray mass spectrometry. The Myrtus berries were collected at maturity from seven localities on the island of Corsica (France and the sampling was carried out during three years. The polyphenol composition of Corsican Myrtus berries was characterized by two phenolic acids, four flavanols, three flavonols and five flavonol glycosides. The major compounds were myricetin-3-O-arabinoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside. Principal components analysis (PCA is applied to study the chemical composition and variability of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts from the seven localities. Canonical analysis and PCA data distinguishes two groups of myrtle berries characterized by different concentrations of polyphenols according to soil and years of harvest. The variations in the polyphenol concentration were due to biotic and abiotic factors.

  16. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  17. Berry phases in the three-level atoms driven by quantized light fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mai-Lin Liang; Zong-Cheng Xu; Bing Yuan

    2008-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of Berry's phases is given for the three-level atoms interacting with external one-mode and two-mode quantized light fields. Three main results are obtained: (i) There is a Berry phase which vanishes in the classical limit or this Berry phase is completely induced by the field quantization; (ii) Berry's phases for the one-mode field and the two-mode field can be equal so long as the photon numbers of the two-mode field are properly chosen; (iii) In the two-mode case, Berry phases of the atom interacting with one mode is affected by the other mode even if the photon number of the other mode is zero.

  18. Berry skin development in Norton grape: Distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways. Results A microarray study was conducted on transcriptome changes of Norton berry skin during the period of 37 to 127 days after bloom, which represents berry developmental phases from herbaceous growth to full ripeness. Samples of six berry developmental stages were collected. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 3,352 probe sets exhibited significant differences at transcript levels, with two-fold changes between at least two developmental stages. Expression profiles of defense-related genes showed a dynamic modulation of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR resistance genes and pathogenesis-related (PR genes during berry development. Transcript levels of PR-1 in Norton berry skin clearly increased during the ripening phase. As in other grapevines, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated in Norton as the berry developed. The most noticeable was the steady increase of transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. Transcriptional patterns of six MYB transcription factors and eleven structural genes of the flavonoid pathway and profiles of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs during berry skin development were analyzed comparatively in Norton and Cabernet

  19. The History of Attack and Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on White Fringetree in Southwestern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Danielle; Lopez, Vanessa; Ray, Ann M; Cipollini, Don

    2016-08-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive insect that has caused widespread mortality of ash species in North America. The ability of emerald ash borer to utilize white fringetree as an alternate host was reported recently. We aimed to determine how long white fringetree has been under attack from emerald ash borer, the degree of attack, and the overall success of this beetle on this novel host. Stems from three of nine infested white fringetrees collected from the Dayton and Cincinnati, OH, areas in the winter of 2015 yielded four live adult emerald ash borers after being held in rearing containers, and numerous older exit holes were observed. Measurement and aging of feeding galleries on these stems indicated that emerald ash borer has been using this species since 2011, at least, with peak gallery densities reached in 2012 and 2013 on most of the harvested trees. On average, 32 galleries per square meter were found in these stems with about one-third of them being indicative of fourth-instar larvae. This supports the assertion that emerald ash borer has been using white fringetree as a host plant with moderate to good success for as long as ash species in these particular areas have been utilized. PMID:27325628

  20. Chemical quality parameters and bioactive compound content of brazilian berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing consumer demand for higher healthy foods such as berries which are a rich source of phenolic compounds. The current work evaluated blackberry cultivars: Cherokee, Tupy and Xavante; raspberry cultivars: Heritage, Fallgold and Black; and the hybrid Boysenberry. All berries were grown under homogenous subtropical conditions in Brazil. Black raspberry, Cherokee and Tupy blackberry cultivars showed the highest ratio between soluble solid contents and titratable acidity, and Fallgold and Heritage raspberry showed the highest titratable acidity. Total phenolic content ranged from 2.03 to 5.33 g kg–1 fresh weight and total anthocyanin content registered values from 0.41 to 1.81 g kg–1 fresh weight. The most common phenolic acids were gallic, p-coumaric and ellagic, and for anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvinidin-3-glucoside. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 14.13 to 21.51 mol equivalent trolox kg–1 fresh weight. Black raspberry, all blackberry cultivars and the Boysenberry hybrid are appropriate to be consumed fresh, while Fallgold and Heritage raspberries are recommended to the food industry. Due to their phenolic richness and antioxidant properties, these fruits are of great interest to the fresh fruit market and to pharmaceutical industries. These results could help breeders and growers when planning the cultivar selection according to their foreseeable destination.

  1. Micronutrient Accumulation in Conilon Coffee Berries with Different Maturation Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Braida Marré

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The number of days between anthesis and maturation of conilon coffee berries varies according to the genotype. Thus, it is believed that periods of greater nutrient demand for fruit formation also vary according to the genotype, directly influencing fertilizer management. The goal of this study was to establish accumulation curves for the micronutrients boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in conilon coffee trees with different maturation cycles. The experiment was conducted in Nova Venécia, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the reproductive cycle of the 2010/2011 crop year. Four coffee genotypes with different maturation cycles (early, intermediate, late, and super-late were studied. A completely randomized experimental design was used with five replications. The treatments correspond to the accumulation of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the berries every 28 days in the period from flowering to harvest. The early, intermediate, and late genotypes accumulated Fe, Cu, and Mn in a similar manner, with sigmoid curves, whereas the super-late genotype accumulated these nutrients exponentially. Zn was accumulated by all four genotypes following a sigmoid curve. The early, intermediate, and late genotypes accumulated B linearly, whereas the super-late genotype accumulated B following a sigmoid curve. The maturation cycle of the genotype must be taken into account to apply the correct rate of micronutrient fertilization in coffee plantations.

  2. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawani, Anjali; Chowdhury, Nandita; Ghosh, Anupam; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-05-01

    Phytochemicals are widely used as biocontrol agent against vector mosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of various extracts of berries of S. nigrum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts of fresh, mature, green berries of S. nigrum were tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration was determined and the chemical nature of the active substance was evaluated. A qualitative phytochemical analysis of chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was performed in search of the active ingredient. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was also studied on non-target organisms. In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 3 per cent extract. In the chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract, the maximum mortality was recorded at a concentration of 120 μg/ml. The log probit analysis (95% confidence level) recorded lowest LC 50 value at 72 h of exposure. Both crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts showed good larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The isolated active ingredient may be tested as a potential larvicide after determination of its structure.

  3. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  4. ACROPOLIS - NEWEST WINE WHITE BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest aromatic wine white berry grape variety Acropolis was breeded by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece by professors P.Zamanidi and L.Troshinym in 2006 by crossing the Greek variety Kidonitsa with European Riesling. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics it is related to the eco-geographical group of Black Sea. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Degree of ripening vines is very high: over the entire length, except for the top. Length of production period 146-155 days. High yield 25-30 t / ha. Average weight of cluster is 360 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with common varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is androgynous. Bunch is medium, conical, medium density. Berry is medium, spherical, greenish-yellow color with a thick waxy coating. Cuticle of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice are with pronounced varietal type taste of Riesling. Sugar content is very high: up to 24% more. Bunches of variety Acropolis continuously stored in the bushes. Variety is intended for manufacturing dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines, suitable for production of high quality aromatic juices

  5. AGAPI - NEWEST WINE WHITE BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Newest aromatic white berry wine grape variety Agapi was breeded by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece by professors P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskiy in 2006 by crossing the Greek varieties Afiri white with central European variety Traminer pink. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Level of ripening vines is very high: over the entire length except the top. Length of production period 146-155 days. Productivity is very high: 25-30 t / ha. Average weight of cluster 300 g. Characterized by a high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases compared to varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is androgynous. Bunch is medium, conical, medium density. Berry is medium, short elliptical or spherical, greenish-yellow in color, with a thick waxy coating. Cuticle of medium thickness, dense, and durable. Pulp and juice are with pronounced varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. The sugar content is very high, more than 24%. Clusters of Agapi variety regardless of autumn weather conditions persist for a long time in the bushes. Variety intended for the manufacturing dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high quality fragrant juices

  6. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Vega, Fernando E; Karaoz, Ulas; Hao, Zhao; Jenkins, Stefan; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Kosina, Petr; Infante, Francisco; Northen, Trent R; Brodie, Eoin L

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide with its infestations decreasing crop yield by up to 80%. Caffeine is an alkaloid that can be toxic to insects and is hypothesized to act as a defence mechanism to inhibit herbivory. Here we show that caffeine is degraded in the gut of H. hampei, and that experimental inactivation of the gut microbiota eliminates this activity. We demonstrate that gut microbiota in H. hampei specimens from seven major coffee-producing countries and laboratory-reared colonies share a core of microorganisms. Globally ubiquitous members of the gut microbiota, including prominent Pseudomonas species, subsist on caffeine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Pseudomonas caffeine demethylase genes are expressed in vivo in the gut of H. hampei, and re-inoculation of antibiotic-treated insects with an isolated Pseudomonas strain reinstates caffeine-degradation ability confirming their key role. PMID:26173063

  7. Effects of different maturity stages on antioxidant content of Ivorian Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'dri, Denis; Calani, Luca; Mazzeo, Teresa; Scazzina, Francesca; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Rio, Daniele Del; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio

    2010-10-15

    Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L.) is a spontaneous plant widely distributed in Ivory Coast. During ripening stages, Solanum indicum L. presents different colours (green, yellow and red) and is reported to contain several albeit poorly characterized antioxidant compounds. This paper describes in detail the antioxidant profile (ascorbic acid, carotenoids and polyphenols), antioxidant capacity (FRAP test and Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the colour changes of Gnagnan berries at different ripening levels. Ascorbic acid content was similar in green and yellow berries, but significantly lower in red ones. Red berries showed a higher content of carotenoids compared to green and yellow ones. Regarding polyphenols, several phenolic acids and flavonoids were found in all berries. The content of caffeoylquinic acids, caffeic acid, flavonol glycosides and naringenin was higher in red berries, while the content of p-coumaric acid and feruloylquinic acids was similar among the three colours. The FRAP assay increased with the ripening process, whereas total polyphenols were similar among berries. Significant differences were found for the colorimetric indexes among products of different degrees of ripening. The present results show the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of Gnagnan berries.

  8. Effects of Different Maturity Stages on Antioxidant Content of Ivorian Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L. Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Brighenti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Gnagnan (Solanum indicum L. is a spontaneous plant widely distributed in Ivory Coast. During ripening stages, Solanum indicum L. presents different colours (green, yellow and red and is reported to contain several albeit poorly characterized antioxidant compounds. This paper describes in detail the antioxidant profile (ascorbic acid, carotenoids and polyphenols, antioxidant capacity (FRAP test and Folin-Ciocalteau assay and the colour changes of Gnagnan berries at different ripening levels. Ascorbic acid content was similar in green and yellow berries, but significantly lower in red ones. Red berries showed a higher content of carotenoids compared to green and yellow ones. Regarding polyphenols, several phenolic acids and flavonoids were found in all berries. The content of caffeoylquinic acids, caffeic acid, flavonol glycosides and naringenin was higher in red berries, while the content of p-coumaric acid and feruloylquinic acids was similar among the three colours. The FRAP assay increased with the ripening process, whereas total polyphenols were similar among berries. Significant differences were found for the colorimetric indexes among products of different degrees of ripening. The present results show the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of Gnagnan berries.

  9. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  10. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  11. Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Effects of Edible Berries: A Focus on Colon Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Sadia; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Varela-López, Alfonso; Quiles, José L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases across the world. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that diets rich in fruit, such as berries, provide significant health benefits against several types of cancer, including colon cancer. The anticancer activities of berries are attributed to their high content of phytochemicals and to their relevant antioxidant properties. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that berries and their bioactive components exert therapeutic and preventive effects against colon cancer by the suppression of inflammation, oxidative stress, proliferation and angiogenesis, through the modulation of multiple signaling pathways such as NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AKT/PKB/mTOR, and ERK/MAPK. Based on the exciting outcomes of preclinical studies, a few berries have advanced to the clinical phase. A limited number of human studies have shown that consumption of berries can prevent colorectal cancer, especially in patients at high risk (familial adenopolyposis or aberrant crypt foci, and inflammatory bowel diseases). In this review, we aim to highlight the findings of berries and their bioactive compounds in colon cancer from in vitro and in vivo studies, both on animals and humans. Thus, this review could be a useful step towards the next phase of berry research in colon cancer.

  12. Recent Progress in Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetes Effect of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with "beyond antioxidant" functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27058561

  13. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a Floquet Bloch band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fläschner, N.; Rem, B. S.; Tarnowski, M.; Vogel, D.; Lühmann, D.-S.; Sengstock, K.; Weitenberg, C.

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid-state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology of the bands can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Using fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineered the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and show a full momentum-resolved measurement of the ensuing Berry curvature. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  15. Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Jian J Duan; Paula M Shrewsbury

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populati...

  16. Association of charecters on yield and shoot and fruit borer resistance in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S.Praneetha*, V. Rajashree and L.Pugalendhi

    2011-01-01

    Eighty one brinjal genotypes (nine parents and 72 hybrids) were evaluated for 14 characters. Results showed that marketableyield per plant had significant positive association for both at genotypic and phenotypic level with all the characters studied viz.,plant height, number of branches per plant, fruit girth, calyx length, number of fruits per plant, single fruit weight, protein contentand total phenol content. The earliness showed positive association with fruit borer infestation both at g...

  17. Ecological Aspects of Maize Stem Borer at Intercropping and Monoculture Planting

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Hidayat, Purnama; Rauf, Aunu; Sartiami,Dewi

    2003-01-01

    Asian corn borer population Beberapa aspek ekologi hama penggerek batang jagung diamati pada pertanaman jagung milik petani dan pada plot percobaan di Bogor. Tingkat serangan penggerek batang jagung pada pertanaman berumur 50 hst adalah 7,59% pada tanaman tumpangsari jagung manis dengan ubi jalar, 8,66% pada tanaman monokultur jagung manis, dan 9,51% pada tanaman tumpangsari jagung manis dan singkong. Pengamatan peletakan telur pada plot percobaan menunjukkan bahwa populasi telur pada p...

  18. Luttinger liquid with complex forward scattering: Robustness and Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Moessner, Roderich

    2016-02-01

    Luttinger liquids (LLs) are one-dimensional systems with well-understood instabilities due to Umklapp or backscattering. We study a generalization of the Luttinger model, which incorporates a time reversal symmetry breaking interaction producing a complex forward scattering amplitude (g2 process). The resulting low energy state is still a LL and belongs to the family of interacting Schulz-Shastry models. Remarkably, it becomes increasingly robust against additional perturbations—for purely imaginary g2, both Umklapp and local backscattering are always irrelevant. Changing the phase of the interaction generates a nontrivial Berry phase, with a universal geometric phase difference between ground and a one boson excited state depending only on the LL parameter.

  19. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajčić Slađana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, contents of total phenolic (TPh, total flavonoid (TF, and total monomeric anthocyianin (TMA, as well as the antioxidant activity of two raspberry cultivars (Meeker and Willamette, two blackberry cultivars (Čačanska bestrna and Thornfree and wild bilberry were studied. The raspberry cultivars had the highest total solids among fruits investigated. Bilberry fruits had the highest sugar-to-acid ratio. Blackberry fruits were richer in crude fibers (cellulose in comparison to raspberry and bilberry fruits. The content of pectic substances was highest in the bilberry. Also, bilberry had a highest content of TPh (808.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, TF (716.31 mg RE/100 g FW and TMA (447.83 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as the EC50 value (in mg of fresh weight of berry fruit per ml of the reaction mixture, of bilberry (0.3157 ± 0.0145 mg/ml was the highest. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW bilberry, raspberry - Willamette, raspberry - Meeker, blackberry - Čačanska bestrna and blackberry - Thornfree is equivalent to 576.50 mg, 282.74 mg, 191.58 mg, 222.28 mg and 272.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities and content of total phenolics (RTPh 2=0.9627, flavonoids (RTF 2=0.9598 and anthocyanins (RTMA 2=0.9496 in berry fruits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  20. Ecosystem engineering and manipulation of host plant tissues by the insect borer Oncideres albomarginata chamela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Cortés, Nancy; Uribe-Mú, Claudia A; Martínez-Méndez, A Karen; Escalera-Vázquez, Luis H; Cristobal-Pérez, E Jacob; García-Oliva, Felipe; Quesada, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem engineering by insect herbivores occurs as the result of structural modification of plants manipulated by insects. However, only few studies have evaluated the effect of these modifications on the plant responses induced by stem-borers that act as ecosystem engineers. In this study, we evaluated the responses induced by the herbivory of the twig-girdler beetle Oncideres albomarginata chamela (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) on its host plant Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae), and its relationship with the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer. Our results demonstrated that O. albomarginata chamela branch removal induced the development of lateral branches increasing the resources needed for the development of future insect generations, of its own offspring and of many other insect species. Detached branches represent habitats with high content of nitrogen and phosphorous, which eventually can be incorporated into the ecosystem, increasing nutrient cycling efficiency. Consequently, branch removal and the subsequent plant tissue regeneration induced by O. albomarginata chamela represent key mechanisms underlying the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer, which enhances arthropod diversity in the ecosystem.

  1. Field Evaluation of the Asian Corn Borer Control in Hybrid of Transgenic Maize Event MON 810

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; WEN Li-ping; BAI Shu-xiong; ZHOU Da-rong; ZHU Qing-hua

    2003-01-01

    In this study,a transgenic Bt maize hybrid(event MON 810 from Monsanto Company)expressing Cry1Ab protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)and its negative isoline hybrid were evaluatrial. Maize plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of Asian corn borer at the mid-whorl(firstgeneration),pre-tassel(first-and/or second-generation),and silk(second-generation)growth stages.The transgenic Bt maize hybrid sustained significantly less leaf feeding damage(rating 1.0±0.0)than its negative isoline control(rating 7.3±0.1).With the Bt maize,1.3-6.8%of plants were damaged by corn borer tunneling with<0.5 cm tunneling per stalk under different levels of infestation,compared with 100%of plants damaged with 9.3-25.0 cm tunneling per stalk for the negative isoline control. On average,transgenic Bt maize hybrids had only 0.01-0.05 tunnels per stalk and no stems were broken.In contrast,the negative isoline control had 3.11-8.36 tunnels per stalk and 31.2-73.9% of stems broken.Yields were significantly higher in trahsgenic Bt maize than in the control. These results demonstrate that transgenic Bt maize can significantly minimize yield losses caused by the Asian corn borer through resistance to the first-and second-generation larvae.

  2. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC50), mean lethal time (LT50), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 107 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  3. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  4. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  5. Volatiles induced by the larvae of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in maize plants affect behavior of conspecific larvae and female adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Hong Huang; Feng-Ming Yan; John A.Byers; Rong-Jiang Wang; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) volatiles induced by larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), on the orientation behaviors of Asian corn borer larvae and oviposition of the females were investigated. Nineteen volatile chemicals, with terpenes being the major components, were identified from maize plants attacked by third instar Asian corn borer larvae. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses revealed some electroantennographic differences between female and male Asian corn borer antennae in response to larvae-induced maize volatiles; female responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and three unknown compounds while the male only responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal and one unknown compound. In laboratory orientation bioassays, Asian corn borer neonate larvae were attracted to extracts collected from Asian corn borer-damaged plants as well as to synthetic famesene, but were repelled by (Z)-3-hexen- 1-ol. In laboratory oviposition bioassays, gravid females laid fewer eggs on plants damaged by larvae than on mechanically damaged plants or undamaged plants. Adult Asian corn borer females deposited fewer eggs on wax paper treated with (E)-2-hexenal or (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol than on wax paper treated with hexane (control). The results suggest that Asian corn borer can affect the behaviors of conspecific larvae and adults by changing host plant volatiles.

  6. The Symmetry Protected Piecewise Berry Phases, Enhanced Pumping and Non-reciprocity in Trimer Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xuele

    2016-01-01

    Finding new phase is a fundamental task in physics. Landau's theory explained the deep connection between symmetry breaking and phase transition commonly occurring in magnetic, superconducting and super uid systems. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect led to Z topological phases which could be different for same symmetry and are characterized by the discrete values of the Berry phases. By studying 1D trimer lattices we report new phases characterized by Berry phases which are piecewise continuous rather than discrete numbers. The phase transition occurs at the discontinuity point. With time-dependent changes, trimer lattices also give a 2D phases characterized by very specific 2D Berry phases of half period. These Berry phases change smoothly within a phase while change discontinuously at the transition point. We further demonstrate the existence of adiabatic pumping for each phase and gain assisted enhanced pumping. The non-reciprocity of the pumping process makes the system a good optical diode.

  7. Covalent cross-linking of cell-wall polysaccharides through esterified diferulates as a maize resistance mechanism against corn borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Santiago, Rogelio; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Malvar, Rosa A

    2015-03-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that cross-linking of cell-wall polymers through ester-linked diferulates has a key role in plant resistance to pests; however, direct experimentation to provide conclusive proof is lacking. This study presents an evaluation of the damage caused by two corn borer species on six maize populations particularly selected for divergent diferulate concentrations in pith stem tissues. Maize populations selected for high total diferulate concentration had 31% higher diferulates than those selected for low diferulates. Stem tunneling by corn borer species was 29% greater in the population with the lowest diferulates than in the population with the highest diferulates (31.7 versus 22.6 cm), whereas total diferulate concentration was negatively correlated with stem tunneling by corn borers. Moreover, orthogonal contrasts between groups of populations evaluated showed that larvae fed in laboratory bioassays on pith stem tissues from maize populations with higher diferulates had 30-40% lower weight than larvae fed on the same tissues from maize populations with lower diferulates. This is the first report that shows a direct relationship between diferulate deposition in maize cell walls and corn borer resistance. Current findings will help to develop adapted maize varieties with an acceptable level of resistance against borers and be useful in special kinds of agriculture, such as organic farming. PMID:25619118

  8. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC, total anthocyanins (TA, and total phenols (TP of wild and cultivated berries in different localities of La Araucanía and Los Ríos Regions in Chile. These parameters were analyzed by using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH method, pH-differential, and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Percentages of DPPH discoloration of different berries studied were between 67.8% and 95.3% for red sarsaparilla and rosehip, respectively. Maqui berries showed a significantly higher TA content (2240.2 and 1445.3 mg L-1 cyanidin 3-glucoside than other berries, and a mean for all berries of 335.5 mg L-1. Higher phenol content levels were obtained in two cultivars of saskatoon (773.9 and 1001.9 mg L-1 gallic acid and wild rosehip (1457.0 and 1140.4 mg L-1 gallic acid. We conclude that there are significant differences in antioxidant capacity of wild and cultivated Chilean berries in this study which show a strong correlation between AC and TP content.Por medio del consumo de berries es posible incorporar al organismo una gran cantidad de antioxidantes capaces de prevenir múltiples enfermedades generadas por la acción de los radicales libres. Los antioxidantes actúan neutralizando los radicales libres y de esta forma protegen al organismo del daño oxidativo de lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Entre variadas frutas y hortalizas, se destacan los berries como una de las fuentes más ricas en fitonutrientes antioxidantes. El objetivo de esta investigaci

  9. Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum): Composition and Health Effects – a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kulczyński Bartosz; Gramza-Michałowska Anna

    2016-01-01

    Goji berries contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds which allowed to classify them as superfruits. A short description of the fruits is presented together with cultivation requirements. The chemical composition of the berries and their health-promoting properties are described later in this literature review. Based on the available data, their potentially beneficial application in dietary prevention of diseases of affluence, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, is ela...

  10. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  11. Berry and Citrus Phenolic Compounds Inhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV: Implications in Diabetes Management

    OpenAIRE

    Junfeng Fan; Johnson, Michelle H.; Mary Ann Lila; Gad Yousef; Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial health effects of fruits and vegetables in the diet have been attributed to their high flavonoid content. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a serine aminopeptidase that is a novel target for type 2 diabetes therapy due to its incretin hormone regulatory effects. In this study, well-characterized anthocyanins (ANC) isolated from berry wine blends and twenty-seven other phenolic compounds commonly present in citrus, berry, grape, and soybean, were individually investigated for thei...

  12. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  13. American Ginseng Berry Juice Intake Reduces Blood Glucose and Body Weight in ob/ob Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, J.T.; Wang, C.Z.; Ni, M.; Wu, J.A.; Mehendale, S.R.; Aung, H.H.; Foo, A.; Yuan, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic metabolic disease and has a significant impact on patients' lives and the health care system. We previously observed that the organic solvent extract of American ginseng berry possessed significant antidiabetic effects in obese diabetic ob/ob mice after intraperitoneal injection. If American ginseng berry is useful as a dietary supplement, simple preparation and oral intake would be a convenient, safe, and practical means for consumers. In this study, the simply ...

  14. Berries and anthocyanins: promising functional food ingredients with postprandial glycaemia-lowering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Acosta, Monica L; Lenihan-Geels, Georgia N; Corpe, Christopher P; Hall, Wendy L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D. PMID:27170557

  15. In vitro cultures of grape tissues : new possibilities to study grape berry physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Grape berries suffer important morphological, biochemical and physiological changes during its development and maturation. It is known that photoassimilates translocated from leaves serve as the major source of carbon and energy to support fruit needs, but recent findings revealed that, at least in the green phase, grape berries show high photosynthetic activity especially in the exocarp. The contribution of fruit photosynthesis for fruit growth and production of organic compounds is far from...

  16. Roostocks/scion/ nitrogen interactions affect secondary metabolism in the grape berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Habran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS and Pinot Noir (PN varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM or 110 Richter (110R rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids. that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  17. Optical characterization of topological insulator surface states: Berry curvature-dependent response

    OpenAIRE

    Hosur, Pavan

    2010-01-01

    We study theoretically the optical response of the surface states of a topological insulator, especially the generation of helicity-dependent direct current by circularly polarized light. Interestingly, the dominant current, due to an interband transition, is controlled by the Berry curvature of the surface bands. This extends the connection between photocurrents and Berry curvature beyond the quasiclassical approximation where it has been shown to hold. Explicit expressions are derived for t...

  18. The Role of Bee Pollinators in Improving Berry Weight and Coffee Cup Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca H.N. Karanja; Njoroge, Grace N; John M. Kihoro; Mary W. Gikungu; L.E. Newton

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted at Kiambu County in Kenya. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pollination improves the coffee yield and quality of processed coffee in terms of taste and aroma. Among the parameters evaluated when grading coffee for sale in world market are berry weight and cup quality. No previous work in Kenya describes the role of bee pollinators in enhancement of coffee yields and quality. Data on berry weights and the resulting processed coffee quality from different...

  19. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  20. A method for the isolation of protoplasts from grape berry mesocarp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Natacha; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, Hernâni

    2010-06-01

    As single cell systems, protoplasts have been used in physiological, biochemical and molecular studies aiming towards the investigation, improvement or modification of plants. In grapevine, protoplasts have been isolated from several source tissues but not from grape berry, a major challenge given the uniqueness of grape fruit for human diet and wine production. Also, as the ripe grape berry has long been considered a 'small bag of sugary water' without cell compartmentation and/or membrane integrity, the isolation of intact cells from the mesocarp is of special scientific significance. Protoplasting from grape berry mesocarp cells was achieved with cellulase and pectolyase digestion, followed by differential and gradient centrifugations; however, given the special characteristics of berry tissue, cell wall digestion and protoplast purification were performed in a special environment to maintain their integrity and viability. Light and epifluorescence microscopy revealed the spatial organization of the cytoplasm, where an intricate acidic vacuolar apparatus predominates supporting the idea that berry softening during ripening is not strictly associated with loss in compartmentation and/or membrane integrity. Following the worldwide economical and social importance of wine in modern days, grape berry protoplasts are a major advance for both basic research of fruit ripening and biotechnological applications.

  1. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue.

  2. Using juniper berry ( Juniperus communis as a supplement in Japanese quail diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Inci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemented juniper berry (Juniperus communis on fattening performance and some carcass traits of quails. A total of 150 one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly divided into five groups (one control and four treated groups with three replicates. Four different juniper berry levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% and a control treatment (0% were added to the diet. Juniper berry supplementation to the diets initiated at the end of the 1st week and sustained for seven weeks. Live weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio during the trial and some carcass traits after slaughter were determined. Juniper berry supplementation in the diet during seven weeks of growing period significantly increased body weight, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of the treated groups. Carcass weight, carcass yield, and breast yield were also significantly increased by supplemented juniper berry. No significant difference was observed between viability of different groups. Supplementation of 0.5-1% juniper berry in quail diets has positive impacts on fattening performance and carcass traits.

  3. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was determinate using ORAC assay which measures the decrease of AAPH-radical level by the scavenging action of the antioxidant substance. In addition, the vitamin C content and total tannins of the berries extracts were determined using spetophomotmetric methods. The phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of analyzed berries did not varied considerably. The highest amounts of TPC and the strongest antioxidant activities were found in blueberry and blackberries (678 GAE mg/100 g FW, 442 mg/100g FW respectively. Vitamin C content was found in higher concentration in raspberries 21.7 mg/100 g FW while the lower concentration was found in blackberry.  All berries contain higher levels of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or tannins which are responsible for their antioxidant potential and bring their nutritional value, being highly recommended for daily consumption.

  4. Le Berry antique - De la carte au modèle-chorème Ancient berry – from map to chorematic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Batardy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available L’Atlas du Berry réalisé à l’aide d’un système d’information géographique (SIG a posé les bases d’une analyse géographique de la cité des Bituriges Cubes. La chorématique peut permettre d’aller au-delà.The Atlas du Berry achieved with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS lays the foundations for a geographical analysis of the town of Bituriges Cubes. Chorematic techniques can enable us to go further.

  5. Differential effects of insecticides on mitochondrial membrane lfuidity and ATPase activity between the wolf spider and the rice stem borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-ping; CHANG Jing; FENG Tao; GAO Xi-wu

    2015-01-01

    Differential effects of methamidophos and three pyrethroids on ATPase activity and membrane lfuidity of mitochondria were investigated between the wolf spider (Pirata subpiraticus(Boes. et Str.)) and the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis (Walker)). Based on a comparison of LD50values, the toxicities of the tested insecticides were higher to the wolf spider than to the rice stem borer. Cyhalothrin at 1×10–4 mmol L–1 caused inhibition of the mitochondrial Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities, and it’s inhibitions on Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities were signiifcantly higher in the wolf spider (44 and 28%) than in the rice stem borer (19 and 11%). Methamidophos at 1×10–4 mmol L–1 decreased Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity by 16 and 27% in the wolf spider and the rice stem borer, respectively, but no signiifcant effect on the speciifc activity of Na+-K+-ATPase was observed. The DPH (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) lfuorescence polarization values of mitochondrial membranes were not signiifcantly affected by methamidophos in either species. However, cyhalothrin and alpha-cyperme-thrin induced the values of DPH polarization of mitochondrial membrane increasing with the concentration of cyhalothrin and alpha-cypermethrin from 20 to 100 µmol L–1 in the rice stem borer and the wolf spider. Effect of ethofenprox on lfuidity of the wolf spider and the rice stem borer was contrary. These results suggest that both inhibition of membrane ATPase and changes of membrane lfuidity could be appended to the action mechanisms of pyrethroid insecticides.

  6. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G A Whitehill

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp. that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER, and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  7. Effect of decoherence on the Berry phase of a spin-half in a rotating magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIN; Shi, Yu

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the decoherence effect of a bosonic bath on the Berry phase of a spin-1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field, without making the Markovian approximation. A two-cycle process resulting in a pure Berry phase is considered. The low-frequency quantum noise significantly affects the Berry phase. In the adiabatic limit, the high-frequency quantum noise only has a small effect. The result is also valid in some more general situations.

  8. Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Ryan J.; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Clarke, Simon J.; Rogiers, Suzy Y.; Bobek, Gabriele; Price, William S

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry developmen...

  9. Expression of a Modified Crylle Gene in E.Coli and in Transgenic Tobacco Confers Resistance to Corn Borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Jun LIU; Fu-Ping SONG; Kang-Lai HE; Yuan YUAN; Xiao-Xia ZHANG; Peng GAO; Jian-Hua WANG; Guo-Ying WANG

    2004-01-01

    The wild-type Crylle gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was modified for its efficient expression in transgenic plants. Modified Cry1 Ie gene (designated as Cry1 Iem) was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28b and its expression in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. Bioassays using crude expression products in E. coli revealed that Cry1 Iem protein had a similar toxicity to corn borer as wild-type Cry1 Ie. Cry1 Iem gene was then inserted downstream of the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter in plant expression vector p3301. Transgenic tobacco plants carrying Cry1 Iem showed insecticidal activity against com borer.

  10. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  11. PLASTICITY OF THE BERRY RIPENING PROGRAM IN A WHITE GRAPE VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dal Santo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices, defined as terroir, which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture and composition. These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation

  12. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  13. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues. PMID:26721288

  15. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

  16. Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1982-02-15

    The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

  17. Partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during the whole berry growth maintain yield and berry quality in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Domingo, Rafael; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Rosario Conesa Saura, M.°

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during post-veraison and the whole berry growth on water relations, yield and berry quality, one experiment was conducted in a commercial vineyard of 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Five irrigation treatments were imposed: (i) Control (CTL) irrigated to 110% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), (ii) regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated at 50% of CTL during the non- critical period of post-verasion, (iii) continuous deficit irrigation (DIc), irrigated at 50% of CTL throughout the whole berry growing season, (iv) partial root-zone drying (PRD), irrigated similar to RDI, but alternating the irrigation applied in the dry side every 10-14 days; and (v) continuous partial root-zone drying (PRDc), irrigated as DIc but alternating the irrigation in the dry side every 10-14 days. RDI and PRD received 24% and 28% less water than CTL, respectively. These reductions were higher in DIc and PRDc (65% and 53%, respectively). Total yield was not affected by any DI strategy. Only significantly lower values were observed in the weight and height's berries in respect to CTL. However, the colour parameters evaluated increased in all DI treatments, being slightly higher in DIc and PRDc compared with RDI and PRD. In addition, total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in DIc, compared to other irrigated counterparts. Our findings showed that the application of water deficit during the whole berry growth through the use of DIc and PRDc, can be considered for irrigation scheduling in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  18. DURABILTY OF 25 LOCAL SPECIFIC WOOD SPECIES FROM JAVA PRESERVED WITH CCB AGAINST MARINE BORERS ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking

  19. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and In Vitro Availability of Four Different Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marhuenda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols from berries have proved healthy effects after “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies, such as preventing tumor growing and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. We compared four different kinds of berries—strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and blueberry—with the aim to distinguish their phenolic composition, concerning their antioxidant capacity along with their “in vitro” availability. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant capacity was measured by ORAC method. Moreover, the determination of anthocyanins was accomplished with an HPLC-DAD. Finally, we carried out an “in vitro” digestion to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion. All berries showed good antioxidant capacity with significant differences, besides high total phenolic compounds. Content of anthocyanins measured by HPLC-DAD varied between the different berries, namely, blackberries and strawberries which showed higher anthocyanin concentration. After “in vitro” digestion, berries showed poor bioavailability of the analysis of anthocyanins (9.9%–31.7%. Availability of total phenolic compounds was higher than anthocyanins (33%–73%. Moreover, strawberries and blackberries presented the less availability grade. Decrease in antioxidant activity measured by ORAC method was about 90% in all berries studied. Therefore, bioavailability of phenolic compounds remains unclear and more correlation between “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies seems to be necessary.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Methanolic Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Ravi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of berries of Solanum nigrum Linn. The medicinal values of the berries of Solanum nigrum (Black night shades have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of inflammation. Dried pulverized berries of Solanum nigrum were extracted with methanol by using soxhlet apparatus. The effect of methanolic extracts of berries of Solanum nigrum were studied on carrageenan induced paw edema. The methanolic extract decreased the edema induced in hind paw. The methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum (375 mg/kg b.w. has showed significant anti-inflammatory. It has been concluded that methanolic extract of berries of Solanum nigrum Linn (375 mg/kg b.w. augments that it is having good anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw edema. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the toxic effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicine are less toxic and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against inflammation.

  1. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  2. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels. PMID:27447714

  3. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  4. Berry phase theory of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and spin-orbit torques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, F; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y

    2014-03-12

    Recent experiments on current-induced domain-wall motion in chiral domain walls reveal important contributions both from spin-orbit torques (SOTs) and from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We derive a Berry phase expression for the DMI and show that within this Berry phase theory DMI and SOTs are intimately related, in a way formally analogous to the relation between orbital magnetization (OM) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE). We introduce the concept of the twist torque moment, which probes the internal twist of wavepackets in chiral magnets in a similar way as the orbital moment probes the wavepacket's internal self-rotation. We propose to interpret the Berry phase theory of DMI as a theory of spiralization in analogy to the modern theory of OM. We show that the twist torque moment and the spiralization together give rise to a Berry phase governing the response of the SOT to thermal gradients, in analogy to the intrinsic anomalous Nernst effect. The Berry phase theory of DMI is computationally very efficient because it only needs the electronic structure of the collinear magnetic system as input. As an application of the formalism we compute the DMI in Co/Pt(111), O/Co/Pt(111) and Al/Co/Pt(111) magnetic bi- and trilayers and show that the DMI is highly anisotropic in these systems.

  5. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.

  6. Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Linden, van der A.; Swarts, H.J.; Visser, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely

  7. The Effect of Bark Borer Herbivory on BVOC Emissions in Boreal Forests and Implications for SOA Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Celia; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Holopainen, Jarmo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kokkola, Harri; Blande, James; Guenther, Alex; Virtanen, Annele

    2015-04-01

    Herbivore outbreaks are expected to increase as a result of climate change. These outbreaks can have significant effects on the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) from vegetation, which contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We have synthesized the published results investigating changes to BVOC emissions from herbivory by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis--a bark borer herbivore. Previous lab experiments have shown that bark borer herbivory on Scots pine trees increases monoterpene emissions 4-fold and sesquiterpene emissions 7-fold. Norway spruce exhibits a similar response. The BVOCs most impacted were linalool, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, and sesquiterpenes like beta-farnesene, beta-bourbonene, and longifolene. The quantitative results from these studies were used to estimate potential impacts of bark borer herbivory on BVOC emissions at a regional scale using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). MEGAN was run under baseline and herbivore outbreak conditions for a typical boreal forest environment in spring. Emissions output from MEGAN was used to run a microphysical box model to estimate the SOA formation potential under baseline and outbreak conditions. This estimate could provide us with an upper limit to the potential impact of bark borer outbreaks on SOA formation in a boreal forest.

  8. Extension Master Gardeners and other citizen volunteers mobilize to help inform the public about emerald ash borer

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Cooperative Extension Master Gardeners and other citizen volunteers will canvass Northern Virginia neighborhoods to help educate home and property owners about the emerald ash borer (EAB) - a destructive, green metallic beetle that has killed millions of ash trees in the eastern United States since 2002.

  9. Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of arthropods associated with ash tree boles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive non-native wood-boring beetle that has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America, and threatens to extirpate the ecological services provided by the genus. Identifying the arthropod community assoc...

  10. A new species of genus Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from the Russian Far East that parasitizes eggs of Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described from the Vladivostok, Russia, Oobius primorskyensis Yao & Duan n. sp. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from t...

  11. Factors influencing the temporal and spatial patterns of dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in newly planted apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temporal and spatial patterns of infestation by larval dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was studied during 2002–2004 in two newly planted apple orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards contained several rootstock-variety combinations grown under different cultural manage...

  12. Erianthus: A sugarcane relative with potential as a source of resistance to the stem borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant resistance can play an important role in IPM strategies to reduce damage from infestations of stem borers. However, resistance, when it is present, is often negatively associated with yield potential. There exists then, a need to identify sources of resistance that have no adverse effect on su...

  13. Influence of Mortality Factors and Host Resistance on the Population Dynamics of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Urban Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer.

  14. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa, and contributes to food shortages and malnutrition in native human populations. The genetic structure of Maruca vitrata was investigated among five sites from Burkin...

  15. Effect of age and mating status on adult European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) dispersal from small-grain aggregation plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is often controlled with genetically modified corn hybrids [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn] in the U.S. If Bt-resistant moths are detected in the field, mitigation-remediation tactics must be implemented to sustain the efficacy of insecticidal...

  16. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  17. Infestation by Coffee White Stem Borer, Xylotrechus quadripes, in Relation to Soil and Plant Nutrient Content and Associated Quality Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2016-01-01

    Infestation by coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is becoming severe in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in North and South America. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the severity of infe

  18. Interaction between N-fertilizer and water availability on borer-rot complex in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo da Rocha Pannuti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrogen availability in fertigation and rainfed management, as well as their interactions with the incidence of and damage caused by D. saccharalis and red rot in sugarcane. The experiment consisted of four treatments (0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer with irrigation; 0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer in rainfed management in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The evaluated parameters were the number of holes and internodes with red rot per meter of cultivation, stalk yield and sugar content. In the laboratory (T = 25 ± 2 °C; R.H. = 70 ± 10%: 12:12-L:D, we evaluated the attractiveness and consumption of fragments of stalks from the different treatments for fourth instar larvae through choice and no-choice tests in a randomized complete block design with ten replications. Nitrogen fertilization via irrigation has favorable effects on borer-rot complex and leads to higher gains in stalk and sugar yields when compared to rainfed management. The increments of stalk and sugar yields due to nitrogen fertilization compensates for the increase in borer-rot complex infestation. In laboratory tests, D. saccharalis larvae were similarly attracted to all treatments regardless of the doses of N-fertilizer or the water regimes evaluated. However, fragments of sugarcane stalks produced with nitrogen fertilization were consumed more by D. saccharalis in both water regimes.

  19. Effects of snowdrop lectin on Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) life history parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sétamou, M; Bernal, J S; Mirkov, T E; Legaspi, J C

    2003-06-01

    The effects of the snowdrop lectin, Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), delivered through an artificial diet, on growth, development, and life history parameters of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), were evaluated in the laboratory. Incorporation of GNA at three treatment levels, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of total dietary protein, in the larval diet significantly decreased larval survivorship and percentage of adults emerging relative to a control diet lacking GNA, whereas differences were not observed among the three treatment levels. Both larvae and pupae in the control were 8-25% larger than those in the GNA treatments, but differences were not observed between larvae in the GNA treatments. Furthermore, presence of GNA did not affect larval and pupal developmental periods, longevities, and fecundities compared with the control. Mexican rice borer life history parameters, such as net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase, were substantially reduced by the presence of GNA in the diet, but differences were not evident among the three GNA treatment levels.

  20. Geostatistical Analysis on the Temporal Patterns of the Yellow Rice Borer, Tryporyza incertulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhe-ming; WANG Zhi; HU Xiang-yue

    2005-01-01

    In order to comprehend temporal pattern of the larvae population of the yellow rice borer, Tryporyza incertulas, and provide valuable information for its forecast model, the data series of the population for each generation and the over-wintered larvae from 1960 to 1990 in Dingcheng District, Changde City, Hunan Province, were analyzed with geostatistics. The data series of total number,the 1 st generation, the 3rd generation and the over-wintered larvae year to year displayed rather better autocorrelation and prediction.The data series of generation to generation, the 2nd generation and the 4th generation year to year, however, demonstrated poor autocorrelation, especially for the 4th generation, whose autocorrelation degree was zero. The population dynamics of the yellow rice borer was obviously intermittent. A remarkable cycle of four generations, one year, was observed in the population of generation to generation. Omitting the certain generation or interposing the over-wintered larvae only resulted in a less or slight change of autocorrelation of the whole data series generation to generation. Crop system, food, climate and natural enemies, therefore, played more important roles in regulating the population dynamics than base number of the larvae. The basic techniques of geostatistics applied in analyzing temporal population dynamics were outlined.

  1. Overwintering biology and limits of cold tolerance in larvae of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Šimek, P; Koštál, V

    2016-08-01

    Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season. Their supercooling points (SCPs) ranged between -19.4 and -22.7°C from October to February. Larvae were able to survive 24 h exposures to -15°C anytime during the cold season. During December and January, larvae were undergoing quiescence type of dormancy caused probably by low ambient temperatures and/or changes in host tree physiology (tree dormancy). Larvae attain highest cold tolerance (high survival at -20°C) during dormancy, which offers them sufficient protection against geographically and ecologically relevant cold spells. High cold tolerance during dormancy was not associated with accumulation of any low-molecular mass cryoprotective substances. The SCP sets the limit of cold tolerance in pistachio twig borer, meaning that high mortality of overwintering populations can be expected only in the regions or years where or when the temperatures fall below the average larval SCP (i.e., below -20°C). Partial mortality can be expected also when temperatures repeatedly drop close to the SCP on a diurnal basis. PMID:27063868

  2. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

    2011-10-01

    Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations.

  3. BIO-EFFICACY OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST FRUIT BORER (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Katroju,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment carried out during kharif, 2012 at Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG @11 g a.i. ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 22 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @ 500 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @1000 g a.i. ha-1, spinosad 45 SC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis @ 25 g a.i. ha-1against tomato fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera. Among all the insecticides, profenophos (1000 g a.i. ha-1 was found to be the most effective one with a maximum reduction in fruit borer population (65.20%, minimum per cent of fruit damage (28.80% and maximum yield (26.43 kg/20 m2 followed by bifenthrin @ 100 g a.i.ha-1 with reduced larval population of 64.51% and damaged fruits 32.60%.

  4. Acculturation and mental health--empirical verification of J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, M W; Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, C

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many studies concerning mental health among ethnic minorities have used the concept of acculturation as a model of explanation, in particular J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress. But Berry's theory has only been empirically verified few times. The aims of the study were...... to examine whether Berry's hypothesis about the connection between acculturation and mental health can be empirically verified for Greenlanders living in Denmark and to analyse whether acculturation plays a significant role for mental health among Greenlanders living in Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS......: The study used data from the 1999 Health Profile for Greenlanders in Denmark. As measure of mental health we applied the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Acculturation was assessed from answers to questions about how the respondents value the fact that children maintain their traditional cultural...

  5. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants.

  6. A new method to calculate Berry phase in one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Based on the residue theorem and degenerate perturbation theory, we derive a new, simple and general formula for Berry phase calculation in a two-level system for which the Hamiltonian is a real symmetric matrix. The special torus topology possessed by the first Brillouin zone (1 BZ) of this kind of systems ensures the existence of a nonzero Berry phase. We verify the correctness of our formula on the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Then the Berry phase of one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator (1DQAHI) is calculated analytically by applying our method, the result being -π/2 -π/4 sgn (B) [ sgn (Δ - 4 B) + sgn (Δ) ]. Finally, illuminated by this idea, we investigate the Chern number in the two-dimensional case, and find a very simple way to determine the parameter range of the non-trivial Chern number in the phase diagram.

  7. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants. PMID:27451151

  8. Berry curvature and four-dimensional monopoles in the relativistic chiral kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Pu, Shi; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2013-06-28

    We derive a relativistic chiral kinetic equation with manifest Lorentz covariance from Wigner functions of spin-1/2 massless fermions in a constant background electromagnetic field. It contains vorticity terms and a four-dimensional Euclidean Berry monopole which gives an axial anomaly. By integrating out the zeroth component of the 4-momentum p, we reproduce the previous three-dimensional results derived from the Hamiltonian approach, together with the newly derived vorticity terms. The phase space continuity equation has an anomalous source term proportional to the product of electric and magnetic fields (FσρF[over ˜]σρ∼EσBσ). This provides a unified interpretation of the chiral magnetic and vortical effects, chiral anomaly, Berry curvature, and the Berry monopole in the framework of Wigner functions.

  9. Berry curvature and four-dimensional monopoles in the relativistic chiral kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Pu, Shi; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2013-06-28

    We derive a relativistic chiral kinetic equation with manifest Lorentz covariance from Wigner functions of spin-1/2 massless fermions in a constant background electromagnetic field. It contains vorticity terms and a four-dimensional Euclidean Berry monopole which gives an axial anomaly. By integrating out the zeroth component of the 4-momentum p, we reproduce the previous three-dimensional results derived from the Hamiltonian approach, together with the newly derived vorticity terms. The phase space continuity equation has an anomalous source term proportional to the product of electric and magnetic fields (FσρF[over ˜]σρ∼EσBσ). This provides a unified interpretation of the chiral magnetic and vortical effects, chiral anomaly, Berry curvature, and the Berry monopole in the framework of Wigner functions. PMID:23848865

  10. Preserving Brain Function in Aging: The Anti-glycative Potential of Berry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are naturally occurring macromolecules that are formed in vivo by the non-enzymatic modification of proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids by sugar, even in the absence of hyperglycemia. In the diet, AGEs are found in animal products, and additional AGEs are produced when those foods are cooked at high temperatures. Studies have linked AGEs to various age-related physiological changes, including wrinkles, diabetic complications, and neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease. Dietary berry fruits have been shown to reduce the severity or slow the progression of many physiological changes and disease pathologies that accompany aging. Emerging evidence has shown that the phytochemicals found in berry fruits exhibit anti-glycative activity. In this review, we briefly summarize the current evidence supporting the neuroprotective anti-glycative activity of berry fruits and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. PMID:27166828

  11. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study.

  12. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (map) on the quality of sea buckthorn berry fruits during postharvest storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of the berry fruits of sea buckthorn (SBT) during refrigerated storage was investigated. SBT berries were packaged in 160 and 525 oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films or in vented clamshell containers (air control) and stored at 10C fo...

  13. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  14. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  15. SCREENING OF MAIZE GENOTYPES AGAINST STEM BORER CHILO PARTELLUS L. IN KHARIF SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekhar Lella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. being the highest yielding cereal crop in the world is of significant importance for countries like India, where rapidly increasing population already out stripped the available food supplies. Maize crop possesses great genetic diversity. Maize Plant is attacked by 140 species of insects causing varying degree of damage causing an annual loss of over 1 billion in the Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT, 1992. Out of these, only 10 species cause serious damage from sowing till storage, of which the stemborer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe is the major one (Hiremath et al., 1988. The larvae of C.partellus after hatching feed on soft surface of the leaves and then enter the stem through whorl of feeding on the pith of the stem. The growth of the plants becomes shunted and resulting in dead hearts when attacked by C.partellus at their initial stages. The larvae transferred from other plants enter the stem through lower nodes by making the holes. Stem borers pupate inside the stem. They make holes before pupation for the emergence of adults. Since host plant resistance is the back bone of Insect Pest Management; hence the present investigation was initiated. Present studies were designed to identify maize genotype resistance against stem borer in order to minimize pesticide use, improve natural balance, and enhance the activity of bio control agents, and to increase crop production. The investigations were carried out on the screening of Maize genotypes against Maize stem borer Chilo partellus in kharif season were conducted on the agricultural farm of the institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during kharif season of 2010-2011 to screen the relative resistance /susceptibility of 19 genotypes of maize to the insect pest, maize stem borer (Chilo partellus. In order to screen the relative susceptibility of different maize genotypes to maize stem borer the following genotypes were screened under field conditions. The

  16. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  17. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  18. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M.; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways—VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT—were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full

  19. Study of polyphenols in grape berries by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, O; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Slowing, K; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-02-18

    Several polyphenols have been tested in grape berries from Spain. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas resveratrol has been proved to be an antifungal, antiinflammatory and an anticarcinogenic compound. A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and applied to determine resveratrol, quercetine, quercitrine and rutine content in several grape berries samples in a single analysis. Covering the grapes with a preservative paper yields a healthier product, but one which has a lower polyphenol content than unprotected grapes.

  20. Experimental reconstruction of the Berry curvature in a topological Bloch band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitenberg, Christof; Flaeschner, Nick; Rem, Benno; Tarnowski, Matthias; Vogel, Dominik; Luehmann, Dirk-Soeren; Sengstock, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Topological properties lie at the heart of many fascinating phenomena in solid state systems such as quantum Hall systems or Chern insulators. The topology can be captured by the distribution of Berry curvature, which describes the geometry of the eigenstates across the Brillouin zone. Employing fermionic ultracold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice, we engineer the Berry curvature of the Bloch bands using resonant driving and measure it with full momentum resolution. Our results pave the way to explore intriguing phases of matter with interactions in topological band structures.

  1. Kaolin Foliar Application Has a Stimulatory Effect on Phenylpropanoid and Flavonoid Pathways in Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Pimentel, Diana; Neves, Andreia; Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Bernardo, Sara; Correia, Carlos M; Gerós, Hernâni; Moutinho-Pereira, José

    2016-01-01

    Drought, elevated air temperature, and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic) and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways-VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT-were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were about two-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially at full maturity

  2. Hypoglycaemic activity of Embelia ribes berries (50% etoh) extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Ashok; Vyas, Keshav Bihari; Vyas, Surendra Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Oral administration of Embelia ribes berries (50% EtoH) reduced blood sugar level significantly. In intact rats, blood sugar levels were decreased by 13.1% and 20.3% after 3 hrs. and 5 hrs. of treatment respectively. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats blood glucose levels were decreased after 3 hours and 5hours by 28.1% and 34.5% respectively. Hypoglycaemic action of Embelia ribes berries may be due to its direct action on tissue or due to increase in insulin secretion.

  3. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article in response to: Barber-Meyer, S. (2015) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12338. We used multiple data sets and study areas as well as several lines of evidence to investigate potential trophic linkages in Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that a trophic cascade from wolves to elk to berry production to berry consumption by grizzly bears may now be underway in the Park.

  4. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  5. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  6. Ampelographic description of cluster, berry and seed of merlot cultivar (Vitis vinifera L. and its selected clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Dragan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a four-year period, ampelographic experiments focusing on the berry cluster (average length of grape cluster, number of grape clusters per shoot, number of berries per grape cluster and length of peduncle, berry (length of berry and berry juice yield, length of pedicel and seed (length of berry seed of Merlot cultivar (used as a relevant standard and 11 clones (Nos. 022, 023, 025, 026, 027, 028, 029, 030, 031, 033 and 034 were performed in order to establish the differences among them. These experiments were actually conducted in the third phase of individual clonal selection of Merlot cultivar carried out in Serbia. The lengths of grape cluster and pedicel as well as berry must yields differed significantly among the examined clones. The cluster and principal component analyses classified 12 samples into three divergent clusters/groups, respectively. The clones belonging to the cluster II /the second group/ had significantly higher values of numbers of grape clusters per shoot and berries per grape cluster; lengths of peduncle and berry; berry must yield and length of pedicel, compared both to standard Merlot /the cluster I, the first group/ and the clones of the cluster III /the third group/. The phenological observations showed no significant differences in the beginnings and durations of phenological stages and vegetation period of the examined clones. The obtained results indicate the real need for further research work focused both on the agrobiological and technological properties of the grapes and wines aiming to better describe the selected clones. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 0719, br. 46009 i br. 172053

  7. PCR-based Synthesis of Codon Optimized cry2Aa Gene for Production of Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) Resistant Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Rahul

    2005-01-01

    Brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) is a major limiting factor in commercial cultivation of eggplant in southeast Asia. Extensive use of pesticides as well as the conventional breeding methods have been ineffective in controlling the borer so there is a need for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies for its control. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known to produce a variety of insecticidal crystal proteins toxic to lepidopteran, dipteran and coleopteran pests. The...

  8. Per se perforformance and heterosis for shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Gn) resistance and yeild in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S.Praneetha , T.Sarasvathy, D.Veeraragavathatham and L.Pugalendhi

    2013-01-01

    Nine parents involving full diallel mating design was used to obtain the hybrids. Heterosis effect on different charactersalong with fruit yield and shoot and fruit borer resistance in brinjal was estimated. The cross EP 12 x MDU 1 recorded thehighest heterobeltiosis per cent followed by EP 65 x Pusa Uttam and the best parent heterosis was maximum in EP 65 xPusa Uttam for marketable yield per plant. For shoot borer infestation the highest negative heterobeltiosis was recorded inthe hybrid EP ...

  9. Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M

    2015-10-01

    We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. PMID:26314014

  10. Penicillium strains isolated from Slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Antonello; Mikušová, Petra; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Labuda, Roman; Srobárová, Antónia

    2014-11-01

    The secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in Slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. Three Slovak vine regions have been selected for this study, based on their climatic differences and national economic importance. Cultures of microfungi isolated from berries were incubated on different selective media for macro and micromorphology identification. The species Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium palitans and Penicillium polonicum were identified according to growth and morphology. The related strains were found to produce a broad spectrum of fungal metabolites, including roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin A, penitrem A, cyclopeptin, cyclopenin, viridicatin, methylviridicatin, verrucofortine, secalonic acid D, cyclopiazonic acid, fumigaclavine and mycophenolic acid. Chemotaxonomy was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Dried grape berries were also analyzed allowing to assess the presence of patulin, roquefortine C and penicillic acid; this last one has been identified in dried berries but not in vitro.

  11. Berry phase effects in the dynamics of Dirac electrons in doubly special relativity framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) generalization of Dirac equation in an external potential in the Magueijo-Smolin base. The particles obey a modified energy-momentum dispersion relation. The semiclassical diagonalization of the Dirac Hamiltonian reveals the intrinsic Berry phase effects in the particle dynamics

  12. A Berry-Esseen Type Bound in Kernel Density Estimation for Negatively Associated Censored Data

    OpenAIRE

    Qunying Wu; Pingyan Chen

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the kernel estimation of a density function based on censored data when the survival and the censoring times form the stationary negatively associated (NA) sequences. Under certain regularity conditions, the Berry-Esseen type bounds are derived for the kernel density estimator and the Kaplan-Meier kernel density estimator at a fixed point $x$ .

  13. Selection of Arabica coffee types resistant to coffee berry disease in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C. arabica -parasites; Coffee Berry Disease, symptoms, epidemiology, geographic

  14. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins.

  15. Combined Enzymatic and High-Pressure Processing Affect Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Berries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Lille, M.; Poutanen, K.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) on cell wall polysaccharides in berries was investigated. HPP decreased the degree of methyl esterification (DM), probably by activation of pectin methyl esterase (PME), and improved the extractability of pectins. When commercial enzyme mixtures were adde

  16. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Liu, J Y; Graf, D; Radmanesh, S M A; Adams, D J; Chuang, A; Wang, Y; Chiorescu, I; Wei, J; Spinu, L; Mao, Z Q

    2016-01-01

    The recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. Here we report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state, including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted. PMID:26726050

  17. With BlackBerry in Decline,RIM Will Shed 2,000Jobs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    as it struggles with the declining popularity of the BlackBerry line of smartphones, Research in Motion said on Monday that it would begin laying off about 2,000 employees, 10.5 percent of its work force, this week.

  18. Classical geometric phase of gyro-motion is a coherent quantum Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongxuan

    2016-01-01

    We show that the geometric phase of the gyro-motion of a classical charged particle in a uniform time-dependent magnetic field described by Newton's equation is a coherent quantum Berry phase for the coherent states of the Schr\\"odinger equation or the Dirac equation. This equivalence is established by constructing coherent states for a particle using the energy eigenstates on the Landau levels and proving that the coherent states can maintain their status of coherent states during the slow varying of the magnetic field. It is discovered that orbital Berry phases of the eigenstates interfere coherently such that a coherent Berry phase for the coherent states can be naturally defined, which is exactly the geometric phase of the classical gyro-motion. This technique works for particles with and without spin. For particles with spin, on each of the eigenstates that makes up the coherent states, the Berry phase consists of two parts that can be identified as those due to the orbital and the spin motion. It is the...

  19. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. PMID:27536526

  20. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents' Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…

  1. 137Cs in Finnish wild berries, mushrooms and game meat in 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of 137Cs in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat were measured in samples collected during 2000-2005 in areas with varying 137Cs deposition levels in Finland. Depending on the 137Cs deposition levels in the sampling areas, the areal-mean activity concentrations of 137Cs were 10-230 Bq kg-1 in wild berries, 20-240 Bq kg-1 in moose meat and 10-3000 Bq kg-1 in all mushroom species. Compared with the 137Cs level of samples collected in 1986 in the corresponding areas, the reduction in the 137Cs level was about one third for wild berries, equal to the rate of radioactive decay of 137Cs. More reduction was observed in the activity concentrations of 137Cs in moose meat, on average up to 50% since 1986. The aggregated transfer coefficients from soil to wild berries showed no change since 1986-1988, while there was about one third reduction in those from soil to game meat. (orig.)

  2. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  3. Inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid grape cross population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation patterns and inheritance of anthocyanin content in the ripe berries of a tetraploid × diploid table grape cross population were investigated in two successive years. The population segregated for three different ploidy levels: dipolids, triploids, and tetraploids. A total of 28 different a...

  4. The Martha Berry Digital Archive Project: A Case Study in Experimental pEDagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Schlitz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the Martha Berry Digital Archive Project as an exploratory case study, this article discusses experimental methods in digital archive development, describing how and why a small project team is leveraging undergraduate student support, a participatory (crowdsourced editing model, and free and open source software to digitize and disseminate a large documentary collection.

  5. Blowing the Fuse: Berry's Phase and Runaway Vibrations in Molecular Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Brandbyge, Mads; Hedegård, P.

    2010-01-01

    mechanism, which surprisingly involves the quantum mechanical phase of the electronic waves, the "Berry phase". This mechanism works for highly conducting bridges, and contrary to breakdown by traditional joule heating, this instability is deterministic and occurs at certain critical voltages. We...

  6. TIME-DEPENDENT LANDAU SYSTEM AND NON-ADIABATIC BERRY PHASE IN TWO DIMENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Hui; Wu Jian-sheng

    2000-01-01

    By applying the time-independent unitary transformation, thetime-dependent Landau system is transformed into a product of atime-independent Landau system's Hamiltonian and a factor only dependingon time, which can be solved exactly. Both the invariant operator andthe eigenstate are obtained. In the periodical time-dependent case, thenon-adiabatic Berry's phase is also presented.

  7. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  8. Colonization of grapes berries by Alternaria sp. and their ability to produce mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research focused on identify the Alternaria species from grapes (surface sterilized berries and non-surface sterilized berries of Slovak origin and characterize their toxinogenic potential in in vitro conditions. We analyzed 47 samples of grapes, harvested in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species, the method of direct plating berries and surface-sterilized berries (using 1 % freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar was used. For each analysis was used 50 berries. Only undamaged berries have been used for analysis. The cultivation was carried at 25 ±1°C, for 5 to 7 days in dark. After incubation, the colonies of Alternaria were transferred on PCA - potato-carrot agar and CYA - Czapek-yeast extract agar and cultured for 7 days at room temperature and natural light. A total 4 species-groups of the genus Alternaria were isolated from grapes berries: Alternaria alternata (1369 isolates, Alternaria arborescens (734 isolates, Alternaria infectoria (143 isolates, and Alternaria tenuissima (3579 isolates. According to European Union legislation mycotoxins produced by species genus Alternaria are not monitored in foods and food commodities. Mycotoxins such as alternariol and alternariol monomethylether are mutagenic and genotoxic in various in vitro systems. Selected strains were tested for production of altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol. In neither case of A. infectoria species-group isolates was confirmed the production of tested mycotoxins in in vitro conditions by TLC method. The ability to produce altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol in in vitro conditions was detected in isolates of Alternaria alternata, Alternaria arborescens and Alternaria tenuissima species-groups. Isolates of Alternaria alternata species-group (44 tested isolates were able to produce altenuene (24 isolates, alternariol monomethyleter (42 isolates

  9. Potential Benefits of Edible Berries in the Management of Aerodigestive and Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishayee, Anupam; Haskell, Yennie; Do, Chau; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Mohandas, Nima; Sethi, Gautam; Stoner, Gary D

    2016-07-26

    Epidemiological reports as well as experimental studies have demonstrated the significant health benefits provided by regular berry consumption. Berries possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potential against several chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. Berries owe their health benefits to phytoconstituents, such as polyphenolic anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and a diverse array of phytochemicals bestowed with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the ability to engage a multitude of signaling pathways. This review highlights the principal chemical constituents present in berries and their primary molecular targets. The article presents and critically analyzes the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of berry extracts, fractions, and bioactive components on various cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including esophageal, stomach, intestinal, and colorectal cancers as well as cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as oral cancer. The current status of clinical studies evaluating berry products in several aforementioned cancers is presented. Various emerging issues including dose-ranging and dosage forms, the role of synergy and the usage of combination therapy as well as other relevant areas essential for the development of berry phytoconstituents as mainstream chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against aerodigestive and GIT cancers are critically discussed. PMID:25781639

  10. Niche of insect borers within Pinus massoniana infected by pine wood nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jiying; LUO Youqing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiaosu; CHEN Weiping; JIANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    In November 2003 and June 2004,the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City,in East China's Zhejiang Province,where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found.The niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying trees were computed.Results show that five insect species infect and damage Pinus massoniana,which had been infected by pine wood nematodes,among which four are wood boring beetles and one termite.Species within host trees vary from winter to summer and all the species have their own niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap.They can achieve competitive equilibrium and coexistence according to their biological characteristics and life habits.

  11. Induced sterility of sugarcane steam borer Chilo auricilius (dudgeon) by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sery of experiments have been conducted to obtained the optimum radiation dose for sterilizing the moth of sugarcane stem borer. Both male and female pupae of 5 to 6 day-old were irradiated separetelly by gamma rays from Gammacel-220 irradiator. The results shows that gamma rays exposed to pupae stage significantly, influenced the pupae viability, morphological alterations, longevity, and sterility of moths. The effects of gamma irradiation on insect somatic cell clearly seen at the dose of 300 Gy and increse at doses 400 and 500 Gy. No differences were found in the radiation susceptibility of males and females for pupae viability and morphological alterations. While for the sterility, male was significantly more resistant than female. The dose of 150 Gy given to a male and a female pupae caused moth sterility of 89.97% and 100% respectively. (authors). 14 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Evaluation of advanced chickpea genotypes for resistance to pod borer, helicoverpa armigera (hubner) (lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the comparative varietal resistance in thirteen advanced desi chickpea genotypes against chickpea pod borer (CPB), Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2007-2008. Weekly observations showed that mean larval population of CPB in different genotypes ranged from 0.33 to 4.33 per meter row from first week of March to third week of April, where the pod damage varied from 7.4 to 14.2%. The results manifest that among the tested genotypes, B 8/02, showed the maximum resistant to CPB along with B 8/03, CH 4/02 and CH 9/02 with highest resistant to CPB, less larval population per plant, minimum pod damage and highest grain yield with increase of 256.8 to 285.7% with respect to check. Therefore, conclude that these genotypes can be used in crossing/evolving new elite chickpea varieties. (author)

  13. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, Malverina, Laurot, and Hibernal harvested during six consecutive weeks. Mechanical behaviour was measured using compression and puncture tests using of TIRATEST 27025 testing machine. Skin mechanical properties were evaluated using a puncture test carried out on the equatorial side. The dependence of these properties on the chemical composition has been evaluated. These parameters of force/time curves were studied by puncture test: the berry skin break force, the needle displacement at the skin break and the berry skin break energy. The crushing force, the plate displacement at the crushing strength and the berry crushing energy were studied from force/time curves by compression test. Results of the puncture test shows that there the skin break strength and the acidity content are monotonic functions of the time. A comparison of different varieties from the point of the value of the crushing force was obtained by vertical and transversal loading. The crushing force is monotonically decreasing function of the harvesting time like the break force evaluated at the puncture test. The correlation between the skin break strength and the sugar content is significant namely for the varieties: Hibernal, Riesling, Malverina, and Cerason. 

  14. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. Hossain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries. The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content.

  15. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2016-01-01

    The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries). The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content. PMID:27023503

  16. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  17. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  18. [Diagnosing Low Health and Wood Borer Attacked Trees of Chinese Arborvitae by Using Thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wu, De-jun; Zhai, Guo-feng; Zang, Li-peng

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy metabolism of plants is very important actions in their lives. Although the studies about these actions by using thermography were often reported, seldom were found in detecting the health status of forest trees. In this study, we increase the measurement accuracy and comparability of thermo-images by creating the difference indices. Based on it, we exam the water and energy status in stem of Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) by detecting the variance of far infrared spectrum between sap-wood and heart-wood of the cross-section of felling trees and the cores from an increment borer using thermography. The results indicate that the sap rate between sapwood and heartwood is different as the variance of the vigor of forest trees. Meanwhile, the image temperature of scale leaves from Chinese arborvitae trees with different vigor is also dissimilar. The far infrared spectrum more responds the sap status not the wood percentage in comparing to the area rate between sapwood and heartwood. The image temperature rate can be used in early determining the health status of Chinese arborvitae trees. The wood borers such as Phloeosinus aubei Perris and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky are the pests which usually attack the low health trees, dying trees, wilted trees, felled trees and new cultivated trees. This measuring technique may be an important index to diagnose the health and vigor status after a large number of measurements for Chinese arborvitae trees. Therefore, there is potential to be an important index to check the tree vigor and pest damage status by using this technique. It will be a key in the tending and management of ecological and public Chinese arborvitae forest.

  19. Sugarcane giant borer transcriptome analysis and identification of genes related to digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sousa Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; de Góis, Luiz Avelar Brandão; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus), a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB) transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN) cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control. PMID:25706301

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin binding to brush border membrane vesicles of rice stem borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Edwin P; Aguda, Remedios M; Curtiss, April; Dean, Donald H; Cohen, Michael B

    2004-04-01

    The receptor binding step in the molecular mode of action of five delta-endotoxins (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, Cry2A, and Cry9C) from Bacillus thuringiensis was examined to find toxins with different receptor sites in the midgut of the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and yellow stem borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Homologous competition assays were used to estimate binding affinities (K(com)) of (125)I-labelled toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). The SSB BBMV affinities in decreasing order was: Cry1Ab = Cry1Ac > Cry9C > Cry2A > Cry1C. In YSB, the order of decreasing affinities was: Cry1Ac > Cry1Ab > Cry9C = Cry2A > Cry1C. The number of binding sites (B(max)) estimated by homologous competition binding among the Cry toxins did not affect toxin binding affinity (K(com)) to both insect midgut BBMVs. Results of the heterologous competition binding assays suggest that Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac compete for the same binding sites in SSB and YSB. Other toxins bind with weak (Cry1C, Cry2A) or no affinity (Cry9C) to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac binding sites in both species. Cry2A had the lowest toxicity to 10-day-old SSB and Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were the most toxic. Taken together, the results of this study show that Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac could be combined with either Cry1C, Cry2A, or Cry9C for more durable resistance in transgenic rice. Cry1Ab should not be used together with Cry1Ac because a mutation in one receptor site could diminish binding of both toxins. PMID:15027071

  1. Sugarcane giant borer transcriptome analysis and identification of genes related to digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campos de Assis Fonseca

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus, a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control.

  2. Effect of Rice Volatiles on the Orientation Behavior of the Striped Stem Borer,Chilo suppressalis Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-mei; CHEN Hua-cai; LIAO Min; LOU Yong-gen; LIU Wei-ping; CHENG Jia-an; Susanne KLOSE; SHEN Qun-chao

    2004-01-01

    The orientation behavior of the 1st and the 3rd instar larvae of the striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppessalis, to the volatiles emitted from rice plants was studied with a Y-tube olfactometer. The treatments included healthy plants vs clean air (HP vs CA), striped stem borer damaged plants vs clean air (SSB-DP vs CA), rice leaf folder damaged plants vs clean air (RLF-DP vs CA),HP vs SSB-DP, HP vs RLF-DP and SSB-DP vs RLF-DP. Volatiles from all rice plants had significant attraction for both of the 1st and the 3rd instar larvae. The orientation selection of larvae to the volatiles from rice plants treated differentially (HP, SSB-DP, and RLF-DP) did not impose any significant influence.

  3. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta; Picanço Marcelo Coutinho; Zanuncio José Cola; Bacci Leandro; Silva Ézio Marques da

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM) in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides), IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved), and control (no pesticide was applied). IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less ...

  4. Farmers knowledge and perception on maize stem borers and their indigenous control methods in south western region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Oben, Esther Obi; Ntonifor, Nelson Neba; Kekeunou, Sevilor; Abbeytakor, Martin Nkwa

    2015-01-01

    Background Agriculture is a major contributor to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Cameroon, The South West region of Cameroon is known for its potential in the production of major agricultural commodities, but farmers’ yields from various speculations are low, dwindling over time due to some major constraints. Maize production is hampered by adverse socio-economic factors, several pests and diseases as well as high rainfall with low solar radiation. Lepidopterous maize stem borers are a ma...

  5. Utilizing wild relative ((Solanum viarum) as resistant source to shoot and fruit borer in brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    L.Pugalendhi, D.Veeraragavathatham, S.Natarjan and S. Praneetha

    2010-01-01

    Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.) has very important place in Indian curries and also in China, Japan and Southern Europianrecipies. High yield combined with good quality as well as resistance to shoot and fruit borer in a brinjal variety is the ultimateaim in the most of the brinjal breeding programme. Solanum viarum is closely related to Solanum melongena and both are crosscompatible. Therefore hybridization was undertaken in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with Solanum viarum to transfer th...

  6. Influence of Mortality Factors and Host Resistance on the Population Dynamics of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Urban Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer. PMID:26308819

  7. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus R Campos

    Full Text Available The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2 = 0.71. Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51 indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully

  8. The Legacy of Past Tree Planting Decisions for a City Confronting Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Christopher S.; Millward, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Management decisions grounded in ecological understanding are essential to the maintenance of a healthy urban forest. Decisions about where and what tree species to plant have both short and long-term consequences for the future function and resilience of city trees. Through the construction of a theoretical damage index, this study examines the legacy effects of a street tree planting program in a densely populated North American city confronting an invasion of emerald ash borer (Agrilus pla...

  9. Origin and taxonomic status of the Palearctic population of the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moyal, Pascal; Tokro, P.; BAYRAM, A.; Savopoulou-Soultani, M.; Conti, E; Eizaguirre, M.; Le Rü, Bruno; Avand-Faghih, A.; Frerot, B.; Andreadis, S

    2011-01-01

    The major pest of maize in Mediterranean Europe, the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has a fragmented distribution, north and south of the Sahara. The present study aimed: (1) to clarify the uncertain taxonomic status of the Palearctic and sub-Saharan populations which were first considered as different species and later on as subspecies (Sesamia nonagrioides nonagrioides and Sesamia nonagrioides botanephaga) and (2) to investigate the origin of the Palear...

  10. Transcriptome Sequencing, and Rapid Development and Application of SNP Markers for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Margam, Venu M.; Brad S Coates; Bayles, Darrell O.; Richard L. Hellmich; Tolulope Agunbiade; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Weilin Sun; Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Ibrahim Baoua; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Ramasamy Srinivasan; Joel Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analy...

  11. Resistance Identification of Maize Germplasms to Corn Borer%玉米种质资源抗螟性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青青; 郭成; 郭满库; 魏宏玉; 郭建国

    2014-01-01

    为明确玉米不同品种(系)之间的抗螟性差异,采用田间自然感螟法,于2010~2011年在甘肃省天水市甘谷县对478份玉米种质资源进行田间抗性鉴定。结果表明:在216份农家种资源、216份自交系和46份杂交种中共筛选出高抗材料86份、抗螟材料85份、中抗材料167份,分别占供鉴材料的18.0%、17.8%和34.9%;其余140份为感螟和高感材料,占29.3%。%So as to confirm the borer-resistance differences among different corn varieties ( inbred lines ) , the study adopted the method of being naturally infected by Ostrinia furnacalis under field conditions , and identified the resistance of 478 maize germ-plasms to corn borer in Gan ’ gu county, Tianshui city, Gansu province from 2010 to 2012.The results showed that: among 478 maize germplasms (216 peasant variety resources , 216 inbred lines and 46 hybrids), 86 high-resistant materials (18.0% of all materials), 85 borer-resistant materials (17.8%), 167 middle-resistant materials (34.9%) were screened out;the other 140 materials were susceptible or highly susceptible to corn borer , accounting for 29.3%of all tested materials.

  12. The side effect of Paecilomyces fumosoroseusapplication on the black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus, the predator of Helopeltis antoniiand cocoa pod borer

    OpenAIRE

    Endang Sulistyowai; Endang Mufrihati; Bekti Andayani

    2006-01-01

    Paecilomyces fumosoroseuswas known as one of the effective biological agents of cocoa pod borer and Helopeltis antonii. To find out the side effect of application of P. fumosoroseuson black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus, a series of observations were carried out at the Laboratory of Pest and Diseases Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) and in a cocoa plantation of Glenmore, Banyuwangi district, since June until October, 2004. Laboratory research used four concentrations of P...

  13. The trapping catches of sex pheromone lure of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis at different storage duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a serious pest of rice plants in China. Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16: Ald), Z-13-octadecenal (Z13-18: Ald), and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16: Ald) were the major components of female sex pheromone. There is few study related to the lure storage duration on the trap catches of C. suppressalis. Test of storage duration was necessary for utilizing sex pheromone as a control agent.

  14. Phylogeography and population genetics of the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sezonlin, Michel; Dupas, Stéphane; Le Ru, Bruno; Le Gall, Philippe; Moyal, Pascal; Calatayud, Paul-André; Giffard, I; Faure, N; Silvain, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The population genetics and phylogeography of African phytophagous insects have received little attention. Some, such as the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca, display significant geographic differences in ecological preferences that may be congruent with patterns of molecular variation. To test this, we collected 307 individuals of this species from maize and cultivated sorghum at 52 localities in West, Central and East Africa during the growing season. For all collected individuals, we seque...

  15. Utilizing wild relative ((Solanum viarum as resistant source to shoot and fruit borer in brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Pugalendhi, D.Veeraragavathatham, S.Natarjan and S. Praneetha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn. has very important place in Indian curries and also in China, Japan and Southern Europianrecipies. High yield combined with good quality as well as resistance to shoot and fruit borer in a brinjal variety is the ultimateaim in the most of the brinjal breeding programme. Solanum viarum is closely related to Solanum melongena and both are crosscompatible. Therefore hybridization was undertaken in brinjal (Solanum melongena L. with Solanum viarum to transfer theresistance trait of shoot and fruit borer and combine the resistance trait with high yield of brinjal.. Hybridization was made andF1 hybrid plants were raised. Subsequently in each generation selfing was done followed by selection to obtain F9 generation. InF9 generation selection was done in the plants with high marketable yield along with very low or negligible shoot and fruit borerinfestation. The direct derivatives of EP 65 x Solanum viarum were evaluated upto F9 . Two recombinant progenies viz., 7 and 9were selected in F9 generation for carrying forward to the next generation based on their high marketable yield and the leastinfestation of shoot and fruit borer. Molecular study with RAPD primers also revealed the introgression of the genes from donorparent Solanum viarum to brinjal.

  16. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Chilo auricilius and comparison with three other rice stem borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-09-15

    The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths. PMID:25042162

  17. Differential behavior within a grapevine cluster: decreased ethylene-related gene expression dependent on auxin transport is correlated with low abscission of first developed berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kühn

    Full Text Available In grapevine, fruit abscission is known to occur within the first two to three weeks after flowering, but the reason why some berries in a cluster persist and others abscise is not yet understood. Ethylene sensitivity modulates abscission in several fruit species, based on a mechanism where continuous polar auxin transport across the pedicel results in a decrease in ethylene perception, which prevents abscission. In grapevine, flowering takes about four to seven days in a single cluster, thus while some flowers are developing into berries, others are just starting to open. So, in this work it was assessed whether uneven flowering accounted for differences in berry abscission dependent on polar auxin transport and ethylene-related gene expression. For this, flowers that opened in a cluster were tagged daily, which allowed to separately analyze berries, regarding their ability to persist. It was found that berries derived from flowers that opened the day that flowering started--named as "first berries"--had lower abscission rate than berries derived from flowers that opened during the following days--named as "late berries". Use of radiolabeled auxin showed that "first berries" had higher polar auxin transport, correlated with lower ethylene content and lower ethylene-related transcript abundance than "late berries". When "first berries" were treated with a polar auxin transport inhibitor they showed higher ethylene-related transcript abundance and were more prone to abscise than control berries. This study provides new insights on fruit abscission control. Our results indicate that polar auxin transport sustains the ability of "first berries" to persist in the cluster during grapevine abscission and also suggest that this could be associated with changes in ethylene-related gene expression.

  18. Assessment of Shape Changes of Mistletoe Berries: A New Software Approach to Automatize the Parameterization of Path Curve Shaped Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Renatus Derbidge; Linus Feiten; Oliver Conradt; Peter Heusser; Stephan Baumgartner

    2013-01-01

    Photographs of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) berries taken by a permanently fixed camera during their development in autumn were subjected to an outline shape analysis by fitting path curves using a mathematical algorithm from projective geometry. During growth and maturation processes the shape of mistletoe berries can be described by a set of such path curves, making it possible to extract changes of shape using one parameter called Lambda. Lambda describes the outline shape of a path curve. ...

  19. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening. PMID:26218433

  20. Influence of Bioregulator Gibberellic Acid on Some Technological Characteristics of Cluster and Berry from Some Seedless Grape Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Ivanova, Violeta; Ilieva, Fidanka; Sofijanova, Elenica

    2011-01-01

    Solutions of gibberellic acid prepared at threeconcentration levels including 5, 10 and 20 mg/L, were applied at two seedless grape varieties, Thompson and Belgrade, by spraying, during the three different periods of the vine growing: before blooming, after blooming and before veraison, in order to study their influence on some cultural technological characteristics. Dimension and shape of the cluster and berry, mechanical characteristics of the berries and chemical content of the must (sugar...

  1. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  2. Phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of a natural hybrid between bilberry and lingonberry (Vaccinium × intermedium Ruthe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Anja K; Riihinen, Kaisu R; Jaakola, Laura

    2011-06-01

    Hybridization between species plays an important role in the evolution of secondary metabolites and in the formation of combinations of existing secondary metabolites in plants. We have investigated the content of phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of Vaccinium×intermedium Ruthe, which is a rare natural hybrid between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). The berries and flowers of the hybrid showed characteristics inherited from both parent species in the distribution and contents of phenolic compounds. Bilberry is known as one of the richest sources of anthocyanins and to have a profile of 15 major forms combining cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin with galactose, glucose and arabinose. Lingonberry contains only cyanidin glycosides. Hybrid berries contained all bilberry anthocyanins with pronounced cyanidin content. With regard to proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides, the hybrid inherited diverse profiles combining those of both parental species. The distribution of hydroxycinnamic acids was quite uniform in all studied berries. Of the identified compounds, 30 were detected in lingonberry, 46 in bilberry, 53 in hybrid berries and 38 in hybrid flowers. Hence, compared with the parent species, hybrid berries possess a more diverse profile of phenolic compounds and, therefore, can offer interesting material for breeding purposes. PMID:21382629

  3. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  4. Classical surgical approach and treatment with clips of extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Vukas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We can define extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA as bulb dilatation greater than 200% of the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA or in a case of common carotid artery (CCA greater than 150% of the diameter. Surgical intervention is required for the treatment of this disease.Case report: This study presents an open vascular surgical procedure to resolve ECAA. We report a case of 61 years old woman with an extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm, presented with a headache and dizziness when turning the head aside. Classic open surgery was performed and the lumen of berry aneurysm was separated with three clips from the lumen of ICA.Conclusions: The open surgical approach is the method of choice for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery pathological conditions.

  5. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  6. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-03-01

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  7. Long Range Topological Order, the Chiral Condensate, and the Berry Connection in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, H B

    2014-01-01

    Topological insulators are substances which are bulk insulators but which carry current via special "topologically protected" edge states. The understanding of long range topological order in these systems is built around the idea of a Berry connection, which is a gauge connection obtained from the phase of the electron wave function transported over momentum space rather than coordinate space. The phase of a closed Wilson loop of the Berry connection around the Brillouin zone defines a topological order parameter which labels discrete flux vacua. The conducting states are surface modes on the domain walls between discrete vacua. Evidence from large-$N_c$ chiral dynamics, holographic QCD, and Monte Carlo observations has pointed to a picture of the QCD vacuum that is very similar to that of a topological insulator, with discrete quasivacua labelled by $\\theta$ angles that differ by mod $2\\pi$. In this picture, the domain walls are membranes of Chern-Simons charge, and the quark condensate consists of surface ...

  8. Topological insulators and the QCD vacuum: the theta parameter as a Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, H B

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence, based on large $N_c$ chiral dynamics, holographic QCD, and Monte Carlo studies, that the QCD vacuum is permeated by discrete quasivacua separated by domain walls across which the local value of the topological $\\theta$ parameter jumps by $\\pm2\\pi$. In the 2-dimensional $CP^{N-1}$ sigma model, a pointlike charge is a domain wall, and $\\theta$ describes the background electric flux and the polarization of charged pairs in the vacuum. We show that the screening process, and the role of $\\theta$ as an order parameter describing electric polarization, are naturally formulated in terms of Bloch wave eigenstates of the Dirac Hamiltonian in the background gauge field. This formulation is similar to the Berry phase description of electric polarization and quantized charge transport in topological insulators. The Bloch waves are quasiperiodic superpositions of localized Dirac zero modes. They define a Berry connection around the Brillouin zone of the zero mode band which describes the lo...

  9. Berry phase and band structure analysis of the Weyl semimetal NbP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergelius, Philip; Gooth, Johannes; Bäßler, Svenja; Zierold, Robert; Wiegand, Christoph; Niemann, Anna; Reith, Heiko; Shekhar, Chandra; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Nielsch, Kornelius

    2016-01-01

    Weyl semimetals are often considered the 3D-analogon of graphene or topological insulators. The evaluation of quantum oscillations in these systems remains challenging because there are often multiple conduction bands. We observe de Haas-van Alphen oscillations with several frequencies in a single crystal of the Weyl semimetal niobium phosphide. For each fundamental crystal axis, we can fit the raw data to a superposition of sinusoidal functions, which enables us to calculate the characteristic parameters of all individual bulk conduction bands using Fourier transform with an analysis of the temperature and magnetic field-dependent oscillation amplitude decay. Our experimental results indicate that the band structure consists of Dirac bands with low cyclotron mass, a non-trivial Berry phase and parabolic bands with a higher effective mass and trivial Berry phase. PMID:27667203

  10. Observation of Berry's phase in a superconducting qubit embedded in a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leek, Peter; Fink, Johannes; Bianchetti, Romeo; Goeppl, Martin; Wallraff, Andreas [Department of Physics, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Blais, Alexandre [Departement de Physique, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Gambetta, Jay [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo (Canada); Departments of Applied Physics and Physics, Yale University (United States); Schuster, David; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert [Departments of Applied Physics and Physics, Yale University (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In quantum information science, the phase of a wavefunction plays an important role in encoding information. While most experiments in this field rely on dynamic effects to manipulate this information, an alternative approach is to use geometric phase, which has been argued to have potential fault tolerance. Here we demonstrate the controlled accumulation of a geometric phase, Berry's phase, in a superconducting qubit, manipulating the qubit geometrically using microwave radiation, and observing the accumulated phase in an interference experiment. This is achieved using the excellent phase coherence and qubit control possible in circuit QED. We find excellent agreement with Berry's predictions, and also observe a geometry dependent contribution to dephasing.

  11. Antiaggregation potential of berry fractions against pairs of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii

    OpenAIRE

    Riihinen, Kaisu Ristiina; Ryynanen, Anu; Toivanen, Marko; Kononen, Eija; Torronen, Riitta; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Coaggregation is an interspecies adhesion process which is central to the development of dental plaque. Here we studied the antiaggregation effect and the composition of the soluble solids in the berry juice molecular size fractions [100 kDa fraction (FIII)] derived from apple, bilberry, blackcurrant, cloudberry, crowberry, and lingonberry. We investigated their ability to inhibit and reverse coaggregation of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces...

  12. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    OpenAIRE

    Michael James Considine; Christine Helen Foyer

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to th...

  13. With BlackBerry in Decline, RIM Will Shed 2,000 Jobs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ As it struggles with the declining popularity of the BlackBerry line of smartphones, Research in Motion said on Monday that it would begin laying off about 2,000 employees, 10.5 percent of its work force, this week. While the company had previously announced that it planned to cut employees, the number of jobs lost was higher than some analysts expected, perhaps suggesting that the company's situation was deteriorating more rapidly than earlier thought.

  14. The use of the quality model of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry in health services

    OpenAIRE

    Mileide Morais Pena; Edenise Maria Santos da Silva; Daisy Maria Rizatto Tronchin; Marta Maria Melleiro

    2013-01-01

    This is an article about the theoretical model for assessing quality in health services proposed by Parasuraman, Zheitaml and Berry, in order to measure the degree of satisfaction of users. This model is based on the analysis of expectations and perceptions of users of health services, by means of five dimensions: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. From the difference between what is expected by the user and the service offered, gaps or shortcomings are derived t...

  15. Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Ariane Renee

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation, Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography interrogates how pornography, from the 1930s to the present, functions as an essential site in the production of black female sexuality. Closely reading a diverse pool of primary pornographic visual materials, across print, moving image and the internet, such as photographs, magazines, trade magazines, videos, DVDs, and internet website viewings, I argue that pornograph...

  16. Comment on "Higher Order Pancharatnam-Berry Phase and the Angular Momentum of Light"

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Masato; Oka, Kazuhiko; Toda, Yasunori; Morita, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    In a recent letter, Milione et al. reported the Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP) on a higher-order Poincar\\'e sphere (HOPS) [Phys. Rev. Lett, 108, 190401 (2012)]. They used two spin-orbit converters (SOCs) to make a trajectory along the HOPS. However, the SOCs actually do not make a path on the HOPS. We briefly discuss a way of acquiring a PBP made by SOCs.

  17. On the Geometry of the Berry-Robbins Approach to Spin-Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Reyes-Lega, Andrés F.

    2010-07-01

    Within a geometric and algebraic framework, the structures which are related to the spin-statistics connection are discussed. A comparison with the Berry-Robbins approach is made. The underlying geometric structure constitutes an additional support for this approach. In our work, a geometric approach to quantum indistinguishability is introduced which allows the treatment of singlevaluedness of wave functions in a global, model independent way.

  18. BERRY-ESSEEN BOUNDS OF ERROR VARIANCE ESTIMATION IN PARTLY LINEAR MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOJITI; HONGSHENGYAN; LIANGHUA

    1996-01-01

    Consider the regression model Yi =xriβ + g(ti) + εi for i =11… , n. Here (xi, ii ) are known and nonrandom design points and εi are i.i.d, random errors. The family of nonparametricestimates gn(·) of g(-) including some known estimates is proposed. Based on the model Yi=xriβ+gn(ti)+εi, the Berry-Esseen bounds of the distribution of the least-squares estimator of are investigated.

  19. A 2d in vivo approach to study photosynthesis in grape berry

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Vieira, S.; Silva, J. Marques da; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Is argued that fruit photosynthesis serves mainly as a respiratory CO2 refixation mechanism [1] but its contribution to growth and metabolism, localization and dynamics during fruit development are poorly known. Unlike the leaves, fruit volume imposes a constraint to photosynthesis by limiting light penetration. However, the patterns of chlorophyll distribution are apparently independent of a light intensity gradient. Microscopic observations of transversal slices of green stage grape berries...

  20. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  1. The Role of Bee Pollinators in Improving Berry Weight and Coffee Cup Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca H.N. Karanja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Kiambu County in Kenya. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pollination improves the coffee yield and quality of processed coffee in terms of taste and aroma. Among the parameters evaluated when grading coffee for sale in world market are berry weight and cup quality. No previous work in Kenya describes the role of bee pollinators in enhancement of coffee yields and quality. Data on berry weights and the resulting processed coffee quality from different pollination levels in organically grown coffee were analyzed. Results from this study indicate that coffee benefits immensely from pollinators. The highest berry weight and coffee cup quality were recorded in open pollinated and cross pollinated coffee. There were significant differences in weight and cup quality (p<0.001 between open pollinated coffee and wind pollination, self pollination and autogamy. The study concludes that pollination not only improves the coffee yields but also enhance the coffee cup taste and aroma. High quality coffee fetches higher prices in the world coffee market.

  2. The Lignan-containing Extract of Schisandra chinensis Berries Inhibits the Growth of Chlamydia pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena L; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki J; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and selectivity of an extract of Schisandra chinensis berries against Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. Among the ethnopharmacological uses of the extract from Schisandrae fructus are cough and pneumonia. Therefore we focused on respiratory pathogens. The extract completely inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae strain CV6 at 250 μg/mL concentration. The inhibition of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis growth was dose dependent and established with three different strains. The extract inhibited C. pneumoniae production of infectious progeny in a dose dependent manner. Chlamydia selectivity was elucidated with growth inhibition measurements of three other respiratory bacterial species. A pure compound found in Schisandra chinensis berries, schisandrin B at 20.0 μg/mL concentration inhibited the growth of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. The extract was found to be non-toxic to the human host cells. These findings highlight the potential of the extract from Schisandra chinensis berries as a source for antichlamydial compounds.

  3. MIR – NEWEST HIGHT QUALITY BLACK BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Newest wine black berry with painted pulp and juice grape variety called Mir was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by Zamanidi P., Troshin L. and Radchevsky P. in 2006 by crossing the Ukrainian variety of Odessa black (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with new Greek black berry variety Iliad. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period - 146-155 days. Strong growth of arms (2,1-3,0 m. Percentage of productive shoots - over 90. Productivity is very high: 20-30 t / ha. The average mass of clusters is 260 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Lobes, the stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Bunch medium, often with tapered wing, the average density. Berry small, round, blue-black, with a thick waxy coating. The peel is medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice intensely colored. Sugar content is very high. Prolonged preservation of different crop on bushes. Variety intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines; and is suitable for the manufacture of high quality strong colored juices. When used in blends with other varieties, it enhances color, flavor and improves the bouquet of wine

  4. Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenchang; Owens, Christopher L; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Cheng, Lailiang

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenolic profiles in the berry samples of 344 European grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars were evaluated for two consecutive years. These cultivars represent a diverse collection of V. vinifera germplasm maintained at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Vitis Clonal Repository in Davis of California, USA. A total of 36 polyphenolic compounds, including 16 anthocyanins, 6 flavonols, 6 flavanols, 6 hydroxycinnamic acids and 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified via HPLC-MS and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The mean contents for anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids were 0.946 (coloured cultivars), 0.147, 0.043, 0.195 and 0.016mgg(-1) FW, respectively. On average, wine grapes had higher concentrations than had table grapes for all of these compounds except hydroxycinnamic acids. Berry colours affected the total contents of anthocyanins, but not others. Positive correlations (0.151-0.535) were found among these groups of compounds. As expected, these groups of compounds were all negatively correlated with berry weight.

  5. Polarization transport of transverse acoustic waves: Berry phase and spin Hall effect of phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, K. Yu.; Freilikher, V. D.

    2006-11-01

    We carry out a detailed analysis of the short-wave (semiclassical) approximation for the linear equations of the elasticity in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the polarization properties of the transverse waves are completely analogous to those of electromagnetic waves and can be considered as spin properties of optical phonons. In particular, the Hamiltonian of the transverse waves contains an additional term of the phonon spin-orbit interaction arising from the Berry gauge potential in the momentum space. This potential is diagonal in the basis of the circularly polarized waves and corresponds to the field of two “magnetic monopoles” of opposite signs for phonons of opposite helicities. This leads to the appearance of the Berry phase in the equation for the polarization evolution and an additional “anomalous velocity” term in the ray equations. The anomalous velocity has the form of the “Lorentz force” caused by the Berry gauge field in momentum space and gives rise to the transverse transport of waves of opposite helicities in opposite directions. This is a manifestation of the spin Hall effect of optical phonons. The effect directly relates to the conservation of total angular momentum of phonons and also influences reflection from a sharp boundary (acoustic analog of the transverse Ferdorov-Imbert shift).

  6. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

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    Emma M Brown

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents, the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer.

  7. Solute accumulation differs in the vacuoles and apoplast of ripening grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Shrestha, Pradeep M

    2014-03-01

    Phloem unloading is thought to switch from a symplastic route to an apoplastic route at the beginning of ripening in grape berries and some other fleshy fruits. However, it is unclear whether different solutes accumulate in both the mesocarp vacuoles and the apoplast. We modified a method developed for tomato fruit to extract apoplastic sap from grape berries and measured the changes in apoplastic and vacuolar pH, soluble sugars, organic acids, and potassium in ripening berries of Vitis vinifera 'Merlot' and V. labruscana 'Concord'. Solute accumulation varied by genotype, compartment, and chemical species. The apoplast pH was substantially higher than the vacuolar pH, especially in Merlot (approximately two units). However, the vacuole-apoplast proton gradient declined during ripening and in Merlot, but not in Concord, collapsed entirely at maturity. Hexoses accumulated in both the vacuoles and apoplast but at different rates. Organic acids, especially malate, declined much more in the vacuoles than in the apoplast. Potassium accumulated in the vacuoles and apoplast of Merlot. In Concord, by contrast, potassium increased in the vacuoles but decreased in the apoplast. These results suggest that solutes in the fruit apoplast are tightly regulated and under developmental control. PMID:24310282

  8. Effectiveness of Sex Pheromone in Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.

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    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella  nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values

  9. Pod Characteristics of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Related to Cocoa Pod Borer Resistance (Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe characteristics of pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. had been identified in a series study. This research has objective to evaluate performance of the characteristics using more diverse of genetic background to select criteria for selection. Genetic materials for this study were 25 cocoa clones which be planted in Central Sulawesi for resistant evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed using the variable of the percentage of unextractable bean, number of entry and exit hole larvae by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichome, granule of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using Canonical Correlation. The analysis performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics (0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical for CPB resistance (0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiate the resistant clones (ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones (ICCRI 04, KW 516 and KW 564.Key words : cocoa pod borer, Theobroma cacao L., pod characteristics, resistance

  10. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  11. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sweetman Crystal; Wong Darren CJ; Ford Christopher M; Drew Damian P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes...

  12. 应用白僵菌防治玉米螟的研究进展%Research Progress of Prevention and Controlling Corn Borer by Beauveria bassiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晴; 佘花娣; 佟文悦

    2013-01-01

    The damage characteristics of corn borer, biological characteristics and pathogenic mechanism of Beauveria bassiana were introduced briefly.The present situation, problems and corresponding measures of prevention and controlling corn borer using Beauveria bassiana were summarized, and the new direction was discussed so as to promote the corn safety production and improve the control efficiency of corn borer.%简要介绍了玉米螟的为害特点以及白僵菌的生物学特性、致病机理,对利用白僵菌防治玉米螟的现状、存在问题及相应措施进行了阐述,并对防治玉米螟的新方向进行了展望,以促进玉米安全生产和提高玉米螟的防治效率。

  13. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418

  14. Effects of ABA Content on the Development of Abscission Zone and Berry Falling After Harvesting of Grapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-lin; ZHANG Run-guang

    2009-01-01

    The commodity price of grape reduces as berry falling after harvest. It is crucial to prevent grape from berry falling during storage. In this article, the structure change of grape cells in the abscission zone was observed, the ABA content and the activities of cellulase and polygalacturonase (PG) were measured, and the relationship of ABA and berry falling was investigated. The results suggest that cells in the abscission zone grow into a separation layer soon after the grapes are cut off. According to the level of development, we designed 6 grades to sort the different development stages. The grade 3 plays an important role in berry falling. ABA enhances the activities of cellulase and polygalacturonase, and accelerates the decomposition of cellulose and pectin, which determines the level of development of abscission zone and berry falling. If ABA ratio is less than 20 ng g-1 fresh weight (FW), the abscission zone is not developed to the grade 3, and the berry falling is effectively stopped. We treated grape bunches with nine plant growth regulators and two chemicals. The results indicated that 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) can (a) inhibit the generation of ABA significantly, (b) inactivate the activities of cellulase and PG, (c) delay the development of the grade 3 of abscission zone, and (d) stop berry falling. Indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) caused similar results as TIBA. Chlorocholine chloride (CCC), dimethyl amino succinamic acid (B9), chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) and exogenous ABA showed opposite effects.

  15. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  16. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

  17. Expansion of the Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) into Rice and Sugarcane in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B E; Hardy, T N; Beuzelin, J M; VanWeelden, M T; Reagan, T E; Miller, R; Meaux, J; Stout, M J; Carlton, C E

    2015-06-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. Traps baited with E. loftini female sex pheromones were used to document establishment and distribution of E. loftini near sugarcane, rice, and noncrop hosts in seven southwest Louisiana parishes from 2009 to 2013. Additional field surveys documented larval infestations in commercial sugarcane and rice. After its initial detection in 2008, no E. loftini were detected in Louisiana in 2009 and only two adults were captured in 2010. Trapping documented range expansion into Cameron, Beauregard, and Jefferson Davis parishes in 2011 and Allen, Acadia, and Vermilion parishes in 2013. During the course of this study, E. loftini expanded its range eastward into Louisiana 120 km from the Texas border (≈22 km/yr). Surveys of larval infestations provided the first record of E. loftini attacking rice and sugarcane in Louisiana. Infestations of E. loftini in rice planted without insecticidal seed treatments in Calcasieu Parish reached damaging levels. PMID:26313982

  18. Critical electrolyte concentration of silk gland chromatin of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis, induced using agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S A; Fermino, F; Moreira, B M T; Araujo, K F; Falco, J R P; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C

    2014-01-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is widely known as the main pest of sugarcane crop, causing increased damage to the entire fields. Measures to control this pest involve the use of chemicals and biological control with Cotesia flavipes wasps. In this study, we evaluated the insecticides fipronil (Frontline; 0.0025%), malathion (Malatol Bio Carb; 0.4%), cipermetrina (Galgotrin; 10%), and neem oil (Natuneem; 100%) and the herbicide nicosulfuron (Sanson 40 SC; 100%) in the posterior region silk glands of 3rd- and 5th-instar D. saccharalis by studying the variation in the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC). Observations of 3rd-instar larvae indicated that malathion, cipermetrina, and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation that may consequently disable genes. Tests with fipronil showed no alteration in chromatin condensation. With the use of nicosulfuron, there was chromatin and probable gene decompaction. In the 5th-instar larvae, the larval CEC values indicated that malathion and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation. The CEC values for 5th-instar larvae using cipermetrina, fipronil, and nicosulfuron indicated chromatin unpacking. These observations led us to conclude that the quantity of the pesticide does not affect the mortality of these pests, can change the conformation of complexes of DNA, RNA, and protein from the posterior region of silk gland cells of D. saccharalis, activating or repressing the expression of genes related to the defense mechanism of the insect and contributing to the selection and survival of resistant individuals. PMID:25299111

  19. A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

  20. Ultrasonic courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

    2006-06-01

    Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.

  1. A High-Resolution Map of Emerald Ash Borer Invasion Risk for Southern Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Valenta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ash species (Fraxinus spp. in Europe are threatened by the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB, an invasive wood boring beetle native to East Asia and currently spreading from European Russia westwards. Based on a high-resolution habitat distribution map (grid cell size: 25 × 25 m and data on distribution and abundance of Common Ash (Fraxinus excelsior, the most widespread and highly susceptive host species of EAB in Europe, we assess the spatial distribution of EAB invasion risks for southern Central Europe (Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, southern Germany, South Tyrol. We found highest F. excelsior abundance and thus invasion risks in extensive lowland floodplain forests, medium risks in zonal lowland forests and low risks in upper montane and subalpine forests. Based on average velocities of spread in Russia (13–31 km/year and North America (2.5–80 km/year from flight and human-assisted transport, EAB is likely to cover the distance (1500 km between its current range edge in western Russia and the eastern border of the study region within few decades. However, secondary spread by infested wood products make earlier introductions likely. The high susceptibility and mortality of F. excelsior leave no doubt that this beetle will become a major forest pest once it reaches Central Europe. Therefore, developing and testing management approaches with the aim to halt or at least slow down the invasion of EAB in Europe have to be pursued with great urgency.

  2. mRNA profiles of piRNA pathway genes in emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omprakash Mittapalli; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances of Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have enabled a better understanding of their putative roles in the protection of germ cells against selfish genetic elements.The germ plasm proteins namely,PIWI and VASA,are key players in regulation of piRNAs.However,the biogenesis of piRNAs remains poorly understood.We report the characterization and the transcript profiles of a PIWI and VASA gene in various tissues and developmental stages of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis),an exotic invasive insect pest that has attained a high impact status worldwide.The deduced amino acid sequences of both these genes (herein referred to "ApPIWI and ApVASA") revealed homology with similar proteins from other insect and non-insect taxa.Peak transcript levels for ApPIWI and ApVASA were observed in the ovaries (compared to the other tissues assayed) and in adults (compared to the other developmental stages assayed).To our knowledge this is the first report of profiling piRNA pathway genes in A.planipennis.These results provide new insights into the putative function of the PIWI and VASA proteins in insects.

  3. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Praveen Mamidala; Omprakash Mittapalli

    2012-01-01

    The Emerald ash borer (EAB,Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) an exotic invasive insect pest has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) across North America and threatens billions more.We validated six A.planipennis reference genes (actin,ACT; beta tubulin,β- TUB; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase,GAPDH; ribosomal protein,RPL7; translation elongation factor 1α,TEF-1α; and ubiquitin,UBQ) using geNorm,Normfinder and BestKeeper for accurate determination of target messenger RNA levels in gene expression studies.The stability of the six reference genes was evaluated in different larval tissues,developmental stages and two treatments ofA.planipennis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Although there was no consistent ranking observed among the reference genes across the samples,the overall analysis revealed TEF-1α as the most stable reference gene.GAPDH and ACT showed least stability for all the samples studied.We conclude that TEF-1α is the most appropriate reference gene for gene expression studies inA.planipennis.Results obtained can be applicable for transcript profiling in other invasive insect pests.Further,these validated reference genes could also serve as the basis for selection of candidate reference genes in any given insect system post-validation.

  4. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  5. Ash Decline Assessment in Emerald Ash Borer Infested Natural Forests Using High Spatial Resolution Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Murfitt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire infects and eventually kills endemic ash trees and is currently spreading across the Great Lakes region of North America. The need for early detection of EAB infestation is critical to managing the spread of this pest. Using WorldView-2 (WV2 imagery, the goal of this study was to establish a remote sensing-based method for mapping ash trees undergoing various infestation stages. Based on field data collected in Southeastern Ontario, Canada, an ash health score with an interval scale ranging from 0 to 10 was established and further related to multiple spectral indices. The WV2 image was segmented using multi-band watershed and multiresolution algorithms to identify individual tree crowns, with watershed achieving higher segmentation accuracy. Ash trees were classified using the random forest classifier, resulting in a user’s accuracy of 67.6% and a producer’s accuracy of 71.4% when watershed segmentation was utilized. The best ash health score-spectral index model was then applied to the ash tree crowns to map the ash health for the entire area. The ash health prediction map, with an overall accuracy of 70%, suggests that remote sensing has potential to provide a semi-automated and large-scale monitoring of EAB infestation.

  6. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  7. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a β-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis. PMID:25541004

  8. Fabrication of Polymeric Visual Decoys for the Male Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Drew P. Pulsifer; Akhlesh Lakhtakia; Mahesh S. Narkhede; Michael J. Domingue; Beverly G. Post; Jayant Kumar; Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2013-01-01

    Through a bioreplication approach,we have fabricated artificial visual decoys for the invasive species Agrilus planipennis—commonly known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB).The mating behavior of this species involves an overflying EAB male pouncing on an EAB female at rest on an ash leaflet before copulating.The male spots the female on the leaflet by visually detecting the iridescent green color of the female's elytra.As rearing EAB and then deploying dead females as decoys for trapping is both arduous and inconvenient,we decided to fabricate artificial decoys.We used a dead female to make a negative die of nickel and a positive die of epoxy.Decoys were then made by first depositing a quarter-wave-stack Bragg reflector on a polymer sheet and then stamping it with a pair of matched negative and positive dies to take the shape of the upper surface of an EAB female.As nearly 100 artificial decoys were fabricated from just one EAB female,this bioreplication process is industrially scalable.Preliminary results from a field trapping test are indicative of success.

  9. [Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fuentes, Luis M; Urias-López, Mario A; Bautista-Martínez, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    The soursop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with soursop was conducted to study the life cycle under field conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00h and 13:00h (35ºC, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days.

  10. New artificial diet for continuous rearing of the bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero ( 1993 ), called the "D-OO diet." However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15-25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata.

  11. BIOECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF ERVA-MATE BORER, Hedypathes betulinus (KLUG, 1825 (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia d´Avila

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. has a social, cultural and economic importance in  the southern states of Brazil. The  pure stands of  this culture was responsible for the increase  of many species of insects. Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae is considered the main pest from an economic viewpoint because of its difficult control and potential for damage. The larval phase occurs inside the twings and trunks, what makes more difficult to deal with its detention and management. Cultural and mechanical management are the most indicated, such as collection of adults, prunning and burning of plant parts damaged by the insect, balanced nutrition, adequate plant density and maintenance of areas with native vegetation or also the introduction of policulture. These strategies  may increase  the  agroecossystem  balance  and  thus  a  reduction  of  the  insect-pest  to  an aceptable level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assemble and the discuss the information on the bioecology and management of erva-mate borer.

  12. Components of female sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer moth,Conopomorpha cramerella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D

    1986-01-01

    The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40∶60∶4∶6∶10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393

  13. Type and distribution of sensilla in the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Rubén; Mutis, Ana; Isaacs, Rufus; Quiroz, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the type, distribution, and structures of sensilla, the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were examined by light and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission). Four different types of sensilla were identified in the club, and one type of chaetica was found in the scape and funicle of both male and female individuals. Chaetica and basiconica were the most abundant sensilla types in the club. They were present in the three sensory bands described, totaling approximately 80% of sensilla in the antennal club of H. obscurus. Chaetica were predominantly mechanoreceptors, although gustatory function could not be excluded. Basiconica forms showed characteristics typical of olfactory sensilla. Trichoidea were not found in the proximal sensory band, and they exhibited abundant pores, suggesting olfactory function. Styloconica were the least abundant sensillum type, and their shape was similar to that reported as having hygro- and thermoreceptor functions. There was no difference in the relative abundance of antennal sensilla between males and females. Finally, the sensillar configuration and abundance of receptors in the H. obscurus antennae suggest that these sensilla have chemoreceptive and other functions.

  14. EFFICASY OF NATURAL POPULATION OF Trichogramma WASPS AGAINST EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the natural infestation of European corn borer (ECB eggs by Trichogramma wasps (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae under field conditions. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia in 2013. The experiment included two levels of irrigations, two nitrogen rates and two maize genotypes. Parameters of ECB feeding activity and maize tolerance (cob mass, tunnel length, number of ECB larvae per plant, as well as number of parasitized ECB eggs by Trihogramma wasps were evaluated. Genotypes were significantly different in terms of tolerance to ECB injury. In treatments with nitrogen fertilization, ECB feeding activity was increased at both nitrogen rates. Agricultural practices did not significantly affect parasitism of ECB eggs by Trichogramma. Correlation between parameters of ECB feeding activity and parasitism by Trichogramma was slight to moderate and not significant. Natural occurrence of Trichogramma wasps were not significantly affected by agricultural practices in maize, and population of these parasitoids was low significantly affect ECB feeding activity.

  15. Spatio-temporal variability of Borer Polychaetes in Posidonia oceanica beds and its relation to meadow structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. VASAPOLLO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posidonia oceanica forms an extremely productive and complex ecosystem in the coastal Mediterranean Sea providing a suitable habitat for hundreds of plant and animal species. Among motile invertebrates associated to Posidonia meadows,  polychaete borers of the plant sheaths represent a unique group which exploit a peculiar microhabitat. They belong to the family Eunicidae with three dominant species, Lysidice collaris, L. ninetta and L. unicornis. Due to their strong association with Posidonia shoots, these animals are particularly suitable to study the plant and animal spatial relationships and their pattern of variability. The aim of this work was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of these animals (Index of Borer, IB at different spatial and temporal (summer vs winter scales in two Posidonia meadows off the Ischia Island (Gulf of Naples, Italy, which are exposed to different degrees of human impact and of hydrological conditions. Results showed IB values of L. collaris (the most abundant species significantly different between meadows and at scales from 10s to 100s of meters, as well as between summer and winter. The IB of L. ninetta showed significant differences only at scales of 10s of meters while, on the contrary, the IB of L. unicornis (the less abundant species did not show variability at any spatial and temporal scales. Most of the variance was at the more impacted and less water movement exposed meadow, suggesting higher level of small and intermediate scales of patchiness of borers at this meadow. These variation patterns  are discussed in relation  to local environmental differences between the studied Posidonia beds.

  16. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close. PMID:24690169

  17. Studies on control of yellow stem borer, Tryporyza incertulas, a serious pest of paddy. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of pest management with emphasis on rice insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egg parasitism is the chief biotic factor regulating paddy stem borer populations. However, effective suppression of the borer through their natural enemies is not evident in practice. Studies were undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of releasing sterile yellow stem borer females into the field to increase host egg densities as these females would lay nonviable eggs. (a) Paddy fields were surveyed for the incidence of egg parasitism. (b) Attempts were made to rear yellow stem borer larvae on cut stem pieces of field grown rice plants. (c) Trichogramma japonicum, the natural egg parasite of the stem borer was reared in the laboratory using eggs of Corcyra cephalonica and Ephestia cautella as alternate host material. Mass rearing of yellow stem borer larvae on paddy plants grown under laboratory conditions does not appear practically feasible. Borer larvae reared on cut stem pieces with intact roots did not yield satisfactory adults as far as their reproductive behaviour was concerned. Though some of the dietary compositions contained natural host material, they failed to support the larval establishment. Probably some highly specific phagostimulants need to be incorporated in the diets. T. japonicum could be reared on radiation killed Ephestia eggs. The female parasite was unable to discriminate between eggs laid by radiation sterilized host females and those laid by normal ones

  18. Berry density and size as factors related to the physicochemical characteristics of Muscat Hamburg table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Luca; Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Río Segade, Susana

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to determine the impact of using independently berry density and diameter as sorting methodologies on important physicochemical parameters affecting the grape quality, such as mechanical properties, phenolic composition and aromatic profile. Muscat Hamburg berries were classified according to the density by flotation in different salt solutions and to the diameter. The three most representative density (1081, 1088 and 1094 kg/m(3)) and diameter (16-17, 18-19 and 20-21 mm) classes were selected. The results showed that there were relationships of both density and diameter with the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the berries. Densimetric sorting is a more promising methodology to separate grape berries with different quality attributes, particularly skin hardness, berry cohesiveness and resilience, total hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins and rose oxide, than diameter sorting. This knowledge can be of great interest for the 'fresh-cut' industry in the production of 'ready-to-eat' fruits salad. PMID:25466001

  19. Effects of different N fertilizers on the activity of Glomus mosseae and on grapevine nutrition and berry composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, N; Nikolaou, N; Ipsilantis, I; Zioziou, E

    2007-12-01

    Grapevine N fertilization may affect and be affected by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and change berry composition. We studied the effects of different N fertilizers on AM fungal grapevine root colonization and sporulation, and on grapevine growth, nutrition, and berry composition, by conducting a 3.5-year pot study supplying grapevine plants with either urea, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, or ammonium nitrate. We measured the percentage of AM fungal root colonization, AM fungal sporulation, grapevine shoot dry weight and number of leaves, nutrient composition (macro- and micronutrients), and grapevine berry soluble solids (total sugars or degrees Brix) and total acidity. Urea suppressed AM fungal root colonization and sporulation. Mycorrhizal grapevine plants had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaves than non-mycorrhizal and with a higher growth response with calcium nitrate as the N source. For the macronutrients P and K, and for the micronutrient B, leaf concentration was higher in mycorrhizal plants. Non-mycorrhizal plants had higher concentration of microelements Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu than mycorrhizal. There were no differences in soluble solids ( degrees Brix) in grapevine berries among mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. However, non-mycorrhizal grapevine berries had higher acid content with ammonium nitrate, although they did not have better N nutrition and vegetative growth. PMID:17987325

  20. 黑莓企业服务平台架设结构%The Frame Structure of BlackBerry Enterprises' Service Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨微微

    2012-01-01

      Black Berry English referred to as BlackBerry, it is the Canadian RIM Company launched a terminal of mobile E-mail system. 1, The first problem is guided into what's BlackBerry business and its business characteristics, let every-body understand it; 2, And then, expressed the internal division component and service independently accomplished of their respective functions of BES server, analyzes BES. Then through the BlackBerry enterprise service system structure diagram to present the frame structure of BlackBerry service.; 3, Expressed BlackBerry's cell phone types and the characteristics of the mobile phone used and more press closed to BlackBerry; 4, Through the BlackBerry's mobile E-mail and office solutions and banking system solutions to further BlackBerry, analyzing its use. 5, Finally, an overview to Blackberry advantages and current social development of domestic situation and future trends.%  黑莓英文简称 BlackBerry,它是加拿大 RIM 公司推出的一种移动电子邮件系统终端.一、首先问题导入什么是 BlackBerry业务与 BlackBerry 业务的特点,让大家对其有所了解.二、之后表述 BES 服务器的内部划分组件和服务独立完成各自的功能,剖析BES.随之通过 BlackBerry 的企业服务系统框架图来呈现 BlackBerry 的服务架设.三、表述 BlackBerry 的手机类型及其手机的特点与使用,更加贴近黑莓手机.四、通过 BlackBerry 移动邮件及办公解决方案与银行业金融系统解决方案来深入黑莓,解析其用途.五、最后总述黑莓的优点与当前社会发展国内现状及未来走向.

  1. The Effects of European corn borer on whole-plant yieldand root knot nematode fitness in corn

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Siddharth

    2007-01-01

    Field studies were conducted over two growing seasons to evaluate the effect of different levels of third instar European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on whole-plant dry matter in corn grown for silage. Mean (± SEM) whole-plant dry matter was significantly greater by 18.8% in uninfested control plants than in plants with an infestation level of 6 larvae/plant in 2004. Whole-plant dry matter in 2005 was significantly greater by 10.5% in control plants tha...

  2. SEASONAL INCIDENCE OF TOBACCO CAPSULE BORER, HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA (HUBNER) HARDWICK ON BIDI TOBACCO (SEED CROP) IN MIDDLE GUJARAT

    OpenAIRE

    C. G. SOLANKI, C. B. DHOBI*, M. V. PATEL D. M. MEHTA

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted to study the seasonal incidence of tobacco capsule borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) Hardwick on tobacco (seed crop) during rabi  2011-12. Peak incidence of H. armigera eggs was recorded during December second fortnight and incidence of larvae was peak during January first fortnight. During cropping period H. armigera egg load ranged from 0.14 to 1.80 eggs per plant whereas, larvae ranged from 0.18 to 0.52 larvae per plant. Temperature, vapor ...

  3. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-André Calatayud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species. This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  4. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F

    2007-11-01

    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:18065095

  5. Berry phase of light Bragg-reflected by chiral liquid crystal media

    CERN Document Server

    Barboza, Raouf; Residori, Stefania; Clerc, Marcel G

    2016-01-01

    Berry phase is revealed for circularly polarized light when it is Bragg-reflected by a chiral liquid crystal medium of the same handedness. By using a chiral nematic layer we demonstrate that if the input plane of the layer is rotated with respect to a fixed reference frame, then, a geometric phase effect occurs for the circularly polarized light reflected by the periodic helical structure of the medium. Theory and numerical simulations are supported by an experimental observation, disclosing novel applications in the field of optical manipulation and fundamental optical phenomena.

  6. Berry Phase of Light under Bragg Reflection by Chiral Liquid-Crystal Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Raouf; Bortolozzo, Umberto; Clerc, Marcel G; Residori, Stefania

    2016-07-29

    A Berry phase is revealed for circularly polarized light when it is Bragg reflected by a chiral liquid-crystal medium of the same handedness. By using a chiral nematic layer we demonstrate that if the input plane of the layer is rotated with respect to a fixed reference frame, a geometric phase effect occurs for the circularly polarized light reflected by the periodic helical structure of the medium. Theory and numerical simulations are supported by an experimental observation, disclosing novel applications in the field of optical manipulation and fundamental optical phenomena. PMID:27517773

  7. Berry's Phase Induced Bose-Einstein condensation into a Vortex State

    OpenAIRE

    Olshanii, M.; Naraschewski, M.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of a geometric phase in magnetic traps can be used to Bose condense a magnetically trapped atomic gas into a vortex state. We propose an experimental setup where a magnetic trap together with a blue detuned laser beam form a multiply connected trap geometry. The local variation of the magnetic quantization axis induces a geometric or Berry's phase that allows the atoms to acquire an effective gauge charge interacting with the analog of a magnetic solenoid. It is shown that the g...

  8. Preliminary Studies on the Antinociceptive Activity of Vaccinium ashei Berry in Experimental Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Maria Rosana; Guterres, Leandra; Dickel, Odila E.; de Castro, Micheli R.; Henriques, Amelia T.; Márcia M. de Souza; Barros, Daniela Martí

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out pharmacological screening in order to evaluate the potential effects of lyophilized fruits of different cultivars of Vaccinium ashei Reade (Family Ericaceae) berries, commonly known as rabbiteye blueberries, on nociception. This was achieved using the formalin, hot plate, tail-flick, and writhing tests in mice. During this experiment the mice consumed approximately 3.2–6.4 mg/kg/day (p.o.) of the anthocyanins. The extract was administered for 21 days or ...

  9. The development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Blaž

    2014-01-01

    The diploma paper presents in detail the development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5, i. e. the path from idea to product. First, it examines the previously mentioned platform, the technologies used (HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript) and environments for development (NetBeans, GIMP). The central part is dedicated to the development of our product (Game Time Attacker), which includes a description of the program code, implementation and publication of the game. The usefulness of ou...

  10. The development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    The diploma paper presents in detail the development of game for BlackBerry PlayBook platform using HTML5, i. e. the path from idea to product. First, it examines the previously mentioned platform, the technologies used (HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript) and environments for development (NetBeans, GIMP). The central part is dedicated to the development of our product (Game Time Attacker), which includes a description of the program code, implementation and publication of the game. The usefulness of ou...

  11. Influence of canopy-applied chitosan on the composition of organic cv. Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon berries and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarin, Paola; Chinnici, Fabio; Donnini, Silvia; Liquori, Enrico; Riponi, Claudio; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The effects of canopy-applied chitosan on grapes and derived wine were evaluated in an organically managed mature vineyard. The experiment was performed on Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon red grape cultivars, the application of a chitosan solution was compared to water spraying. Each treatment was applied 3 times (beginning and end of veraison, and pre-harvest) in a randomized block experimental design. Significant differences in (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 amounts in berries and wines were detected in Cabernet Sauvignon but not in Sangiovese. Chitosan did not influence the berry skin anthocyanin and flavonol amount or t-resveratrol concentration in both skins and wines. A considerable increase in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), together with some other amino acids, ammonium and amines was observed in the berry flesh of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The increase in phenolic acids and nitrogenous compounds, especially GABA, in the pulp of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes suggests changes in stress response. PMID:27211677

  12. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berry skin, pulp, and seeds in 13 grapevine varieties grown in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelić, Milica M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Davidović, Sonja M; Todić, Slavica R; Bešlić, Zoran S; Gašić, Uroš M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2016-11-15

    Phenolic profile of 13 grapevine varieties was determined, with respect to three different parts of berries: skin, seed and pulp. Identification and quantification of the phenols was done using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The most abundant phenols in grape seeds were found to be flavan-3-ols, most of which are gallocatechin gallate and catechin. The skins were characterized mostly by flavonols, i.e. quercetin and myricetin. Characterization of anthocyanins in the berry skin by UHPLC coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer revealed a total of twenty derivatives of malvidin, delphinidin, petunidin, cyanidin, and peonidin. To the extent of our knowledge this is the first work that shows the presence of malvidin 3,5-O-dihexoside in the berry skin of 'Merlot', 'Cabernet Franc', 'Shiraz' 'Sangiovese', 'Pinot Noir' and 'Prokupac', untypical for Vitis vinifera Linneo species. PMID:27283628

  13. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  14. Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zheng Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  15. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

  16. Population Genetic Analysis of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis, in the South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-di; HOU Mao-lin; WU Yu-chun; LIU Gui-qin

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation and patterns of genetic differentiation of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), from the South China were analyzed using 6 microsatellite markers and two partial mtDNA (cox1 and cox2) regions. All of the 6 microsatellite loci were polymorphic in the studied seven populations. The allelic richness per population ranged between 5.67 and 14.00, and average HE and HO values were 0.6246-0.8329 and 0.2634-0.6061, respectively. As the mitochondrial genome is a single genetic locus, we only present results for the concatenated data set (cox1 plus cox2 gene sequences, 513 bp). The concatenated data showed high level of genetic diversity and there are 23 variable polymorphic sites among the 513 sites in concatenated data. Nearly all of (20 of 21) pairwise FST comparisons among populations showed genetic differentiation with moderate to high pairwise FST values based on microsatellite markers. However, for the mtDNA data, most of the seven populations did not show significant differentiation with other populations. The differences of population differentiation obtained with the two different genetic markers could be mainly attributed to the different mutation rates of microsatellite and mtDNA. There was not genetic structure existed in these studied populations based on microsatellite loci and mtDNA data. The analysis based on network, mismatch distribution, Tajima’s D and FS indicated that the studied populations were from the recent same ancestor or the same refuge and followed by a sudden demographic expansion condition.

  17. Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner pheromone reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckel David G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner, is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males from each strain exhibit phenotypic differences in peripheral physiology. Both strains possess co-localized pheromone-sensitive olfactory sensory neurons characterized by a larger amplitude action potential (spike responding to the major pheromone component, and a smaller spike amplitude cell responding to the minor component, i.e. the opposite isomer. These differences in amplitude correspond to differences in dendritic diameter between the two neurons. Previous studies showed that behavioral response to the pheromone blend was sex-linked, but spike amplitude response to pheromone components matched autosomal, not sex-linked inheritance. Results As part of a larger study to finely map the loci responsible for pheromone communication in this species, we have reanalyzed peripheral physiology among parental, and first and second generation hybrids between the two pheromone strains using tungsten electrode electrophysiology. Our results reveal that differences in spike amplitude ratio between male pheromone-sensitive sensory neurons in O. nubilalis races are controlled, at least partially, by sex-linked genes that exhibit E-strain dominance. Conclusions We propose that peripheral olfactory response in O. nubilalis may be affected both by autosomal and sex-linked genes exhibiting a cross-locus dominance effect, and suggest that the genetic basis for pheromone reception and response in the species is more closely linked than previously thought.

  18. Possibilities of using radiation induced F1 sterility for control of European corn borer in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were undertaken to develop the foundation for control in the future of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), with a pest management system based on sterility expressed to the greatest extent during the F1 generation of progeny of moths irradiated with gamma rays. As a basis for the mass rearing of the pest, a diet was developed from locally available ingredients. The ingredients are bean meal, wheat bran, brewe's yeast, milk powder substitute for calves, salt mixture used in poultry production, sugar, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, glacial acetic acid, formaldehyde, agar and water. Using this diet, 1000 moths can be reared for as little as one US dollar. Complete sterility induced by exposure to gamma rays occurs at a lower dose in females than in males. When males that are exposed as six-day-old pupae to 150 Gy are mated to untreated females, 67.5% of the eggs hatch. Further, when the sons of treated males are mated to untreated females, 42.8% of the eggs hatch, when daughters of treated males are mated to untreated males, 40.7% of the eggs hatch, and when sons and daughters of treated males are mated to each other, 9.1% of the eggs hatch. The amount of mortality following egg hatch was not recorded. However, in field cage experiments, F1 larvae damaged 4, 8 and 0% of corn stalks for these respective crosses compared with the 76% damage by larvae from untreated parents. The corresponding yield of kernels of corn in grammes per plant was 57, 42, 46, and 27. In order to mark moths for filed studies they were reared on diet containing Calco red dye. Traps baited with the various enantiomers of the sex pheromone were used to study the dispersal of released moths and the dates of adult moth emergence in various regions of Romania. (author). 20 refs, 12 tabs

  19. Female sex pheromone of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis blend optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, A; Alam, S N; Das, A; Das, C S; Ghosh, G C; Farman, D I; Hall, D R; Maslen, N R; Vedham, K; Phythian, S J; Rouf, F M; Srinivasan, K

    2001-09-01

    The brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is the major pest of eggplant in South Asia. Analysis of female pheromone gland extracts prepared from insects of Indian and Taiwanese origin confirmed (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (E11-16:Ac) as the major pheromone component with 0.8 to 2.8% of the related (E)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (E11-16:OH), as previously reported from Sri Lanka. The average quantity of E11-16:Ac extracted per female was estimated to be 33 ng, with a range of 18.9 to 46.4 ng when collected 2 to 3 hr into the scotophase. In field trials conducted in India, blends containing between 1 and 10% E11-16:OH caught more male L. orbonalis than E11-16:Ac alone. At the 1,000 microg dose, on white rubber septa, addition of 1% E11-16:OH to E11-16:Ac was found to be more attractive to male L. orbonalis than either 0.1 or 10% E11-16:OH. Trap catch was found to be positively correlated with pheromone release rate, with the highest dose tested, 3,000 microg, on white rubber septa catching more male moths than lower doses. Field and wind tunnel release rate studies confirmed that E11-16:OH released from white rubber septa and polyethylene vials at approximately twice the rate of E11-16:Ac and that the release rate of both compounds was doubled in polyethylene vials compared to white rubber septa. This difference in release rate was reflected in field trials conducted in Bangladesh where polyethylene vial dispensers caught more male moths than either black or white rubber septa, each loaded with the same 100:1 blend of E11-16:Ac and E11-16:OH in a 3,000 microg loading. PMID:11545376

  20. A Biologically Active Analog of the Sex Pheromone of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J

    2015-03-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ω-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption. PMID:25786893

  1. Tissue-specific transcriptomics of the exotic invasive insect pest emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp. primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248and trypsin (98 domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85 and protein kinase (123 domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis.

  2. Identification of odor-processing genes in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Mamidala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs, including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons. Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72% did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc. putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi

  3. Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfstedt Christer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary

  4. New artificial diet for continuous rearing of the bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero ( 1993 ), called the "D-OO diet." However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15-25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata. PMID:24785903

  5. Synthesis and Field Evaluation of the Sex Pheromone Analogues to Soybean Pod Borer Leguminivora glycinivorella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop efficient lures for soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura in China, (E,E-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate (EE-8,10-12:Ac, the main component of the pheromone of L. glycinivorella, and 12 structurally-related compounds were synthesised in good overall yields, regiospecificities, and stereo-selectivities via coupling reactions catalysed by Li2CuCl4. The effect of different synthetic compounds, alone or in combination with EE-8,10-12:Ac, on numbers of captured L. glycinivorella males was evaluated. EE-8,10-12:Ac, (E-10-dodecenyl acetate (E-10-12:Ac, (E-8-dodecenol (E-8-12:OH, tetradecyl acetate (14:Ac, and (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z-9-14:Ac alone displayed different attractiveness to L. glycinivorella males. 14:Ac, E-8-12:OH, E-10-12:Ac, (E,E-8,10-dodecadienal (EE-8,10-12:Ald, (E-8-dodecenal (E-8-12:Ald, (E-10-dodecenal (E-10-12:Ald and Z-9-14:Ac all showed a synergistic effect to EE-8,10-12:Ac at certain dosages. The binary mixtures of EE-8,10-12:Ac and E-10-12:Ald, Z-9-14:Ac,14:Ac, E-8-12:Ald, EE-8,10-12:Ald, E-8-12:OH, or E-10-12:Ac in suitable ratios give 17.00-, 10.98-, 10.67-, 6.73-, 5.54-, 4.30- and 4.50-fold increases in trap catch, respectively, over the standard pheromone lure, and as novel pheromone blends, demonstrated potential use in pheromone traps to monitor or control L. glycinivorella populations in China.

  6. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margam, Venu M; Coates, Brad S; Hellmich, Richard L; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Sun, Weilin; Ba, Malick N; Sanon, Antoine; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F; Covas, Fernando G; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2011-01-01

    We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes.

  7. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu M Margam

    Full Text Available We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes.

  8. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Jennings

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp. since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  9. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  10. Evaluating short term simulations of a forest stand invaded by emerald ash borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin-Nielsen A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis - EAB is causing rapid and widespread ash (Fraxinus spp. mortality in eastern North America, has established populations near Moscow, Russia, and is threatening ash resources in Europe. Given the prevalence of susceptible hosts these post-invasion forests will clearly differ from their pre-invasion counterparts. Understanding these changes is key to mitigating the impacts of invasion and developing sound management strategies. We evaluated short term changes in a forest stand invaded by EAB, and examined if the southern variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS could accurately predict those changes. Through simulation, managers can gain a clearer understanding of how pest invasions impact and alter future forest dynamics. However, many simulators are designed to achieve long-term predictions and thus do not align with the short term changes associated with rapid EAB-induced ash mortality. Woody vegetation was surveyed in 2010 and used to project impacts of EAB invasion into 2012 by simulating a 50% ash mortality rate. The same plots were then re-surveyed in 2012, allowing us to evaluate: (1 changes in actual forest composition and structure; and (2 simulation accuracy. Within our forest stand, FVS accurately estimated short term changes in stem density and basal area parameters, thus demonstrating its value as a short-term simulator for EAB-induced changes within the southern region of the United States. EAB-induced ash mortality is quickly changing these forests and will ultimately alter how stakeholders manage their lands. We discuss the potential usefulness of FVS as a tool for aiding management decisions in response to EAB invasion.

  11. THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER (OSTRINIA NUBILALIS HÜBNER REVIEW OF RESULTS FROM CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available European Corn Borer (ECB - (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner is one of the most important pest on corn in Croatia. In the last decade corn production was on over 400 000 ha, in Eastern Croatia. Although ECB is present every year, with no such a low intensity, their control is not implemented. Corn is grown in monoculture, at 40% of cornfields, which also has influence on spreading of ECB. In the last ten years average attack of ECB was 51.5%; been done three different kinds of trials for controlling ECB. First trials were carried out in DeKalb hybrids, and ECB was controlled by Biobit XL, on the base of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Intensity of attack was decreased for 46%. Second trial was carried out in ten hybrids, in order to determine the tolerance of hybrids against ECB. It was identified that several domestic hybrids (OSSK 382, OSSK 664 and BC 462 are tolerant to ECB. The third trial was carried out with GM hybrids. Experiments included Pioneer hybrids Evelina Bt, and Landia Bt. Intensity of attack at Evelina standard was 52%, while in Evelina Bt, ECB wasn't present at all. At Landia standard ECB was present on 98%, while in Landia Bt, intensity of attack was 21%. At both Bt hybrids, number of larvae and tunnels was lower comparing to standard hybrids. Length of damage in Landia check was 20.66 cm, while in Landia Bt it was 0.45 cm. The yield was increased for 10.27% at Evelina Bt, and for 26.67% in Landia Bt comparing to their standards. This kind of experiments will be continued in the future, not only because of its agronomic importance, but also because of its ecological relevance.

  12. Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section.

  13. A new species of oobius trjapitzin (hymenoptera:encyrtidae) from the russian far east that parasitizes eggs of emerald ash borer (coleoptera:buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...

  14. Geographical susceptibility of Louisiana and Texas populations of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidopetera: Crambidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    The susceptibility of 18 field populations of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) to two sources of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein was determined by laboratory bioassays. Fifteen of the 18 field populations were collected from seven locations across Louisiana and the other 3 popula...

  15. Biology and life history of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a North American larval parasitoid newly associated with the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a serious invasive pests of North American ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To facilitate the development of potential augmentative biocon...

  16. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of egg and larval parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, USA using sentinel logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and Spathius agrili Yang, and one egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang, were introduced into the United Sta...

  17. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which has killed millions of ash trees since it was first detected in Michigan. A native parasitoid like A. cappaerti...

  18. Natural enemies and their impacts on emerald ash borer populations in its native range, with new records of parasitism by two species of beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the natural enemies of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and their role in regulating the pest population dynamics, we conducted field surveys at multiple forest sites with variable host densities in the pest’s native range (north an...

  19. Research on Corn Borer Prevention by Using Beauveria Bassiana Sealing Method%白僵菌封垛防治玉米螟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳广

    2014-01-01

    Corn borer is one of the main pests of maize crops. Using beauveria bassiana sealing method can decrease the quantity of corn borer larva. The article introduces the features and growing condition of corn borer, expounds the theory, methods, effects, considerations and advantages of using beauveria bassiana sealing method for corn borer prevention, provides a reference for the application and extension for the technique.%玉米螟是危害玉米作物的主要害虫之一,利用白僵菌可以有效减少玉米螟幼虫数量。介绍玉米螟的危害特点与发生条件,阐述白僵菌封垛防治玉米螟技术的原理、方法、效果、注意事项及优点,为该技术的推广应用提供参考。

  20. Down regulation of a gene for cadherin but not alkaline phosphatase associated with Cry1Ab resistance in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of tran...

  1. Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

  2. Assessing non-target effects and host feeding of the exotic parasitoid Apanteles taragamae, a potential biological control agent of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Apanteles taragamae Viereck is a larval parasitoid introduced in Benin for classical biological control of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata Fabricius. In the laboratory, we evaluated the effects of A. taragamae on non-target herbivore species, and on another parasitoid of M. vitrata, i.e. the egg

  3. Genome-wide association study reveals a set of genes associated with resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides L.) in a maize diversity panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn borers are the primary maize pest in many environments; their feeding on the pith of the stem results in yield losses because stem damage interferes with assimilate movement to developing kernels. In this study, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify SNPs associated with ...

  4. Describing head shapes of white stem borers (Schirpophaga innotata Walker that are able to survive on different rice types using Landmark based geometric morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queenilyn B. Albutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice stem borers are considered as the most serious insect pest of rice in Asia. It infects itsplant host by burrowing into the stem using its mandible. However, apart from the mandible, the head ofrice stem borers is also associated in the incursion process since it facilitates the entry of larvae to the riceplant. Differences in the head capsules have a direct effect on the ability of the insects to ingest hardfoods rapidly. Different rice varieties in the Philippines serve as plant host for this pest and infestationoccurred in different geographical location. Variations in habitat and plant host were thought to generateenvironmental variation in morphometric traits and host adapted herbivore phenotype respectively.Landmark based geometric morphometric analysis was used to assess the hypothesis that the head shapeof white stem borer differ between populations with respect to different rice varieties and geographicallocation where it was obtained. Relative warp analysis showed variation in the head shape betweendifferent white stem borer (Schirpophaga innotata Walker populations infesting different varieties of rice.Non-significant head shape variations were obtained between geographically separated populations. Theseresults indicate that the rice host varieties play an important role in the selection of individuals that areable to counteract the resistance factors in plants.

  5. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  6. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    Light quantity and quality modulate grapevine development and influence berry metabolic processes. Here we studied light as an information signal for developing and ripening grape berries. A Vitis vinifera Sauvignon Blanc field experiment was used to identify the impacts of UVB on core metabolic processes in the berries under both high light (HL) and low light (LL) microclimates. The primary objective was therefore to identify UVB-specific responses on berry processes and metabolites and distinguish them from those responses elicited by variations in light incidence. Canopy manipulation at the bunch zone via early leaf removal, combined with UVB-excluding acrylic sheets installed over the bunch zones resulted in four bunch microclimates: (1) HL (control); (2) LL (control); (3) HL with UVB attenuation and (4) LL with UVB attenuation. Metabolite profiles of three berry developmental stages showed predictable changes to known UV-responsive compound classes in a typical UV acclimation (versus UV damage) response. Interestingly, the berries employed carotenoids and the associated xanthophyll cycles to acclimate to UV exposure and the berry responses differed between HL and LL conditions, particularly in the developmental stages where berries are still photosynthetically active. The developmental stage of the berries was an important factor to consider in interpreting the data. The green berries responded to the different exposure and/or UVB attenuation signals with metabolites that indicate that the berries actively managed its metabolism in relation to the exposure levels, displaying metabolic plasticity in the photosynthesis-related metabolites. Core processes such as photosynthesis, photo-inhibition and acclimation were maintained by differentially modulating metabolites under the four treatments. Ripe berries also responded metabolically to the light quality and quantity, but mostly formed compounds (volatiles and polyphenols) that have direct antioxidant and

  7. The Berry curvature of the Bogoliubov quasiparticle Bloch states in the unconventional superconductor Sr2RuO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradhand, Martin; Annett, James F

    2014-07-01

    We will extend the concept of electron band Berry curvatures to superconducting materials. We show that this can be defined for the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation describing the superconducting state in a periodic crystal. In addition, the concept is exploited to understand the driving mechanism for the optical Kerr effect in time reversal symmetry breaking superconductors. Finally, we establish a sum rule analogue to the normal state Hall sum rule making quantitative contact between the imaginary part of the optical conductivity and the Berry curvature. The general theory will be applied and tested against the drosophila of the p-wave paired materials Sr2RuO4.

  8. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetreault, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, /sup 14/C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle.

  9. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, 14C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle

  10. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  11. New insights into an RNAi approach for plant defence against piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichao; Guan, Ruobing; Guo, Huimin; Miao, Xuexia

    2015-11-01

    Insect double-stranded (ds)RNA expression in transgenic crops can increase plant resistance to biotic stress; however, creating transgenic crops to defend against every insect pest is impractical. Arabidopsis Mob1A is required for organ growth and reproduction. When Arabidopsis roots were soaked in dsMob1A, the root lengths and numbers were significantly suppressed and plants could not bolt or flower. Twenty-four hours after rice roots were immersed in fluorescent-labelled dsEYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein), fluorescence was observed in the rice sheath and stem and in planthoppers feeding on the rice. The expression levels of Ago and Dicer in rice and planthoppers were induced by dsEYFP. When rice roots were soaked in dsActin, their growth was also significantly suppressed. When planthoppers or Asian corn borers fed on rice or maize that had been irrigated with a solution containing the dsRNA of an insect target gene, the insect's mortality rate increased significantly. Our results demonstrate that dsRNAs can be absorbed by crop roots, trigger plant and insect RNAi and enhance piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect mortality rates. We also confirmed that dsRNA was stable under outdoor conditions. These results indicate that the root dsRNA soaking can be used as a bioinsecticide strategy during crop irrigation. PMID:25828885

  12. Effects of different origins and harvesting time on vitamin C, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru; Peippo, Pekka

    2002-10-01

    Vitamin C, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in berries of wild and cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) of different origins and harvesting dates were determined with HPLC. Wild berries of subsp. sinensis, native to China, contained 5-10 times more vitamin C in the juice fraction than the berries of subsp. rhamnoides from Europe and subsp. mongolica from Russia (4-13 vs 0.02-2 g/L juice). Genetic background and berry-harvesting date were two primary factors determining the vitamin C content in the berries. Crossing different subspecies influenced the vitamin C content to some extent. For bushes cultivated in southwest Finland, the best berry-harvesting date for high vitamin C content was the end of August. The seeds of subsp. sinensis contained less tocopherols and tocotrienols (average 130 mg/kg) compared with seeds of subsp. rhamnoides (average 290 mg/kg) and mongolica (average 250 mg/kg). The fruit flesh of sinensis berries had contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols 2-3 times higher than those found in the other two subspecies (120 mg/kg vs 40 mg/kg in rhamnoides and 50 mg/kg in mongolica). The fresh whole berries of subsp. sinensis were clearly the best source of total tocopherols and tocotrienols. The total content of tocopherols and tocotrienols in the soft parts of the berries reached the maximum level around early- to mid-September, whereas the content in seeds continued to increase until the end of November. The excellent combination of the highest content of vitamin C and tocopherols and tocotrienols makes the berries of subsp. sinensis an optimal raw material for nutritional investigation as a candidate for functional foods with special antioxidative properties. PMID:12358492

  13. Estimation of genetic divergence in rice (oryza sativa l) germplasms on the basis of paddy yield and rice stem borer's (pyralidae: lepidoptera) resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field trials were carried out to estimate resistance along with paddy yield in 55 rice germplasm lines (35 aromatic and 20 non-aromatic genotypes) for rice stem borers (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) to expose their potential in pest management approach. The results expressed significant differences for pest damage build-up and paddy yield among the rice germplasm lines. The findings clearly portrayed that based upon the percentage of pest invasions (dead hearts and white heads damage), no genotype was exclusively resistant to stem borers damage under field conditions. Two aromatic genotypes, Jajai-15A/97 and Basmati-Cr-34, exhibited least borers prevalence and amplified paddy yield while Sonehri Sugdasi (P) and Sada Gulab (P) pointed out a peak pest invasion and declined paddy yield. The estimation of pest incidence build-up and paddy productivity within non-aromatic genotypes confirmed that IR8 (P), IR6-15-2 and IR6 (P) were mainly proficient for bearing condensed pest invasion and augmented paddy yield. IR8-2.5-4, IR6-15-10 and IR6-20-9 demonstrated elevated pest susceptibility and gave poor yield. Rest of the germplasms appeared to be least tolerant or vulnerable to pest build-up and reduced paddy production. The tolerant and high yielding genotypes should be popularised in rice borers endemic areas and can be used in varietals resistance breeding strategy. The outcome of current studies necessitates the integration of existing host plant tolerance along with other management strategies to accomplish a suitable control of rice stem borers and enhance paddy yield. (author)

  14. Acute, subacute and subchronic safety assessment of betalains rich Rivina humilis L. berry juice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Imtiyaj; Denny Joseph, K M; Muralidhara; Ramesh, H P; Giridhar, P; Ravishankar, G A

    2011-12-01

    Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae) accumulates vacuolar pigments betalains. These pigments are synthesized by plants of 11 families in the order caryophyllales. Red beet is the only industrial source of these hydrophilic and low acidic pigments. Betalains rich R. humilis berry juice (RBJ) could be used as alternative source of these pigments. However, there is no information on safety of these berries. In this research work, RBJ was fed to adult (single-dose: 1, 2 and 5 g RBJ/kg bw) and growing (repeated-dosing: 2.5 and 5 g RBJ/kg bw for 35 days; dietary feeding: 0.5%, 1% and 2% RBJ in diet, w/w for 90 days) male rats to assess acute, subacute and subchronic toxic responses. In all the three studies, RBJ was well tolerated plus the feed intake, body and organ weights of RBJ administered groups were comparable to that of untreated control rats. Data on hematology, histology of vital organs, biochemical measurements in serum and liver of RBJ treated rats were comparable to that of control in repeated-dosing and subchronic dietary study. These results suggest that intake of RBJ does not affect growth and normal biochemical homeostasis. Hence, RBJ is safe to consume without any adverse effects in the body. PMID:21914457

  15. Antiaggregation potential of berry fractions against pairs of Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihinen, Kaisu; Ryynänen, Anu; Toivanen, Marko; Könönen, Eija; Törrönen, Riitta; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Coaggregation is an interspecies adhesion process, which is essential to the development of dental plaque. This is an in vitro study of the composition of the soluble solids in the berry juice molecular size fractions (100 kDa, FIII) derived from apple, bilberry, blackcurrant, cloudberry, crowberry and lingonberry and their ability to inhibit and reverse coaggregation of the pairs of common species in dental plaque: Streptococcus mutans with Fusobacterium nucleatum or Actinomyces naeslundii. Inhibitory and reversal activity was found in the molecular size fractions FII and FIII of bilberry, blackcurrant, crowberry and lingonberry. The active fractions contained higher amounts of polyphenols (5-12% of soluble solids) than those without activity (<2% of soluble solids). Proanthocyanidins dominated in the active lingonberry juice fractions FII and FIII and also small amounts of anthocyanins were detected. Anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and flavonol glycosides were prevalent in FII and FIII fractions of bilberry, blackcurrant and crowberry juices. Comparable amounts of sugars and titratable acids were present in the latter three berry juice fractions of different size. The results indicate that the high molecular size fractions of lingonberry, bilberry, blackcurrant and crowberry juices have antiaggregation potential on common oral bacteria, the potential being associated with their polyphenolic content. PMID:20623601

  16. HARA – NEWEST WINE HIGH QUALITY AROMATIC GRAPE VERIETY WITH PINK BERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The newest high-tech pink berry aromatic grape variety Hara selected by hybridization at the Athens Institute of Viticulture (Likovrisi, Greece researchers P.K. Zamanidi and L.P. Troshin in 2004 by crossing the Greek varieties Avgulato with Traminer pink. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics related to the eco-geographical group of Black Sea. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m. Degree of ripening vines is very high (over the entire length other than top of shoot. Length of production period from bud burst to harvest 146-155 days. Productivity is very high, 25-30 t/ha. Percentage of productive shoots - 90. The average mass of clusters within 350 g. Characterized by a high winter hardiness, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties Vitis vinifera. Hermaphrodite flower with stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Cluster medium, conical, medium density. Berry medium, spherical, pink color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice with pronounced varietal flavor of Gewurztraminer. Sugar content is very high, more than 24%. When overripening dry-curing and continuously stored on the clusters. Variety intended for the manufacture of dry white wines of excellent grade and high-quality dessert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high quality juices, compotes

  17. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins. PMID:26687319

  18. Cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-02-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape farms to evaluate cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens). At each farm, wild grapevines were cut in the woods adjacent to one vineyard for control of P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received no such cutting. Both vineyards received a standard broad-spectrum insecticide program for control of P. viteana and other vineyard insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between treatments in the total number of male moths trapped in both woods and vineyards. Egglaying by P. viteana was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation by P. viteana, no differences were observed between programs in the percent of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In all but one sample, survival of P. viteana larvae was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments, parasitism of P. viteana larvae within vineyards was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments on all sample dates, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two treatments throughout the study. The opportunities and benefits of cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control in grape integrated pest management programs in eastern North America are discussed.

  19. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins.

  20. Determination of anthocyanidins in berries and red wine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, N A; Kumpulainen, J T

    2001-09-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of anthocyanidins from berries and red wine is described. Delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin contents of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa cv. Jonsok), and a Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) red wine were determined. The aglycon forms of the anthocyanins present in the samples were revealed by acid hydrolysis. A reversed phase analytical column was employed to separate the anthocyanidins before identification by diode array detection. The suitability of the method was tested by determining the recovery (95-102% as aglycons and 69-104% from glycosides) for each anthocyanidin. Method repeatability was tested by charting the total aglycon content of two samples over a period of 14 analyses and determining the coefficients of variation (1.41% for bilberry and 2.56% for in-house reference material). The method developed proved thus to be effective for reliable determination of anthocyanidins from freeze-dried berry samples and red wine. The total anthocyanidin content of the tested samples was as follows: in-house reference material, 447 +/- 8 mg/100 g; strawberry, 23.8 +/- 0.4 mg/100 g; black currant, 135 +/- 3 mg/100 g; bilberry, 360 +/- 3 mg/100 g; and Cabernet sauvignon red wine, 26.1 +/- 0.1 mg/100 mL. PMID:11559107

  1. Bioavailability of anthocyanins and colonic polyphenol metabolites following consumption of aronia berry extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liyang; Lee, Sang Gil; Vance, Terrence M; Wang, Ying; Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Chun, Ock K; Bolling, Bradley W

    2016-11-15

    A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 6 adults to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins and colonic polyphenol metabolites after consumption of 500mg aronia berry extract. UHPLC-MS methods were developed to quantitate aronia berry polyphenols and their metabolites in plasma and urine. While anthocyanins were bioavailable, microbial phenolic catabolites increased ∼10-fold more than anthocyanins in plasma and urine. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside was rapidly metabolized to peonidin-3-O-galactoside. Aronia polyphenols were absorbed and extensively metabolized with tmax of anthocyanins and other polyphenol catabolites from 1.0h to 6.33h in plasma and urine. Despite significant inter-individual variation in pharmacokinetic parameters, concentrations of polyphenol metabolites in plasma and urine at 24h were positively correlated with total AUC in plasma and urine (r=0.93, and r=0.98, respectively). This suggests that fasting blood and urine collections could be used to estimate polyphenol bioavailability and metabolism after aronia polyphenol consumption. PMID:27283706

  2. Anthocyanin Characterization, Total Phenolic Quantification and Antioxidant Features of Some Chilean Edible Berry Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Brito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin composition and HPLC fingerprints of six small berries endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis for the first time (HR-ToF-ESI-MS. The antioxidant features of the six endemic species were compared, including a variety of blueberries which is one of the most commercially significant berry crops in Chile. The anthocyanin fingerprints obtained for the fruits were compared and correlated with the antioxidant features measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA, and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty one anthocyanins were identified, and the major ones were quantified by HPLC-DAD, mostly branched 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity (2.33 ± 0.21 μg/mL in the DPPH assay, followed by blueberry (3.32 ± 0.18 μg/mL, and arrayán (5.88 ± 0.21, respectively.

  3. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars. PMID:26471534

  4. Mondo Grass Berry Pigment for Visible to Near Infrared Absorption in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilva, L. A. A.; Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2013-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Synthesis of artificial dyes with broad response is important in developing an efficient DSSC. Artificial dyes can add up to the cost of the device; therefore, it is important to identify natural dyes with broad abortion and required energy levels. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 degree C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2 were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination and have a broad spectral response extending from 400 nm to 750 nm. This work is supported by COSM at UWG.

  5. Antioxidant Activity and Polyphenols of Aronia in Comparison to other Berry Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Jakobek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of various berries: [aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, red raspberry (Rubus idaeus, and strawberry (Fragaria anannassa] have been evaluated in this study by using Folin-Ciocalteau, pH-differential, and DPPH method. Amount of anthocyanins ranged from 232 to 4341 mg kg-1 in strawberry and aronia, respectively. Total polyphenol content varied from 1005 mg kg-1 in strawberry to 10637 mg kg-1 in aronia. Aronia contains the highest amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins among the berries studied. It shows the highest antioxidant activity, as well. Therefore, individual polyphenolic compounds of aronia were studied further in more details. The amount of fl avonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and anthocyanins in aronia was determined by using HPLC method. Anthocyanins found in aronia were derivatives of cyanidin of which the most abundant were cyanidin-3- galactoside (68.9% and cyanidin-3-arabinoside (24.5%. Quercetin was the main flavonol, with 93.07 % in total flavonol amount. The level of kaempferol was low (6.93% while myricetin was not identified.

  6. A Berry-Esseen Theorem and a Law of the Iterated Logarithm for Asymptotically Negatively Associated Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Feng WANG; Li Xin ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Negatively associated sequences have been studied extensively in recent years. Asymp-totically negative association is a generalization of negative association. In this paper a Berry-Esseen theorem and a law of the iterated logarithm are obtained for asymptotically negatively associated sequences.

  7. Mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of berry components in in vitro models of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma M; Gill, Chris I R; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of several cancers, particularly colorectal cancer, possibly linked to their phytochemical content, which is of interest due to several proposed health benefits, including potential anticancer activity. Epidemiological data suggests that cancers of the digestive tract are most susceptible to dietary modification, possibly due to being in direct contact with bioactive food constituents and therefore investigating the effects of these bioactive compounds on the prevalent colorectal cancer is feasible. Berries are a common element of Western diets, with members of the Rubus, Fragria, Sorbus, Ribes and Vaccinum genus featuring in desserts, preserves, yoghurts and juices. These soft fruit are rich in bioactive phytochemicals including several classes of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanols) and phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids). Whilst there is little data linking berry consumption to reduced risk of colorectal cancer, in vitro evidence from models representing colorectal cancer suggests that berry polyphenols may modulate cellular processes essential for cancer cell survival, such as proliferation and apoptosis. The exact mechanisms and berry constituents responsible for these potential anticancer activities remain unknown, but use of in vitro models provides a means to elucidate these matters.

  8. Assessment of shape changes of mistletoe berries: a new software approach to automatize the parameterization of path curve shaped contours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renatus Derbidge

    Full Text Available Photographs of mistletoe (Viscum album L. berries taken by a permanently fixed camera during their development in autumn were subjected to an outline shape analysis by fitting path curves using a mathematical algorithm from projective geometry. During growth and maturation processes the shape of mistletoe berries can be described by a set of such path curves, making it possible to extract changes of shape using one parameter called Lambda. Lambda describes the outline shape of a path curve. Here we present methods and software to capture and measure these changes of form over time. The present paper describes the software used to automatize a number of tasks including contour recognition, optimization of fitting the contour via hill-climbing, derivation of the path curves, computation of Lambda and blinding the pictures for the operator. The validity of the program is demonstrated by results from three independent measurements showing circadian rhythm in mistletoe berries. The program is available as open source and will be applied in a project to analyze the chronobiology of shape in mistletoe berries and the buds of their host trees.

  9. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) Berries in Nordic Environment: Compositional Response to Latitude and Weather Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-06-22

    Flavonol glycosides (FGs) in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) berries of varieties 'Tytti' and 'Terhi', cultivated in northern Finland (68°02' N) for six years and southern Finland (60°23' N) for seven years, were investigated and compared by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The average total content of 23 identified glycosides of isorhamnetin and quercetin was 103 ± 23 and 110 ± 21 mg/100 g fresh berries in 'Terhi' and 'Tytti', respectively. The total contents of FGs, flavonol diglycosides, and triglycosides in both varieties were higher in the north than in the south, whereas total flavonol monoglycoside content behaved vice versa (p < 0.05). Among the 89 weather variables studied, the sum of the daily mean temperatures that are 5 °C or higher from the start of growth season until the day of harvest was the most important variable which associated negatively with the accumulation of FGs in berries. Such influence was much stronger in berries from the north than from the south. PMID:27215398

  10. Foliar reflective film and water deficit increase anthocyanin to soluble solids ratio during berry ripening in Merlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated temperature can decrease the ratio of anthocyanins to soluble solids in red-skinned berries and warming trends in grape production regions have raised concern about color to alcohol balance in wines produced from fruit with altered ratios. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of a fol...

  11. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis and anticancer potential of Oplopanax horridus: Comparison of stem and berry extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Aung, Han H.; Mehendale, Sangeeta R.; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2009-01-01

    Oplopanax horridus or devil’s club is a herbal medicine distributed in North America. The constituents and pharmacological activities of O. horridus (OPH) are largely unknown. In this study, we assayed OPH stem and berry extracts using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The anticancer potentials of extracts on different human cancer cell lines (SW-480, HCT-116, HT-29, MCF-7 and NSCLC) were determined by MTS method. The effect of stem extract on cancer cell cycle, expression of cyclin A, and apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. HPLC data showed that the composition of OPH stem extract is more complicated than the berry extract. The wavelength of maximum absorption of the major constituent in stem and berry is 196.0 nm and 201.9 nm, respectively. Compared to the berry extract, the stem extract showed significant potent antiproliferative effect on all the studied cell lines. The stem extract at 0.1 mg/ml arrested cancer cells in S- and G2/M-phases, and significantly induced expression of cyclin A. After treatment with 0.1 mg/ml of stem extract for 72 h, apoptotic cells were increased to 45.2%, while control was 9.6%. The cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis may play a critical role in cancer chemoprevention by Oplopanax horridus stem extract. PMID:19686820

  12. Theory of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo and parity violating Berry-phases in atoms; Theorie des longitudinalen Atomstrahl-Spinechos und paritaetsverletzende Berry-Phasen in Atomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, T.F.

    2006-07-19

    We present a nonrelativistic theory for the quantum mechanical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments, where a beam of neutral atoms is subjected to static electric and magnetic fields. The atomic wave function is the solution of a matrix-valued Schroedinger equation and can be written as superposition of local (atomic) eigenstates of the potential matrix. The position- and time-dependent amplitude function of each eigenstate represents an atomic wave packet and can be calculated in a series expansion with a master formula that we derive. The zeroth order of this series expansion describes the adiabatic limit, whereas the higher order contributions contain the mixing of the eigenstates and the corresponding amplitude functions. We give a tutorial for the theoretical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments and for the so-called Fahrplan model, which is a visualisation tool for the propagation of wave packets of different atomic eigenstates. As an example for the application of our theory, we study parity violating geometric (Berry-)phases. In this context, we define geometric flux densities, which for certain field configurations can be used to illustrate geometric phases in a vector diagram. Considering an example with a specific field configuration, we prove the existence of a parity violating geometric phase. (orig.)

  13. Pod Characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. related to rocoa pod borer resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Susilo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB had been identified in a series of study. The objective of this research is to evaluate the characteristics of cocoa pod using more diverse of genetic background to obtain selection criteria. Genetic materials for this studywere 25 cocoa clones planted in Central Sulawesi for resistance evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed by using variable of the percentage of unextractable beans, number of larvae entry and exit holes by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichomes, granules of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using canonical correlation. The result performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics 0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical correlation for CPB resistance 0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance in 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiated the resistant clones of ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones of ICCRI 04, KW 516, and KW 564.

  14. Development of Monitoring Technique for Cocoa Pod Borer(Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2005-12-01

    . It’s concluded that both of monitoring technique were not a converge estimation. Key words : Cocoa, cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella, Integrated Pest Management, monitoring technique.

  15. Inheritance of central neuroanatomy and physiology related to pheromone preference in the male European corn borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Bill S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a textbook example of pheromone polymorphism. Males of the two strains (Z and E prefer opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, with a sex-linked factor underlying this difference in preference. The male antennal lobes of the two strains contain a pheromone sensitive macroglomerular complex (MGC that is identical in morphology, but reversed in functional topology. However, hybrids prefer intermediate ratios. How a topological arrangement of two glomeruli can accommodate for an intermediate preference was unclear. Therefore we studied the neurophysiology of hybrids and paternal backcrosses to see which factors correlated with male behavior. Results Projection neuron (PN recordings and stainings in hybrids and backcrosses show a dominance of the E-type MGC topology, notwithstanding their intermediate preference. Apparently, the topological arrangement of glomeruli does not directly dictate preference. However, two other factors did correlated very well with preference. First, volumetric measurements of MGC glomeruli demonstrate that, whereas in the parental strains the medial MGC glomerulus is more than 2 times larger than the lateral, in hybrids they are intermediate between the parents, i.e. equally sized. Paternal backcrosses showed that the volume ratio is sex-linked and co-dominant. Second, we measured the summed potential difference of the antennae in response to pheromone stimulation using electroantennogram recordings (EAG. Z-strain antennae responded 2.5 times stronger to Z11 than to E11-14:OAc, whereas in E-strain antennae the ratio was approximately equal. Hybrid responses were intermediate to the parents, and also here the antennal response of the paternal backcrosses followed a pattern similar to the behavioral phenotype. We found no differences in frequency and types of projection and local interneurons encountered

  16. Field Efficacy of Steinernema Carpocapsae Against Lima Bean Pod Borer, Etiella zynckenella Treitschke, Attacking Groundnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwinardi Apriyanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean pod borer (LBPB, Etiella zynckenella Trietschke, is major insect pest of soybean in Indonesia. Currently it was also reported attacking groundnut in some parts of Sumatera causing serious yield loss. Insecticide treatment is not only ecologically unsafe, but also is not practical due to concealed behavior of the larvae within pods below soil surface. Systemic insecticide might be so but unsafe as it might leave unaccepted residue in harvested pods. It is clear that safer more effective technology such as biological control is badly needed. A Field study was conducted at the University of Bengkulu Research Station in 2012-2013. The objectives was to determine the effectiveness of non  local strain of entomopathoegen nematode (EPN, Sterinenema carpocapsae, to control LBPB attacking groundnut. Groundnut seeds were sewed in plots which were later treated with S. carpocasae produce by Biological Control Laboratory University of Jember at the dose of 500.000 JI m-2. EPN was sprayed upon plants and soil surface twice at plant age of 45 and 65 days after sewing (DAS. There were insecticide treatment and control plots as comparison. Observations of damaged pods and the presence of LBPB larvae were done at plant age of 63, 77,  90 DAS and at the haevesting date. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means of damaged pods were separated with least significant different (LSD. The result revealed that in two years study,  damaged pods consistently tended to be less in plots treated with S. carpocasae or insecticide than those in controls, indicating that it might be effective against PLPB. The lack of significant different between EPN treated and control  plots might be as a result of low percentages of EPN larval survival due shipment problem (i.e. inappropriate packaging and long transportation that toke several days or it might be that the strain was less adapted yet to local conditions. I speculate that local strain of EPN

  17. Responses of grape berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity to the projected climate change across the Western Australian wine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Mpelasoka, Freddie; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    More than a century of observations has established that climate influences grape berry composition. Accordingly, the projected global climate change is expected to impact on grape berry composition although the magnitude and direction of impact at regional and subregional scales are not fully known. The aim of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on levels of berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity (TA) of the major grapevine varieties grown across all of the Western Australian (WA) wine regions. Grape berry anthocyanin and TA responses across all WA wine regions were projected for 2030, 2050 and 2070 by utilising empirical models that link these berry attributes and climate data downscaled (to ˜5 km resolution) from the csiro_mk3_5 and miroc3_2_medres global climate model outputs under IPCC SRES A2 emissions scenario. Due to the dependence of berry composition on maturity, climate impacts on anthocyanin and TA levels were assessed at a common maturity of 22 °Brix total soluble solids (TSS), which necessitated the determination of when this maturity will be reached for each variety, region and warming scenario, and future period. The results indicate that both anthocyanin and TA levels will be affected negatively by a warming climate, but the magnitude of the impacts will differ between varieties and wine regions. Compared to 1990 levels, median anthocyanins concentrations are projected to decrease, depending on global climate model, by up to 3-12 % and 9-33 % for the northern wine regions by 2030 and 2070, respectively while 2-18 % reductions are projected in the southern wine regions for the same time periods. Patterns of reductions in the median Shiraz berry anthocyanin concentrations are similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon; however, the magnitude is lower (up to 9-18 % in southern and northern wine regions respectively by 2070). Similarly, uneven declines in TA levels are projected across the study regions. The largest reductions

  18. Transgenic corn for control of the European corn borer and corn rootworms: a survey of Midwestern farmers' practices and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ted A; Rice, Marlin E; Tollefson, Jon J; Pilcher, Clinton D

    2005-04-01

    In 2001, a self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1000 corn, Zea mays L., farmers in each of five states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska) to evaluate their perceptions of transgenic corn designed to control the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. Respondents returned 1,313 surveys (26.2%). Farmers with small acreages planted a greater portion of their corn (54.5%) with transgenic corn for control of European corn borer than farmers with large farms (39.2%). The majority (75.2%) of farmers use crop rotation to control the corn rootworm. Nine insecticides comprised 92.2% of the commercial soil insecticides used for control of corn rootworm larvae. More than one-third of the farmers in Illinois (33.5%) and Indiana (39.4%) treated first-year corn for corn rootworm, primarily due to western corn rootworm egg laying in soybean, Glycine max (L.). When asked whether they would plant transgenic corn protected against the corn rootworm, 35.0% of farmers responded they would, whereas 40.5% said they were unsure. The two greatest farmer concerns about transgenic corn were the ability to sell harvested grain (59.3%) and additional technology fees (54.8%). Respondents indicated that less farmer exposure to insecticide (69.9%) and less insecticide in the environment (68.5%) were the primary benefits of transgenic corn. Farmers who had no concerns about transgenic corn for rootworm control were more likely to purchase the product (46.8%). The most common refuge-planting options farmers favored were adjacent fields (30.9%) and split fields (29.9%). Farmers (21.1%) observed a yield increase (23.7 bu/ha [9.6 bu/acre]) when using transgenic corn for European corn borer control compared with non-transgenic corn. These data can help in understanding farmers' knowledge and concerns regarding transgenic corn. This information may be of value to guide researchers, extension specialists, and policy makers in designing

  19. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit (goji berry of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25% would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65% would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji.

  20. Flavonol glycosides in berries of two major subspecies of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) and influence of growth sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueying; Laaksonen, Oskar; Zheng, Jie; Yang, Wei; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-06-01

    Flavonol glycosides of wild sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) berries from China and cultivated berries (H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) from Finland and Canada were identified and quantified. Twenty-six flavonol glycosides were found with isorhamnetin and quercetin as the major aglycones. The contents of flavonol glycosides ranged 23-250 mg/100 g fresh berries and were significantly higher in the berries of ssp. sinensis than in those of ssp. mongolica. Among the cultivars of ssp. mongolica, the berries of 'Oranzhevaya' had the lowest (23 mg/100 g) content, and those of 'Prevoshodnaya' the highest content of flavonol glycosides (80 mg/100 g). Within the ssp. mongolica, the samples from Kittilä (Northern Finland) had higher levels of most flavonol glycosides than those from Turku (Southern Finland) and Québec. Among the ssp. sinensis berries of different growth sites, increasing trends were detected in the contents of most of the compounds as the altitude increased and as the latitude decreased. The wild berries (ssp. sinensis) from Sichuan had remarkably high contents and unique profiles of flavonol glycosides. PMID:26830578