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Sample records for berry borer hypothenemus

  1. Visualizing the mesothoracic spiracles in a bark beetle: The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) possesses mycangia, we fortuitously detected the mesothoracic spiracles, which are usually concealed. The mesothoracic s...

  2. Micro-CT unveils the secret life of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera, Curculionidae: Scolytinae) inside coffee berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide, and due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. In this pap...

  3. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  4. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  5. Cloning and expression of an endo-1,4-β-xylanase from the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

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    Padilla-Hurtado Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was

  6. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    KAUST Repository

    Vega, Fernando E.

    2015-07-31

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.

  7. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    KAUST Repository

    Vega, Fernando E.; Brown, Stuart M.; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B.; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F.; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.

  8. Effect of picung (Pangium edule plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei

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    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation and one negative control treatment (aquades. The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol. The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used. Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.

  9. Influence of age and diet on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

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    Jaime Gómez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of age and feeding on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae was investigated in the laboratory. Groups of female parasitoids were subject to the following treatments: a group fed during one, five and ten days after emergence of adults with coffee borer larvae; another group fed only with honey solution during five days after emergence; and as a control, a third group was kept without food for five days. At the end of each treatment, survivorship, parasitoid activity (walking and flying capacity in an arena, search capacity for finding coffee borer-infested berries, host feeding and oviposition (on immature hosts, were assessed. Unfed females showed a significant decrease in survivorship compared to individuals that were fed. The type of meal (insects or honey did not significantly influence parasitoid activity, search and oviposition capacities. Females fed with honey solution significantly consumed less immature coffee borers. Younger females (one day old walked and flew out of the arena significantly faster than older ones (5 and 10 days old. Implications of these results are discussed on the performance of C. stephanoderis as a biological control agent of the coffee berry borer.

  10. Diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from coffee plantations infested with the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei

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    Glen Arrieta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae was first reported infecting Costa Rican coffee plantations in the year 2000. Due to the impact that this plague has in the economy of the country, we were interested in seeking new alternatives for the biological control of H. hampei, based on the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. Atotal of 202 B. thuringiensis isolates obtained from Costa Rican coffee plantations infested with H. hampei were analyzed through crystal morphology of the crystal inclusions and SDS-PAGE of d-endotoxins, while 105 strains were further evaluated by PCR for the presence cry, cyt and vip genes. Most of the Bt strains showed diverse crystal morphologies: pleomorphic (35%, oval (37%, bipyramidal (3%, bipyramidal and oval (12%, bipyramidal, oval and pleomorphic (10% and bipyramidal, oval and cubic (3%. The SDS-PAGE analyses of the crystal preparations showed five strains with delta -endotoxin from 20 to 40 kDa, six from 40 to 50 kDa, seven from 50 to 60 kDa, 19 from 60 to 70 kDa, 29 from 70 to 100 kDa and 39 from 100-145 kDa. PCR analyses demonstrated that the collection showed diverse cry genes profiles having several genes per strain: 78 strains contained the vip3 gene, 82 the cry2 gene, 45 the cry1 and 29 strains harbored cry3-cry7 genes. A total of 13 strains did not amplified with any of the cry primers used: cry1, cry2, cry37, cry5, cry11, cry12 and cry14. Forty-three different genetic profiles were found, mainly due to the combination of cry1A genes with other cry and vip genes. The genetic characterization of the collection provides opportunities for the selection of strains to be tested in bioassays against H. hampei and other insect pests of agricultural importance. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 757-764. Epub 2004 Dic 15.En el año 2000 se reportó por primera vez la principal plaga del cafeto, conocida como broca (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolitidae en

  11. Population dynamics and distribution of the coffee berry borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamics and distribution of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were studied on Coffea arabica L. in southwestern region of Ethiopia. Thirty coffee trees were sampled at weekly intervals from 2000 to 2001. Findings of this study showed that coffee berry borer population ...

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of an α-amylase cDNA highly expressed in major feeding stages of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, C A; Macedo, L L P; Amorim, T M L; Santos, V O; Fragoso, R R; Lucena, W A; Meneguim, A M; Valencia-Jimenez, A; Engler, G; Silva, M C M; Albuquerque, E V S; Grossi-de-Sa, M F

    2014-12-10

    α-Amylases are common enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing starch. Insect-pests, whose larvae develop in seeds, rely obligatorily on α-amylase activity to digest starch, as their major food source. Considering the relevance of insect α-amylases and the natural α-amylase inhibitors present in seeds to protect from insect damage, we report here the molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the full-length AmyHha cDNA of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, a major insect-pest of coffee crops. The AmyHha sequence has 1879 bp, containing a 1458 bp open reading frame, which encodes a predicted protein with 485 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 51.2 kDa. The deduced protein showed 55-79% identity to other insect α-amylases, including Anthonomus grandis, Ips typographus and Sitophilus oryzae α-amylases. In depth analysis revealed that the highly conserved three amino acid residues (Asp184, Glu220, and Asp285), which compose the catalytic site are also presented in AmyHha amylase. The AmyHha gene seems to be a single copy in the haploid genome and AmyHha transcription levels were found higher in L2 larvae and adult insects, both corresponding to major feeding phases. Modeling of the AmyHha predicted protein uncovered striking structural similarities to the Tenebrio molitor α-amylase also displaying the same amino acid residues involved in enzyme catalysis (Asp184, Glu220 and Asp285). Since AmyHha gene was mostly transcribed in the intestinal tract of H. hampei larvae, the cognate α-amylase could be considered a high valuable target to coffee bean insect control by biotechnological strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei and coffee production in East Africa.

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    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model. In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.

  14. Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

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    Flávio Neves Celestino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate botanical oils, mineral oils and an insecticide that contained azadirachtin (ICA for the control of Hypothenemus hampei, in addition to the effects of residual castor oil. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn, soybean and castor, two mineral oils (assist® and naturol®, and the ICA for the control of H. hampei. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 3.0% (v v-1. The median lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated with Probit analysis. The oil of castor bean and extract of castor bean cake were also evaluated at concentrations of 3.0% (v v-1 and 3.0% (m v-1, respectively. The mortality rates for H. hampei caused by the ICA and the castor oil were 40.8 and 53.7%, with LC50 values of 6.71 and 3.49% (v v-1, respectively. In the castor oil, the methyl esters of the fatty acids were palmitic (1.10%, linoleic (4.50%, oleic (4.02%, stearic (0.50% and ricinoleic acids (88.04%. The extract of the castor bean cake was not toxic to H. hampei. The persistence of the castor oil in the environment was low, and the cause of mortality for H. hampei was most likely the blockage of the spiracles, which prevented the insects from breathing.

  15. Traps craft with attractive alcoholics in the control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari 1867 in Cologne Bolinda, Caranavi

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    Quispe-Condori Rosalía

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coffee is one of the main cultivated crops in the Caranavi region, among the biotic stress factors; the borer of the coffee (Hypothenemus hampei is the one that affects significantly and negatively. In order to finding alternative practical and economic for the control of the pest, it was carried this investigation in the “Bolinda” Colony of the Caranavi Municipality La Paz-Bolivia, the trial was established under a completely random, design with two study factors, e three replications, 1.5 ha distributed at random in the coffee plantations. Three types of traps were built handmade. These were, INIA, ECOIAPAR and TRAP BORER, in combination with the attractive mixtures of alcohols methanol (M and ethanol (E in the proportion of 3: 1; it mixes 3: 1: 1 M-E+milled coffee, 2: 1 M-E and commercial alcohol as check. Borer/trap/attractive capture was evaluated. He she was highly significant statistical differences among them. The biggest captures female adults of Hipothenemus hampei were presented in the proportion 2: 1 of M-E and ECOIAPAR trap (T8 was identified as the most efficient and economic, being able to capture 4877 borer, with a cost trap (1.50 Bs and the attractive (2.20 Bs, continued by the T2 with the same cost (proportion 3: 1 of M-E and INIA trap with 159 borer and the treatments witnesT9, T5 and T1 (commercial alcohol they obtained smaller captures with 23, 35 and 38 drills, which means that it is not effective for the control. The costs of the implementation of traps the marginal cost of 40 Bolivianos/ha. The results obtained in the study show the biggest borer captures were in December and January, the use of handmade traps constitutes an alternative for the control in the period of postharvest, a more practical and economic method, feasible for the producers.

  16. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  17. The role of semiochemical traps in the management of coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei/ O papel das armadilhas com semioquímicos no manejo da broca-do-café,Hypothenemus hampei

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    Lauro Morales

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Coffee berry borer (CBB is the most important pest in the coffee plantings. Losses are due to quality and quantity reductions. In most plantings, CBB is controlled using insecticides. Alternative management strategies are strongly demanded due to increasing production and demand for organic products. This paper revises the use of traps for CBB management. Color and trap designs, attractants and release rates are the factors directly related to trap efficiency. Methanol and ethanol mixture is used as attractant. Interactions among these factors in the CBB attraction are reported. Environment conditions under which the coffee plantings are conducted influence trap captures. These aspects may explain some differences in results for different studies. Conflicting results are also found in relation to traps efficiency when they are used as a unique control strategy in the field. Additional research may be encouraged to understand more deeply the interactions between the CBB and coffee plant. In the same way, we must study the interactions of the several intrinsic factors of the traps and the environment. The use of the trap, associated with other strategies to reduce pest population, is a recommended strategy for CBB management.A broca-do-café é a praga mais importante do cafeeiro. Provoca prejuízos em quantidade e qualidade da produção. Normalmente, é controlada por aplicações de inseticidas. Estratégias alternativas de manejo são necessárias principalmente pelo aumento da produção e demanda por produtos orgânicos. O uso de armadilhas para manejo da broca é revisado. A cor, o modelo da armadilha, os atraentes e as taxas de liberação são fatores diretamente relacionados com a eficiência das armadilhas. Metanol e etanol são os compostos utilizados como atraentes. Ocorrem interações entre estes fatores na atração da broca. As condições ambientais nas quais o cafeeiro é cultivado também devem influenciar as capturas

  18. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on different phases of coffee borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Silva, A.L. da.

    1974-10-01

    Two experiments carried out in order to determine immediate lethal doses (LD sub(I)) for gamma irradiation of larvae, pupae and adults hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867) are presented. One experiment aimed only the determination of LD sub(I) for the adults of the coffee borer-outside the coffee-berries. The other to obtain the equivalent data for insects inside the coffee-berry, for all phases of the development cycle of the insect. It was found that LD sub(I) for larvae was around 350 Krad and for pupae around 400 Krad. For the adults, the LD sub(I) for insects outside the coffee-berry was 475 Krad and 525 for insects inside the coffee-berry. It was found that smaller doses caused a pronunced decrease in the insect lifetime, lifetime decrease proportionally as the irradiation dose increase. According to the results obtained, is postulated that this species of coffee-borer may be considered resistant to gamma radiation [pt

  20. Temperature-dependent development and emergence pattern of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) from coffee berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Borgemeister, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most important constrain for coffee production throughout the world. Knowledge on the emergence pattern of H. hampei females to infest new berries is crucial to effectively plan control measures. In this laboratory study, we assessed the development of immature stages and the emergence pattern of H. hampei females from the berries by exposing them to temperatures that are typical for high-altitude plantations (> or = 1,700 m above sea level [masl] ) or when coffee is grown under shade trees (20-22 degrees C), and optimum altitude plantations (1,200-1,600 masl) or nonshaded coffee (25-30 degrees C). Fecundity and emergence pattern of H. hampei females from coffee berries varied with temperature. Temperature played a crucial role determining the rate of H. hampei development and therefore the emergence of the females to start a new infestation cycle. The emergence and colonization phases of new colonizing females in coffee plantations with mean temperatures of 20, 25, or 30 degrees C would take place at different moments in the development of the coffee berries, and in some cases more than once. The implications of our findings for an improved, site-specific timing of control interventions against H. hampei are discussed.

  1. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  2. Karnyothrips flavipes, a previously unreported predatory thrips of the coffee berry borer: DNA-based gut content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new predator of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was found in the coffee growing area of Kisii in Western Kenya. Field observations, laboratory trials and gut content analysis using molecular tools have confirmed the role of the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Phlaeothrip...

  3. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  4. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  5. Coffee berry borer in conilon coffee in the Brazilian Cerrado: an ancient pest in a new environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  6. Producción masiva automatizada de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) y de sus parasitoides sobre dietas artificiales

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the mass rearing system of the coffee berry borer, cbb, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and its African parasitoids: the ectoparasitoids Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Betrem) and Prorops nasuta ((Waterston) (Hymenop...

  7. Abridged life tables for Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Parasitoids of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) reared on artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological aspects and demographic parameters of Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoids of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) were investigated usi...

  8. Pest Management Strategies Against the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Francisco

    2018-03-22

    Coffee ( Coffea arabica and C. canephora) is one of the most widely traded agricultural commodities and the main cash crop in ∼80 tropical countries. Among the factors that limit coffee production, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) has been considered the main insect pest, causing losses of over U.S. $500 million dollars annually. Control of this pest has been hindered by two main factors: the cryptic nature of the insect (i.e., protected inside the coffee berry) and the availability of coffee berries in the field allowing the survival of the pest from one generation to the next. Coffee berry borer control has primarily been based on the use of synthetic insecticides. Management strategies have focused on the use of African parasitoids ( Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Prorops nasuta, and Phymastichus coffea), fungal entomopathogens ( Beauveria bassiana), and insect traps. These approaches have had mixed results. Recent work on the basic biology of the insect has provided novel insights that might be useful in developing novel pest management strategies. For example, the discovery of symbiotic bacteria responsible for caffeine breakdown as part of the coffee berry borer microbiome opens new possibilities for pest management via the disruption of these bacteria. Some chemicals with repellent propieties have been identified, and these have a high potential for field implementation. Finally, the publication of the CBB genome has provided insights on the biology of the insect that will help us to understand why it has been so successful at exploiting the coffee plant. Here I discuss the tools we now have against the CBB and likely control strategies that may be useful in the near future.

  9. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.

  10. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora effect on coffe berry borer in the Algarrobo locality, Trinidad, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvis Valdés Zayas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, coffee berry borer is considered the pest that bigger causes damage, to coffee production all over the world. It is an insect of difficult handling with the traditional control methods by mean of insecticides. For this reason the Strategy of Integrated Handling of this Plague take into consideration since manual collection of the insect up the employment of biological controls. The last alternative is one of the more appealed by coffee farmers due to the minor cost. That’s why with the realization of this work the levels of effectiveness of several doses of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on the control of H. hampei were evaluated. There were not significant differences between the three doses evaluated so it is suggested the employment of the dose of 500 million for hectare for the control of the plague because it is the most economic dose.

  11. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1 establish a CBB monitoring program, (2 synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3 conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4 establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5 stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers.

  12. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Johnson, Melissa; Shriner, Suzanne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Myers, Roxana; Bayman, Paul; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1) establish a CBB monitoring program, (2) synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3) conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4) establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5) stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers. PMID:29135952

  13. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  14. Crafting traps with attractant alcoholics an alternative for monitoring and control of borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari 1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agramont Richard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to incorporate an alternative, for monitoring and control of the borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Choleoptera: Curculionidae to be feasible for the use of the coffee producers, in the community Choro, Coripata municipality, second section of Nor Yungas province, La Paz Bolivia. It was evaluated the capture of adult borer coffee individuals using 45 traps into 1,5 hectares distributed at random with four repetitions. It was used three types of craft traps, built with disposable plastic bottles of soft drinks, with the traps Casera, Brocap and Yessica, were evaluated three treatments: mixture of alcohols methyl (M and ethylic (E in proportions 3:1; mix 1:1 of (M and (E; mix 1:1:1 of (M (E and coffee fresh cherry liquated (CFCL and water as a witness. The largest captures of adult individuals, were present in the crafting traps with mixture of (M(E 3:1 with overalls (± standard deviation adults/traps/ten days of 3414,5±3227,7 being superior to the other treatments. The crafting trap is one of the alternatives for the control and monitoring of the borer in the coffee plantations. The use of crafting traps with alcoholic attractants for the capture of adult individuals, is present as a low cost alternative, being feasible the successful use by the producers into the management integrated programs.

  15. Flight Activity and Field Infestation Relationships for Coffee Berry Borer in Commercial Coffee Plantations in Kona and Kau Districts, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Shriner, Suzanne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Arthurs, Steven

    2017-12-05

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a recent invader to Hawaii. To date, limited information regarding the seasonal phenology of this pest on the islands limits the implementation of integrated control strategies. As part of a coffee farmer training program, we monitored CBB flight activity in 15 coffee plantations (Kona and Kau Districts) over 10 mo with methanol-ethanol (3:1 ratio) baited traps. Concurrently, we quantified CBB infestation and penetration rates inside developing coffee berries through the end of harvest. Approximately 1 million CBB were captured, with the highest activity (e.g., >500 CBB/trap/wk) in December through February, coinciding with end of main regional harvesting periods. Relatively high activity (>250 CBB/trap/wk) was also observed during berry development, in May and June (Kona) and June and July (Kau). Field infestation rates were higher overall in Kau (9.6 ± 1.1%) compared with coffee plantations in Kona (4.7 ± 0.4%). Linear regression investigated relationships between CBB trap data and berry infestation rates. Trap catch data generally correlated better with the proportion of shallow entries (AB position) compared with deeper penetrations (CD position) or total infestation. Pearson correlation coefficients based on different parameters (i.e., region, altitude, and berry phenology) revealed positive and mostly significant correlations between these variables (R values 0.410 to 0.837). Timing peak flight activity of CBB with insecticide applications will help coffee growers improve pest control. The ability of trap data to calculate reliable economic (action) thresholds for the CBB is discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Aplikasi Konsep Pengendalian Hama Terpadu untuk Pengendalian Hama Bubuk Buah Kopi (Hypothenemus hampei)

    OpenAIRE

    Inda Laila, Main Sese; Agus, Nurariaty; Saranga, Annie P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the most effective and efficient integrated control package in suppressing coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferr.). The study was conducted in growers??? coffee plantations in Desa Pana, Kecamatan Alla, Kabupaten Enrekang, South Sulawesi and laboratories at the Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, from November 2010 to April 2011. The study consisted of five treatments of control packages, namely:...

  17. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  18. Abondance de Hypothenemus hampei Ferr., scolyte des graines de cafe, en fonction de sa plante-hote et de son parasite Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem, en Cote d'Ivoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, V.J.M.

    1973-01-01



    INTRODUCTION

    The discovery of Cephalonomia stephanoderis BETREM, a new parasite of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei FERR. (syn. Stephanoderes hampei Ferr.), seemed to open new prospects for

  19. Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator-prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chapman, Eric G.; Vega, Fernando E.; Harwood, James D.

    2010-03-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US 500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K. flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestion, we used molecular gut-content analysis to confirm the potential role of K. flavipes as a predator of H. hampei in an organic coffee production system. Species-specific COI primers designed for H. hampei were shown to have a high degree of specificity for H. hampei DNA and did not produce any PCR product from DNA templates of the other insects associated with the coffee agroecosystems. In total, 3,327 K. flavipes emerged from 17,792 H. hampei-infested berries collected from the field between April and September 2008. Throughout the season, 8.3% of K. flavipes tested positive for H. hampei DNA, although at times this figure approached 50%. Prey availability was significantly correlated with prey consumption, thus indicating the potential impact on H. hampei populations.

  20. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  1. Seed-Specific Stable Expression of the α-AI1 Inhibitor in Coffee Grains and the In Vivo Implications for the Development of the Coffee Berry Borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Érika V S; Bezerra, Caroline A; Romero, Juan V; Valencia, Jorge W A; Valencia-Jiménez, Arnubio; Pimenta, Lucas M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Silva, Maria C M; Meneguim, Ana M; Sá, Maria Eugênia L; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F

    Genetic transformation of coffee ( Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the α-amylase inhibitor-1 ( α-AI1 ) gene. The α-AI1 inhibitor shows considerable activity toward digestive enzymes of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei . This insect pest expends its life cycle almost entirely in coffee berries. Transgene containment in the fruit is important to meeting food and environmental safety requirements for releasing genetically modified (GM) crops. PCR analysis of T2 coffee plants showed a Mendelian single-copy segregation pattern. Ectopic transgene expression was only detected in coffee grains, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis of different plant tissues. An intense immunocytochemical signal associated with α-AI1 protein expression was localized to endospermic cells. In addition, a delay in the larval development of CBB was observed after challenging transgenic coffee seeds with the insect. These results indicate that the PHA-L promoter might be a useful tool in coffee for the seed-specific expression of genes related to coffee bean productivity, quality and pest protection. The biotechnological applicability of the α-AI1 gene for controlling CBB is also discussed. This work is the first report showing a seed-specific transgene expression in coffee plants.

  2. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Effect of Pollen Feed on Parasitization and Predatism of Cephalonomia stephanoderis onHypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suci Rahayu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampeiusing parasitoid Cephalonomia stephanoderishas been developed through the improvement of the parasitoid role may using pollens as feed source. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cover crop and weed pollens on parasitization and predatism of C. stephanoderis.The applied treatments were pollens of Turnera ulmifolia, Arachis pintoi, Ageratum conyzoidesadded in glass tube that consist of 10 CBB pupaes and a mated female of C. stephanoderis. Number of pupae parasitized and pupae preyed were observed. The result showed that addition of A. Pintoi pollen increased the number of pupae parasitized at 135% whereas addition of T. ulmifolia and A. conyzoides pollens did not affect parasitization of C. Stephanoderis. The predatismof C. stephanoderiswas higher than parasitization to pupae of H. hampei which showed that the behavior of C. stephanoderiswas parasitization. Addition of T. ulmifolia, A. pintoi, and A. conyzoidespollens increased the number of pupae predatism at 132%, 102%, and 225%, respectively. Key words: Ageratum conyzoides, Arachis pintoi, Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Hypothenemus hampei,parasitization, predatism, pollens, Turnera ulmifolia

  4. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  5. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  6. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Robert C; Jang, Eric B; Follett, Peter A

    2013-04-01

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. Although it is already present in most of the world's major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent reintroductions that might include hyperparasites or improve the genetic base of existing populations. Green coffee is shipped around the world for custom blending and roasting and such shipments carry the risk of spreading H. hampei. We used heavily infested coffee berries as a surrogate for green coffee to test the freezing tolerance of H. hampei. After freezing, all life stages of H. hampei were dissected from coffee berries and mortality was assessed. Counting all life stages, > 15,000 insects were measured in this study. A temperature of approximately -15 degrees C (range, -13.9 to -15.5) for 48 h provided 100% control of all life stages. A logit regression model predicted coffee might be more economical and acceptable compared with fumigation with methyl bromide, especially for small-scale and organic growers and millers in Hawaii who ship green coffee beans to other islands for custom roasting. Freezing treatments could also be used to kill H. hampei in coffee seeds before export with minimal effects on seed germination if coffee seeds are first dried to critical water content levels in accordance with published methods.

  7. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  8. Recent occurrence of Aphanogmus dictynna (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae) in Kenya – an important hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphanogmus dictynna (Waterston) was recently recorded in error as an undescribed species of Aphanogmus. This species is a primary parasitoid on larvae and cocoons of the bethylid Prorops nasuta Waterston, and probably a second bethylid species, Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem. Both bethylids are...

  9. The Berry's connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tourneux, J.

    1989-01-01

    A course on the Berry's connection is presented. The main steps leading to the Berry's discovery are reviewed and the obtained equations are examined. Some applications of Berry's formulation are presented. They include diatomic molecules, dipole-quadrupole interaction in spherical mucleus and diabolic pair transfer. The experimental results presented are the spectrum of the Na 3 molecule, the propagation of photons in an helical optical fiber and the neutron spin rotation. Non-abelian problems and the Aharonow-Anandan phase are discussed [fr

  10. First report of pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana RBL1034 to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... A 12 h light and dark cycle was be maintained. Pupae were ... genic on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Rehner et al., 2006). ... Data analysis ... the life span of the female A. gambiae will have a consi- derable ...

  11. Aspectos biológicos, morfológicos y genéticos de Hypothenemus obscurus e Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    OpenAIRE

    CONSTANTINO, LUIS M.; NAVARRO, LUCIO; BERRIO, ALEJANDRO; ACEVEDO, FLOR E.; RUBIO, DAVID; BENAVIDES, PABLO

    2011-01-01

    Existen dos especies de Hypothenemus en Colombia de importancia económica: H. hampei y H. obscurus. La primera es la plaga más destructiva del café, mientras que la segunda ataca varias especies, incluyendo macadamia y café. El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar estas dos especies, biológica, morfológica y genéticamente, con el fin de establecer diferencias que expliquen la adaptación de la broca al café. Los insectos fueron criados en dieta artificial de café y macadamia para estudi...

  12. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  13. Berry phase and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonner, Julian; Tong, David

    2009-01-01

    We study the constraints of supersymmetry on the non-Abelian holonomy given by U = Pexp (i∫A), the path-ordered exponential of a connection A. For theories with four supercharges, we show that A satisfies the tt* equations if it is a function of chiral multiplets. In contrast, when A is a function of vector multiplets, it satisfies the Bogomolnyi monopole equations. We describe applications of these results to the Berry connection in supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  14. Berry Fermi liquid theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing-Yuan, E-mail: chjy@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States); Son, Dam Thanh, E-mail: dtson@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    We develop an extension of the Landau Fermi liquid theory to systems of interacting fermions with non-trivial Berry curvature. We propose a kinetic equation and a constitutive relation for the electromagnetic current that together encode the linear response of such systems to external electromagnetic perturbations, to leading and next-to-leading orders in the expansion over the frequency and wave number of the perturbations. We analyze the Feynman diagrams in a large class of interacting quantum field theories and show that, after summing up all orders in perturbation theory, the current–current correlator exactly matches with the result obtained from the kinetic theory. - Highlights: • We extend Landau’s kinetic theory of Fermi liquid to incorporate Berry phase. • Berry phase effects in Fermi liquid take exactly the same form as in Fermi gas. • There is a new “emergent electric dipole” contribution to the anomalous Hall effect. • Our kinetic theory is matched to field theory to all orders in Feynman diagrams.

  15. Emerald ash borer flight potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Taylor; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robert A. Haack

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) that is rapidly spreading from the probable introduction site in Detroit, Michigan. The rapid spread to areas outside Michigan is undoubtedly due to phoretic transport on nursery stock, logs, and...

  16. Emerald ash borer life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Toby R. Petrice; Houping Liu

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was discovered in southeastern Michigan and nearby Ontario in June of 2002. EAB was identified as the cause of extensive ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in approximately 2,500 mi2, and...

  17. Emerald ash borer biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah Bauer; Juli Gould; Jian Duan; Mike. Ulyshen

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid from northeast Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus) tree mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Ontario, Canada. This destructive beetle apparently arrived in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from...

  18. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  19. Coffee berry disease in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on research in Kenya in 1964 - 1969 on anatomical, mycological, epidemiological, chemical control and cultural aspects of coffee berry disease, Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack, of Coffea arabica L. The pathogen causes flower and berry

  20. Rejoinder to Borer on the NAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Borer (2010 launches a spirited attack on my own promulgation and defense of the non aggression principle (NAP as the lynchpin of libertarianism, as adumbrated in several of my published papers (Block, 2009A, 2010. The two of us, Borer and me, in my opinion, achieve real disagreement, a goal not always reached in the libertarian debates. That is, Borer (2010 is succinct, on point, and offers a real challenge to those of us in the Rothbardian tradition, who see the NAP as the very basis of the libertarian philosophy. The present paper is an attempt to refute each and every one of the challenges offered by Borer

  1. Microorganisms of Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kántor Attila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape surface is an unstable habitat that changes greatly according to the stage of grape ripening. Different bacteria and yeasts can colonise the surface of grape berry and the diversity of microorganisms depends on the stage of ripening, pesticide application and health condition. The aim of this study was to study the microflora of the surface of grape berries. Altogether, 19 grape samples from Slovakia were collected. The spread plate method was applied and a 100 μL inoculum of each dilution (10−2, 10−3 was plated on TSA, MEA, and MRS agar for isolation of microorganisms from grapes. Proteins were extracted from cells by ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry was used for identification of microorganisms. In total, 11 genera of Gram-negative bacteria, 11 of Gram-positive bacteria and nine of yeasts were identified. Among 200 isolates, Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts represented 11%, 27% and 62% of the total number of isolates studied. The most common genera of isolated yeasts were Hanseniaspora (37%, Metschnikowia (31%, and Rhodotorula (10%. The most frequently isolated among Gram-negative bacteria were Acinetobacter (22%, Pseudomonas (22% and Sphingomonas (13%. The most common genera of Gram-positive bacteria were Bacillus (20%, Lactobacillus (19%, Leuconostoc and Staphylococcus (11%, respectively.

  2. Qubit rotation and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

    2005-11-01

    A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has the spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them results the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states. (author)

  3. Qubit rotation and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Dipti; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul

    2006-01-01

    A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has a spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them allows the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states

  4. Goldspotted oak borer: Field identification guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hishinuma; T.W. Coleman; M.L. Flint; S.J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a flatheaded borer new to California that poses a significant threat to oak trees. The pest is native to southeastern Arizona, although a related species occurs in southern Mexico and northern Guatemala. GSOB was first collected and identified in California in 2004 in San Diego County...

  5. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera

  6. 7 CFR 51.904 - Shot berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... berries means very small berries resulting from insufficient pollination, usually seedless in those...

  7. Lack of nucleotide variability in a beetle pest with extreme inbreeding

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, D.; Breilid, H.; Kirkendall, L.; Brun, Luc-Olivier; French-Constant, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The coffee berry borer beetle #Hypothenemus hampei$ (Ferrari) (#Curculionidae$ : #Scolytinae$) is the major insect pest of coffee and has spread to most of the coffee-growing countries of the world. This beetle also displays an usual life cycle, with regular sibling mating. This regular inbreeding and the population bottlenecks occuring on colonization of new regions should lead to low levels of genetic diversity. We were therefore interested in determining the level of nucleotide variation i...

  8. Lead content of roadside fruit and berries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowles, G W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Blackberries, elderberries, hawthorn berries, holly berries and rose hips have been examined for their lead content, which has been shown to be directly related to the proximity of the growing fruit and berries to roads, the traffic density and the time of exposure. The maximum levels found (in ppm for undried fruit and berries) were blackberries 0.85, elderberries 6.77, hawthorn berries 23.8, holly berries 3.5 and rose hips 1.45. Very thorough washing with water removed 40-60% of the lead from heavily contaminated fruit and berries. When elderberries were used for winemaking over 60% of the lead was extracted and remained in solution in the wine. 25 references, 4 tables.

  9. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  10. Berry phase in entangled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Durstberger, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The influence of the geometric phase, in particular the Berry phase, on an entangled spin-1/2 system is studied. We discuss in detail the case, where the geometric phase is generated only by one part of the Hilbert space. We are able to cancel the effects of the dynamical phase by using the 'spin-echo' method. We analyze how the Berry phase affects the Bell angles and the maximal violation of a CHSH-Bell inequality. Furthermore, we suggest an experimental realization of our setup within neutron interferometry. It is possible to create entanglement between different degrees of freedom (spin and spatial degree of freedom) for a single neutron. The influence of the geometrical phase on the entangled neutron state is tested experimentally which is work in progress. (author)

  11. Flight potential of the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robin A.J. Taylor; Robert A. Haack

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Native to several Asian countries, EAB was discovered in six southeastern Michigan counties and southwestern Ontario in 2002. EAB presumably emerged from infested solid wood...

  12. Biology of emerald ash borer parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Jonathan P. Lelito; Houping Liu; Juli R. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle introduced from China (Bray et al., 2011), was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002; Federal Register, 2003; Cappaert et al., 2005)....

  13. Laboratory rearing of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Houping Liu; Toby Petrice

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality throughout southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario. More isolated infestations continue to be found throughout Lower Michigan, northern...

  14. Emerald ash borer genetics: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, samples were collected from introduced sites in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ontario, Canada, as well as native sites in China, Japan, and South Korea with the help of a network of collaborators. The beetles were analyzed using DNA sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome...

  15. Emerald ash borer survival in firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to Asia and was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. As of October 2004, EAB was only found to breed in ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. EAB is spreading naturally through adult flight as well as artificially through...

  16. Emerald ash borer biology and invasion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Yuri Baranchikov; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to eastern Asia and is primarily a pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees (Fig. 1). Established populations of EAB were first detected in the United States and Canada in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002), and based on a dendrochronology study by Siegert...

  17. CORRELATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF DRIED BERRY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    berry fruits dietary intake are linked to their high polyphenols content. As a consequence, a .... 60% berry fruits (aronia, black currant, apple, rose hip, raspberry) .... This is probably due to the fact that fruit juices are produced from fresh fruits ..... acid, and sugar contents of citrus species and mandarin hybrids. Turk. J. Agric.

  18. Coupling effect on the Berry phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Tian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Berry phase has universal applications in various fields. Here, we explore the coupling effect on the Berry phase of a two-level system adiabatically driven by a rotating classical field and interacting with a single quantized mode. Our simulations clearly reveal that the Berry phase change is quadratic proportional to the coupling constant if it is less than the level spacing between neighboring instantaneous eigenstates. Remarkably, if the nearest neighbouring level spacing is comparable with the coupling constant, this simple quadratic dependence is lost. Around this resonance, the Berry phase can be significantly tuned by slightly adjusting the parameters, such as the coupling constant, the frequency of the quantized mode, and the transition frequency. These numerical results, agreeing well with the perturbation theory calculations, provide an alternative approach to tune the Berry phase near the resonance, which is useful in quantum information science, i.e. designing quantum logic gates.

  19. The multifunctionality of berries toward blood platelets and the role of berry phenolics in cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2017-09-01

    Diet and nutrition have an important influence on the prophylaxis and progression of cardiovascular disease; one example is the inhibition of blood platelet functions by specific components of fruits and vegetables. Garlic, onion, ginger, dark chocolate and polyunsaturated fatty acids all reduce blood platelet aggregation. A number of fruits contain a range of cardioprotective antioxidants and vitamins, together with a large number of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, which may possess both antioxidant properties and anti-platelet activity. Fresh berries and berry extracts possess high concentrations of phenolic compounds, i.e. phenolic acid, stilbenoids, flavonoids and lignans. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of current knowledge of the anti-platelet activity of berries, which form an integral part of the human diet. It describes the effects of phenolic compounds present in a number of berries, i.e. black chokeberries - aronia berries (Aronia melanocarpa), blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), cranberries (Vaccinium sect. Oxycoccus), sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides) and grapes (Vitis), as well as various commercial products from berries (i.e. juices), on platelets and underlying mechanisms. Studies show that the effects of berries on platelet activity are dependent on not only the concentrations of the phenolic compounds in the berries or the class of phenolic compounds, but also the types of berry and the form (fresh berry, juice or medicinal product). Different results indicate that berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disorders, but the development of well-controlled clinical studies with berries is encouraged.

  20. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  1. Berry's Phase and Fine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B

    2002-01-01

    Irrational numbers can be assigned to physical entities based on iterative processes of geometric objects. It is likely that iterative round trips of vector signals include a geometric phase component. If so, this component will couple back to the round trip frequency or path length generating an non-linear feedback loop (i.e. induced by precession). In this paper such a quantum feedback mechanism is defined including generalized fine structure constants in accordance with the fundamental gravitomagnetic relation of spin-orbit coupling. Supported by measurements, the general relativistic and topological background allows to propose, that the deviation of the fine structure constant from 1/137 could be assigned to Berry's phase. The interpretation is straightforward: spacetime curvature effects can be greatly amplified by non-linear phase-locked feedback-loops adjusted to single-valued phase relationships in the quantum regime.

  2. A Dendrochronological Analysis of Red Oak Borer Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Richard P. Guyette

    2004-01-01

    Unprecedented outbreaks of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldemann) have occurred in the lower Midwestern United States. Although generally not a mortality agent, red oak borer appears to contribute to general oak decline and mortality. The objective of this project was to explore dendrochronology as a means of determining the role of tree age,...

  3. Overwintering physiology of the rice stem borer larvae, Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major rice pest around the world. A strong ability of the rice stem borer to adapt/resist cold temperature (cold hardiness) contributes to its survival through winter. However, the physiological mechanism of its cold hardiness is poorly understood. In this study, we ...

  4. (Zea mays L.) GENOTYPES BY LEPIDOPTEROUS STEM BORERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The three maize endosperm types used in the experiment were susceptible to stem borer infestation, but there was no statistical difference with respect to stem borer infestation and severity of damage for July and August cropping, although, sweet corn tended to be more susceptible than the other endosperm types (flint and.

  5. HOW to Identify and Control Sugar Maple Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Hoffard; Philip T. Marshall

    1978-01-01

    The sugar maple borer, Glycobius speciosus (Say), a long-horned wood boring beetle, is a common pest of sugar maple (the only known host) throughout the range of the tree. Although borer-caused mortality is rare, infestations lead to value loss through lumber defect caused by larval galleries, discoloration, decay, and twisted grain.

  6. Control of Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus stem borers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous testing of several public Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize events did not show control of the African stem borer (Busseola fusca Fuller), an important stem borer species, without which stewardship would be compromised by the possibility of rapid development of resistance to Bt deltaendotoxins. This study was ...

  7. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize varieties were ...

  8. Protecting black ash from the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les Benedict

    2010-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important resource for Tribes in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the North American continent. Ash in North America is being threatened with widespread destruction as a result of the introduction of emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) in 2002. Measures are being taken to slow the spread of emerald ash borer beetle....

  9. Aspects of Berry phase in QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggio, Marco [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Niarchos, Vasilis [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Center for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Papadodimas, Kyriakos [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-04-11

    When continuous parameters in a QFT are varied adiabatically, quantum states typically undergo mixing — a phenomenon characterized by the Berry phase. We initiate a systematic analysis of the Berry phase in QFT using standard quantum mechanics methods. We show that a non-trivial Berry phase appears in many familiar QFTs. We study a variety of examples including free electromagnetism with a theta angle, and certain supersymmetric QFTs in two and four spacetime dimensions. We also argue that a large class of QFTs with rich Berry properties is provided by CFTs with non-trivial conformal manifolds. Using the operator-state correspondence we demonstrate in this case that the Berry connection is equivalent to the connection on the conformal manifold derived previously in conformal perturbation theory. In the special case of chiral primary states in 2d N=(2,2) and 4d N=2 SCFTs the Berry phase is governed by the tt{sup ∗} equations. We present a technically useful rederivation of these equations using quantum mechanics methods.

  10. BlackBerry for Work Productivity for Professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K

    2010-01-01

    The BlackBerry is cool, and the BlackBerry is fun, but the BlackBerry also means serious business. For those of you who bought your BlackBerry to help get your life organized and free yourself from the ball-and-chain of desktop computing, BlackBerry at Work: Productivity for Professionals is the book to show you how. There are plenty of general-purpose BlackBerry guides, but this book shows you how to complete all the traditional smartphone tasks, like to-dos, calendars, and email, and become even more efficient and productive. You'll learn mechanisms for developing effective workflows specifi

  11. BlackBerry All-in-One for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sarigumba, Dante; Petz, William

    2010-01-01

    Go beyond BlackBerry basics and get everything your BlackBerry can deliver. BlackBerry is the leading smartphone for business users, and its popularity continues to explode. When you discover the amazing array of BlackBerry possibilities in this fun and friendly guide, you'll be even happier with your choice of smartphones. BlackBerry All-in-One For Dummies explores every feature and application common to all BlackBerry devices. It explains the topics in depth, with tips, tricks, workarounds, and includes detailed information about cool new third-party applications, accessories, and downloads

  12. CrackBerry The Tales of BlackBerry Use and Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Michaluk, Kevin J; Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A delayed train, a dip in the conversation, an early morning hour with no sleep - during these moments, do you feel an overwhelming urge to grab your BlackBerry? Do you know someone else who does? If the answer is yes, then look no further than this one-of-a-kind book...CrackBerry: True Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse covers the phenomenon of "BlackBerry Addiction," offering true-life accounts of BlackBerry dependence and mishaps. You'll find comfort and humor in the unbelievable tales of BlackBerry abuse and also learn some valuable tips along the way. * The definitive guide to respons

  13. Microclimate influence on mineral and metabolic profiles of grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G E; Gaudillere, J-P; Pieri, P; Hilbert, G; Maucourt, M; Deborde, C; Moing, A; Rolin, D

    2006-09-06

    The grape berry microclimate is known to influence berry quality. The effects of the light exposure of grape berry clusters on the composition of berry tissues were studied on the "Merlot" variety grown in a vineyard in Bordeaux, France. The light exposure of the fruiting zone was modified using different intensities of leaf removal, cluster position relative to azimuth, and berry position in the cluster. Light exposures were identified and classified by in situ measurements of berry temperatures. Berries were sampled at maturity (>19 Brix) for determination of skin and/or pulp chemical and metabolic profiles based on (1) chemical and physicochemical measurement of minerals (N, P, K, Ca, Mg), (2) untargeted 1H NMR metabolic fingerprints, and HPLC targeted analyses of (3) amino acids and (4) phenolics. Each profile defined by partial least-square discriminant analysis allowed us to discriminate berries from different light exposure. Discriminant compounds between shaded and light-exposed berries were quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, myricetin-3-glucoside, and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside for the phenolics, histidine, valine, GABA, alanine, and arginine for the amino acids, and malate for the organic acids. Capacities of the different profiling techniques to discriminate berries were compared. Although the proportion of explained variance from the 1H NMR fingerprint was lower compared to that of chemical measurements, NMR spectroscopy allowed us to identify lit and shaded berries. Light exposure of berries increased the skin and pulp flavonols, histidine and valine contents, and reduced the organic acids, GABA, and alanine contents. All the targeted and nontargeted analytical data sets used made it possible to discriminate sun-exposed and shaded berries. The skin phenolics pattern was the most discriminating and allowed us to sort sun from shade berries. These metabolite classes can be used to qualify berries collected in an undetermined environment. The

  14. Emerald ash borer dispersal in Maryland: go forth young pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Sargent; Dick Bean; Michael Raupp; Alan J. Sawyer

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive pest from Asia, was introduced into Maryland in April 2003 via infested nursery stock shipped from Michigan to a nursery in southern...

  15. Control of Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus stem borers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... 1International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, P.O. Box 1041 ... Key words: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize, cry1A (b) proteins, stem borers, transgenic. ... including conservation agriculture on insect pests, can only be ...

  16. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... Forages, sorghum and maize varieties were evaluated for stem borer preference and survivorship in the .... ecologies in Kenya to estimate the potential of natural refugia ..... teria such as fodder biomass, stem size, colour of.

  17. Emerald ash borer infestation rates in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...

  18. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  19. Preliminary Studies on the Occurrence of Stem Borers and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out to study the occurrence of stem-borers and the incidence of stalk rot under varying population densities (64,000, 32,000, and 21,333 plants/ha) of two common cultivars (TZSR-Y and DMRZ-Y) of maize. Whereas the percentage of plants with stem borers infestation and those with stem ...

  20. Ecological and economic services provided by birds on Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Jherime L; Johnson, Matthew D; Stercho, Amy M; Hackett, Steven C

    2008-10-01

    Coffee farms can support significant biodiversity, yet intensification of farming practices is degrading agricultural habitats and compromising ecosystem services such as biological pest control. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the world's primary coffee pest. Researchers have demonstrated that birds reduce insect abundance on coffee farms but have not documented avian control of the berry borer or quantified avian benefits to crop yield or farm income. We conducted a bird-exclosure experiment on coffee farms in the Blue Mountains, Jamaica, to measure avian pest control of berry borers, identify potential predator species, associate predator abundance and borer reductions with vegetation complexity, and quantify resulting increases in coffee yield. Coffee plants excluded from foraging birds had significantly higher borer infestation, more borer broods, and greater berry damage than control plants. We identified 17 potential predator species (73% were wintering Neotropical migrants), and 3 primary species composed 67% of migrant detections. Average relative bird abundance and diversity and relative resident predator abundance increased with greater shade-tree cover. Although migrant predators overall did not respond to vegetation complexity variables, the 3 primary species increased with proximity to noncoffee habitat patches. Lower infestation on control plants was correlated with higher total bird abundance, but not with predator abundance or vegetation complexity. Infestation of fruit was 1-14% lower on control plants, resulting in a greater quantity of saleable fruits that had a market value of US$44-$105/ha in 2005/2006. Landscape heterogeneity in this region may allow mobile predators to provide pest control broadly, despite localized farming intensities. These results provide the first evidence that birds control coffee berry borers and thus increase coffee yield and farm income, a potentially important conservation incentive for producers.

  1. Bioatividade da azadiractina e de inseticidas sintéticos sobre a broca-do-café, Hypothenemus hampei (FERRARI, 1867) (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE), em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiane Lobak

    2016-01-01

    A broca-do-café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), é praga limitante à produtividade e a qualidade dos grãos. Com a proibição do uso do endossulfam, para seu controle, em 2013, novas alternativas devem ser pesquisadas, visto que atualmente tem se seis princípios ativos registrados no Brasil, incluindo a azadiractina. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a bioatividade da azadiractina e de inseticidas sintéticos sobre a broca-do-café, em condições de labo...

  2. Caracterización de aislamientos del hongo entomopatógeno beauveria bassiana y su patogenicidad en hypothenemus hampei (coleoptera: curculionidae, scolytinae).

    OpenAIRE

    Cañizalez Briceño, Luis Miguel; Guedez de Olivar, Clemencia; Castillo, Carmen Elena; Olivar, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    La broca (Hypothenemus hampei) es insecto plaga que causa pérdidas considerables en café. El principal control ha sido el químico, sin embargo, actualmente se buscan alternativas más ecológicas. El objetivo fue caracterizar 12 aislamientos nativos de Beauveria bassiana y evaluar el control en la broca. La caracterización involucró la morfología, fisiología y patogenicidad de los aislamientos en adultos de H. hampei. El tamaño de los conidios osciló entre 2,55 y 2,42 micras. La ger...

  3. Evaluación de atrayentes alcohólicos en trampas artesanales para el monitoreo y control de la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestre, Fernández; Cordero, Julio

    2005-01-01

    RESUMEN Este trabajo se basó en la necesidad de incorporar una estrategia de  control de  la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleóptera: Curculionidae)  factible de ser utilizada por los productores  de café. En la localidad de Caspo, estado Lara, Venezuela, se evaluó la captura de adultos de broca utilizando un tipo de trampa artesanal construida con envases plásticos desechables de bebidas gaseosas. Mediante un ensayo completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones se evaluaron...

  4. Factores que influyen en la dispersión espacio-temporal de broca del café #Hypothenemus hampei# (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Ruiz, Ariana Karina

    2017-01-01

    La broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), es la plaga más importante del café, Coffea spp., en el mundo. Este insecto ha sido motivo de numerosos estudios, sin embargo, muchos aspectos de su dispersión se desconocen o requieren ser determinados. La presente investigación tuvo el objetivo de estudiar los factores que influyen en la dispersión espacio-temporal de la broca del café. Dado que la dispersión es un proceso complejo, para ser estudiada se desarrollaron técnicas para la obtenc...

  5. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  6. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  7. BlackBerry's Long March Into China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAYET SELLAMI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Some time in the coming weeks, Research In Motion Ltd (RIM) will launch its wireless BlackBerry e-mail service on the Chinese mainland in a partnership with China Mobile Ltd, which has two-thirds of the Chinese market and is the world's biggest mobile carrier by number of subscribers. The exact date of the launch has yet to be set.

  8. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  9. Profiling and Quantification of Regioisomeric Caffeoyl Glucoses in Berry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Maria A; Jaiswal, Rakesh; McDougall, Gordon J; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2018-02-07

    On the basis of a recently developed tandem mass spectrometry-based hierarchical scheme for the identification of regioisomeric caffeoyl glucoses, selected berry fruits were profiled for their caffeoyl glucose ester content. Fresh edible berries profiled, including strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, red currant, black currant, lingonberries, gooseberries, and juices of elderberries, goji berries, chokeberries, cranberries, açai berries, sea buckthorn berries, Montmorency sour cherries, and pomegranates, were investigated. 1-Caffeoyl glucose was found to be the predominant isomer in the majority of samples, with further profiling revealing the presence of additional hydroxycinnamoyl glucose esters and O-glycosides with p-coumaroyl, feruloyl, and sinapoyl substituents. A quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method was developed and validated, and all caffeoyl glucose isomers were quantified for the first time in edible berries.

  10. NUTRIENTS ACCUMULATION IN FRUITS OF BERRY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Parascovia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of observations and biochemical analysis of the berries made during the years 2013-2014 in Republic of Moldova, it was found that bacciferous species included in the study had a wide spectrum of colors, from white, orange, red to blue and black. The possibility to extend the consumption of fresh berries is because these species ripen in series starting with honeysuckle in May, then one by one until September: strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, barberry, jostaberry, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, chokeberry, guilder rose. Chokeberries accumulated the highest average amount of soluble solids - 18.02%, jostaberries highlighted with the highest average amount of accumulated sugars - 9.56%. Red currant highlighted with the highest acidity - 5.22%, while blueberries with low acidity - 1.43%. Rosehip has accumulated the highest average amount of tannins and coloring substances - 546.65 mg%. Rosehip berries accumulated the highest amount of vitamin C average - 292.38 mg%, the black currant - 179.69 mg%, jostaberry - 112.86 mg%, and sea buckthorn - 96.7 mg%. The highest average values of the coefficient sugar / acid certifying good qualities were found in: blueberries - 4.39, guelder rose - 3.93, gooseberry - 3.55.

  11. Possible role of Berry phase in inflationary cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Barun Kumar; Pal, Supratik; Basu, B

    2012-01-01

    Here we have derived a cosmological analogue of Berry phase by obtaining the corresponding wavefunction for the system of inflationary cosmological perturbations solving the Schrodinger equation. We have further shown that cosmological Berry phase can be related inflationary observable parameters. As a result one can, atleast in principle, establish a supplementary probe of inflationary cosmology through the measurement of the associated Berry phase. But we do not make any strong comment on this.

  12. Berry Phenolic Antioxidants – Implications for Human Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants present in the diet may have a significant effect on the prophylaxis and progression of various diseases associated with oxidative stress. Berries contain a range of chemical compounds with antioxidant properties, including phenolic compounds. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of such phenolic antioxidants, and to discuss whether these compounds may always be natural gifts for human health, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. It describes the antioxidant properties of fresh berries (including aronia berries, grapes, blueberries, sea buckthorn berries, strawberries and other berries) and their various products, especially juices and wines. Some papers report that these phenolic compounds may sometimes behave like prooxidants, and sometimes demonstrate both antioxidant and prooxidant activity, while others note they do not behave the same way in vitro and in vivo. However, no unwanted or toxic effects (i.e., chemical, hematological or urinary effect) have been associated with the consumption of berries or berry juices or other extracts, especially aronia berries and aronia products in vivo, and in vitro, which may suggest that the phenolic antioxidants found in berries are natural gifts for human health. However, the phenolic compound content of berries and berry products is not always well described, and further studies are required to determine the therapeutic doses of different berry products for use in future clinical studies. Moreover, further experiments are needed to understand the beneficial effects reported so far from the mechanistic point of view. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to the development of well-controlled and high-quality clinical studies in this area. PMID:29662448

  13. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  14. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  15. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects

  16. On the classical limit of Berry's phase integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Berry's Phase is given by integration of a characteristic two form. We consider integrable systems defined by Weyl quantized classical Hamiltonians. It is shown that the limit of ℎ/i times this two form is the curvature of the classical connection whose holonomy are the Hannay angles. A result of this type was derived by Berry [B2]. (orig.)

  17. Nonadiabatic Berry phase in nanocrystalline magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Skomski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is investigated how a Berry phase is created in polycrystalline nanomagnets and how the phase translates into an emergent magnetic field and into a topological Hall-effect contribution. The analysis starts directly from the spin of the conduction electrons and does not involve any adiabatic Hamiltonian. Completely random spin alignment in the nanocrystallites does not lead to a nonzero emergent field, but a modulation of the local magnetization does. As an explicit example, we consider a wire with a modulated cone angle.

  18. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  19. Correlation between agronomic and stem borer resistant traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GY had significant relationship with days to 50% pollen shed, (DTA) (rg = 0.49**), plant height (PH) (rg ... that either days to 50% pollen shed or plant height could be considered in selection for stem borer resistance. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  20. Progress on biological control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Juli Gould

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, a buprestid native to northeastern Asia, was determined as the cause of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in areas of southern Michigan and Ontario, Canada, in 2002. Infestations have been found since in Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia....

  1. Evaluating rapid response to a goldspotted oak borer diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Scott; Kevin Turner

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus, GSOB) was discovered in the mountain community of Idyllwild, 56.3 km north of its known area of infestation. This was the third time that a point of outbreak was discovered >32.2 km from the GSOB infestation area, suggesting that human transport of GSOB has substantially expanded the...

  2. Invasion genetics of emerald ash borer in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) was first detected in Michigan and Canada in 2002. Efforts to eradicate this destructive pest by federal and state regulatory agencies continue. Knowledge of EAB genetics will be useful in understanding the invasion dynamics of the beetle and to help identify geographic localities of potential biocontrol agents.

  3. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  4. SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIC FRESH BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Elena TĂNASE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and particularly global warming are topics carefully treated by specialists already since decades. The most pregnant factor that influences climate change is pollution, namely the high level carbon dioxide emissions. Besides other substances used by the most of the industries (oil, charcoal, fertilizers, etc., plastics are not to be ignored when talking about pollution. Plastic waste affects animals and humans, as well as their habitat. In this respect, food industry engages in preserving the good functioning of the environment by developing and using biodegradable and bio-based resources for food packaging. The aim of this literature review was to identify the optimal sustainable packaging solution used for berries. The results of the study pointed out that the most used environmentally friendly packaging technique is the one that involves modified atmosphere. In terms of packaging materials, the literature is limited when it comes to biodegradable/bio-based solutions. However, active packaging gains popularity among researchers, considering the endless possibilities to include sustainable compounds in a biopolymer based matrix, in order to prolong the shelf-life of berries or fruits in general.

  5. Topological photonic crystals with zero Berry curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Deng, Hai-Yao; Wakabayashi, Katsunori

    2018-02-01

    Topological photonic crystals are designed based on the concept of Zak's phase rather than the topological invariants such as the Chern number and spin Chern number, which rely on the existence of a nonvanishing Berry curvature. Our photonic crystals (PCs) are made of pure dielectrics and sit on a square lattice obeying the C4 v point-group symmetry. Two varieties of PCs are considered: one closely resembles the electronic two-dimensional Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, and the other continues as an extension of this analogy. In both cases, the topological transitions are induced by adjusting the lattice constants. Topological edge modes (TEMs) are shown to exist within the nontrivial photonic band gaps on the termination of those PCs. The high efficiency of these TEMs transferring electromagnetic energy against several types of disorders has been demonstrated using the finite-element method.

  6. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-11-22

    Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes

  7. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of

  8. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  9. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  10. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  11. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-04-13

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  12. Biotechnology for cocoa pod borer resistance in cocoa

    OpenAIRE

    Chaidamsari, T.

    2005-01-01

    The cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L.) produces the beans that are the source of cacao, the basis for chocolate production, and an important commodity crop in South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB,( Conopomorpha cramerella)has been the single most important limiting factor for cacao production in Southeast Asia.So far, there has been no single cost effective and environmentally safe way to control this pest.This thesis describes the first steps in a biotechnologica...

  13. Computational models for the berry phase in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, S., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca; Melnik, R. V. N., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Sebetci, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mevlana University, 42003, Konya (Turkey)

    2014-10-06

    By developing a new model and its finite element implementation, we analyze the Berry phase low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, focusing on quantum dots (QDs). In particular, we solve the Schrödinger equation and investigate the evolution of the spin dynamics during the adiabatic transport of the QDs in the 2D plane along circular trajectory. Based on this study, we reveal that the Berry phase is highly sensitive to the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit lengths.

  14. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  15. The impact of predators on maize stem borers in coastal Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonhof, M.

    2000-01-01

    Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many

  16. Field host range testing of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid of emerald ash borer: evaluating nontarget impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Strazanac; Juli R. Gould; Robert A. Haack; Ivich Fraser

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilis planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), into the Midwest from Asia has had a devastating affect on ash (Fraxinus spp.). As the emerald ash borer's ability to spread became better understood and its distribution in the Midwest increased, biocontrol became an increasingly...

  17. Population genetics and biological control of goldspotted oak borer, an invasive pest of California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanessa Lopez; Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Richard Stouthamer; Mark Hoddle

    2015-01-01

    California’s oak woodlands are threatened by the recent introduction of goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus). This invasive wood-borer is indigenous to mountain ranges in southern Arizona where its low population densities may be due to the presence of co-evolved, host-specific natural enemies. Reuniting A. auroguttatus...

  18. Levels of control of Chilo partellus stem borer in segregating tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya, stem borers destroy an estimated 400,000 metric tons, or 13.5%, of farmers' annual maize harvest costing about US$80 millions. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize controls stem borers without harming humans, livestock and the environment and was sown to 140m ha-1 globally in 2009. Two public Bt maize lines of ...

  19. Guide to insect borers in North American broadleaf trees and shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Solomon

    1995-01-01

    This book is an illustrated guide to 300 species of inset borers that attack hardwood trees, shrubs, and other woody angiosperms in North America. The major purposes of this guide are to identify insect borers and theri damage to provide information for controlling them. Readers most likely to find this guide useful are practiving foresters, entomologists, and others...

  20. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Agnes M; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Magee, James B; Dewey, Jim; Ballington, James R

    2004-07-28

    A study was conducted to determine the presence of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in Vaccinium berries. Samples representing selections and cultivars of 10 species from Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, and Canada were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Resveratrol was found in Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry), Vaccinium arboretum (sparkleberry), Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry), Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry), Vaccinium elliottii (Elliott's blueberry), Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry), Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry), Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. vitis-ideae (lingonberry), and Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. minor (partridgeberry) at levels between 7 and 5884 ng/g dry sample. Lingonberry was found to have the highest content, 5884 ng/g dry sample, comparable to that found in grapes, 6471 ng/g dry sample. Pterostilbene was found in two cultivars of V. ashei and in V. stamineum at levels of 99-520 ng/g dry sample. Piceatannol was found in V. corymbosum and V. stamineum at levels of 138-422 ng/g dry sample. These naturally occurring stilbenes, known to be strong antioxidants and to have cancer chemopreventive activities, will add to the purported health benefits derived from the consumption of these small fruits. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  1. Berry phase via quantum Zeno effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascazio, S.; Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The 'quantum Zeno effect' is an interesting quantum phenomenon, deeply rooted in some fundamental features of the quantum mechanical laws. It consists in the hindrance of the temporal evolution of a quantum system due to a frequent series of measurements. During the last few years there has been much interest in this issue, mainly because of an idea due to Cook, who proposed using two-level systems to check this effect, and the subsequent experiment performed by Itano et al. Most of the work on this subject has dealt with what might be called the 'static' version of the quantum Zeno effect. However, the most potent action of the observer is not only to stop time evolution (e.g., by repeatedly checking if a system has decayed), but to guide it. In this talk we will be concerned with a 'dynamical' version of the phenomenon: we will show how guiding a system through a closed loop in its state space (projective Hilbert space) leads to a geometrical phase. This was predicted on general grounds by Aharonov and Anandan, but here we use a specific implementation on a neutron spin and propose a particular experimental context in which to see this effect. However, our proposal is valid for any system with the same two-level structure. It is remarkable that the Berry phase to be discussed is due to measurements only: no Hamiltonian is needed. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  2. Grape berry bacterial inhibition by different copper fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper fungicides are widely used in viticulture. Due to its large spectrum of action, copper provides an efficient control over a great number of vine pathogens. Previous studies showed that, high levels of cupric residues can impact grape-berry microbiota, in terms of the size and population structure, reducing the diversity and the abundance. Due to the importance of grape-berry bacterial in crop health, and the potential impact of copper fungicides over the microbiota, we determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations for bacterial species isolated from grape berries. We study the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations (copper sulphate (CuSO4 pure, Bordeaux mixture (CuSO4 + Ca(OH2, copper oxide (Cu2O, copper hydroxide (Cu(OH2 over 92 bacterial strains isolated from grape berries in different stages of the ripening process. The results of MIC measurements revealed that the different copper formulations have a variable inhibitory effect and among the different isolates, some species are the most resistant to all copper formulations than others. This study confirm that usage of cupric phytosanitary products should be reasonable independently of the farming system; they also provide evidence of the importance of the choice of which copper formulations are to be used regarding their impact on the grape berry bacterial microbiota.

  3. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2008-01-01

    ...; these provisions later became the Berry Amendment. The Berry Amendment requires DOD to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  4. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2008-01-01

    ...; these provisions later became the Berry Amendment. The Berry Amendment requires DoD to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home-grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  5. Review of the health effects of berries and their phytochemicals on the digestive and immune systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, Coen; Kasikci, Muzeyyen Berkel; Sluis, van der Addie A.; Mes, Jurriaan J.

    2018-01-01

    Berries are generally considered beneficial to health. This health-promoting potential has mainly been ascribed to berries' phytochemical and vitamin content, and little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of berries for the digestive tract, despite this being the first point of

  6. Berry syndrome in association with familial limb malformation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    We describe a newborn boy diagnosed with Berry syndrome consisting of a distal aortopulmonary septal defect, aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery, and interruption of the aorta. The child was noted to have reduplication of the right thumb. The child\\'s mother had a claw malformation of her left hand but a normal cardiovascular status. Genetic analysis for TBX5 and SALL4 mutations were negative in both the patient and his mother. This case describes the first ever report of Berry syndrome in an infant with reduplication of the right thumb and familial limb malformation.

  7. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar) grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7), harvest (TH), and 10-days after harvest (TH+10)). Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S-adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl

  8. Berry Curvature in Magnon-Phonon Hybrid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryuji; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-11-18

    We study theoretically the Berry curvature of the magnon induced by the hybridization with the acoustic phonons via the spin-orbit and dipolar interactions. We first discuss the magnon-phonon hybridization via the dipolar interaction, and show that the dispersions have gapless points in momentum space, some of which form a loop. Next, when both spin-orbit and dipolar interactions are considered, we show anisotropic texture of the Berry curvature and its divergence with and without gap closing. Realistic evaluation of the consequent anomalous velocity is given for yttrium iron garnet.

  9. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaumie Sabine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7, harvest (TH, and 10-days after harvest (TH+10. Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S

  10. Factors that influence emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) adult longevity and oviposition under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Juli Gould; Leah S. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a nonnative insect from Asia that threatens ash trees in the urban and natural forests of North America. Research on this invasive insect and rearing parasitoids for...

  11. Study on the growth and development of brinjal shoot and fruit borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... 2Department of Crop Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. ... various aspects of the insect's life and activity with a view to evolving .... of brinjal shoot and fruit borer is still a difficult job. Many.

  12. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  13. Optimization of visual trapping methodology for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Francese; Damon J. Crook; Ivich Fraser; David R. Lance; Alan J. Sawyer; Victor C. Mastro

    2009-01-01

    As the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), spreads throughout the range of North American ash species, better tools are needed for the detection and delimitation of new infestations...

  14. Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Duan; R.W. Fuester; J. Wildonger; P.B. Taylor; S. Barth; S-E. Spichiger

    2009-01-01

    Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin....

  15. Slowing ash mortality: a potential strategy to slam emerald ash borer in outlier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; John Bedford

    2009-01-01

    Several isolated outlier populations of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) were discovered in 2008 and additional outliers will likely be found as detection surveys and public outreach activities...

  16. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis SDS-502 on adult emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Diana K. Londo& #241; o

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, an intermittent pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in northeastern Asia, was discovered in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In North America, infestations of EAB are now known in 13 states and 2 provinces.

  17. Foliar nutrients explain goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, adult feeding preference among four California oak species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Tom. W. Coleman; Michael. I. Jones; Mary. L. Flint; Steven. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Adults of the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), consumed foliar weight in no-choice feeding tests of, in descending order, California black oak Quercus kelloggii Newb., Engelmann oak, Quercus engelmannii Greene, coast live oak, Quercus...

  18. Title: Status of coffee berry damaging insects in the afromontane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    populations, which is relatively low incidences in less disturbed ecosystem. ..... Insect pests associated with forest coffee berries in south western Ethiopia. .... parasitoid was introduced to Latin American countries, .... indicators of ecological diversity, so more detailed studies .... western Ethiopia: Impacts of human use and.

  19. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maunula, L.; Kaupke, A.; Vasickova, P.; Soderberg, K.; Kozyra, I.; Lazic, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bouwknegt, M.; Rutjes, S.; Willems, K.A.; Moloney, R.; Agostino, D' M.; Husman, A.M.D.; Bonsdorff, C.H.; Rzezutka, A.; Pavlik, I.; Petrovic, T.; Cook, N.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses.

  20. DYEING OF WOOL YARNS WITH LAURUS NOBILIS L. BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERKAN Gökhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural dyes have been attracted by many researchers and firms due to demands on sustainable and nontoxic products. In this study the mature berries of bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L. were collected from trees located Kuşadası Turkey. The berries dried at 25oC and % 20-25 relative humidity. Dried berries milled and extracted with ethanol. Extracted dye was used. Three mordanting procedure (pre, meta and post mordanting and two concentrations were applied to wool yarns. Cupric sulfate, ferric sulfate, potassium dichromate and alum was used as mordant Color strength and colorimetric values were measured by Konica-Minolta 3600D spectrophotometer. Fastness to washing, perspiration and light were applied according to ISO 105C06 (A1S, ISO 105E04 and ISO 105B02 (method 2 respectively. The highest color strength (K/S value was 16.6405 and was obtained in the case of premordanting with cupric sulfate at 2 gr/L concentration. If the a* and b* values were examined, the conditions at highest color strength, the yarns had yellow color with a reddish hue. Generally, the fastness properties were moderate and good results were obtained in the case of premordanting procedure. The results show us ethanol extract of bay laurel berries can be used for dyeing of woolen products.

  1. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  2. Metabolic Effects of Berries with Structurally Diverse Anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Overall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity. Diets supplemented with blackberry (mono-glycosylated cyanidins, black raspberry (acylated mono-glycosylated cyanidins, blackcurrant (mono- and di-glycosylated cyanidins and delphinidins, maqui berry (di-glycosylated delphinidins, Concord grape (acylated mono-glycosylated delphinidins and petunidins, and blueberry (mono-glycosylated delphinidins, malvidins, and petunidins showed a prominent discrepancy between biological activities of delphinidin/malvidin-versus cyanidin-type anthocyanins that could be explained by differences in their structure and metabolism in the gut. Consumption of berries also resulted in a strong shift in the gastrointestinal bacterial communities towards obligate anaerobes that correlated with decrease in the gastrointestinal luminal oxygen and oxidative stress. Further work is needed to understand mechanisms that lead to nearly anoxic conditions in the gut lumens, including the relative contributions of host, diet and/or microbial oxidative activity, and their implication to human health.

  3. Q & A with economist Albert Berry | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... Listen to Berry describe the pitfalls of a resource-dependent ... One thing economists wonder about is whether — when you look at the whole economy — the total benefits from microfinance are as ... New life for old computers.

  4. Pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora on Grape Berries in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Gubler

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Injured and non-injured grape berries were inoculated with spore suspension of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora or Phaeoacremonium aleophilum under field (intact berries and laboratory (detached berries conditions. In one test, berries were injured by pricking the skin with a syringe needle to a depth of approximately 1.5 mm. Brown to purple lesions appeared 5 to 7 days after inoculation in both the injured intact and detached berries. Lesions on these berries were larger when inoculated earlier in the season indicating that young, immature berries are more susceptible to infection than mature berries. In another test, berries were injured by rubbing the skin with carborundum dust using a cotton-tipped applicator. Esca-like lesions developed in 4 to 5 days after inoculation of detached but not intact berries. Occasional infection of non-injured berries occurred which appeared as small dots to pin-head size lesions around the lenticels. Scanning electron microscopy observations of these lesions showed abundant hyphal growth on the surface with apparent penetration through lenticels; however, fungal structures were not detected with certainty beneath the lenticels or intact cuticle. In both tests, the fungi were re-isolated from the advancing margin of the lesions.

  5. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  6. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  8. Two applications of Berry's phase in fermionic field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    When quantized fermions are coupled to a background field, nontrivial effects may arise due to the geometry and/or topology of the space of background field configurations. In this thesis, two examples of Berry's geometrical phase in a fermionic sea are studied: the anomalous commutator in gauge field theory and the intrinsic orbital angular momentum in superfluid 3 He-A. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction. Chapter 2 reviews Berry's Phase and several toy models. Effective actions are calculated for two models in gradient expansions and the role of a geometric term is discussed. Chapter 3 investigates the anomalous commutator in the generators of gauge symmetry in field theory. Using an idea introduced by Sonoda, the Berry phase of the vacuum state is found to be the sum of the Berry phases of the individual states in the sea plus a piece due to the infinite nature of the Dirac sea. The latter is the anomalous commutator. Also found is a relative minus sign between the commutator of the total gauge symmetry generators and the commutator of the fermionic charge generators. Examples are given. In Chapter 4, a geometric way of deriving the intrinsic orbital angular momentum term in the 3 He-A equations of motion is presented. Homogeneous, adiabatically evolving textures at zero temperature are found to pick up a nonzero groundstate Berry phase, where the ground state is taken to be a filled sea of Bogoliubov quasiparticles. Interpreting the phase as a Wess-Zumino effective action for the condensate provides a geometric origin for the intrinsic angular momentum. The idea of a ground-state phase is then extended to other gap functions and a more general result is obtained. Chapter 5 concludes with a discussion of the possibility of unifying the two problems in a more general framework and directions for further work

  9. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  10. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  11. INFESTACIÓN E INCIDENCIA DE BROCA, ROYA Y MANCHA DE HIERRO EN CULTIVO DE CAFÉ DEL DEPARTAMENTO DEL CAUCA ESTUDO DE INFESTAÇÃO E INCIDÊNCIA DA BROCA, A FERRUGEM E A CERCOSPOREOSE O CULTIVO DO CAFÉ NO DEPARTAMENTO DO CAUCA INFESTATION AND INCIDENCE STUDY OF THE COFFEE BORER, COFFEE RUST AND IRON SPOT DISEASE ON THE COFFEE CROP IN CAUCA DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSUELO MONTES R.

    2012-06-01

    ça de Broca e a cercosporiose, e dez para avaliar a presença de ferrugem. Foram registrados os valores de temperatura, precipitação, humidade, e brilho solar objetivando determinar a relação entre o clima e a presença de doenças. O nivel máximo aceitável de infestação na plantação é do 5%. O promedio de infestação no periodo avaliado foi de 14,7% para a ferrugem, 4,7% para a Broca e 4,8 para a cercosporiose. Temperatura e precipitação foram as que apresentaram maior relação com a presença das doenças. Altas temperaturas estão relacionadas com maior apresentação de ferrugem e Broca, principalmente nos meses de junhio e setembro, pelo contrario, a cercosporiose, altamente correlacionada com a presença de chuvas, ocorre principalmente nos meses de marzo e maio. Estes resultados alertan sobre a presença destas pragas nas plantações da região.The epidemiological study was carried out on three Colombian coffee production limiting pests, i.e. Coffee borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, Coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix and Iron spot disease (Cercospora coffeicola of four municipalities of the Cauca department. Eight sensoring localities were selected and sampled monthly in order to obtain the infestation and incidence of each pest during 2006 and 2007(from March and December. Sampling was done according to the process established by Cenicafé, 30 Coffee shrubs were taken for the Coffee borer and the Iron spot disease evaluation, and 10 for coffee rust evaluation per hectare respectively, the corresponding infestation and incidence percentages were obtained by grain and leaves counting. Temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and solar bright data were obtained from neighboring climatological stations, in order to relate the pests behavior with climate. The plagues infestation and incidence in most cases exceeded the 5% economical damage threshold; the mean incidence and infestation during the evaluation period was 14,7% for Rust, 4,7% for

  12. Transcriptome comparison of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from two regions with distinct climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runze; He, Fei; Lan, Yibin; Xing, Ranran; Liu, Rui; Pan, Qiuhong; Wang, Jun; Duan, Changqing

    2015-04-15

    Primary and secondary metabolism in grape berries is under the control of complex interactions among environmental conditions, genotypes, and management practices. To obtain an interpretation from the view of transcriptome on distinct metabolite accumulation between ecologically different regions in China, next-generation sequencing technology was performed on E-L 31, 35, and 38 stages of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from Changli (CL, eastern) and Gaotai (GT, western). The transcript abundance of epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and xanthoxin dehydrogenase required for ABA biosynthesis was significantly higher in the GT berries at E-L 35 and 38 stages compared with the CL berries, which may explain the relatively short maturation period of berries in the western region. Some genes required for carbohydrate metabolism, such as hexose transporter, L-idonate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, were significantly up-regulated in the CL berries in relation to the GT berries, which positively correlated with the sugar and organic acid accumulations. Pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that the CL berries had higher levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis at E-L 38 stage than the GT berries, which may relate to the quick fading of the GT wines because of weak co-pigmentation. This observation lays a foundation for further study concerning the molecular basis for environmental effects on berry quality formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Revegetation of oil sands tailings. Growth improvement of silver-berry and buffalo-berry by inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, S.; Danielson, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of actinorhizal shrubs to tolerate inhospitable conditions while improving soil fertility and organic matter status has led to increased usage of these plants for land reclamation and amenity planting purposes. Silver-berry and buffalo-berry are two such shrubs being tested as potential candidates for the revegetation of the oil sands tailings in northeastern Alberta. Associated with the roots of silver-berry and buffalo-berry are two symbiants, the N/sub 2/-fixing actimomycete Frankia and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Numerous studies have demonstrated that, particularly in nutrient-limited conditions, mycorrhization and nodulation can result in significantly better plant performance as a consequence of improved N and P nutrition. It was found in this study that in Alberta, silver-berry and buffalo-berry are strictly VA mycorrhizal; that they are highly dependent on their symbiants for optimum growth; and that the VAM inoculum potential of both stockpiled and undisturbed muskeg peak is negligible, due to the absence of VAM hosts. Means to increase the inoculum potential of peat have been studied. The efficacy of inoculating seedlings grown in greenhouses with VAM and Frankia has been demonstrated. Overwinter mortality was higher for inoculated shrubs, but after one growing season, shoot-weights of silver-berry were 3 to 7 times greater than for uninoculated shrubs, and shoot weights of buffalo-berry were 3 to 5 times greater. 122 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Water deficit increases stilbene metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Decendit, Alain; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2011-01-12

    The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes.

  15. The Schwinger term and the Berry phase in simple models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss quantization of fermions interacting with external fields and observe the occurrence of equivalent as well as inequivalent representations of the canonical anticommutation relations. Implementability of gauge and axial gauge transformations leads to generators which fulfill an algebra of charges with Schwinger term. This term can be written as a cocycle and leads to the boson-fermion correspondence. During an adiabatic transport along closed loops in a parameter space we may pick up a nonintegrable phase factor, usually called the Berry phase. We study the occurrence of such a topological phase in a model and give the parallel transport for density matrices. After second quantization one may pick up both a Berry phase and a Schwinger term. 13 refs. (Author)

  16. Spin Hall effect and Berry phase of spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, Alain; Mohrbach, Herve

    2006-01-01

    We consider the adiabatic evolution of the Dirac equation in order to compute its Berry curvature in momentum space. It is found that the position operator acquires an anomalous contribution due to the non-Abelian Berry gauge connection making the quantum mechanical algebra noncommutative. A generalization to any known spinning particles is possible by using the Bargmann-Wigner equation of motions. The noncommutativity of the coordinates is responsible for the topological spin transport of spinning particles similarly to the spin Hall effect in spintronic physics or the Magnus effect in optics. As an application we predict new dynamics for nonrelativistic particles in an electric field and for photons in a gravitational field

  17. Estonian cow berries have not been affected by radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liiva, A.; Pihlik, U.

    1994-01-01

    According to Latvia n scientists cow berry leaves contain 0.15 kBq/kg of radioactive cesium ( Cs-137 + Cs-134). To check the situation in Estonia officials of forestry enterprises were asked to gather cow berry plants from five control areas in different parts of Estonia, two samples from each (one from a glade, the other from under trees). Analysis of the material collected has shown the specific Cs-137 activity of all samples to be less than 0.18 kBq/kg of dry leaf mass. This is 100 times lower than the limit set for dried medicinal herbs in the Soviet Union after the Chernobyl disaster. (author). 6 refs

  18. Strategic removal of host trees in isolated, satellite infestations of emerald ash borer can reduce population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel J. Fahrner; Mark Abrahamson; Robert C. Venette; Brian H. Aukema

    2017-01-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive beetle causing significant mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and western Russia. The invasive range has expanded to more than half of the states in the United States since the initial detection in Michigan, USA in 2002. Emerald ash borer is typically managed with a combination of techniques...

  19. Introgression between divergent corn borer species in a region of sympatry: implications on the evolution and adaptation of pest arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, and European corn borer, O. nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) cause damage to cultivated maize in spatially distinct geographies, and have evolved divergent hydrocarbons as the basis of sexual communication. The Yili area of Xinjiang Province China repres...

  20. Monitoring the establishment and abundance of introduced parasitoids of emerald ash borer larvae in Maryland, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical biological control can be an important tool for managing invasive species such as emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Emerald ash borer is now widespread throughout the United States, and was first detected in Maryland in 2003. The biological control program to manage emera...

  1. Ecological and physiological aspects of aestivation-diapause in the larvae of two Pyralid stalk borers of maize in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are

  2. Berry-phase blockade in single-molecule magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate the problem of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the Coulomb blockade regime taking into account topological interference effects for the tunneling of the large spin of a SMM. The interference originates from spin Berry phases associated with different tunneling paths. We show that in the case of incoherent spin states it is essential to place the SMM between oppositely spin-polarized source and drain leads in order to detect the spin tunneling in the s...

  3. A new approach to calculating the Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lianao; Sun Jing; Zhong Jiyu

    1993-01-01

    It is proved that any time-dependent problem can be transformed into a time-independent one by a unitary transformation. The general equation satisfied by the transformation is given. For some time-dependent Hamiltonians the transformation can be found easily. More importantly, if the initial states are just eigenstates of the transformed Hamiltonians, the dynamical phase can be conveniently removed and the Berry phase can be found directly. (orig.)

  4. Braiding transformation, entanglement swapping, and Berry phase in entanglement space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Ge Molin; Xue Kang

    2007-01-01

    We show that braiding transformation is a natural approach to describe quantum entanglement by using the unitary braiding operators to realize entanglement swapping and generate the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as well as the linear cluster states. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary R i,i+1 (θ,φ) matrix, where φ=ωt is time-dependent while θ is time-independent. This in turn allows us to investigate the Berry phase in the entanglement space

  5. An analogue of the Berry phase for simple harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    We evaluate a variant of Berry's phase for a ‘missing’ family of the square integrable wavefunctions for the linear harmonic oscillator, which cannot be derived by the separation of variables (in a natural way). Instead, it is obtained by the action of the maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard solutions. A simple closed formula for the phase (in terms of elementary functions) is found here by integration with the help of a computer algebra system.

  6. Berry Curvature and Nonlocal Transport Characteristics of Antidot Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antidot graphene denotes a monolayer of graphene structured by a periodic array of holes. Its energy dispersion is known to display a gap at the Dirac point. However, since the degeneracy between the A and B sites is preserved, antidot graphene cannot be described by the 2D massive Dirac equation, which is suitable for systems with an inherent A/B asymmetry. From inversion and time-reversal-symmetry considerations, antidot graphene should therefore have zero Berry curvature. In this work, we derive the effective Hamiltonian of antidot graphene from its tight-binding wave functions. The resulting Hamiltonian is a 4×4 matrix with a nonzero intervalley scattering term, which is responsible for the gap at the Dirac point. Furthermore, nonzero Berry curvature is obtained from the effective Hamiltonian, owing to the double degeneracy of the eigenfunctions. The topological manifestation is shown to be robust against randomness perturbations. Since the Berry curvature is expected to induce a transverse conductance, we have experimentally verified this feature through nonlocal transport measurements, by fabricating three antidot graphene samples with a triangular array of holes, a fixed periodicity of 150 nm, and hole diameters of 100, 80, and 60 nm. All three samples display topological nonlocal conductance, with excellent agreement with the theory predictions.

  7. Other Kinds of Violence: Wendell Berry, Industrialism, and Agrarian Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Major

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the need to understand pacifism and environmentalism as essentially consonant philosophies and practices, just as a proper theorization of ecocide must also include the violence inherent to industrialism and militarism. Few contemporary writers understand the stakes involved in this conflation as well as Wendell Berry, and few have had more occasion to enact the entwined values of pacifism and environmentalism than he has. Berry therefore marries pacifist politics to a land ethic of care, a union from which emerges an environmentalism highly critical of the violence of American corporate capitalism and militarism, the apotheosis of which can be seen in the guise of war (Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, the “War on Terror”. Moreover, such violence has its domestic ecocidal analogy, best evidenced by strip mining and mountaintop removal. Berry’s union of peaceableness and agrarian environmentalism does, however, deserve critical examination, for it often rests upon the construction of a sometimes frustrating disconnection between a precious and benign domesticity and a theoretically corrupt public sphere. To be sure, in his reworking of the fluid boundaries between the private and public through which his agrarian ethics is often articulated, Berry simultaneously invokes and disavows a separation he clearly understands to be artificial. In Berry’s peaceful agrarian vision, then, the agrarian pacifist who is also by definition an environmentalist must draw upon enormous internal resources if she is to revolutionize the economies of ruin that characterize modern life.

  8. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An

    2008-07-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  9. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

  10. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage percentage by stem borer was up to 18.11%. Length of the feeding tunnel in maize stem was significantly higher in January than July. In case of exit holes made by borer counted more than four holes per plant that were planted in the month of January. All in all, except the tunnel length measurement per plant, we observed similar pattern in other borer damage parameters such as exit whole counts and plant damage percentage within the tested varieties. Stem borer damage was not significantly affect on grain yield.

  11. White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don

    2015-02-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern United States that is also planted ornamentally. Four of 20 mature ornamental white fringetrees examined in the Dayton, Ohio area showed external symptoms of emerald ash borer attack, including the presence of adult exit holes, canopy dieback, and bark splitting and other deformities. Removal of bark from one of these trees yielded evidence of at least three generations of usage by emerald ash borer larvae, several actively feeding live larvae, and a dead adult confirmed as emerald ash borer. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The relationship between trees and human health: evidence from the spread of the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Butry, David T; Michael, Yvonne L; Prestemon, Jeffrey P; Liebhold, Andrew M; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mao, Megan Y

    2013-02-01

    Several recent studies have identified a relationship between the natural environment and improved health outcomes. However, for practical reasons, most have been observational, cross-sectional studies. A natural experiment, which provides stronger evidence of causality, was used to test whether a major change to the natural environment-the loss of 100 million trees to the emerald ash borer, an invasive forest pest-has influenced mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory diseases. Two fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and county-level mortality from 1990 to 2007 in 15 U.S. states, while controlling for a wide range of demographic covariates. Data were collected from 1990 to 2007, and the analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. There was an increase in mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness in counties infested with the emerald ash borer. The magnitude of this effect was greater as infestation progressed and in counties with above-average median household income. Across the 15 states in the study area, the borer was associated with an additional 6113 deaths related to illness of the lower respiratory system, and 15,080 cardiovascular-related deaths. Results suggest that loss of trees to the emerald ash borer increased mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness. This finding adds to the growing evidence that the natural environment provides major public health benefits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Berry phase for spin-1/2 particles moving in a space-time with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammadi, M.; Shariati, A.

    2001-01-01

    Berry phase for a spin-1/2 particle moving in a flat space-time with torsion is investigated in the context of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac model. It is shown that if the torsion is due to a dense polarized background, then there is a Berry phase only if the fermion is massless and its momentum is perpendicular to the direction of the background polarization. The order of magnitude of this Berry phase is discussed in other theoretical frameworks. (orig.)

  14. Berry phase for spin-1/2 particles moving in a space-time with torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimohammadi, M. [Dept. of Physics, Tehran Univ. (Iran); Shariati, A. [Inst. for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran); Inst. for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran)

    2001-06-01

    Berry phase for a spin-1/2 particle moving in a flat space-time with torsion is investigated in the context of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac model. It is shown that if the torsion is due to a dense polarized background, then there is a Berry phase only if the fermion is massless and its momentum is perpendicular to the direction of the background polarization. The order of magnitude of this Berry phase is discussed in other theoretical frameworks. (orig.)

  15. Osmotic dehydration of fruit and berry raw materials in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. Gribova; L. G. Eliseeva

    2017-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration has recently received more attention as an effective method of preserving fruits and berries. Osmosis is a simple process that facilitates the processing of fruits and berries in order to preserve the original characteristics, namely nutritional value and organoleptic properties: color, aroma and texture. Osmotic dehydration has found wide application in the preservation of food products, as the activity of water in fruits and berries decreases, in some of them up to 90% o...

  16. Rice stem borers in Malaya. A proposal to use mutation breeding for their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vohra, F C [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1970-03-01

    The problem of rice stem borers: Among the various problems in the rice crop the loss caused by the larvae of lepidopterous stem borers seems to be very serious. In some districts of the Kurian area, the rate of damage has been as much as 100%. It is not unlikely that the stem borer threat will become worse with the introduction of double cropping in many areas. The control of stem borers has mainly been through the application of various insecticides, namely DDT, BHC, Endrin, dieldrin and gamma-BHC, and this has met with a certain amount of success. The chemical method of control, however, is not fully satisfactory because of: (a) The high recurrent cost in application; (b) The danger of hazard to man by residues; (c) The toxic effects to fish and mammals in the paddy fields; (d) The poisoning of the natural parasites of the borers; (e) The difficulties for proper application, exact concentrations etc. by untrained farmers; and (f) The probability for development of insecticide resistance in stem borers. Apparently there is an urgent need for some control free from chemical hazards. Scientists in various countries have turned to breeding for varietal resistance, among other approaches, to save the crop from damage by stem borers. The development of a variety of rice resistant to stem borers will provide an effective control operative at all levels of insect population without additional cost and inconvenience to the farmer. The research project: To achieve this objective a research project has recently been started as a co-operative venture at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. This project involves (a) Detailed ecological studies of boxers in different varieties of rice grown commonly in the various parts of the country; (b) A study of parasites of borers for possible biological control; and (c) Production of rice varieties resistant to stem borers through induction of mutations and hybridization with locally used types

  17. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting stem borer density in maize using RapidEye data and generalized linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Landmann, Tobias; Kyalo, Richard; Ong'amo, George; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Sulieman, Saad; Ru, Bruno Le

    2017-05-01

    Average maize yield in eastern Africa is 2.03 t ha-1 as compared to global average of 6.06 t ha-1 due to biotic and abiotic constraints. Amongst the biotic production constraints in Africa, stem borers are the most injurious. In eastern Africa, maize yield losses due to stem borers are currently estimated between 12% and 21% of the total production. The objective of the present study was to explore the possibility of RapidEye spectral data to assess stem borer larva densities in maize fields in two study sites in Kenya. RapidEye images were acquired for the Bomet (western Kenya) test site on the 9th of December 2014 and on 27th of January 2015, and for Machakos (eastern Kenya) a RapidEye image was acquired on the 3rd of January 2015. Five RapidEye spectral bands as well as 30 spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were utilized to predict per field maize stem borer larva densities using generalized linear models (GLMs), assuming Poisson ('Po') and negative binomial ('NB') distributions. Root mean square error (RMSE) and ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) statistics were used to assess the models performance using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. The Zero-inflated NB ('ZINB') models outperformed the 'NB' models and stem borer larva densities could only be predicted during the mid growing season in December and early January in both study sites, respectively (RMSE = 0.69-1.06 and RPD = 8.25-19.57). Overall, all models performed similar when all the 30 SVIs (non-nested) and only the significant (nested) SVIs were used. The models developed could improve decision making regarding controlling maize stem borers within integrated pest management (IPM) interventions.

  19. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  20. Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-08-01

    The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies.

  1. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Haavik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus. On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface, yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2. In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus, exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.

  2. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  3. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the

  4. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively.

  5. Consumer preferences in respect of processed fruit and berry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribova N. А.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays fruits, berries and processed products are an indispensable component of the human diet throughout the year. Frozen fruits and berries are widely distributed on the Russian market and are part of the food industry worldwide. Frozen products become popular among consumers for home use due to the minimal cooking time. Consumer evaluation is the most relevant and significant for identifying preferences and evaluating quality products in Russian markets. In this regard, a qualitative analysis of marketing research has been carried out and preferences have been identified according to which criteria consumers buy quick-frozen products. Some methods of sensory analysis have been used (consumer evaluation, the profile method, and pairwise comparison method. The dominant factor in choosing a brand of quick-frozen products is the combination of an acceptable price and quality, and to a lesser extent, the recommendation of acquaintances, the type of packaging and advertising of products. The research is aimed at identifying organoleptic properties that affect the consumer evaluation of the quality of frozen, thawed grapes in comparison with the reference product. Fruits and berries freeze for hours and even minutes, but are stored for a long time. The problem arises in rehydration – the return of the product to its original state, close to fresh natural raw material. The main goal of the research is aimed at identifying some rational method of defrosting, corresponding to organoleptic and consumer properties. With the help of organoleptic evaluation the best ways of defrosting have been identified – the microwave oven and the freezer. These methods allow obtaining thawed foods with the finest quality and identical to natural raw materials. The storage time after defrosting has been revealed: in the microwave oven – 60 min; at the room temperature – 80 min; in the coldstore – 100 min. The obtained information can be useful for consumers

  6. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood.

  7. Berry phase in superconducting charge qubits interacting with a cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method for analyzing Berry phase for a multi-qubit system of superconducting charge qubits interacting with a microwave field. By suitably choosing the system parameters and precisely controlling the dynamics, novel connection found between the Berry phase and entanglement creations.

  8. Army Personnel Complied with the Berry Amendment but Can Improve Compliance with the Buy American Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-07

    that supports the warfighter; promotes accountability, integrity , and efficiency; advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and informs the...not procuring Berry Amendment compliant athletic footwear for enlisted personnel. Athletic shoes are subject to the Berry Amendment and the Buy

  9. Geometric quantum discord and Berry phase between two charge qubits coupled by a quantum transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Han-Jie; Zhang Guo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Geometric quantum discord (GQD) and Berry phase between two charge qubits coupled by a quantum transmission line are investigated. We show how GQDs evolve and investigate their dependencies on the parameters of the system. We also calculate the energy and the Berry phase and compare them with GQD, finding that there are close connections between them. (general)

  10. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics of Developing and Ripening Muscadine Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiranda, Devaiah; Katam, Ramesh; Basha, Sheikh M.; Siebert, Shalom

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are among the widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. Grape berries like other nonclimacteric fruits undergo a complex set of dynamic, physical, physiological, and biochemical changes during ripening. Muscadine grapes are widely cultivated in the southern United States for fresh fruit and wine. To date, changes in the metabolites composition of muscadine grapes have been well documented; however, the molecular changes during berry development and ripening are not fully known. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the berry proteome during ripening in muscadine grape cv. Noble. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the berry proteome. A total of 674 proteins were detected, and 76 were differentially expressed across four time points in muscadine berry. Proteins obtained were further analyzed to provide information about its potential functions during ripening. Several proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stimuli and sucrose and hexose metabolism were upregulated during berry ripening. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the protein expression results for nine proteins. Identification of vicilin-like antimicrobial peptides indicates additional disease tolerance proteins are present in muscadines for berry protection during ripening. The results provide new information for characterization and understanding muscadine berry proteome and grape ripening. PMID:24251720

  11. Time and Frequency Domain Response of Grape Berries to Nondestructive Impact during the Harvesting Period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Pavloušek, P.; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2016), s. 24-33 ISSN 0022-4901 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : berry´s response * dominant frequency * elastic modulus * grape berries Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com

  12. Berry-Phase Blockade in Single-Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2007-06-01

    We formulate the problem of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the Coulomb blockade regime taking into account topological interference effects for the tunneling of the large spin of a SMM. The interference originates from spin Berry phases associated with different tunneling paths. We show that, in the case of incoherent spin states, it is essential to place the SMM between oppositely spin-polarized source and drain leads in order to detect the spin tunneling in the stationary current, which exhibits topological zeros as a function of the transverse magnetic field.

  13. Seed-specific stable expression of the alpha-AI1 inhibitor in coffee grains and the in vivo implications for the development of the coffee berry borer

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, E. V. S.; Bezerra, C. A.; Romero, J. V.; Valencia, J. W. A.; Valencia-Jimenez, A.; Pimenta, L. M.; Barbosa, Aead; Silva, M. C. M.; Meneguim, A. M.; Sa, M. E. L.; Engler, G.; de Almeida-Engler, J.; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sa, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alpha-AI1) gene. The alpha-AI1 inhi...

  14. Seed-Specific Stable Expression of the ?-AI1 Inhibitor in Coffee Grains and the In Vivo Implications for the Development of the Coffee Berry Borer

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, ?rika V. S.; Bezerra, Caroline A.; Romero, Juan V.; Valencia, Jorge W. A.; Valencia-Jim?nez, Arnubio; Pimenta, Lucas M.; Barbosa, Aulus E. A. D.; Silva, Maria C. M.; Meneguim, Ana M.; S?, Maria Eug?nia L.; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-S?, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the ?-amylase inhibitor-1 (?-AI1) gene. The ?-AI1 inhibitor shows ...

  15. Potassium in the Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Berry: Transport and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Y. Rogiers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available K+ is the most abundant cation in the grape berry. Here we focus on the most recent information in the long distance transport and partitioning of K+ within the grapevine and postulate on the potential role of K+ in berry sugar accumulation, berry water relations, cellular growth, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance and mitigating senescence. By integrating information from several different plant systems we have been able to generate new hypotheses on the integral functions of this predominant cation and to improve our understanding of how these functions contribute to grape berry growth and ripening. Valuable contributions to the study of K+ in membrane stabilization, turgor maintenance and phloem transport have allowed us to propose a mechanistic model for the role of this cation in grape berry development.

  16. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Variability of Polyphenol Compounds in Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae Berries from Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chiaramonti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds were extracted from Myrtus communis L. berries (Myrtaceae by maceration in 70% ethanol and analysed by HPLC-DAD and electrospray mass spectrometry. The Myrtus berries were collected at maturity from seven localities on the island of Corsica (France and the sampling was carried out during three years. The polyphenol composition of Corsican Myrtus berries was characterized by two phenolic acids, four flavanols, three flavonols and five flavonol glycosides. The major compounds were myricetin-3-O-arabinoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside. Principal components analysis (PCA is applied to study the chemical composition and variability of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts from the seven localities. Canonical analysis and PCA data distinguishes two groups of myrtle berries characterized by different concentrations of polyphenols according to soil and years of harvest. The variations in the polyphenol concentration were due to biotic and abiotic factors.

  18. Lethal trap trees: a potential option for emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Phillip A. Lewis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Economic and ecological impacts of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality resulting from emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) invasion are severe in forested, residential and urban areas. Management options include girdling ash trees to attract ovipositing adult beetles and then destroying infested trees...

  19. Dendrochronological reconstruction of the epicenter and early spread of emerald ash borer in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold; Frank W. Telewski

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis was identified in 2002 as the cause of extensive ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality in Detroit, Michigan, and has since killed millions of ash trees in the US and Canada. When discovered, it was not clear how long it had been present or at what location the invading colony started....

  20. Reconstructing the temporal and spatial dynamics of emerald ash borer adults through dendrochronological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold; Frank W. Telewski

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae) was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeastern lower Michigan and Windsor, Ontario. Localized outlier populations have since been discovered across much of lower Michigan and in areas of Indiana, Ohio and...

  1. Recent development and advances in survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. ​Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Taylor Scarr; Joseph Francese; Damon Crook; Michael Domingue; Harold Thistle; Brian Strom; Laura Blackburn; Daniel A. Herms; Krista Ryall; Patrick. Tobin

    2016-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was discovered near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario in 2002 (www.emeraldashborer. info 2016) and continues to spread in North America. Canadian and U.S. federal, provincial, and state regulatory agencies have used artificial traps...

  2. Three-year progression of emerald ash borer-induced decline and mortality in southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Annemarie Smith; Robert P. Long; Robin A.J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms

    2008-01-01

    We monitored the progression of ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality due to emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, in 38 forest stands in the upper Huron River watershed region of southeastern Michigan from 2004-2007. Black ash (F. nigra), green ash (F. pennsylvanica), and white ash...

  3. Goldspotted oak borer in California: Invasion history, biology, impact, management, and implications for Mediterranean forests worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Coleman; Steven Seybold

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was fi rst linked to elevated levels of oak mortality in southern California (CA), but it appears to have impacted oak woodlands and mixed conifer forests across all land ownerships in this region for nearly two decades. This unexpectedly damaging...

  4. Modeling potential movements of the emerald ash borer: the model framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Jonathan Bossenbroek; Davis Sydnor; Mark W. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is threatening to decimate native ashes (Fraxinus spp.) across North America and, so far, has devastated ash populations across sections of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario. We are attempting to develop a computer model that will predict EAB future movement by adapting...

  5. Outreach and education efforts to counter the spread and impact of goldspotted oak borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis G. Gonzales; Thomas A. Scott; Kevin W. Turner; Lorin L. Lima

    2015-01-01

    The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB) Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed over 80,000 oaks across all land ownerships, costing over $8 million in public and private funds for mitigation and response. Linked to oak mortality in San Diego County in 2008, this exotic beetle likely arrived in California through infested firewood from...

  6. Population biology of emerald ash borer and its natural enemies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao

    2008-01-01

    Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), also known as emerald ash borer (EAB), was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario, Canada, in 2002 following investigations of declining and dying ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Agrilus planipennis has also spread to Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia,...

  7. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  8. Genetic transformation of Fraxinus spp. for resistance to the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Rochelle R. Beasley; Kaitlin J. Palla

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae) is a wood-boring beetle that poses substantial risk to the ash resource in North America. Ash species native to the United States and known to be susceptible to EAB are Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash), F. americana (white ash...

  9. Emerald Ash Borer Microbial Control with the Entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana GHA formulated as Botanigard®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Lui; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a sporadic wood-boring pest native to northeastern Asia, was found attacking ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in southeastern Michigan in 2002. Despite regulatory efforts to quarantine and eradicate EAB, this invasive beetle has continued to spread...

  10. Heat treatment of Firewood for Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire): Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Richard D. Bergman; Brian K. Brashaw; Scott W. Myers

    2014-01-01

    The movement of firewood within emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB)-infested states and into adjoining areas has been a contributor to its spread throughout the United States and Canada. In an effort to prevent further human-aided spread of EAB and to facilitate interstate commerce, the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and cooperating...

  11. Imidacloprid concentration effects on adult emerald ash borer: a greenhouse study

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cappaert; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Phil Lewis; John Molongoski

    2008-01-01

    Imidacloprid is the active ingredient of many widely used products applied to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in valuable urban trees. Systemic treatment with imidacloprid is typically made in the spring to reduce the number of larvae that would otherwise be generated by oviposition during the summer. Substantial...

  12. Prospects for long-term ash survival in the core emerald ash borer mortality zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan M. Marshall; Andrew J. Storer; Roger Mech; Steven A. Katovich

    2011-01-01

    Attacking all North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.), emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has caused significant mortality within its introduced range. For other forest pests, host bark plays an important role in infestation density and oviposition behavior. The objectives of this study were to (1) locate...

  13. Detection of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, at low population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Porter; Michael D. Hyslop; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was first discovered in North America in Detroit, MI, in 2002. This beetle has killed millions of ash trees in several states in the United States and in Canada, and populations of this insect continue to be detected. EAB is difficult to detect when it invades new...

  14. Biological control of emerald ash borer in North America: current progress and potential for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Jonathan P. Lelito

    2012-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), a buprestid native to north-east Asia, was first discovered in North America near Detroit in 2002. EAB has since spread to at least 15 U.S. States and two Canadian provinces, threatening the existence of native ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). A classical biocontrol program was initiated...

  15. Contribution of pod borer pests to soybean crop production (case in Pondidaha, Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, M.; Bande, LOS; Hasan, A.; Yuswana, A.; Rinambo, F.

    2018-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the most important crops which production continues to be improved in all areas of soybean cultivation centers in an effort to maintain the availability of soybean foods, including Southeast Sulawesi. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of pod borer pests to soybean crop production. Methods of direct observation were made on observed variables, including species and population of pest pod borer, intensity, and crop production. The result that found four types of pod borer pests are Nezara viridula, Riptortus linearis, Etiella zinckenella, and Leptocorisa acuta, each with a different population and contribution to the intensity of pod damage. The result of path analysis showed that directly population of N. viridula (61.14) and E. zinckenella (66.44) gave positive contribution in increasing pod damage, by 0.332 and 0.502 respectively, while the negative contribution was shown by population of R. linearis and L. acuta. Damage of the pod causes increased production of low soybean is only about 0.202, therefore required appropriate control techniques to control pod borer pests populations in soybean crops.

  16. Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland; David. Cappaert

    2009-01-01

    New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are difficult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennis to ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed...

  17. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  18. Using Dutch elm disease-tolerant elm to restore floodplains impacted by emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; James M. Slavicek; Rachel Kappler; Elizabeth Pisarczyk; Bernadette Wiggin; Karen. Menard

    2012-01-01

    American elm (Ulmus Americana L.) was a dominant species in floodplains and swamps of the Midwest before Dutch elm disease (DED) (Ophiostoma ulmi and O.novo-ulmi) reduced its populations. In many areas, ash (Fraxinus spp.) became dominant in these ecosystems. Emerald ash borer (EAB) (...

  19. Patterns among the ashes: Exploring the relationship between landscape pattern and the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2010-01-01

    Landscape metrics, including host abundance and population density, were calculated using forest inventory and land cover data to assess the relationship between landscape pattern and the presence or absence of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). The Random Forests classification algorithm in the R statistical environment was...

  20. An assessment of the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and landscape pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2009-01-01

    Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread...

  1. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent F. Kovacs; Robert G. Haight; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered near Detroit, MI, and Windsor, ON, in 2002. As of March 2009, isolated populations of EAB have been detected in nine additional states and Quebec. EAB is a highly invasive forest pest that has the potential to spread and kill native ash...

  2. Evaluation of firewood bagging and vacuum treatment for regulatory control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Kuhn; Chen Zhangjing; Andrea Diss-Torrance; Erin L. Clark

    2008-01-01

    Since its discovery in Detroit, Michigan, in 2002, the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has caused extensive mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) as it has spread across southeast Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario, Canada (Haack et al. 2002, Poland and McCullough 2006). In addition to this core...

  3. Evaluation of recovery and monitoring methods for parasitoids released against Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an invasive insect pest, and the target of an extensive biological control campaign designed to mitigate EAB driven ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Since 2007, environmental releases of three species of hymenopteran parasitoids of EA...

  4. Dispersal of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in newly-colonized sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo J. Mercader; Andrew M. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough

    2009-01-01

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive forest insect pest threatening more than 8 billion ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. Development of effective survey methods and strategies to slow the spread of A. planipennis requires an understanding of dispersal...

  5. The Role of Biocontrol of Emerald Ash Borer in Protecting Ash Regeneration after Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive Asian beetle that is destroying ash in forests over much of eastern North America because of the high susceptibility of our native ash and a lack of effective natural enemies. To increase mortality of EAB larvae and eggs, the USDA (FS, ARS and APHIS) is carryin...

  6. Exploring the molecular and biochemical basis of ash resistance to emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin G.A. Whitehill; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) feed on phloem of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. It is hypothesized that the resistance of Asian species of ash (e.g., Manchurian ash, F. mandshurica) to EAB is due to endogenous defenses present in phloem tissues in the form of defensive proteins and/or...

  7. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  8. Factors affecting the survival of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees infested by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; John P. Brown; Robert P. Long

    2013-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB), an Asian woodboring beetle accidentally introduced in North America, has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees and is spreading rapidly. This study examined the effects of tree- and site-level factors on the mortality of ash trees in stands infested by EAB in OH, USA. Our data...

  9. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 [Docket No. APHIS-2008-0072] Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri..., Japan, Mongolia, the Russian Far East, Taiwan, and Canada, eventually kills healthy ash trees after it...

  10. Testing public Bt maize events for control of stem borers in the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic maize (Zea mays L), developed using modified genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), controls stem borers without observable negative effects to humans, livestock or the environment, and is now sown on 134 million hectares globally. Bt maize could contribute to increasing maize production in ...

  11. Emerald ash borer in North America: a research and regulatory challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cappaert; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Nathan W. Siegert

    2005-01-01

    The saga of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmare (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in North America began on 25 June 2002, when five entomologists representing Michigan State University (MSU), the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA APHIS)...

  12. Maize Cob Rot in Kenya and Its Association with Stalk Borer Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanga, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    Cob rots are a major cause of crop loss in areas such as western Kenya that experience prolonged rainfall during the period of crop maturation. Cob rot fungi cause spoilage of the grain and some of them produce mycotoxins which can pose a health risk to humans and animals consuming foods prepared from contaminate grain. survey conducted in western Kenya in 1998 showed that cob rot incidence exceeded 20%. In the following year when rainfall was greater around the harvest period, cob rot fungi affected 68% of cobs. in 1998 stalk borer larvae (mainly Busseola fusca) damaged 20% of the cobs and there was a strong correlation (R= 0.87) between cob rot incidence and borer damage. In 1999 almost half of the cobs sampled showed evidence of borer damage. The result indicate that the high cob rot incidence in this pert of Kenya is due to stalk bore damage, which predisposes the cobs to fungal infection, and that management of the borer would greatly decrease cob rot incidence

  13. Use of unwounded ash trees for the detection of emerald ash borer adults: EAB landing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan M. Marshall; Melissa J. Porter; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of multiple trapping techniques and sites within a survey program is essential to adequately identify the range of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestation. Within natural forests, EAB lands on stick band traps wrapped around girdled ash trees at a rate similar to that on unwounded ash trees. The objective of...

  14. Emerald ash borer impacts on visual preferences for urban forest recreation settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arne Arnberger; Ingrid E. Schneider; Martin Ebenberger; Renate Eder; Robert C. Venette; Stephanie A. Snyder; Paul H. Gobster; Ami Choi; Stuart Cottrell

    2017-01-01

    Extensive outbreaks of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis; EAB), an invasive forest insect, are having serious impacts on the cultural ecosystem services of urban forests in the United States and other countries. Limited experience with how such outbreaks might affect recreational opportunities prompted this investigation of visitors to a...

  15. Breeding strategies for the development of emerald ash borer - resistant North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Kathleen S. Knight; Therese Poland; Daniel A. Herms; Mary E. Mason

    2012-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus plannipennis; EAB) is a phloem-feeding beetle that is endemic to Asia. It was discovered in North America in 2002, found almost simultaneously near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Adult beetles feed on ash (Fraxinus spp.) foliage, but larval feeding on phloem, cambium, and...

  16. Survey for tolerance to emerald ash borer within North American ash species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Mary E. Mason; David W. Carey; Kathleen Knight; Therese Poland; Daniel A. Herms

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer (EAB) near Detroit, MI, in 2002, more than 40 million ash trees have been killed and another 7.5 billion are at risk in the United States. When the EAB outbreak was initially discovered, our native ash species appeared to have no resistance to the pest.

  17. Intraspecific variation in Fraxinus pennsylvanica responses to emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Koch; D.W. Carey; M.E. Mason; T.M. Poland; K.S. Knight

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a bark and wood boring beetle native to east Asia that was first discovered in North America in 2002. Since then, entire stands of highly susceptible green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) have been killed within a few years of infestation. We have identified a...

  18. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessments by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer

    2011-01-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  19. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  20. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Lambda-cyhalothrin efficiency on fruit borer control and quali-quantitative spraying aspects in a pinecone crop

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Lavinscky Costa Morais; Maria Aparecida Castellani; Carlos Gilberto Raetano; Juliana Alves de Macêdo; Moisés Silva Nery; Gabriela Luz Pereira Moreira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Brazil, the state of Bahia is one of the largest pinecone (Annona squamosa L.) growers; nevertheless, fruit borer (Cerconota anonella L.) presence limits production. This research aimed to test the efficiency of lambda-cyhalothrin in controlling fruit borer using different spray volumes; additionally, this research tested qualitative and quantitative operational aspects. Trials were carried out in pinecone orchards in Caraíbas-BA, Brazil. Pesticide efficiency was tested by a rando...

  2. Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlund, Iris; Koli, Raika; Alfthan, Georg; Marniemi, Jukka; Puukka, Pauli; Mustonen, Pirjo; Mattila, Pirjo; Jula, Antti

    2008-02-01

    Berries are a particularly rich source of polyphenols. They also contain other bioactive substances, such as vitamin C. Previous studies indicated that the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods (eg, cocoa, tea, and red wine) may induce beneficial changes in pathways related to cardiovascular health. Whether the consumption of berries has similar effects is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of berry consumption on hemostatic function, serum lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Middle-aged unmedicated subjects (n = 72) with cardiovascular risk factors consumed moderate amounts of berry or control products for 8 wk in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Berry consumption inhibited platelet function as measured with a platelet function analyzer (using collagen and ADP as platelet activator) [changes: 11% and -1.4% in the berry and control groups, respectively; P = 0.018, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)]. Plasma biomarkers of platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis did not change during the intervention. Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased significantly more (P = 0.006, ANCOVA) in the berry than in the control group (5.2% and 0.6%, respectively), but total cholesterol and triacylglycerol remained unchanged. Systolic BP decreased significantly (P = 0.050, ANCOVA); the decrease mostly occurred in subjects with high baseline BP (7.3 mm Hg in highest tertile; P = 0.024, ANCOVA). Polyphenol and vitamin C concentrations in plasma increased, whereas other nutritional biomarkers (ie, folate, tocopherols, sodium, and potassium) were unaffected. The consumption of moderate amounts of berries resulted in favorable changes in platelet function, HDL cholesterol, and BP. The results indicate that regular consumption of berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry.

  4. Study of sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenphing Wang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah was studied under water stress conditions using the «beny-cup» technique. After veraison, berry growth, the potential Exposed Leaf Area (pELA and photosynthetic activity are clearly reduced in water-stressed vines (- 0.5 > Ψb > - 0.6 MPa as compared to normal 1 Ψ-watcred vines (Mb = - 0.2 MPa. The ratio pELA/yield is also reduced, which is particular to this experiment. The beiries' ripening period (between veraison and maturity can be divided into three growth phases, Illa, Illb and IIlc. During phase Ma, the berries grow rapidly; at this point, water stress severely inhibits cell expan¬ sion of the berries but does not impact on daily sugar accumulation. During phase Mb, the berries grow slowly in both water-stressed and control vines. Water stress can shorten this phase and reduce sugar accumulation in the berries by decreasing daily sugar unloading. During phase II le, the Iresh weight and volume of the berries decreases as does the daily sugar unloading. During the day, sugar unloading in ripening berries occurs mainly in the morning (7 am to 10.30 am and at noon (1 to 1.30 pm; little sugar is unloaded in the afternoon (4 pm to 4.30 pin. Moderate water stress from veraison to maturity affects végétative growth (i.e. the growth of primary and secoridary shoots, and reduces the exposed leaf area, photosynthetic activity, berry growth, and the accumulation of sugar at the end of ripening (phases Mb and IIlc.

  5. THE RATIONALIZATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF MILK PROTEINS’ THERMO ACID COAGULATION BY BERRY COAGULANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena GREK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results related to the influence of berry coagulant amount, its proactive acidity and duration of thermo acid coagulation on the process of milk proteins’ sedimentation. In the present work, the regression equations and response surface analysis were used to design and optimize an industrial bioprocess. Increase in the berry coagulant amount to 11 % and reduction of active acidity to 2.4 units were determined. pH up to 3 minutes is characterized by the highest processes of destabilization. Moreover, it improves the organoleptic properties and has the biggest impact on the yield of protein-berry clot (to 25 % and active acidity.

  6. The Berry phase in GaAs semiconductor with a quantized field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gang; Chen Zidong; Yu Lixian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Berry phase in GaAs semiconductor with a quantized magnetic field in the rotating wave approximation. The eigenfunctions of the nuclear spin in the quantized external field are obtained and thus the Berry phase is evaluated explicitly in terms of the introduction of the phase shift. It is shown that the Berry phase can be easily controlled by the coupling strength, the anisotropy constant and the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, which can be important in applications in geometric quantum computing

  7. Ensuring the Quality of the New Fruit and Berry Marmalade by Adding Kelp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Nepochatykh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of a new method for the production of fruit and berry marmalade, which is adding kelp to the traditional recipe of fruit and berry marmalade. The use of this additive is scientifically grounded in the amount of 5 %. This can improve the quality of fruit and berry marmalade, as well as update its assortment. Adding kelp to marmalade increases the content of iodine in it by 7.95 %, phosphorus – by 2.15 %, magnesium – by 8.5 %, potassium – by 48.5 %, iron – by 0.03 %, vitamin PP – by 0.015 %.

  8. Berry's phase, Josephson's equation, and the dynamics of weak link superconductors and their vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitan, F.; Shenoy, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    We examine the dynamical consequences of Berry's phase for Josephson junctions, junction arrays, and their vortices. Josephson's equation and the related phase slip voltages are shown to be unaffected by Berry's phase. In an annular Josephson junction, Berry's phase is seen to generate a new current drive on a vortex. In the continuum limit, vortex is expected in a 2D array is shown to map onto that of a 2D film. A Hall sing anomaly is expected arrays; and the merits of arrays for studies of disorder on vortex motion is discussed. (author). 12 refs

  9. Quantum gyroscope based on Berry phase of spins in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuerui; Wang, Liujun; Diao, Wenting; Duan, Chongdi

    2018-02-01

    Gyroscope is the crucial sensor of the inertial navigation system, there is always high demand to improve the sensitivity and reduce the size of the gyroscopes. Using the NV center electronic spin and nuclear spin qubits in diamond, we introduce the research of new types of quantum gyroscopes based on the Berry phase shifts of the spin states during the rotation of the sensor systems. Compared with the performance of the traditional MEMS gyroscope, the sensitivity of the new types of quantum gyroscopes was highly improved and the spatial resolution was reduced to nano-scale. With the help of micro-manufacturing technology in the semiconductor industry, the quantum gyroscopes introduced here can be further integrated into chip-scale sensors.

  10. Berry phases for Landau Hamiltonians on deformed tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévay, Péter

    1995-06-01

    Parametrized families of Landau Hamiltonians are introduced, where the parameter space is the Teichmüller space (topologically the complex upper half plane) corresponding to deformations of tori. The underlying SO(2,1) symmetry of the families enables an explicit calculation of the Berry phases picked up by the eigenstates when the torus is slowly deformed. It is also shown that apart from these phases that are local in origin, there are global non-Abelian ones too, related to the hidden discrete symmetry group Γϑ (the theta group, which is a subgroup of the modular group) of the families. The induced Riemannian structure on the parameter space is the usual Poincare metric on the upper half plane of constant negative curvature. Due to the discrete symmetry Γϑ the geodesic motion restricted to the fundamental domain of this group is chaotic.

  11. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajčić Slađana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, contents of total phenolic (TPh, total flavonoid (TF, and total monomeric anthocyianin (TMA, as well as the antioxidant activity of two raspberry cultivars (Meeker and Willamette, two blackberry cultivars (Čačanska bestrna and Thornfree and wild bilberry were studied. The raspberry cultivars had the highest total solids among fruits investigated. Bilberry fruits had the highest sugar-to-acid ratio. Blackberry fruits were richer in crude fibers (cellulose in comparison to raspberry and bilberry fruits. The content of pectic substances was highest in the bilberry. Also, bilberry had a highest content of TPh (808.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, TF (716.31 mg RE/100 g FW and TMA (447.83 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as the EC50 value (in mg of fresh weight of berry fruit per ml of the reaction mixture, of bilberry (0.3157 ± 0.0145 mg/ml was the highest. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW bilberry, raspberry - Willamette, raspberry - Meeker, blackberry - Čačanska bestrna and blackberry - Thornfree is equivalent to 576.50 mg, 282.74 mg, 191.58 mg, 222.28 mg and 272.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities and content of total phenolics (RTPh 2=0.9627, flavonoids (RTF 2=0.9598 and anthocyanins (RTMA 2=0.9496 in berry fruits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  12. Sterile Males of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as Disseminators of Beauveria Bassiana Conidia for IPM Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Salvador; Campos, Sergio; Montoya, Pablo [Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA-IICA, Camino a los Cacahotales S/N, Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas 30860 (Mexico); Villasenor, Antonio; Valle, Alvaro; Enkerlin, Walther [Codireccion Mexico, Programa Regional Moscamed Mexico- Guatemala-Estados Unidos (Guatemala); Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo [Departamento Agricultura Sociedad y Ambiente, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Antiguo Aeropuerto, Tapachula, Chiapas 30700 (Mexico)

    2014-01-15

    Full text: Sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), males were evaluated as vectors to spread Beauveria bassiana (Bals) conidia to wild C. capitata populations under field conditions. The inoculated sterile males were released by air, using the chilled adult technique over 7000 ha of coffee growing in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, Central America. The impact of releases was determined using dry traps baited with a food attractant. The effects of these releases on Apis mellifera, Linnaeus (honey bee), Hypothenemus hampei, Ferrari (coffee berry borer) and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Oudeman) were also evaluated. Inoculated sterile males were able to transmit fungal spores to 44% of the wild C. capitata flies captured in traps, which likely were infected through intra- and intersexual interactions during leks, mating or mating attempts. There was no transmission of the fungal spores to non- target insect species such as coffee berry borer, honey bees or varroa. We conclude that sterile males of Mediterranean fruit fly inoculated with B. bassiana can act as effective vectors of conidia to wild populations, constituting a safe, environmentally friendly and selective alternative for suppressing the medfly under a Sterile Insect Technique-based IPM approach. (author)

  13. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco; Vega, Fernando E.

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC 50 ), mean lethal time (LT 50 ), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC 50 for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10 7 conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT 50 of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  14. Susceptibility of the Parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions; Susceptibilidad del parasitoide Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Alfredo; Gomez, Jaime; Infante, Francisco [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical], e-mail: acastill@ecosur.mx, e-mail: jgomez@ecosur.mx, e-mail: finfante@ecosur.mx; Vega, Fernando E. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Beltsville, MD (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Sustainable Perennial Crops Lab.], e-mail: fernando.vega@ars.usda.gov

    2009-09-15

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important coffee pest worldwide. Beauveria bassiana is a generalist entomopathogenic fungus widely used by coffee farmers to control this pest and Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African endo parasitoid of H. hampei adults, recently imported to several Latin American and Caribbean countries to aid in the coffee berry borer control. The objective of this study was to determine if B. bassiana is detrimental to P. coffea. The susceptibility of the parasitoid was evaluated in terms of adult survivorship, mean lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}), mean lethal time (LT{sub 50}), reproduction and immature mortality. The main effect of the fungus resulted in reduction of adult longevity and mortality of 100% for immature stages of this parasitoid. The LC{sub 50} for adults was 0.11% equivalent to 9.53 x 10{sup 7} conidia/ml of B. bassiana and a LT{sub 50} of 29.4 h, equivalent to reduction of 22% of its normal longevity as an adult. P. coffea was capable of disseminating spores of B. bassiana to non-infected H. hampei adults, which could indirectly cause the death of its own progeny. These results could be valuable when considering the use of both organisms in the field, especially in an integrated pest management program. (author)

  15. The Influence of Different Air-Drying Conditions on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Mariela C; Rocha-Parra, Diego; Sampedro, Ines; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; León, Alberto E

    2018-03-21

    The aim of the present research was to study the effect of convective drying on color, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of berry fruits and to chemically characterize the polyphenolic composition of raspberry, boysenberry, redcurrants, and blackcurrants fruit. Drying berries at 65 °C provoked the best conservations of color, particularly for boysenberry and blackcurrant. Drying at 65 °C was also the condition that showed higher level of polyphenols, while drying at 50 or 130 °C showed above % degradation of them due to the long time or high temperature drying. Radical scavenging activity was the predominant antioxidant mechanism in all samples, with 65 °C dried berries being the most active ones possibly because of polyphenol depolymerization. The anthocyanin profile showed that delphinidin and cyanidin derivatives were the most abundant anthocyanidins with different predominance between berry genera. Degradation of anthocyanins was increased with drying temperature been Cy 3-glucoside and Cy 3-rutinoside the most abundant.

  16. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come From Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2005-01-01

    The Berry Amendment requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  17. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2006-01-01

    The Berry Amendment requires the Department of Defense (DoD) to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home-grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals. To protect the U.S...

  18. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement To Come From Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey Grasso, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    The Berry Amendment requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  19. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2005-01-01

    The Berry Amendment requires the Department of Defense (DoD) to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home-grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals. To protect the U.S...

  20. Composição química e atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae sobre a broca-do-café (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.A. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das folhas de Schinus terebinthifolius foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG-EM. O rendimento do óleo foi de 0,8%, sendo identificados 37 constituintes químicos. Os componentes principais foram germacreno D (25,0%, (E-β-cariofileno (17,5% e δ -elemeno (10,5%. O óleo essencial foi diluído em acetona nas concentrações de 10-2 a 10-8 e aplicado aos insetos (Hypothenemus hampei por aplicação tópica e exposição em superfície contaminada. As taxas de mortalidade foram avaliadas após 24 e 48 horas do início do experimento. A aplicação em superfície contaminada resultou em 25% de mortalidade no controle, enquanto nas diluições de 10-2 a 10-8 foram observados 100,0 a 30,0% de mortalidade. Na aplicação tópica, observou-se 27,5% de mortalidade no controle e 97,5 a 77,5% nas diluições de 10-2 a 10-8.

  1. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC, total anthocyanins (TA, and total phenols (TP of wild and cultivated berries in different localities of La Araucanía and Los Ríos Regions in Chile. These parameters were analyzed by using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH method, pH-differential, and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Percentages of DPPH discoloration of different berries studied were between 67.8% and 95.3% for red sarsaparilla and rosehip, respectively. Maqui berries showed a significantly higher TA content (2240.2 and 1445.3 mg L-1 cyanidin 3-glucoside than other berries, and a mean for all berries of 335.5 mg L-1. Higher phenol content levels were obtained in two cultivars of saskatoon (773.9 and 1001.9 mg L-1 gallic acid and wild rosehip (1457.0 and 1140.4 mg L-1 gallic acid. We conclude that there are significant differences in antioxidant capacity of wild and cultivated Chilean berries in this study which show a strong correlation between AC and TP content.Por medio del consumo de berries es posible incorporar al organismo una gran cantidad de antioxidantes capaces de prevenir múltiples enfermedades generadas por la acción de los radicales libres. Los antioxidantes actúan neutralizando los radicales libres y de esta forma protegen al organismo del daño oxidativo de lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Entre variadas frutas y hortalizas, se destacan los berries como una de las fuentes más ricas en fitonutrientes antioxidantes. El objetivo de esta investigaci

  2. Roostocks/scion/ nitrogen interactions affect secondary metabolism in the grape berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Habran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS and Pinot Noir (PN varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM or 110 Richter (110R rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids. that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  3. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  4. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. NMR analysis of seven selections of vermentino grape berry: metabolites composition and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, Gilberto; Galaffu, Maria Grazia; Pretti, Luca; Nieddu, Gianni; Mercenaro, Luca; Tonelli, Roberto; Anedda, Roberto

    2011-02-09

    The goal of this work was to study via NMR the unaltered metabolic profile of Sardinian Vermentino grape berry. Seven selections of Vermentino were harvested from the same vineyard. Berries were stored and extracted following an unbiased extraction protocol. Extracts were analyzed to investigate variability in metabolites concentration as a function of the clone, the position of berries in the bunch or growing area within the vineyard. Quantitative NMR and statistical analysis (PCA, correlation analysis, Anova) of the experimental data point out that, among the investigated sources of variation, the position of the berries within the bunch mainly influences the metabolic profile of berries, while the metabolic profile does not seem to be significantly influenced by growing area and clone. Significant variability of the amino acids such as arginine, proline, and organic acids (malic and citric) characterizes the rapid rearrangements of the metabolic profile in response to environmental stimuli. Finally, an application is described on the analysis of metabolite variation throughout the physiological development of berries.

  6. Antioxidant Activities of Selected Berries and Their Free, Esterified, and Insoluble-Bound Phenolic Acid Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    To explore the potential of berries as natural sources of bioactive compounds, the quantities of free, esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolic acids in a number of berries were determined. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the berries were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays, in addition to determination of their metal ion chelating activities. Furthermore, several phenolic compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the 6 tested berries, black chokeberry and blackberry exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities, and the various berry samples were found to contain catechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, vanillic acid, quercitrin, resveratrol, morin, naringenin, and apigenin. Moreover, the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of the fractions containing insoluble-bound phenolic acids were higher than those containing the free and esterified phenolic acids. The results imply that the insoluble-bound fractions of these berries are important natural sources of antioxidants for the preparation of functional food ingredients and preventing diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:29662846

  7. Phenolic Content and Their Antioxidant Activity in Various Berries Cultivated in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are a rich source of phenolic compounds with health benefits.  Phenolic compounds occur in berries mainly as a variety of conjugated forms, mostly with sugars.  The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in the most common fruits consumed in Romania: blueberry, blackberries, raspberry and cranberries. Folin-Ciocalteu method has been used in order to evaluate total phenolic content of analyzed berries. Antioxidant activity was determinate using ORAC assay which measures the decrease of AAPH-radical level by the scavenging action of the antioxidant substance. In addition, the vitamin C content and total tannins of the berries extracts were determined using spetophomotmetric methods. The phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of analyzed berries did not varied considerably. The highest amounts of TPC and the strongest antioxidant activities were found in blueberry and blackberries (678 GAE mg/100 g FW, 442 mg/100g FW respectively. Vitamin C content was found in higher concentration in raspberries 21.7 mg/100 g FW while the lower concentration was found in blackberry.  All berries contain higher levels of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or tannins which are responsible for their antioxidant potential and bring their nutritional value, being highly recommended for daily consumption.

  8. Status and potential of F1 sterility for control of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, I.; Barbulescu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In certain lepidopterous insects partially gamma-ray-sterilized males mated with normal females produce progeny which are more sterile than their male parents. Inherited sterility has been observed in numerous pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb. The most important discoveries contributing the development of this techniques are reviewed. The studies on the European corn borer have revealed a dramatic inherited sterility effect when pupae have been irradiated with a low dose of 100 or 150 Gy. Data on the growth, development and behaviour of F 1 individuals indicate that the treated insects are highly competitive with the normal insects. Field tests of the inherited sterility technique in isolated O. nubilalis infestations have indicated that this method is effective and a small eradication has been done. These studies are continuing. (author)

  9. Feeding and Development of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on Cultivated Olive, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M; Peterson, Donnie L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the suitability of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L., as a host for emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. In a bioassay using cut stems from a field-grown olive tree (cv. 'Manzanilla') we found that 45% of larvae that had emerged from eggs used to inoculate stems, were recovered alive, many as larvae or prepupae, during periodic debarking of a subset of stems. Three intact stems that 19 larvae successfully entered were exposed to a simulated overwintering treatment. Four live adults emerged afterwards, and an additional pupa and several prepupae were discovered after debarking these stems. Cultivated olive joins white fringetree as one of the two species outside of the genus Fraxinus capable of supporting the development of emerald ash borer from neonate to adult. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.

  11. Outlook for ash in your forest: results of emerald ash borer research and implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction near Detroit, Michigan, in the mid-1990s, emerald ash borer (EAB) has rapidly spread through much of the U.S. and adjacent Canada, leaving millions of dead ash trees in Midwestern states (4,11). Unfortunately, EAB attacks trees as small as an inch in stem diameter and it attacks all five ash species native to the region - white, green...

  12. The parasitoids of the African white rice borer, Maliarpha separatella Ragonot (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Polaszek, A.; Fitton, M.G.; Bianchi, G.; Huddleston, T.

    2017-01-01

    A key is provided for the recognition of the hymenopterous parasitoids of the African white rice borer, Maliarpha separatella Ragonot, a pest of rice in Africa and Madagascar. Five species are described as new: Braconidae: Chelonus maudae Huddleston, Rhacanotus carinafus Polaszek; Ichneumonidae: Prisfomerus bullis Fitton, Prisfomerus caris Fitton, Venturia jordanae Fitton. The following synonyms are proposed: Goniozus indicus Muesebeck, G. natalensis Gordh and G. procerae Risbec are synonymiz...

  13. Differential resistance reaction of maize genotypes to maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe at Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Bhandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize stem borer (MSB, Chilo partellus Swinhoe, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the most important insect pest of maize in Nepal. Host plant resistance is the cost-effective, ecologically sound and stable approach to reduce damage by stem borers. Forty four maize genotypes were screened for resistance to maize stem borer at the research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur during spring seasons (March to June of two consecutive years 2013 and 2014. The maize genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications and data were collected on foliar damage rating, tunnel length and number of exit holes made by the borer. The foliar damage and tunnel length damage were significant for genotypes for both the years. The exit holes were not significant in 2013 but significant in 2014 ranging from 2-6 scale. The foliar rating ranged from 2 to 5.5 in 2013 and 1.1 to 4.5 in 2014 on a 1-9 rating scale. The highly resistant genotypes (10 cm scale. The least susceptible genotypes (<5 cm were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18. The genotypes having least exit holes (2.0 in 2014 were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02, RampurS10F18. Thus less damage parameters were observed in R-POP-2, RML-5/RML-8, RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18 and therefore they can be used as parents or as sources of resistance in breeding program.

  14. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami; Santa Bahadur BK; Ghana Shyam Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage per...

  15. Progress and future directions in research on the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland

    2014-01-01

    When the emerald ash borer (EAB) was discovered near Detroit, Michigan in July 2002, very little was known about it other than the fact that it was killing large numbers of ash trees throughout a widespread area in southeast Michigan (Poland and McCullough 2006). Ash mortality in the area had been noted for a few years, but was attributed to ash decline until damage...

  16. Screening of tomato genotypes for resistance to tomato fruit borer (helicoverpa armiger hubner) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.; Ashfaq, M.; Suhail, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato genotypes viz., Roma Local, Rio Grande, Tanja, Chico III, Long Tipped, Red-Top, FS-8001, FS-8002, Tropic, Pakit, Peelo, NARC-1, Roma VFN, Pant Bahr, Ebein, Nova Mech, Rockingham, Nagina, Shalkot-96, Pomodoro, Manik, Gressilesse, Nadir, Early Mech, Tommy, Pusha Rubi, Tropic boy, Big Long, Sahil, Sun 6002, Money-Maker and Royesta were evaluated to screen out the suitable resistant/susceptible genotypes against the fruit borer in Pakistan. The results imparted that the percentage of fruit infestation and larval population per plant on tested genotypes of tomato varied significantly. Roma VF, NARC-1 and FS-8002 were categorized as susceptible genotypes with fruit infestation (37.69%, 37.08% and 36.41%, respectively) and larval population per plant (1.02%, 1.02% and 0.84 %, respectively). Whereas, the genotypes Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb had fruit infestation (12.30%, 13.14% and 13.96%, respectively) and larval population per plant (0.42%, 0.42% and 0.43%, respectively) and declared as resistant genotypes to tomato fruit borer. Lower values of host plant susceptibility indices (HPSI) were recorded on resistant genotypes. Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb could be used as a source of resistance for developing tomato genotypes resistant to tomato fruit borer. (author)

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

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    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  18. Differential fipronil susceptibility and metabolism in two rice stem borers from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qi; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Ye, Gong-Yin; Yao, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Jia-An; Akhtar, Zunnu-Raen

    2008-08-01

    The susceptibilities of larvae of two rice stem borers, namely, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Nocutidae) to fipronil and its metabolites were investigated, and then the activities of microsomal O-demethylase, and glutathione transferase (GST) in two species were measured. The metabolism of fipronil in both stem borers was determined in vivo and in vitro. The LD50 value of fipronil to S. inferens was 118.5-fold higher than that of C. suppressalis. The bioassay results offipronil metabolites showed that the toxicities of sulfone and sulfide were higher than fipronil for both species, and the differential toxicity between sulfone and fipronil was remarkable. Alternatively, the activities of microsomal O-demethylase and GST of C. suppressalis were 1.35- and 2.06-fold higher than S. inferens, respectively. The in vivo and in vitro studies on metabolism of fipronil showed that all of fipronil, sulfone, and sulfide were detected and the content of sulfone was higher than sulfide in both stem borers. The residue of sulfone in C. suppressalis was significantly higher than that in S. inferens. These results suggest that the higher activity of mixed function oxidases may cause the higher capacity of C. suppressalis to produce fipronil-sulfone, which is more toxic than fipronil leading to the higher susceptibility of this species.

  19. Infestation of the banana root borer among different banana plant genotypes

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    Fernando Teixeira de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed to investigate Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae infestation among different banana genotypes in a commercial banana orchard over the course of 30 months. Banana root borer infestation was compared in 20 banana genotypes, including five varieties and 15 hybrids. Overall, we observed that 94.17% of pest infestation cases occurred in the cortex region, and only 5.83% occurred in the central cylinder. Genotypes least sensitive to infestation were the Prata Anã (AAB and Pacovan (AAB varieties, where no damage was recorded. Among the hybrid genotypes, PV 9401 and BRS Fhia 18 showed intermediate levels of sensitivity, while BRS Tropical hybrids (AAAB, PA 9401 (AAAB, BRS Vitoria (AAAB, YB 4203 (AAAB, and Bucaneiro (AAAA were the most sensitive to attack by banana root borer. This study demonstrated that the infestation of the banana root borer varies according banana plant genotype, and the utilization of less susceptible genotypes could reduce infestation rates of C. sordidus.

  20. The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree decline: Using visual canopy condition assessments and leaf isotope measurements to assess pest damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Flower; Kathleen S. Knight; Joanne Rebbeck; Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler

    2013-01-01

    Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America are being severely impacted by the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) which was inadvertently introduced to the US in the 1990s from Asia. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is a phloem boring beetle which relies exclusively on ash trees to complete its life cycle. Larvae...

  1. Uso de productos químicos y biológicos para la degradación de frutos de café en el suelo y su efecto en el desarrollo de la broca del café (hypothenemus hampei) (ferrari)

    OpenAIRE

    Galvez Duque, Astrid Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Tesis (Especialista en Microbiología Industrial). Universidad Católica de Manizales, Instituto de Investigación en Micriobiología y Biotecnología Agroindustrial, 2014 Los frutos perforados por la broca del café (Hypothenemus hampei) (Ferrari) que caen al suelo después de las cosechas, son la principal fuente de infestación para otros árboles y para las cosechas siguientes. Por esta razón, es necesaria la investigación de nuevas alternativas que reduzcan la sobrevivencia de los est...

  2. Saw Palmetto Berry as a Treatment for BPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagelman, Elliot; Lowe, Franklin C

    2001-01-01

    Phytotherapeutic agents are often prescribed in Europe for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract symptoms and are commonly used in the United States in over-the-counter preparations. Saw palmetto berry is the most popular of these agents, and in vitro some studies suggest that liposterolic extract of the plant has antiandrogenic effects that inhibit the type 1 and type 2 isoenzymes of 5α-reductase; however there are no clinical studies that show any decrease in serum dihydrotestosterone or prostate-specific antigen. Its efficacy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms has not been conclusively proven. Clinical efficacy was suggested by a meta-analysis of Permixon, a formulation of saw palmetto, but the meta-analysis was done on suboptimal studies. One trial supports the equivalency of Permixon to finasteride in treating moderate to severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, with less decrease in sexual function. However, without a control/placebo arm, the actual efficacy of the agents cannot be determined. Other than occasional gastrointestinal upset, no other side effects have been reported. PMID:16985705

  3. Ginseng Berry Extract Promotes Maturation of Mouse Dendritic Cells.

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    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Ginseng extract has been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor and immune-activating effects. However, the immunostimulatory effect of ginseng berry extract (GB has been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of GB on the activation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. GB treatment induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Interestingly, GB induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation than ginseng root extract (GR at the same concentrations. Moreover, in vivo administration of GB promoted up-regulation of CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen DCs. GB also promoted the generation of Th1 and Tc1 cells. Furthermore, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway were essential for DC activation induced by GB. In addition, GB strongly prompted the proliferation of ovalbumin (OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, GB induced DC activation in tumor-bearing mice and the combination of OVA and GB treatment inhibited B16-OVA tumor cell growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that GB is a novel tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC and T cell activation.

  4. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  5. PLASTICITY OF THE BERRY RIPENING PROGRAM IN A WHITE GRAPE VARIETY

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    Silvia Dal Santo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices, defined as terroir, which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture and composition. These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation

  6. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Grape Berry in Response to Root Restriction during Developmental Stages

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    Feng Leng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Root restriction improved berry quality by being involved in diverse aspects of grapevine life. However, the molecular mechanism driving this process is not understood very well. In this study, the ‘Summer Black’ grape berry (Vitis vinifera × V. labrusca under root restriction was investigated, which showed an increase of total soluble solids (TSS, color index of red grapes (CIRG value, anthocyanins accumulation, total phenolics and total procyanidins contents during berry development compared with those in control berries. The transcriptomic changes induced by root restriction in ‘Summer Black’ grape over the course of berry development were analyzed by RNA-Seq method. A total of 29,971 genes were generated in ‘Summer Black’ grape berry during development, among which, 1606 genes were significantly responded to root restriction. Furthermore, 1264, 313, 141, 246 and 19 sequences were significantly changed at S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 sample points, respectively. The gene (VIT_04s0023g02290 predicted as a salicylate O-methyltransferase was differentially expressed in all developmental stages. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment showed that response to organic nitrogen, response to endogenous stimulus, flavonoid metabolic process, phenylpropanoid biosynthetic process and cell wall macromolecule metabolic process were the main significant differential categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichment revealed plant–pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis and glucosinolate biosynthesis were the main significant differential pathways. The results of the present study provided a genetic base for the understanding of grape berry fruit quality improvement under root restriction.

  7. Double maturation raisonnée: the impact of on-vine berry dehydration on the berry and wine composition of Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusjan, Denis; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2017-11-01

    Double maturation raisonnée (DMR) is a potential canopy measure that affects grape and wine composition. The aim of this work was to study for the first time the DMR impact on the physical, biochemical and sensorial characteristics of the berries and wines of Merlot, one of the world's fastest-expanding grapevine varieties. DMR significantly increased the content of soluble solids (1.2-fold), free amino nitrogen (1.8-fold) and acidity in berries but decreased the weight of 100 berries on harvest (approx. 28%). Irrespective of the vintage, DMR-treated grapes had a significantly higher content of non-astringent tannins (0.73-0.78 mg L -1 ) and anthocyanin extractability (34.7-36.4%) but a lower index of astringency (31.2-33.7) when compared to the control. Consequently, the DMR wines achieved higher alcohol, total acidity and extract, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanol and flavonol contents, whereas the content of anthocyanins was similar to that of the control. Sensorial evaluation showed that DMR wines were not rated higher and would not be appreciated more than control wines. Changes in berries during DMR altered the wine characteristics only in terms of primary metabolites. A reduced accumulation of phenolics, especially anthocyanin content, in the berry skin of DMR-treated grapes was not reflected in their presence in wines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that has reported an impact of DMR on the grape and wine composition of Merlot, as one of the most promising red varieties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and In Vitro Availability of Four Different Berries

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    Javier Marhuenda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols from berries have proved healthy effects after “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies, such as preventing tumor growing and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. We compared four different kinds of berries—strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and blueberry—with the aim to distinguish their phenolic composition, concerning their antioxidant capacity along with their “in vitro” availability. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant capacity was measured by ORAC method. Moreover, the determination of anthocyanins was accomplished with an HPLC-DAD. Finally, we carried out an “in vitro” digestion to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion. All berries showed good antioxidant capacity with significant differences, besides high total phenolic compounds. Content of anthocyanins measured by HPLC-DAD varied between the different berries, namely, blackberries and strawberries which showed higher anthocyanin concentration. After “in vitro” digestion, berries showed poor bioavailability of the analysis of anthocyanins (9.9%–31.7%. Availability of total phenolic compounds was higher than anthocyanins (33%–73%. Moreover, strawberries and blackberries presented the less availability grade. Decrease in antioxidant activity measured by ORAC method was about 90% in all berries studied. Therefore, bioavailability of phenolic compounds remains unclear and more correlation between “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies seems to be necessary.

  9. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  10. Phytochemical Composition and Metabolic Performance Enhancing Activity of Dietary Berries Traditionally Used by Native North Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F.; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B.; Ribnicky, David M.; Gipp, David M.; Cefalu, William T.; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Non-polar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications) whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1β and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes. PMID:18211018

  11. Biochemical Properties and Neuroprotective Effects of Compounds in Various Species of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species of berries, such as blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., have attracted much scientific attention in recent years, especially due to their reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Berries, as with other types of plants, have developed metabolic mechanisms to survive various environmental stresses, some of which involve reactive oxygen species. In addition, the fruits and leaves of berries have high amounts of polyphenols, such as flavonoids, which act as potent antioxidants. These compounds could potentially be beneficial for brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders. There are now several studies documenting the beneficial effects of various berries in cell models of neurotoxicity as well as in vivo models of neurodegenerative disease. In the current review, we discuss the metabolic strategies that plants and animals have developed in order to combat reactive oxygen species. We then discuss issues of bioavailability of various compounds in mammals and provide a synopsis of studies demonstrating the neuroprotective ability of berries and polyphenols. We also summarize findings from our own research group. For example, we have detected various polyphenols in samples of blueberries and lingonberries and have found that the leaves have a much higher antioxidant capacity than the fruits. Extracts from these species have also demonstrated neuroprotective effects in cellular models of toxicity and inflammation, which are being further pursued in animal models.

  12. Optimizing Use of Girdled Ash Trees for Management of Low-Density Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Heyd, Robert L

    2017-06-01

    Effective survey methods to detect and monitor recently established, low-density infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), remain a high priority because they provide land managers and property owners with time to implement tactics to slow emerald ash borer population growth and the progression of ash mortality. We evaluated options for using girdled ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees for emerald ash borer detection and management in a low-density infestation in a forested area with abundant green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Across replicated 4-ha plots, we compared detection efficiency of 4 versus 16 evenly distributed girdled ash trees and between clusters of 3 versus 12 girdled trees. We also examined within-tree larval distribution in 208 girdled and nongirdled trees and assessed adult emerald ash borer emergence from detection trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site. Overall, current-year larvae were present in 85-97% of girdled trees and 57-72% of nongirdled trees, and larval density was 2-5 times greater on girdled than nongirdled trees. Low-density emerald ash borer infestations were readily detected with four girdled trees per 4-ha, and 3-tree clusters were as effective as 12-tree clusters. Larval densities were greatest 0.5 ± 0.4 m below the base of the canopy in girdled trees and 1.3 ± 0.7 m above the canopy base in nongirdled trees. Relatively few adult emerald ash borer emerged from trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site through the following summer, suggesting removal or destruction of girdled ash trees may be unnecessary. This could potentially reduce survey costs, particularly in forested areas with poor accessibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  14. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.

  15. Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Qifa; Lin, Yongjun

    2008-02-01

    Ten transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Bt rice, Oryza sativa L., lines with different Bt genes (two Cry1Ac lines, three Cry2A lines, and five Cry9C lines) derived from the same variety Minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. Bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to these two rice borers. Field evaluation results also showed that all transgenic lines were highly insect resistant with both natural infestation and manual infestation of the neonate larvae of S. incertulas compared with the nontransformed Minghui63. Bt protein concentrations in leaves of 10 transgenic rice lines were estimated by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cry9C gene had the highest expression level, next was cry2A gene, and the cry1Ac gene expressed at the lowest level. The feeding behavior of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer to three classes of Bt transgenic rice lines also was detected by using rice culm cuttings. The results showed that 7-d-old larvae of Asiatic rice borer have the capacity to distinguish Bt and non-Bt culm cuttings and preferentially fed on non-Bt cuttings. When only Bt culm cuttings with three classes of different Bt proteins (CrylAc, Cry2A, and Cry9C) were fed, significant distribution difference of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer in culm cuttings of different Bt proteins also was found. In the current study, we evaluate different Bt genes in the same rice variety in both the laboratory and the field, and also tested feeding behavior of rice insect to these Bt rice. These data are valuable for the further development of two-toxin Bt rice and establishment of appropriate insect resistance management in the future.

  16. Berries grown in Brazil: anthocyanin profiles and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Vitor C; Boff, Laurita; Vizzotto, Márcia; Calvete, Eunice; Reginatto, Flávio H; Simões, Cláudia Mo

    2018-02-11

    Phytochemical profiles of two Brazilian native fruits - pitanga (red and purple) and araçá (yellow and red) - as well as strawberry cultivars Albion, Aromas and Camarosa, blackberry cultivar Tupy and blueberry cultivar Bluegen cultivated in Brazil were characterized for total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content by liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array and a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Radical scavenging, antiherpes and cytotoxic activities of these berry extracts were also evaluated. Blueberry presented the highest total anthocyanin content (1202 mg cyanidin-O-glucoside equivalents kg -1 fresh fruit), while strawberry cultivar Aromas presented the highest total phenolic content (13 550 mg gallic acid equivalents kg -1 fresh fruit). Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis resulted in the identification of 21 anthocyanins. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of cyanidin-O-glucoside in yellow and red Araçá fruit and the first time eight anthocyanins have been reported in pitanga fruits. DPPH and ABTS assays showed that blueberry cultivar Bluegen, blackberry cultivar Tupy and pitanga (red and purple) showed the most promising antiradical activities, respectively. No relevant cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines or antiherpes activity was detected under the experimental conditions tested. Total anthocyanin content of all fruits had a strong positive correlation with their free radical scavenging activity, suggesting anthocyanins contribute to the antioxidant potential of these fruits. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.

  18. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Shenping; Zhang Guofeng; Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu

    2008-01-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the Δ-ε plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  19. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu Shenping; Zhang Guofeng; Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, School of Science, BeiHang University, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: chenzy@buaa.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the {delta}-{epsilon} plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  20. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnus force, Aharonov-Bohm effect, and berry phase in superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonin, E.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to bring together two points of view in order to find a source of disagreement. I restrict myself with the problem of the Galilean invariant quantum Bose-liquid described by the Gross-Pitaevskii theory. At large scales the theory yields equations of the hydrodynamics of an ideal inviscous liquid. In presence of an ensemble of sound waves (phonons) with the Planck distribution, which is characterized by a locally defined normal velocity, one obtains the two-fluid hydrodynamics. The momentum balance in the area around a moving vortex demonstrates the existence of the Iordanskii force. I also discuss the Berry phase. The Berry phase and the Magnus forces are proportional to the total current circulation at large distances. But the total current circulation contains a normal-fluid contribution, which is proportional to the Iordanski force. Taking this contribution into account, the Berry-phase analysis agrees with the momentum-balance approach. (orig.)

  2. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  3. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  4. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  5. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  6. Chemical Analysis of Extracts from Newfoundland Berries and Potential Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Hossain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V. angustifolium, lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea and black currant (Ribes lacustre. Anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides in powdered extracts from Ribes lacustre and the Vaccinium species were identified using the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC separation method with mass spectrometric (MS detection. The identified compounds were extracted from dried berries by various solvents via ultrasonication followed by centrifugation. A reverse-phase analytical column was employed to identify the retention time of each chemical component before submission for LC–MS analysis. A total of 21 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the three species. Further, we tested the effects of the lingonberry extract for its ability to protect neurons and glia from trauma utilizing an in vitro model of cell injury. Surprisingly, these extracts provided complete protection from cell death in this model. These findings indicate the presence of a wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols in berries that grow natively in Newfoundland. These powdered extracts maintain these compounds intact despite being processed from berry fruit, indicating their potential use as dietary supplements. In addition, these recent findings and previous data from our lab demonstrate the ability of compounds in berries to protect the nervous system from traumatic insults.

  7. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  8. Omics Approaches for Understanding Grapevine Berry Development: Regulatory Networks Associated with Endogenous Processes and Environmental Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Serrano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine fruit development is a dynamic process that can be divided into three stages: formation (I, lag (II, and ripening (III, in which physiological and biochemical changes occur, leading to cell differentiation and accumulation of different solutes. These stages can be positively or negatively affected by multiple environmental factors. During the last decade, efforts have been made to understand berry development from a global perspective. Special attention has been paid to transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with the control of grape berry development, and how external factors affect the ripening process. In this review, we focus on the integration of global approaches, including proteomics, metabolomics, and especially transcriptomics, to understand grape berry development. Several aspects will be considered, including seed development and the production of seedless fruits; veraison, at which anthocyanin accumulation begins in the berry skin of colored varieties; and hormonal regulation of berry development and signaling throughout ripening, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of hormone receptors, protein kinases, and genes related to secondary messenger sensing. Finally, berry responses to different environmental factors, including abiotic (temperature, water-related stress and UV-B radiation and biotic (fungi and viruses stresses, and how they can significantly modify both, development and composition of vine fruit, will be discussed. Until now, advances have been made due to the application of Omics tools at different molecular levels. However, the potential of these technologies should not be limited to the study of single-level questions; instead, data obtained by these platforms should be integrated to unravel the molecular aspects of grapevine development. Therefore, the current challenge is the generation of new tools that integrate large-scale data to assess new questions in this field, and to support

  9. Sea buckthorn decreases and delays insulin response and improves glycaemic profile following a sucrose-containing berry meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Maria Wichmann; Spagner, Camilla; Cuparencu, Cătălina

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Berries and mixed berry products exert acute effects on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, but very few berries have been studied, and primarily in normal weight subjects. Sea buckthorn and strawberry are compositionally widely different berries and may likely produce different...... responses. The effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia were examined in overweight or obese male subjects. Subjective appetite sensations and ad libitum intake were also examined. METHODS: The study was conducted as a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, three......-way crossover study. Eighteen subjects were studied in three 2-h meal tests followed by a subsequent ad libitum meal. Test meals contained added sucrose and either sea buckthorn, strawberry or no berries with added fructose (control). Blood samples were collected at t = 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Subjective...

  10. Efficacy of insecticides in fruit borer control and residues on sugar apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro da Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bahia is the Brazilian state with the largest production of sugar apple fruits (Annona squamosa L., and fruit borer (Cerconota anonella, Sepp. 1830 is a key crop pest. Insecticides are the main strategy for pest control even though there are no pesticides registered for this crop. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of insecticides to control fruit borer and determine the levels of insecticide residues in sugar apple fruits aiming at requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticide products in this crop. The experiment was conducted in an eight-year-old irrigated orchard (2 × 4 m located in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 10 treatments (three insecticides with three doses and a control with water and 5 replications. Each plot was composed of four plants but only the two central ones were assessed. Insecticides and doses (g a.i. 100 L−1 water were Bacillus thuringiensis: 0.8, 1.7, and 2.5; triflumuron: 2.4, 3.6, and 4.8; and imidacloprid: 4.0, 10.0, and 16.0. Nine sprayings were carried out at fortnightly intervals with a costal sprayer with constant pressure, JA-2 nozzle, and with jet directed to the fruits. Ten assessments were performed in order to observe fruit borer presence in 30 previously marked fruits per plot. Imidacloprid, at the highest studied dose, was the only effective treatment. Analyses of imidacloprid residues, at 21 and 30 days after the highest dose application, indicated levels higher than the maximum limit allowed. Insecticides under the conditions tested do not meet the norms for requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticides for citrus in sugar apple fruits.

  11. Management of stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe in maize using conventional pesticides in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswati Neupane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe is one of the most destructive pests of maize crop. Research experimentations were carried out on maize to control stem borer using conventional pesticides under field condition during summer season of two consecutive years from 2015 to 2016 at Rampur, Chitwan. All used pesticides had significant effect (P≤0.05 on percent damage and crop yield over control. In 2015, the lower percent damage (5.3% with higher crop yield (4.52 t ha-1 and lowest insect score (1.00 was observed in plot sprayed with spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water followed by plot treated with chloropyriphos 50% EC+cypermethrin 5%EC @1.5ml L-1 of water with percent damage of 6.60%, crop yield (4.23 t ha-1 and insect score of 1.60. Almost similar trend of insect incidence along with damage percentage and yield data were observed in 2016. The higher percent damage control (79.06% was observed at the plot sprayed after spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water with higher crop yield (4.58 t ha-1 and lowest insect score (1.00 followed by the plot treated with imidacloprid 17.8% @ 0.5 ml L-1 of water with percent damage control of 73.10 %, crop yield (3.38 t/ha and insect sore 1.50. The highest percent damage (20.63% was observed in the control plot with lower yield (0.95 t ha-1 and highest insect score (6.00. Over the years, spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water was effective bio-pesticide to control maize stem borer damage and also increase the yield.

  12. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap.

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues.

  14. Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

    2014-06-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ≍2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ≍1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations.

  15. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article in response to: Barber-Meyer, S. (2015) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12338. We used multiple data sets and study areas as well as several lines of evidence to investigate potential trophic linkages in Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that a trophic cascade from wolves to elk to berry production to berry consumption by grizzly bears may now be underway in the Park. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  16. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  17. 210Po and 210Pb in Forest Soil and in Wild Berries in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Lehto, Jukka; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of 210 Po and 210 Pb was investigated in forests in the Southern Finland site and in the Northern Finland site. Sampling sites were in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. Maximum activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soil columns were found in organic layers. According to preliminary results of wild berry samples, the lowest 210 Po concentrations were found in berries. The highest concentration of 210 Po was found in stems of the blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) samples

  18. The evolving fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tourte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fresh market berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties has contributed significantly to the agricultural vibrancy of the two counties and the state of California. Dramatic growth in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry production has been documented over the last 50 years, and most notably since the 1980s. Factors influencing this growth include innovations in agricultural practices and heightened consumer demand. Here, we review the historical context for the berry industry in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Organic production, production economics and challenges for the future are also discussed.

  19. Berry phase of primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in single-field inflationary models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajany, Hamideh; Mehrafarin, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In the framework of the single-field slow-roll inflation, we derive the Hamiltonian of the linear primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in the form of time-dependent harmonic oscillator Hamiltonians. We find the invariant operators of the resulting Hamiltonians and use their eigenstates to calculate the adiabatic Berry phase for sub-horizon modes in terms of the Lewis-Riesenfeld phase. We conclude by discussing the discrepancy in the results of Pal et al. (2013) [21] for these Berry phases, which is resolved to yield agreement with our results.

  20. Anti-botrytis activity in epicuticular waxes of young grape berries of Vitis vinifera (Pinot noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Comménil

    1996-03-01

    The evidence of a substance which exhibits a strong inhibition on the conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea was made after epicuticular waxes chromatographic analysis and biological tests. This compound, characterized by a Rf (0,2 closely related to the Rf of the primary alcohols, was present in the wax extracts originated from bloom and immature grape berries stages and it was absent in the extracts issued to the mature grape berries. The concentration of the conidial germination inhibitor was markedly different between the sensible (S792 and tolerant (T7613 cultivars of Pinot vineyards. Also this antifungal product would be considereted as an hypothetical resistance marked against Botrytis cinerea.

  1. Funkcionalne karakteristike fermentisanog čajnog napitka obogaćenog CoffeBerry®-jem

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Essawet Najmi

    2016-01-01

    Cilj ispitivanja čiji su rezultati prikazani u ovoj doktorskoj disertaciji bioje da se ispita mogućnost dobijanja kombuha napitka od/sa CoffeeBerry®ekstraktom i da se ispitaju njegove funkcionalne karakteristike.CoffeeBerry® ekstrakt kao bogat izvor biološki aktivnih jedinjenja biobezbedio dodatne funkcionalne karakteristike kombuha napitku upoređenju sa onim pripremljenim na tradicionalan način od zaslađenogcrnog čaja. U disertaciji je nakon optimizacije sastava podloge zakult...

  2. Berry's phase factors in moving frames of reference and their observable effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changpu; Zhang Linzhi

    1990-01-01

    Under non-relativistic conditions, the properties of adiabatic solutions of the Schroedinger equation in moving frame of reference and the behaviours of the corresponding Berry's Phase are analysed. Two cases of translation and rotation are discussed in detail, which show that the existence of Berry's phase depends on the choice of frame of reference. While Bitter and Dubbers's experiment is explained by the first-order approximation in the discussion. The non-adiabatic effects in this experiment are predicted by the second-order approximation when the adiabatic condition is broken

  3. DURABILTY OF 25 LOCAL SPECIFIC WOOD SPECIES FROM JAVA PRESERVED WITH CCB AGAINST MARINE BORERS ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking

  4. Isolation, identification and field tests of the sex pheromone of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C C; Hwang, J S; Hung, M D; Yen, Y P; Hou, R F

    2001-09-01

    Two components, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate (Z8-12:Ac) and (Z)-8-dodecenol (Z8-12:OH), were isolated from sex pheromone glands of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes, and were identified by GC, and GC-MS, chemical derivatization, and comparison of retention times. The ratio of the alcohol to acetate in the sex pheromone extracts was 2.7. However, synthetic mixtures (1 mg) in ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 were more effective than other blends in trapping male moths in field tests.

  5. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  6. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  7. Coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, susceptibility and response to goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, injury in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Coleman; Nancy E. Grulke; Miles Daly; Cesar Godinez; Susan L. Schilling; Philip J. Riggan; Steven J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    Oak mortality is often associated with a complex of decline factors. We describe the morphological and physiological responses of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, in California to an invasive insect, the goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and evaluate drought as a...

  8. Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Linden, van der A.; Swarts, H.J.; Visser, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely

  9. Modeling emerald ash borer dispersal using percolation theory: estimating the rate of range expansion in a fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms; Louis R. Iverson

    2008-01-01

    The dispersal of organisms is rarely random, although diffusion processes can be useful models for movement in approximately homogeneous environments. However, the environments through which all organisms disperse are far from uniform at all scales. The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is obligate on ash (Fraxinus spp...

  10. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Taylor; Jian J. Duan; Roger. Fuester

    2011-01-01

    Classical biological control efforts against emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America primarily have focused on introduction and releases of exotic parasitoid species collected from northern parts of China. Recently, field surveys in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Ontario also indicate that some existing parasitoids...

  11. Water table response to harvesting and simulated emerald ash borer mortality in black ash wetlands in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Christian F. Lenhart; Kenneth N. Brooks; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2014-01-01

    Black ash wetlands are seriously threatened because of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB). Wetland hydrology is likely to be modified following ash mortality, but the magnitude of hydrological impact following loss via EAB and alternative mitigation harvests is not clear. Our objective was to assess the water table response to simulated EAB and harvesting to...

  12. Evaluating the use of plastic bags to prevent escape of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Andrea Diss-Torrance

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a highly destructive exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus) in North America. Human movement of infested logs, primarily pieces of firewood, is a major pathway for long distance spread of the beetle. Firewood may be confiscated at campgrounds, rest-areas, and...

  13. Microsatellite population genetics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire): comparisons between Asian and North American populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson C. Keever; Christal Nieman; Larissa Ramsay; Carol E. Ritland; Leah S. Bauer; D. Barry Lyons; Jenny S. Cory

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae), is an invasive wood-boring beetle native to northeast Asia. This species was first detected in Michigan USA in 2002, and is a significant threat to native and ornamental ash tree species (Fraxinus spp.) throughout North America. We...

  14. Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against...

  15. Infestation by Coffee White Stem Borer, Xylotrechus quadripes, in Relation to Soil and Plant Nutrient Content and Associated Quality Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2016-01-01

    Infestation by coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is becoming severe in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in North and South America. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the severity of

  16. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  17. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations in West Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Coates, Brad Steven; Kim, Kyungseok; Forgacs, D.; Margam, Venu; Murdock, Larry L.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabiré , Clé mentine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim B.; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Tamò , Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert

    2012-01-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M

  18. Review of ecosystem level impacts of emerald ash borer on black ash wetlands: What does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Anthony W. D' Amato; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Robert A. Slesak; Thomas G. Pypker; Melissa B. Youngquist; Alexis R. Grinde; Brian J. Palik

    2018-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) is rapidly spreading throughout eastern North America and devastating ecosystems where ash is a component tree. This rapid and sustained loss of ash trees has already resulted in ecological impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and is projected to be even more severe as EAB invades black ash-dominated wetlands of the western...

  19. Screening of different insecticides against maize shoot fly atherigona soccata (Rond.) and maize borer. chilo partellus (swinh.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Rana, Z.A.; Haq, I.; Tariq, H.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were carried out in the research area of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to determine the most effective maize seed treatment against maize shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Rond.) and insecticide against maize borer Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Trials were conducted following RCBD and replicated three times during 2005-2006. Two seed treatments Confider (imidacloprid) 70 WS and pensidor 72% WP (5 and 7 mg/kg seed) along with Confider (imidaclorid) 200 SC at the rate 40 ml/acre in the trial against maize shoot fly whereas, flubendiamide 48%, emamection 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC. carbofuran 3 G, indoxacarb 150 SC, alphacypermethrine 20 EC, monomehypo 5 G, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap 4G, cyhalothrine 2.5 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC at the rate 20 ml, 150 ml, 40 ml, 8 kg, 150 ml, 200 ml, 5 kg, 150 ml, 6 kg. 250 ml and 300 ml per acre against maize borer were treated keeping one plo ast untreated check. Treatments were repeated as borer infestation reached above 5% level. All the seed treatments showed significant control of maize shoot fly in spite of dose 5 or 7 mg/kg seed along with foliar spray of confider 200 SC. The insecticides viz. flubendiamide 48% SC. emamectin 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC and carbofuran 3 G. indoxacarb 150 SC. alpha cypermethrin 20 EC, not only responded highest yield 5765, 5294, 5289, 5215, 5168 and 5025 kg/ha respectively but also manage the maize borer below ETL. (author)

  20. Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; Therese M. Poland; Steven J. Pierce; Su Zie. Ahn

    2011-01-01

    Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of...

  1. Evaluating the economic costs and benefits of slowing the spread of emerald ash borer in Ohio and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Bossenbroek; Audra Croskey; David Finnoff; Louis Iverson; Shana M. McDermott; Anantha Prasad; Charles Sims; Davis. Sydnor

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis; EAB) is poised to wipe out native ashes (Fraxinus spp.) in North America with expected catastrophic losses to ash tree forestry (MacFarlane and Meyer 2005). EAB was first discovered in Detroit in 2002. Most scientists hypothesize that it entered the United States through solid wood...

  2. Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Andrew D. Graves; Mary Louise. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle...

  3. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for resistance to fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer leaf-feeding damage in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and southwestern corn borer (SWCB), Diatraea grandiosella Dyar are damaging insect pests of maize resulting in significant yield and economic losses. A previous study identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to reduced leaf-fe...

  4. Methods to Improve Survival and Growth of Planted Alternative Species Seedlings in Black Ash Ecosystems Threatened by Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Bolton; Joseph Shannon; Joshua Davis; Matthew Grinsven; Nam Noh; Shon Schooler; Randall Kolka; Thomas Pypker; Joseph Wagenbrenner

    2018-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) continues to spread across North America, infesting native ash trees and changing the forested landscape. Black ash wetland forests are severely affected by EAB. As black ash wetland forests provide integral ecosystem services, alternative approaches to maintain forest cover on the landscape are needed. We implemented simulated EAB infestations...

  5. Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of arthropods associated with ash tree boles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive non-native wood-boring beetle that has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America, and threatens to extirpate the ecological services provided by the genus. Identifying the arthropod community assoc...

  6. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: the potential for early stage recovery of North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...

  7. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Mike Ulyshen; Leah Bauer; Ivich. Fraser

    2011-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North...

  8. A new species of genus Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from the Russian Far East that parasitizes eggs of Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described from the Vladivostok, Russia, Oobius primorskyensis Yao & Duan n. sp. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from t...

  9. Can ash communities and their dependent species be partially protected through biological control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002 and has been detected in 32 U.S. states and two Canadian pro...

  10. Exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and its natural enemies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2003-01-01

    An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was conducted in China during October and November 2003. We examined 29 field plots in six provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. pennsylvanica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina...

  11. Development of a web-based tool for projecting costs of managing emerald ash borer in municipal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford S. Sadof

    2009-01-01

    City managers faced with the invasion of emerald ash borer into their urban forests need to plan for the invasion in order to obtain the resources they need to protect the public from harm caused by dying ash trees. Currently, city...

  12. The parasites of cereal stem borers (Lepidoptera: Cossidae, Crambidae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae) in Africa, belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Polaszek, A.

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the parasites (parasitoids) of the African cereal stem borers (including introduced species) belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera); 38 species belonging to 19 genera are keyed and treated. Three new species are described: Macrocentrus sesamivorus spec. nov. from

  13. Progress and challenges of protecting North American ash trees from the emerald ash borer using biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian Duan; Leah Bauer; Roy van Driesche; Juli. Gould

    2018-01-01

    After emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, was discovered in the United States, a classical biological control program was initiated against this destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). This biocontrol program began in 2007 after federal regulatory agencies and the state of Michigan approved release of...

  14. Planning for and implementing an emerald ash borer-induced forest restoration program in municipal woodlands in Oakville, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Williams; Candace. Karandiuk

    2017-01-01

    Oakville is an urban municipality with 846 ha of woodland. Management priorities are to maintain forest health, environmental health, and safety; wood production is a minor objective. The town developed a comprehensive strategy to plan for emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) induced ash mortality and forest restoration. Oakville has begun...

  15. Development of a sprayable slow-release formulation for the sex pheromone of the Mediterranean Corn Borer, Sesamia nonagroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, J.J. de

    2008-01-01

    In the FAIR project "Pheromaize", CT96-1302, the main objective is to provide European growers with a reliable, cost effective and environmentally friendly technology based on pest mating disruption. The project is mainly focused on Mediterranean Corn Borer (MCB), Sesamia nonagroides, the key pest

  16. Can Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), emerge from logs two summers after infested trees are cut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Much of EAB's range expansion has been attributed to human-assisted movement of infested items such as ash logs and firewood. It is unclear the amount of time that logs cut...

  17. Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-04-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully

  18. Interaction between N-fertilizer and water availability on borer-rot complex in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo da Rocha Pannuti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrogen availability in fertigation and rainfed management, as well as their interactions with the incidence of and damage caused by D. saccharalis and red rot in sugarcane. The experiment consisted of four treatments (0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer with irrigation; 0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer in rainfed management in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The evaluated parameters were the number of holes and internodes with red rot per meter of cultivation, stalk yield and sugar content. In the laboratory (T = 25 ± 2 °C; R.H. = 70 ± 10%: 12:12-L:D, we evaluated the attractiveness and consumption of fragments of stalks from the different treatments for fourth instar larvae through choice and no-choice tests in a randomized complete block design with ten replications. Nitrogen fertilization via irrigation has favorable effects on borer-rot complex and leads to higher gains in stalk and sugar yields when compared to rainfed management. The increments of stalk and sugar yields due to nitrogen fertilization compensates for the increase in borer-rot complex infestation. In laboratory tests, D. saccharalis larvae were similarly attracted to all treatments regardless of the doses of N-fertilizer or the water regimes evaluated. However, fragments of sugarcane stalks produced with nitrogen fertilization were consumed more by D. saccharalis in both water regimes.

  19. Overwintering biology and limits of cold tolerance in larvae of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Šimek, P; Koštál, V

    2016-08-01

    Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season. Their supercooling points (SCPs) ranged between -19.4 and -22.7°C from October to February. Larvae were able to survive 24 h exposures to -15°C anytime during the cold season. During December and January, larvae were undergoing quiescence type of dormancy caused probably by low ambient temperatures and/or changes in host tree physiology (tree dormancy). Larvae attain highest cold tolerance (high survival at -20°C) during dormancy, which offers them sufficient protection against geographically and ecologically relevant cold spells. High cold tolerance during dormancy was not associated with accumulation of any low-molecular mass cryoprotective substances. The SCP sets the limit of cold tolerance in pistachio twig borer, meaning that high mortality of overwintering populations can be expected only in the regions or years where or when the temperatures fall below the average larval SCP (i.e., below -20°C). Partial mortality can be expected also when temperatures repeatedly drop close to the SCP on a diurnal basis.

  20. Relationships of Reproductive Traits with the Phylogeny of the African Noctuid Stem Borers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-André Calatayud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B. nairobica, B . sp. nr. segeta, Manga melanodonta, M . sp. nr. nubifera, Pirateolea piscator, Sesamia calamistis , and S. nonagrioides . For each species, the adult emergence period, the mating time, and the oviposition period were estimated, referred as biological traits. The components of the sex pheromones emitted by the females of each species were also analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the biological traits measured, only those linked to the oviposition pattern (timing and egg loads per night were significantly correlated with the phylogeny of these species. For the sex pheromone components, among the 13 components identified in all species, only four, namely, Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-TDA, Z11-TDA, E11-TDA, and Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-HDA, showed the highest significant correlations with the phylogeny. These results suggest that among the different reproductive traits evaluated, only few are phylogenetically constrained. Their involvement in the reinforcement of ecological speciation in noctuid stem borers is discussed.

  1. The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

    2010-01-01

    The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

  2. Responses of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Taiwan to a range of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuan; Chang, Cheng; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2010-07-01

    Information on the insecticide susceptibility of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is essential for an effective pest management programme. An early detection of resistance development can prompt the modification of current control methods and increase the lifespan of insecticides through the rotation of chemicals with different modes of action. In this study, the susceptibility of this pest in Taiwan to four classes of insecticides has been examined. Over 1000-fold resistance to carbofuran was detected in C. suppressalis collected from Chiayi and Changhua prefectures, with estimated LC(50) values of > 3 mg cm(-2). In addition, 61-fold resistance to cartap was found in the Chiayi population. On the other hand, all tested populations of rice stem borer were still relatively susceptible to chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, with LC(50) values ranging from 30 to 553 ng cm(-2). Chilo suppressalis populations collected from the central parts of Taiwan have a higher degree of resistance to the tested insecticides than those from northern areas. The occurrence of high resistance to carbofuran in the Chiayi and Changhua areas suggests that this compound should be replaced with chemicals having a different mode of action, such as chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, to which low cross-resistance has been detected. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Combined Enzymatic and High-Pressure Processing Affect Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Berries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Lille, M.; Poutanen, K.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) on cell wall polysaccharides in berries was investigated. HPP decreased the degree of methyl esterification (DM), probably by activation of pectin methyl esterase (PME), and improved the extractability of pectins. When commercial enzyme mixtures were

  4. Berry composition and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec in response to water deficit severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water supply is a production tool used in arid climates to elicit desirable, water-deficit related changes in berry composition and yield; however, response to water deficit is known to vary by cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether cultivars differed in their relations...

  5. On the developmental and environmental regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium spp. berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eKarppinen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype x environment (GxE interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes.

  6. Partially filled Landau level at even denominators: A vortex metal with a Berry phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yizhi

    2018-04-01

    We develop a vortex metal theory for a partially filled Landau level at ν =1/2 n whose ground state contains a composite Fermi surface formed by the vortex of electrons. In the projected Landau-level limit, the composite Fermi surface contains a -π/n Berry phase. Such a fractional Berry phase is a consequence of Landau-level projection which produces the Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman [S. M. Girvin, A. H. MacDonald, and P. M. Platzman, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2481 (1986), 10.1103/PhysRevB.33.2481] guiding center algebra and embellishes an anomalous velocity to the equation of motion for the vortex metal. Further, we investigate a particle-hole symmetric bilayer system with ν1=1/2 n and ν2=1 -1/2 n at each layer, and demonstrate that the -π/n Berry phase on the composite Fermi surface leads to the suppression of 2 kf backscattering between the particle-hole partner bilayer, which could be a smoking gun to detect the fractional Berry phase. We also mention various instabilities and competing orders in such bilayer systems, including a Z4 n topological order phase driven by quantum criticality.

  7. Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Antioxidant Activities of Leaves and Berries of Cayratia trifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabeta, M.S.; Lin, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of fresh, thermal drying method (vacuum oven drying), and nonthermal drying method (freeze drying) on the antioxidant activities of leaves and berries of Cayratia trifolia using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) assays. The total phenolic content (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) of the leaves and berries of C. trifolia were also measured. Based on the results obtained, the TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities of the leaves and berries were arranged in the following order: freeze-dried sample with methanol extraction > vacuum-dried sample with methanol extraction > freeze-dried sample with water extraction > vacuum-dried sample with water extraction > fresh sample with methanol extraction > fresh sample with water extraction. The results showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the fresh and dried samples. In conclusion, freeze drying was found to be a good method for maintaining TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities by FRAP and DPPH methods in the leaves and berries of C. trifolia. (author)

  8. Impact of sensory-based food education in kindergarten on willingness to eat vegetables and berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Hoppu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children use all of their senses when exploring new foods, and sensory-based food education provides new possibilities for promoting healthy dietary habits. Objective: To evaluate the effect of sensory-based food education activities on children's willingness to eat test samples of selected vegetables and berries. Design: Two kindergartens in Hanko, Finland, participated in the study and the subjects were children aged 3–6 years, divided in the intervention (n=44 and control (n=24 kindergarten. In the intervention kindergarten, five sensory-based food education sessions focusing on vegetables and berries were implemented, once per week for 5 weeks. A tasting protocol was performed with the children at baseline and after the intervention. The willingness to eat (5 different vegetables and 3 Finnish berries was categorised. Parents also filled in a questionnaire on the children's food preferences at home. Results: In the intervention kindergarten, the willingness to eat the samples increased significantly (p≤0.001, Wilcoxon and Friedman, while in the control kindergarten, no significant change was observed when all of the test samples were taken into account. The parental report of their children's preferences and children's actual eating of the test samples corresponded relatively weakly. Conclusions: Sensory-based food education activities may promote a willingness to eat vegetables and berries. Child-centred test methods are important for evaluating the effects of dietary interventions among children.

  9. Improvement berry color skin profile by exogenous cyanocobalamin treatment of ‘Crimson seedless’ grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Lo'ay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of cyanocobalamin (B12 treatments (0, 3, 6, and 9 mM B12 on Vitis vinifera L. ‘Crimson seedless’ which conducted during two seasons 2014 and 2015. The study aims to regenerate berry color during growth and preserve it during shelf-life at room temperature for four days. The results showed that B12 treatments were significantly effective in reducing weight loss. Berry shatter, rachis browning index, while it preserved another quality parameter high such as berry firmness, separation force, total phenol content (TPC, total sugar content (TSC, total anthocyanin content (TAC, B-Carotene, ascorbic acid (AA and color hue angle during shelf-life for four days. The previous results were significantly observed with B12 at 9 mM compared to control and other B12 concentrations. However, total solid content (SSC%, titratable acidity (TA%, and SSC/TA ratio were significantly affected by B12 at 9 mM up to end the shelf-life period. In contrast, the lowest values of total chlorophyll (Chlab content during shelf-life compared with other B12 concentrations. Therefore, cyanocobalamin (B12 is an effective vitamin for improving or generating berry color at harvest time and maintaining cluster quality of ‘Crimson seedless’ grapes during shelf-life (marketing.

  10. Does the Berry phase in a quantum optical system originate from the rotating wave approximation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Minghao; Wei, L.F.; Liang, J.Q.

    2015-01-01

    The Berry phase (BP) in a quantized light field demonstrated more than a decade ago (Fuentes-Guridi et al., 2002 [9]) has attracted considerable attention, since it plays an important role in the cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, it is argued in Larson (2012) [15] that such a BP is just due to the rotating wave approximation (RWA) and the relevant BP should vanish beyond this approximation. Based on a consistent analysis we conclude in this letter that the BP in a generic Rabi model actually exists, no matter whether the RWA is applied. The existence of BP is also generalized to a three-level atom in the quantized cavity field. - Highlights: • Non-zero Berry phases for the Rabi model (without rotating wave approximation) are verified. • A general formulation of Berry phases for both the JC model and the Rabi model is presented. • The claim of vanishing Berry phase in the Rabi model is a result of improper semiclassical approximation. • Analytic solutions for the Rabi model is presented in the semiclassical approximation

  11. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis H Greer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40oC for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly 3-fold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimise the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality.

  12. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...... and appearance of the products, the price and information level....

  13. Visualising Berry phase and diabolical points in a quantum exciton-polariton billiard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrecho, E; Gao, T; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Truscott, A G; Ostrovskaya, E A

    2016-11-25

    Diabolical points (spectral degeneracies) can naturally occur in spectra of two-dimensional quantum systems and classical wave resonators due to simple symmetries. Geometric Berry phase is associated with these spectral degeneracies. Here, we demonstrate a diabolical point and the corresponding Berry phase in the spectrum of hybrid light-matter quasiparticles-exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. It is well known that sufficiently strong optical pumping can drive exciton-polaritons to quantum degeneracy, whereby they form a macroscopically populated quantum coherent state similar to a Bose-Einstein condensate. By pumping a microcavity with a spatially structured light beam, we create a two-dimensional quantum billiard for the exciton-polariton condensate and demonstrate a diabolical point in the spectrum of the billiard eigenstates. The fully reconfigurable geometry of the potential walls controlled by the optical pump enables a striking experimental visualization of the Berry phase associated with the diabolical point. The Berry phase is observed and measured by direct imaging of the macroscopic exciton-polariton probability densities.

  14. 137Cs in Finnish wild berries, mushrooms and game meat in 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 137 Cs in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat were measured in samples collected during 2000-2005 in areas with varying 137 Cs deposition levels in Finland. Depending on the 137 Cs deposition levels in the sampling areas, the areal-mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs were 10-230 Bq kg -1 in wild berries, 20-240 Bq kg -1 in moose meat and 10-3000 Bq kg -1 in all mushroom species. Compared with the 137 Cs level of samples collected in 1986 in the corresponding areas, the reduction in the 137 Cs level was about one third for wild berries, equal to the rate of radioactive decay of 137 Cs. More reduction was observed in the activity concentrations of 137 Cs in moose meat, on average up to 50% since 1986. The aggregated transfer coefficients from soil to wild berries showed no change since 1986-1988, while there was about one third reduction in those from soil to game meat. (orig.)

  15. Ranking cultivated blueberry for Mummy Berry Blight and Fruit Infection Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated the resistance of more than 100 blueberry cultivar to both phases of the disease...

  16. Acculturation and mental health--empirical verification of J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, M W; Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, C

    2004-01-01

    identity as Greenlander and how well the respondents speak Greenlandic and Danish. The statistical methods included binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no connection between Berry's definition of acculturation and mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark. On the other hand, our findings showed...

  17. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  18. BacHBerry:: BACterial Hosts for production of Bioactive phenolics from bERRY fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudnik, Alexey; Almeida, A. Filipa; Andrade, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    BACterial Hosts for production of Bioactive phenolics from bERRY fruits (BacHBerry) was a 3-year project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Union that ran between November 2013 and October 2016. The overall aim of the project was to establish a sustainable and economi...

  19. Analytical profiling of selected antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity of goji (Lycium spp.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Michele; Gualandi, Isacco; Mandrioli, Roberto; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica; Mercolini, Laura

    2017-09-05

    Goji berries and derived products represent a relevant source of micronutrients, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality of these fruits. Three brands of dried goji berries have been analysed by a multidisciplinary approach to get an insight into both their content of selected antioxidants and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The former goal has been achieved by developing a liquid chromatographic method coupled to mass spectrometry and combined to a fast solid phase extraction. Several significant representative antioxidant compounds belonging to the following classes: flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, amino acids and derivatives, and carotenoids have been taken into account. Quercetin and rutin were found to be the predominant flavonoids, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid. The AC of the goji berries has been evaluated by four analytical methods in order to estimate the contributions of different reactions involved in radicals scavenging. In particular, AC has been determined using 3 standardised methods (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC) and a recently proposed electrochemical method, which measures the scavenging activity of antioxidants towards OH radicals generated both by hydrogen peroxide photolysis and the Fenton reaction. The results obtained from chemical composition and antioxidant capacity assays confirm the high nutritional and commercial value of goji berries and highlight that the three brands do not exhibit significant differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  1. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents' Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…

  2. On the Berry-Esséen bound of frequency polygons for ϕ-mixing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gan-Ji; Xing, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Under some mild assumptions, the Berry-Esséen bound of frequency polygons for ϕ -mixing samples is presented. By the bound derived, we obtain the corresponding convergence rate of uniformly asymptotic normality, which is nearly [Formula: see text] under the given conditions.

  3. Amounts of NPK removed from soil in harvested coffee berries as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly samples of ripened improved robusta coffee berries from compact and large growth forms from three locations, which are representative of the main ecological zones where coffee is grown in Ghana, were taken for 3 years. The pulp and parchment and beans were analysed for N, P and K contents. The amounts of ...

  4. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2233-000] Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting...

  5. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas, I. de; Ponce, M.; Gargantini, R.; Martinez, L.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  6. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance.

  7. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan by using sentinel eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher J. Abell; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Jian J. Duan; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2016-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoid species, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera:...

  8. Comparison of emerald ash borer preference for ash of different species, sun exposure, age, and stress treatments in relation to foliar volatiles and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Yigen Chen

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the host selection behavior and feeding preference of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on six different species of ash including Manchurian ash (F...

  9. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc., fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds and berry size (length, width contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair. Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  10. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  11. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Tello, Javier; Laguna, Natalia; Ibáñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc.), fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds) and berry size (length, width) contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair). Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  12. Application of Computer Vision for quality control in frozen mixed berries production: colour calibration issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ricauda Aimonino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in quality control of many food processes. The appearance properties of food products (colour, texture, shape and size are, in fact, correlated with organoleptic characteristics and/or the presence of defects. Quality control based on image processing eliminates the subjectivity of human visual inspection, allowing rapid and non-destructive analysis. However, most food matrices show a wide variability in appearance features, therefore robust and customized image elaboration algorithms have to be implemented for each specific product. For this reason, quality control by visual inspection is still rather diffused in several food processes. The case study inspiring this paper concerns the production of frozen mixed berries. Once frozen, different kinds of berries are mixed together, in different amounts, according to a recipe. The correct quantity of each kind of fruit, within a certain tolerance, has to be ensured by producers. Quality control relies on bringing few samples for each production lot (samples of the same weight and, manually, counting the amount of each species. This operation is tedious, subject to errors, and time consuming, while a computer vision system (CVS could determine the amount of each kind of berries in a few seconds. This paper discusses the problem of colour calibration of the CVS used for frozen berries mixture evaluation. Images are acquired by a digital camera coupled with a dome lighting system, which gives a homogeneous illumination on the entire visible surface of the berries, and a flat bed scanner. RBG device dependent data are then mapped onto CIELab colorimetric colour space using different transformation operators. The obtained results show that the proposed calibration procedure leads to colour discrepancies comparable or even below the human eyes sensibility.

  13. Effect of Esca on the Quality of Berries, Musts and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Calzarano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the composition of berries, musts and wines in three groups of vines: 1. vines with foliar esca symptoms; 2. asymptomatic esca diseased vines; and 3. healthy vines, were studied in 2001 and 2002 in two “Trebbiano d’Abruzzo” vineyards in the Abruzzi region, Italy, to determine the effect of esca. Vines were grouped by foliar symptoms that had been recorded in annual inspections for 10 years: symptomatic vines by definition showed foliar symptoms in the sampling years (2001 and 2002; asymptomatic esca diseased vines showed no symptoms during the sampling years though they were known to be diseased because they had had foliar symptoms in at least one previous annual inspections; healthy vines were those with no symptoms at any time during the 10-year survey. The quality of berries, musts and wines obtained from vines with trunk renewal that had been restored, and of healthy unrenewed vines was compared in another vineyard of the same cultivar. Fairly similar results were obtained over the two sampling years, with a strong reduction in sugar levels of the must from symptomatic vines, leading to a lower ethanol content in the wine made from that must. These findings confirmed those of the preliminary investigation carried out in 2000. The yield pressed from symptomatic vines also had significantly higher levels of malic acid (causing higher total acidity, and of total nitrogen, potassium and total polyphenols. Berries from symptomatic vines had much higher levels of trans-resveratrol, possibly because of the spots on the leaves and berries. Small and non-significant differences between the yields of healthy vines and asymptomatic diseased vines were found, suggesting a slight loss in the quality of musts and wines from asymptomatic diseased vines. The yield of trunk-renewed vines was similar to that of healthy unrenewed vines, despite an increase of trans-resveratrol in the berries and of total nitrogen in the must of the trunk

  14. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, Malverina, Laurot, and Hibernal harvested during six consecutive weeks. Mechanical behaviour was measured using compression and puncture tests using of TIRATEST 27025 testing machine. Skin mechanical properties were evaluated using a puncture test carried out on the equatorial side. The dependence of these properties on the chemical composition has been evaluated. These parameters of force/time curves were studied by puncture test: the berry skin break force, the needle displacement at the skin break and the berry skin break energy. The crushing force, the plate displacement at the crushing strength and the berry crushing energy were studied from force/time curves by compression test. Results of the puncture test shows that there the skin break strength and the acidity content are monotonic functions of the time. A comparison of different varieties from the point of the value of the crushing force was obtained by vertical and transversal loading. The crushing force is monotonically decreasing function of the harvesting time like the break force evaluated at the puncture test. The correlation between the skin break strength and the sugar content is significant namely for the varieties: Hibernal, Riesling, Malverina, and Cerason. 

  15. An afternoon snack of berries reduces subsequent energy intake compared to an isoenergetic confectionary snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lewis J; Funnell, Mark P; Milner, Samantha

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies suggest that increased fruit and vegetable consumption can contribute to weight maintenance and facilitate weight loss when substituted for other energy dense foods. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of berries on acute appetite and energy intake. Twelve unrestrained pre-menopausal women (age 21 ± 2 y; BMI 26.6 ± 2.6 kg m(-2); body fat 23 ± 3%) completed a familiarisation trial and two randomised experimental trials. Subjects arrived in the evening (~5pm) and consumed an isoenergetic snack (65 kcal) of mixed berries (BERRY) or confectionary sweets (CONF). Sixty min later, subjects consumed a homogenous pasta test meal until voluntary satiation, and energy intake was quantified. Subjective appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption) was assessed throughout trials, and for 120 min after the test meal. Energy intake was less (Psnack (691 ± 146 kcal) than after the CONF snack (824 ± 172 kcal); whilst water consumption was similar (P=0.925). There were no trial (P>0.095) or interaction (P>0.351) effects for any subjective appetite ratings. Time taken to eat the BERRY snack (4.05 ± 1.12 min) was greater (Psnack (0.93 ± 0.33 min). This study demonstrates that substituting an afternoon confectionary snack with mixed berries decreased subsequent energy intake at dinner, but did not affect subjective appetite. This dietary strategy could represent a simple method for reducing daily energy intake and aiding weight management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of physical properties of color and texture in goji-berry processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Pâmela Galo da; Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis, E-mail: pamela.gallo@outlook.com, E-mail: amandaramosk@gmail.com, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara, E-mail: flaviot@ymail.com [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás (IFG), Inhumas, GO (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Goji-berry is fruit native from China, found on a red berry form and keeps an excellent source of antioxidants, such as carotenoids. The consumption of goji-berry is growing on the Brazilian commerce. To allow the commercialization of this foods its necessary of these foods are free of contaminants agents which may cause damages to the consumers health. For this warranty it's required of this method does not harm the food properties and quality. For this check was made the study using goji-berry. Irradiation is one of the methods that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of some foods. Food irradiation is a technology process of exposing a particular food to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation. This study aimed compares the effects of ionizing radiation processing on physical properties of color and texture in goji-berries at different irradiation doses. Samples were bought on the retail market in the city of São Paulo and processed by ionizing radiation on Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) at doses of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 kGy and the control group. Then the samples were followed by color and texture analyses. The color assay's results showed that the irradiation process decreased red and yellow pigments. On the other hand, the sample's luminosity increased after being processed by ionizing radiation. On the texture assay was verified a decrease of the fruit compressive force, turning the fruit more softened. (author)

  17. Analysis of physical properties of color and texture in goji-berry processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Pâmela Galo da; Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis; Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara

    2017-01-01

    Goji-berry is fruit native from China, found on a red berry form and keeps an excellent source of antioxidants, such as carotenoids. The consumption of goji-berry is growing on the Brazilian commerce. To allow the commercialization of this foods its necessary of these foods are free of contaminants agents which may cause damages to the consumers health. For this warranty it's required of this method does not harm the food properties and quality. For this check was made the study using goji-berry. Irradiation is one of the methods that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of some foods. Food irradiation is a technology process of exposing a particular food to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation. This study aimed compares the effects of ionizing radiation processing on physical properties of color and texture in goji-berries at different irradiation doses. Samples were bought on the retail market in the city of São Paulo and processed by ionizing radiation on Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) at doses of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 kGy and the control group. Then the samples were followed by color and texture analyses. The color assay's results showed that the irradiation process decreased red and yellow pigments. On the other hand, the sample's luminosity increased after being processed by ionizing radiation. On the texture assay was verified a decrease of the fruit compressive force, turning the fruit more softened. (author)

  18. Formation of merchandizing characteristics and extension of the commercial range of products from wild-growing berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Миколайович Одарченко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The methods and main parameters for the receipt of reversible phases of wild-growing berries are substantiated and its merchandizing characteristics are studied. Cryoscopic and optical properties of solid phase are studied. Based on the determination of the consumer properties of liquid and solid phases from berries the possible ways for their application in food technologies are suggested. It is also determined that electrophysical method can work as the method of express-analysis during the expertise of fresh wild-growing berries and products after their processing

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON THE PRESENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments with natural population of European corn borer (ECB were conducted in three vegetation seasons (2012-2014 at Agricultural Institute in Osijek. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design as split-split plot method, with three repetitions. This plot has been constantly maize - soybean rotation for already 15 years. It was a 3x3x4 factorial experiment with three irrigation levels (A1- non-irrigated (only natural precipitation, A2-from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3-from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1-0, B2-100 and B3-200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1-0SSK 596; C2-0SSK 617; C3-0SSK 602 and C4-0SSK 552.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different levels of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotypes on occurrence and damage of maize plants by the European corn borer larvae and relation between leaf feeding larvae with nitrogen and silicon concentration as well as C/N ratio. At the end of each growing season, ten maize plants from each variant were cut. Ear weight for each specific plant (g, tunnel length (cm, number of larvae in stalk, number of larvae in the ear shank, ear shank damage (cm and total number of larvae in maize plantwere determined. In silking stage (middle of July ten leaves (below the ear, from 10 maize plants were sampled on each variant. Nitrogen, carbon and silicon concentrations were determined in maize leaf (% and C/N ratio calculated. In 2014, a significantly lower ECB attack was determined taking into account lower temperatures and higher amount of precipitate compared to the previous years. Dominance of Z-type European corn borer on pheromone traps in the area of eastern Slavonia was confirmed. Increasing the level of soil water content, damage from larvae was reduced and increasing the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. We have confirmed different hybrid resistance in regards to damage from larvae

  20. Invariance of the Berry phase under unitary transformations: application to the time-dependent generalized harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Berry phase is derived in a manifestly gauge-invariant way, without adiabatic or cyclic requirements. It is invariant under unitary transformations, contrary to recent assertions. A time-dependent generalized harmonic oscillator is taken as an example. The energy of the system is not in general the Hamiltonian. An energy, the time derivative of which is the power, is obtained from the equation of motion. When the system is quantized, the Berry phase is zero, and is invariant under unitary transformations. If the energy is chosen incorrectly to be the Hamiltonian, a nonzero Berry phase is obtained. In this case the total phase, the sun of the dynamical and Berry phases, is equal to the correct total phase through first order in perturbation theory. (author)

  1. The Induction of Noble Rot (Botrytis cinerea Infection during Postharvest Withering Changes the Metabolome of Grapevine Berries (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Garganega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Negri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural or induced development of noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea during the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening is used in some traditional viticulture areas to produce high-quality wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji. In this research, we wanted to verify if by changing the environmental conditions during post-harvest withering we could induce the noble rot development on harvested berries in order to positively change the wine produced from withered Garganega berries. Therefore, we exposed the berries to postharvest withering under normal or artificially humid conditions, the latter to induce noble rot. The presence of noble rot symptoms was associated with the development of B. cinerea in the berries maintained under humid conditions. The composition of infected and non-infected berries was investigated by untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We also explored the effects of the two withering methods on the abundance of volatile organic compounds in wine by yeast-inoculated micro-fermentation followed by targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed significant metabolic differences between berries withered under normal and humid conditions, indicating that noble rot affects berry metabolism and composition. As well as well-known botrytization markers, we detected two novel lipids that have not been observed before in berries infected with noble rot. Unraveling the specific metabolic profile of berries infected with noble rot may help to determine the compounds responsible for the organoleptic quality traits of botrytized Garganega wines.

  2. Dissecting the Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of a Locally Applied Heat Treatment on Developing Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Pieri, Philippe; Charon, Justine; Pillet, Jérémy; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, David

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories "stress responses," "protein metabolism" and "secondary metabolism," highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to "transport," "hormone" and "cell wall" might contribute to the postponing of veraison

  3. Effect of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction in the context of intravineyard ripeness variation under winemaking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    Significant intravineyard variation in grape berry ripening occurs within vines and between vines. However, no cell wall data are available on such variation. Here we used a checkerboard panel design to investigate ripening variation in pooled grape bunches for enzyme-assisted winemaking...... positively influence the consistency of winemaking and provides a foundation for further research into the relationship between grape berry cell wall architecture and enzyme formulations....

  4. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size

    OpenAIRE

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Tello, Javier; Laguna Ullán, Natalia; Ibáñez Marcos, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc.), fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds) and berry size (length, width) contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compa...

  5. Cocktails of ramsons and acidic berries kill E. coli in a piglet gastrointestinal model: an alternative to antibiotics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria; Grevsen, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Mixing ramsons and acidic berries enhances, in a synergistic manner, the antimicrobial activity observed for the plants separately, and make the plant cocktails of interest as a feed additives as an alternative to antibiotics in both organic and conventional pig production.......Mixing ramsons and acidic berries enhances, in a synergistic manner, the antimicrobial activity observed for the plants separately, and make the plant cocktails of interest as a feed additives as an alternative to antibiotics in both organic and conventional pig production....

  6. Berry phases for 3D Hartree-type equations with a quadratic potential and a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinets, F N; Shapovalov, A V; Trifonov, A Yu

    2007-01-01

    A countable set of asymptotic space-localized solutions is constructed for a 3D Hartree-type equation with a quadratic potential by the complex germ method in the adiabatic approximation. The asymptotic parameter is 1/T, where T >> 1 is the adiabatic evolution time. A generalization of the Berry phase of the linear Schroedinger equation is formulated for the Hartree-type equation. For the solutions constructed, the Berry phases are found in an explicit form

  7. Evaluation of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) rice varieties against stem borer (Chilo suppressalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Ghaffar; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Ghareyazie, Behzad; Sattari, Majid

    2008-02-15

    Three transgenic rice varieties namely Khazar, Neda and Nemat, all containing a cry1Ab gene, were evaluated through PCR analysis and field examinations for their resistance at natural infestation of insect pests during 2007. The results showed that all transgenic varieties produced 1.2 kb PCR product derived from application of cry1Ab gene. In field conditions, transgenic varieties exhibited high levels of resistance against natural infestation of stem borer and the damaged plants based on dead heart or white heat for them were less than 1%. Moreover, in stem-cut bioassay 100% of released larvae died within four days after infestation. These results demonstrate that expression of cry1Ab gene in the genome of transgenic varieties provided season-long protection from the natural infestation of lepidopteran insects.

  8. Some effects of gamma irradiation on adults males of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgrillo, R.B.; Wiendl, F.M.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of checking some effects of gamma radiation on the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis (F.)), one-day ald adult males were irradiated with doses from 0-50 krad at 5 krad intervals. The insects were submitted to gamma irradiation in a 60 Co source, with a dose rate of 350 krad/hour. No significant difference was found in male longevity between treatments. Also no significant difference as found in sexual activity, represented by number of spermatophores per female, and in fertility. Fertility and egg viability decreased significantly with the dose, the viability reaching 0 at 50 krad. Occurrence of dominant lethal mutation, induced by radiation, was noted, which resulted in the death of the embryo before larvae emergence. (Author) [pt

  9. Field dispersal ability and taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 male Asian corn borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huasong; Liu Qiongru; Lu Daguang; Wang Endong; Kang Wen; Li Yongjun; He Qiulan; Hu Jianguo

    1998-01-01

    The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones

  10. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

  11. Current evidence on the health-beneficial effects of berry fruits in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Olejnik, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Berries belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds, which exert a synergistic and cumulative effect on promotion of human health and prevention of diseases. The present review presents the most recent findings of animal and human studies regarding the health benefits of berries in terms of prevention and treatment of obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the last years, there was a growing number of evidence from human epidemiological and interventional studies, which emphasized the role of berries in the management of metabolic diseases. Based on the results from recent clinical trials, it can be established that a berry diet rich in antioxidants and bioactive phytochemicals has beneficial effects on hepatic function, increase of insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, decrease of serum glucose and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and finally is inversely associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Numerous recent studies have shown that berries provide great benefits in preventing or mitigating metabolic disorders. The results of this review indicate that regular long-term consumption of different berries could potentially delay the progression of metabolic syndrome and comorbidities.

  12. Grapevine rootstocks differentially affect the rate of ripening and modulate auxin-related genes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano eCorso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigour. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behaviour of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  13. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  14. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshen Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  15. Sugarcane giant borer transcriptome analysis and identification of genes related to digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sousa Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; de Góis, Luiz Avelar Brandão; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus), a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB) transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN) cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control.

  16. Sugarcane giant borer transcriptome analysis and identification of genes related to digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campos de Assis Fonseca

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus, a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control.

  17. RESISTANCE OF SOME GROUNDNUT CULTIVARS TO SOYBEAN POD BORER, ETIELLA ZINCKENELLA TREIT. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwinardi Apriyanto, Edi Gunawan, dan Tri Sunardi .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of some groundnut cultivars to soybean pod borer, Etiella zinckenella Treit. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.  Five groundnut cultivars: Badak, Panther, Sima, Gajah, and Simpai, were grown in field in June-August, 2006 to determine their resistance/susceptibility to Etiella zinckenella Treit.  Two local cultivars (big and small seeds were included as comparison (controls. All cultivars were grown in experimental plots arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD, replicated three times. The incidence of soybean pod borer and damaged pods were observed at 9, 11, 13 weeks after sowing (WAS at 10 sample plants taken randomly from each plot. All cultivars were harvested at 13 WAS. Number of damaged pods was counted and percentages per plant were calculated. Larvae observed inside pod or in the soil were counted and collected. The seed yield per plant and weight of 100 seeds from 100 sample plants taken randomly at harvest were weighted to nearest gram at 10% water content. Pod toughness (hardness was measured with penetrometer. Resistance level of each cultivar was determined based on cultivar’s means and overall mean and standard deviation of the percentages of damaged pods. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA and means were separated with DMRT. The result revealed that mean percentages of damaged pod differed significantly between cultivars. Seed yield of cultivar Panther, Sima and Badak were significantly higher than those of the other two and local cultivars. Cultivar Panther was categorized as resistant, cultivar Sima and Badak as moderately resistant, while the others as susceptible. The relative resistance of groundnut cultivar seems, at least in part, to correlate with the structural hardness of pod.

  18. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  19. [Diagnosing Low Health and Wood Borer Attacked Trees of Chinese Arborvitae by Using Thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wu, De-jun; Zhai, Guo-feng; Zang, Li-peng

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy metabolism of plants is very important actions in their lives. Although the studies about these actions by using thermography were often reported, seldom were found in detecting the health status of forest trees. In this study, we increase the measurement accuracy and comparability of thermo-images by creating the difference indices. Based on it, we exam the water and energy status in stem of Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) by detecting the variance of far infrared spectrum between sap-wood and heart-wood of the cross-section of felling trees and the cores from an increment borer using thermography. The results indicate that the sap rate between sapwood and heartwood is different as the variance of the vigor of forest trees. Meanwhile, the image temperature of scale leaves from Chinese arborvitae trees with different vigor is also dissimilar. The far infrared spectrum more responds the sap status not the wood percentage in comparing to the area rate between sapwood and heartwood. The image temperature rate can be used in early determining the health status of Chinese arborvitae trees. The wood borers such as Phloeosinus aubei Perris and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky are the pests which usually attack the low health trees, dying trees, wilted trees, felled trees and new cultivated trees. This measuring technique may be an important index to diagnose the health and vigor status after a large number of measurements for Chinese arborvitae trees. Therefore, there is potential to be an important index to check the tree vigor and pest damage status by using this technique. It will be a key in the tending and management of ecological and public Chinese arborvitae forest.

  20. Carrier density control of magnetism and Berry phases in doped EuTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Kaveh; Gui, Zhigang; Porter, Zach; Lynn, Jeffrey W.; Xu, Zhijun; Wilson, Stephen D.; Janotti, Anderson; Stemmer, Susanne

    2018-05-01

    In materials with broken time-reversal symmetry, the Berry curvature acts as a reciprocal space magnetic field on the conduction electrons and is a significant contribution to the magnetotransport properties, including the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect. Here, we report neutron diffraction, transport, and magnetization measurements of thin films of doped EuTiO3, an itinerant magnetic material, as a function of carrier density and magnetic field. These films are itinerant antiferromagnets at all doping concentrations. At low carrier densities, the magnetoresistance indicates a metamagnetic transition, which is absent at high carrier densities (>6 × 1020 cm-3). Strikingly, the crossover coincides with a sign change in the spontaneous Hall effects, indicating a sign change in the Berry curvature. We discuss the results in the context of the band structure topology and its coupling to the magnetic texture.

  1. Effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; He, Yan-Nan; Chen, Wei-Kai; He, Fei; Chen, Wu; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-15

    Cluster thinning is a common practice for regulating vine yield and grape quality. The effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of V. vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon were evaluated during two seasons. Half of the clusters were removed at pea-size and veraison relative to two controls, respectively. Both cluster thinning treatments significantly increased pruning weight and decreased yield. No effects of cluster thinning on berry growth, ripeness and flavonol composition were observed. Early cluster thinning decreased the photosynthetic rate at pea-size, but the effect diminished at post-veraison. Early cluster thinning significantly promoted the biosynthesis of anthocyanins but decreased the proportion of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins at veraison. Late cluster thinning decreased the proportions of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins. Additionally, Cluster thinning showed inconsistent effects on flavan-3-ol composition over the two seasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yulei; Qiao, Zhenhua

    In this talk, we theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization.

  3. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jerome; Deluc, Laurent G; Tillett, Richard L; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Cramer, Grant R; Cushman, John C

    2007-01-01

    Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera) contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed) all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin) and mesocarp (pulp), not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater) differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell wall function and

  4. Topological spin transport of photons: the optical Magnus effect and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliokh, K.Yu.; Bliokh, Yu.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Letter develops a modified geometrical optics (GO) of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium, which takes into account two topological phenomena: Berry phase and the optical Magnus effect. Taking into account the correspondence between a quasi-classical motion of a quantum particle with a spin and GO of an electromagnetic wave in smoothly inhomogeneous media, we have introduced the standard gauge potential associated with the degeneracy in the wave momentum space. This potential corresponds to the magnetic-monopole-like field (Berry curvature), which causes the topological spin (polarization) transport of photons. The deviations of waves of right-hand and left-hand polarization occur in the opposite directions and orthogonally to the principal direction of motion. This produces a spin current directed across the principal motion. The situation is similar to the anomalous Hall effect for electrons. In addition, a simple scheme of the experiment allowing one to observe the topological spin splitting of photons has been suggested

  5. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  6. Classical surgical approach and treatment with clips of extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Vukas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We can define extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA as bulb dilatation greater than 200% of the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA or in a case of common carotid artery (CCA greater than 150% of the diameter. Surgical intervention is required for the treatment of this disease.Case report: This study presents an open vascular surgical procedure to resolve ECAA. We report a case of 61 years old woman with an extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm, presented with a headache and dizziness when turning the head aside. Classic open surgery was performed and the lumen of berry aneurysm was separated with three clips from the lumen of ICA.Conclusions: The open surgical approach is the method of choice for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery pathological conditions.

  7. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents’ Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Sam; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2011-01-01

    This brief report presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents’ electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, email, and Instant Messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid by the investigators, and use of text messaging was examined when participants were 15 years old and in the 10th grade (N=175, 81 girls). BlackBerries are configured so that the content of all text messages, email messages, and Instant Messages is saved to a secure server and organized in a highly secure, searchable, online archive. This paper describes the technology used to devise this method and ethical considerations. Evidence for validity is presented, including information on use of text messaging to show that participants used these devices heavily and frequencies of profane and sexual language in a two-day sample of text messaging to demonstrate that they were communicating openly. PMID:22004337

  8. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-01-01

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  9. Refractance Window™ drying of haskap berry--preliminary results on anthocyanin retention and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Giovana Bonat; Khattab, Rabie; Ghanem, Amyl; Brooks, Marianne Su-Ling

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the anthocyanin retention and physicochemical properties of haskap powder prepared by Refractance Window™ (RW) drying. In general, the RW-dried powder particles had a smooth surface with similar thickness, consistent with the preparation method, and had a solubility of 75.63% in water. The RW-dried powder (consisting of 98% haskap berries) retained approximately 93.8% of anthocyanins from the original frozen fruits, as assessed by the pH-differential method. This result is in good agreement with HPLC analysis that indicated 92.9% retention. Three anthocyanins were identified in frozen berries and RW-dried powder: cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and peonidin 3-glucoside. Surprisingly, cyanidin 3-rutinoside exhibited the lowest retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flavonoid Profile of Saskatoon Berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and Their Health Promoting Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Mlcek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a significant group of secondary metabolites in plants. Many of these compounds are potent antioxidants, being an important part in food products derived from the plants. The current status of research on flavonoid compounds in the fruit of Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and their health promoting effects, including recommended utilization, are reviewed. The major classes of flavonoids in the fruit are flavonols (quercetin and rutin, flavanes (proanthocyanidin compounds ranging from dimers through to heptamers and even higher polymers and finally anthocyanins. The flavonoids represented the group of polyphenols that mostly contributed to the antioxidant activity of Saskatoon berries. High content of the flavoinoids antioxidants in the fruit is responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory, antidiadiabetic and chemo-protective effects.

  11. Naval Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and the Buy American Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    Amendment. Introduction 2 │ DODIG-2015-161 • FSG 83—textiles, leather and furs,6 apparel , and shoes; • FSG 84— clothing , individual equipment and insignia...personnel amended standard operating procedures and internal processes to improve compliance with the Berry Amendment. NAWCAD-Lakehurst personnel...corrective action and amended standard operating procedures and internal processes to improve compliance with the Buy American Act. Additionally, NAWCAD

  12. Berry phase and shot noise for spin-polarized and entangled electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pei; Tang Weihua; Lu Dinghui; Jiang Lixia; Zhao Xuean

    2007-01-01

    Shot noise for entangled and spin-polarized states in a four-probe geometric setup has been studied by adding two rotating magnetic fields in an incoming channel. Our results show that the noise power oscillates as the magnetic fields vary. The singlet, entangled triplet and polarized states can be distinguished by adjusting the magnetic fields. The Berry phase can be derived by measuring the shot noise power

  13. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    they could produce U.S.-made athletic footwear for military personnel. H.R. 1960, the House- proposed National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for...Federal Prison Industries’ Proposed Military Clothing Production Expansion - Assessing Existing Protections for Workers, Business , and FPI’s Federal...and purpose of the Berry Amendment and legislative proposals to amend the application of domestic source restrictions, as well as potential options

  14. Osmotic dehydration of fruit and berry raw materials in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gribova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration has recently received more attention as an effective method of preserving fruits and berries. Osmosis is a simple process that facilitates the processing of fruits and berries in order to preserve the original characteristics, namely nutritional value and organoleptic properties: color, aroma and texture. Osmotic dehydration has found wide application in the preservation of food products, as the activity of water in fruits and berries decreases, in some of them up to 90% of water is contained. The process of osmotic dehydration with the help of various agents is less energy-intensive than the process of drying or freezing, since it can be processed at ambient temperature. Osmotic dehydration has potential advantages in preserving the quality of food and in maintaining healthy food for the food industry. Treatment includes dehydration of fruits and berries by an osmotic agent followed by dehydration in dry or frozen apparatus where the moisture content decreases and the product becomes more stable. This process is a partial dewatering process to provide improved product quality compared to conventional drying processes or freezing. The purpose of studying osmotic dehydration is to identify the advantages and disadvantages in the treatment of osmotic agents. Various aspects of osmotic dehydration technology are considered, namely the solutions used, the characteristics of solutions, the effect of variable processes and the qualitative characteristics of osmo-dehydrated products. Factors of osmotic dehydration that depend on the osmotic agent, concentration of solute, temperature, time, size, shape and compactness of the material, mixing and the ratio of the solution to the samples.

  15. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    OpenAIRE

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gom?s, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake ...

  16. Classification theorem for principal fibre bundles, Berry's phase, and exact cycle evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, A.; Boya, L.J.; Mostafazadeh, A.; Rudolph, G.

    1993-03-01

    The relation between the two mathematical interpretations of the geometric (Berry) phase is discussed, using either the fibre bundle over parameter space or over projective Hilbert space. It turns out that these two geometric constructions are linked by the classification theorem for vector bundles. The classification theorem provides the means to classify the parameter space bundles for adiabatic evolution and for non-adiabatic cyclic evolution of the statevectors

  17. Entretien avec l'économiste Albert Berry | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 oct. 2010 ... Selon ce qu'a révélé en 2002 une enquête très médiatisée de la maison ... par le CRDI en Amérique latine ont achevé il y a peu une étude de deux ans ... Écoutez Albert Berry parler des dangers qui guettent une économie ...

  18. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old were maintained on a regular diet (CON or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016 and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR (p = 0.012, suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007. Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 (p = 0.047, and protein kinase B (AKT (p = 0.037, were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 (p = 0.036 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (p = 0.032, which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  19. Modifications of 'Gold Finger' Grape Berry Quality as Affected by the Different Rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhongxin; Sun, Hong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Qingjie; Yao, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    Berry qualities of the grafted 'Gold Finger' grapevines were determined to evaluate the impacts of the resistant rootstocks on fruit quality. Compared to the own-rooted vines, berry and cluster weights and skin color were altered by the rootstocks to varying extents. The rootstock of 101-14M maintained TSS/TA and the contents of fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and SO4 decreased these parameters. 101-14M and 3309C increased and reduced the resveratrol content, respectively. SO4, 5BB, and 3309C decreased the total free amino acid content, along with the changes in amino acid composition. The amounts of aroma components were widely altered by the rootstocks. Additionally, a digital gene expression tag profiling revealed that the biological processes were largely altered by 3309C and 101-14M, including sugar, amino acid, and aroma metabolisms. In summary, the rootstock of 101-14M generally maintained berry quality, and SO4, 5BB, and 3309C imparted varying influences on different quality parameters.

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of gene encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in 'Vidal blanc' grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiu-Hong; Chen, Fang; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Ma, Li-Yan; Li, Li; Li, Jing-Ming

    2012-04-01

    The pleasantly fruity and floral 2-phenylethanol are a dominant aroma compound in post-ripening 'Vidal blanc' grapes. However, to date little has been reported about its synthetic pathway in grapevine. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of VvAADC (encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase) was firstly cloned from the berries of 'Vidal blanc', an interspecific hybrid variety of Vitis vinifera × Vitis riparia. This sequence encodes a complete open reading frame of 482 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 54 kDa and isoelectric point value (pI) of 5.73. The amino acid sequence deduced shared about 79% identity with that of aromatic L: -amino acid decarboxylases (AADCs) from tomato. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that VvAADC transcript abundance presented a small peak at 110 days after full bloom and then a continuous increase at the berry post-ripening stage, which was consistent with the accumulation of 2-phenylethanol, but did not correspond to the trends of two potential intermediates, phenethylamine and 2-phenylacetaldehyde. Furthermore, phenylalanine still exhibited a continuous increase even in post-ripening period. It is thus suggested that 2-phenylethanol biosynthetic pathway mediated by AADC exists in grape berries, but it has possibly little contribution to a considerable accumulation of 2-phenylethanol in post-ripening 'Vidal blanc' grapes.

  1. Berry phase dependent quantum trajectories of electron-hole pairs in semiconductors under intense terahertz fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2013-03-01

    Quantum evolution of particles under strong fields can be approximated by the quantum trajectories that satisfy the stationary phase condition in the Dirac-Feynmann path integrals. The quantum trajectories are the key concept to understand strong-field optics phenomena, such as high-order harmonic generation (HHG), above-threshold ionization (ATI), and high-order terahertz siedeband generation (HSG). The HSG in semiconductors may have a wealth of physics due to the possible nontrivial ``vacuum'' states of band materials. We find that in a spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor, the cyclic quantum trajectories of an electron-hole pair under a strong terahertz field accumulates nontrivial Berry phases. We study the monolayer MoS2 as a model system and find that the Berry phases are given by the Faraday rotation angles of the pulse emission from the material under short-pulse excitation. This result demonstrates an interesting Berry phase dependent effect in the extremely nonlinear optics of semiconductors. This work is supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF 401512 and the CUHK Focused Investments Scheme.

  2. Is transcriptomic regulation of berry development more important at night than during the day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T; Luchaire, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Anne; Grimplet, Jérôme; Romieu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal changes in gene expression occur in all living organisms and have been studied on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To our knowledge the impact of the nycthemeral cycle on the genetic program of fleshly fruit development has been hitherto overlooked. In order to circumvent environmental changes throughout fruit development, young and ripening berries were sampled simultaneously on continuously flowering microvines acclimated to controlled circadian light and temperature changes. Gene expression profiles along fruit development were monitored during both day and night with whole genome microarrays (Nimblegen® vitis 12x), yielding a total number of 9273 developmentally modulated probesets. All day-detected transcripts were modulated at night, whereas 1843 genes were night-specific. Very similar developmental patterns of gene expression were observed using independent hierarchical clustering of day and night data, whereas functional categories of allocated transcripts varied according to time of day. Many transcripts within pathways, known to be up-regulated during ripening, in particular those linked to secondary metabolism exhibited a clearer developmental regulation at night than during the day. Functional enrichment analysis also indicated that diurnally modulated genes considerably varied during fruit development, with a shift from cellular organization and photosynthesis in green berries to secondary metabolism and stress-related genes in ripening berries. These results reveal critical changes in gene expression during night development that differ from daytime development, which have not been observed in other transcriptomic studies on fruit development thus far.

  3. Light quality affects flavonoid biosynthesis in young berries of Cabernet Sauvignon grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Ikeda, Hiroko; Poudel, Puspa Raj; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds is known to be sensitive to light environments, which reflects the possible role of these compounds for photoprotection in plants. Herein, the effects of UV and visible light on biosynthesis of flavonoids was investigated, i.e., proanthocyanidins (PAs) and flavonols, in young berry skins of a red-wine grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Shading with light-proof boxes from the flowering stage until 49 days after treatment (DAT) partially decreased PA concentrations, and completely decreased flavonol concentrations in the berry skins. Shading decreased the transcript abundance of a flavonol-related gene more remarkably than those of PA-related genes. In addition, light exclusion influenced the composition of PAs, such as the decrease in the proportion of trihydroxylated subunits and the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) within PAs. However, solar UV exclusion did not affect the concentration and composition of PAs, whereas this exclusion remarkably decreased the flavonol concentration. Consistently, UV exclusion did not influence the transcript levels of PA-related genes, whereas it dramatically decreased that of flavonol-related genes. These findings indicated a different light regulation of the biosynthesis of these flavonoids in young berry skins of wine grape. Visible light primarily induces biosynthesis of PAs and affects their composition, whereas UV light specifically induces biosynthesis of flavonols. Distinct roles of members of a MYB transcription factor family for light regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis were proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chiral anomaly, Berry phase, and chiral kinetic theory from worldlines in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Niklas; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-03-01

    In previous work, we outlined a worldline framework that can be used for systematic computations of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Towards this end, we first expressed the real part of the fermion determinant in the QCD effective action as a supersymmetric worldline action of spinning, colored, Grassmanian point particles in background gauge fields, with equations of motion that are covariant generalizations of the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi and Wong equations. The chiral anomaly, in contrast, arises from the phase of the fermion determinant. Remarkably, the latter too can be expressed as a point particle worldline path integral, which can be employed to derive the anomalous axial vector current. We will show here how Berry's phase can be obtained in a consistent nonrelativistic adiabatic limit of the real part of the fermion determinant. Our work provides a general first principles demonstration that the topology of Berry's phase is distinct from that of the chiral anomaly confirming prior arguments by Fujikawa in specific contexts. This suggests that chiral kinetic treatments of the CME in heavy-ion collisions that include Berry's phase alone are incomplete. We outline the elements of a worldline covariant relativistic chiral kinetic theory that captures the physics of how the chiral current is modified by many-body scattering and topological fluctuations.

  5. Impact of Procyanidins from Different Berries on Caspase 8 Activation in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Minker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope. The aim of this work is to identify which proapoptotic pathway is induced in human colon cancer cell lines, in contact with proanthocyanidins extracted from various berries. Methods and Results. Proanthocyanidins (Pcys extracted from 11 berry species are monitored for proapoptotic activities on two related human colon cancer cell lines: SW480-TRAIL-sensitive and SW620-TRAIL-resistant. Apoptosis induction is monitored by cell surface phosphatidylserine (PS detection. Lowbush blueberry extract triggers the strongest activity. When tested on the human monocytic cell line THP-1, blueberry Pcys are less effective for PS externalisation and DNA fragmentation is absent, highlighting a specificity of apoptosis induction in gut cells. In Pcys-treated gut cell lines, caspase 8 (apoptosis extrinsic pathway but not caspase 9 (apoptosis intrinsic pathway is activated after 3 hours through P38 phosphorylation (90 min, emphasizing the potency of lowbush blueberry Pcys to eradicate gut TRAIL-resistant cancer cells. Conclusion. We highlight here that berries Pcys, especially lowbush blueberry Pcys, are of putative interest for nutritional chemoprevention of colorectal cancer in view of their apoptosis induction in a human colorectal cancer cell lines.

  6. Diffusive real-time dynamics of a particle with Berry curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Kou; Miyashita, Seiji; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2018-02-01

    We study theoretically the influence of Berry phase on the real-time dynamics of the single particle focusing on the diffusive dynamics, i.e., the time dependence of the distribution function. Our model can be applied to the real-time dynamics of intraband relaxation and diffusion of optically excited excitons, trions, or particle-hole pair. We found that the dynamics at the early stage is deeply influenced by the Berry curvature in real space (B ), momentum space (Ω ), and also the crossed space between these two (C ). For example, it is found that Ω induces the rotation of the wave packet and causes the time dependence of the mean square displacement of the particle to be linear in time t at the initial stage; it is qualitatively different from the t3 dependence in the absence of the Berry curvature. It is also found that Ω and C modify the characteristic time scale of the thermal equilibration of momentum distribution. Moreover, the dynamics under various combinations of B ,Ω , and C shows singular behaviors such as the critical slowing down or speeding up of the momentum equilibration and the reversals of the direction of rotations. The relevance of our model for time-resolved experiments in transition metal dichalcogenides is also discussed.

  7. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Brown

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents, the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer.

  8. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  9. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes, and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, J. C.; Leskey, T. C.; Walgenbach, J. F.; Klingeman, W. E.; Kain, D. P.; Zhang, A.

    2017-01-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 ± 644 and 3095 ± 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, excee...

  10. Control of Cocoa Pod Borer and Phytophthora Pod Rot Using Degradable Plastic Pod Sleeves and a Nematode, Steinernema Carpocapsae

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmana, Ade; Shepard, Merle; Hebbar, Prakash; Mustari, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Cocoa pod borer (CPB; Conopomorpha cramerella) and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR; Phytophthora palmivora) are serious pest and disease on cocoa plantations in Indonesia. Both pest and disease have been controlled with limited success using cultural practices such as pruning, frequent harvesting, sanitation, plastic sleeving, and chemical pesticides. An experiment was conducted on cocoa plantings in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi during the wet season of 2008/09 to test the effect of pod sleeving...

  11. European Corn Borer life stage model: Regional estimates of pest development and spatial distribution under present and future climate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, M.; Muška, F.; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Kocmánková, E.; Žalud, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 207, 2-4 (2007), s. 61-84 ISSN 0304-3800 R&D Projects: GA MZe QG60051; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0125 Grant - others:6th FP EU(XE) GOCE 037005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Corn borer * ECAMON * GCMs * Degree day model * Climate change impacts Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2007

  12. Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h 2 = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = −0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  13. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  14. Influence of Mortality Factors and Host Resistance on the Population Dynamics of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Urban Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  16. Development of novel ash hybrids to introgress resistance to emerald ash borer into north American ash species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is no evidence that any of the native North American ash species have any resistance to the emerald ash borer (EAB). This means that the entire ash resource of the eastern United States and Canada is at risk of loss due to EAB. In contrast, outbreaks of EAB in Asian ash species are rare and appear to be isolated responses to stress (Bauer et al. 2005,...

  17. Elaboration of a strategy to control the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller in the Sefrou region in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfers Adil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella, oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 chemical control based on tolerance threshold of 10 males/trap/2 weeks showed unsatisfactory results. With this method, the percentage of affected fruits increased from 6.8% in 2009 to 18.6% in 2010 despite the application of four treatments of organophosphate-based insecticides in 2009 and the application of four treatments in 2010 using active ingredients from different chemical families (pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinicotinyl. On the other hand, management of the peach twig borer by the degree-days method tested and planned on the basis of a bifenthrin treatment between 150 to 204 degree-days accumulated from biofix, gave interesting results where the percentage of affected fruits hardly exceeded 0.5% over the four years of study

  18. INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner ON CORN HYBRIDS IN NORTH-WEST AND EASTERN CROATIA

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    Zvjezdana Augustinović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.

  19. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Chilo auricilius and comparison with three other rice stem borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-09-15

    The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tolerance of different rice genotypes (oryza sativa l.) against the infestation of rice stem borers under natural field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Nasrullah; Tofique, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present studies report the genotypic responses of 61 rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (35 aromatic and 26 non aromatic) against the infestation of rice stem borers under natural field conditions. The data obtained on these genotypes on larval infestation in combination with yield were the criteria to assess the resistance depicted by them. The studies showed that among aromatic genotypes, 'Khushboo-95' gave the best yield of grain and harboured the least pest infestation (2.81% dead hearts and 1.85% white heads); on the other hand variety 'Sonahri Sugdasi (P)' harboured the highest borers attack (10.37% and 19.30%) and yielded the lowest grain yield. Regarding non-aromatic genotypes, IR8-2.5-11 received least infestation (1.32% and 0.26% dead hearts and white heads, respectively) generating highest yield showing its tolerance to borer's attack, in contrast, genotype IR6-252 harboured the highest infestation (5.65%, 4.28%) and yielded minimum grain indicating its susceptibility. These results demonstrate the expression of resistance gene in the genome of tolerant rice genotypes that can provide season-long protection from the natural infestation of insect pests. (author)

  1. Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2011-06-01

    Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps.

  2. Assessment of Trichogramma japonicum and T. chilonis as Potential Biological Control Agents of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Kang, Min; Song, Kai; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis). In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha) in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed. PMID:28208706

  3. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  4. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  5. System-Level and Granger Network Analysis of Integrated Proteomic and Metabolomic Dynamics Identifies Key Points of Grape Berry Development at the Interface of Primary and Secondary Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Xiaoliang; Weiszmann, Jakob; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine is a fruit crop with worldwide economic importance. The grape berry undergoes complex biochemical changes from fruit set until ripening. This ripening process and production processes define the wine quality. Thus, a thorough understanding of berry ripening is crucial for the prediction of wine quality. For a systemic analysis of grape berry development we applied mass spectrometry based platforms to analyse the metabolome and proteome of Early Campbell at 12 stages covering major d...

  6. COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF DRIED THREE-COMPONENT FRUIT AND BERRY PASTES

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    O. Cherevko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Color characteristics of compositions of three-component fruit and berry pastes before and after infrared drying are determined. The compositions were prepared on the basis of apples, cranberries, and hawthorn with increased nutrition value and therapeutic and prophylactic properties, according to the suggested recipe. The ratio of the components in the first composition is 60 : 30 : 10, in the second, 65 : 25 : 10, and in the third, 55 : 40 : 5. The resulting compositions were controlled by the control (apple paste. To dry the compositions obtained, it is proposed to use a roller IR dryer based on a flexible resistive film electric heater of emitting type. The prepared paste compositions are reddish-orange according to the color characteristics determined. Color characteristics of dried three-component fruit and berry pastes are also determined. The wavelength of composition 1 is 498 nm, and those of compositions 2 and 3 are 620.5 and 589.4 nm, respectively. The first composition is bluish-purple, with tone purity 34.7 %. Composition 2 is red (34.8 %, composition 3 is bluish-red (34.6 %. The comparison of the color characteristics of compositions of three-component fruit and berry pastes before and after infrared drying as for the brightness and tone purity of the samples indicates a slight change in brightness within 2—6 %. Reduction of the color purity to almost a half is due to the drying shrinkage of the mass of raw materials and obtaining a visual color of the compositions that is attractive for a consumer. According to the results of expert evaluation of the quality indices of dried three-component fruit and berry paste compositions, a certain advantage is determined of the dried composition with the following ratio of components in the recipe: apple, cranberry, hawthorn — 60 : 30 : 10 (composition 1. The suggested compositions of dried three-component fruit and berry paste are recommended for use in food rations

  7. VvVHP1; 2 Is Transcriptionally Activated by VvMYBA1 and Promotes Anthocyanin Accumulation of Grape Berry Skins via Glucose Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tianyu; Xu, Lili; Sun, Hong; Yue, Qianyu; Zhai, Heng; Yao, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    In this work, four vacuolar H+-PPase (VHP) genes were identified in the grape genome. Among them, VvVHP1; 2 was strongly expressed in berry skin and its expression exhibited high correlations to anthocyanin content of berry skin during berry ripening and under ABA and UVB treatments. VvVHP1; 2 was transcriptionally activated directly by VvMYBA1, and VvVHP1; 2 overexpression promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves; therefore, VvVHP1; 2 mediated VvMYBA1-regulated...

  8. Field-Cage Methodology for Evaluating Climatic Suitability for Introduced Wood-Borer Parasitoids: Preliminary Results from the Emerald Ash Borer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Duan, Jian J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Driesche, Roy Van

    2011-01-01

    Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well. PMID:22233133

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PROCESS OF BLACK CURRANT BERRIES DRYING IN VACUUMDEVICE WITH THE MICROWAVE POWER SUPPLY

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    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The mathematical model allowed to reproduce and study at qualitative level the change of berries form and the structure of the berries layer in the course of drying. The separate berry in the course of drying loses gradually its elasticity, decreases in volume, the peel gathers in folds, there appear internal emptiness. In the course of drying the berries layer decreases in thickness, contacting berries stick strongly with each other due to the coordinated folds of peel appearing, the layer is condensed due to penetration of the berries which have lost elasticity into emptiness between them. The model with high specification describes black currant drying process and therefore has a large number of the parameters available to change. Among them three most important technological parameters, influencing productivity and the drying quality are chosen: the power of microwave radiation P, thickness of the berries layer h, environmental pressure p. From output indicators of the model the most important are three functions from time: dependence of average humidity of the layer on time Wcp (t, dependence of the speed of change of average humidity on time dWcp (t/dt, dependence of the layer average temperature on time Tср (t. On the standard models classification the offered model is algorithmic, but not analytical. It means that output characteristics of model are calculated with the entrance ones, not by analytical transformations (it is impossible principally for the modeled process, but by means of spatial and temporary sampling and the corresponding calculation algorithm. Detailed research of the microwave drying process by means of the model allows to allocate the following stages: fast heating, the fast dehydration, the slowed-down dehydration, consolidation of a layer of a product, final drying, heating after dehydration.

  10. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  11. Effects of Different Planting Times of Different Rice Cultivars on Control of the Striped Stem Borer (Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    T. Oskou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice (Oryza sativa L. is one of the world’s most important staple food crops. In Asia, it is the main item of the diet of 3.5 billion people. Rice stem borers are common insect pests in many rice growing countries. Striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker, belonging to Lepidoptera and family of Pyralidae is the most important rice pest in the Northern Iran. Stem borer larva damages rice stem and disturbs nutrient translocation from root to leaf. As the result, tillers in vegetative stage died, which is called dead heart. When larva infests generative stage, it causes empty panicle, which is called white head. Integrated pest management (IPM practices for controlling the stem borers in Iran have not been fully implemented because of limited control technologies which are available. Farmers often rely on heavily insecticide application, although many insecticide applications are not effective. Therefore, many physical and cultural practices have been suggested, including adjustment of planting time to escape the plant from heavy pest. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in deputy of rice research institute in Amol, Mazandaran, Iran, during 2011-2012. The experiment was arranged in split plot design with planting time as main plot and cultivar as subplot and was replicated three times. Three planting times tested were the first planting time i.e. 15 days before farmers’ planting time, the second planting time (simultaneously with farmers’ planting time, and the third planting time (15days after farmers’ planting time. Six rice cultivars tested, representing three types of rice cultivar, Tarom and Kohsar (early maturity cultivars, Shirodi and Fajr (medium maturity cultivars, Neda and Nemat (late maturity cultivar. Rice seedlings were transplanted at 25 cm planting distance in a 3 m x 9 m plot size. Weeding and fertilization were done as recommended. No insecticide was applied. Dead hearts and white heads were

  12. Phytochemical composition and metabolic performance-enhancing activity of dietary berries traditionally used by Native North Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B; Ribnicky, David M; Gipp, David M; Cefalu, William T; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2008-02-13

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Nonpolar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications), whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1beta and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes.

  13. Effectiveness of Sex Pheromone in Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.

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    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella  nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values

  14. Transgenic rice plants expressing a fused protein of Cry1Ab/Vip3H has resistance to rice stem borers under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shen, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2010-08-01

    Six transgenic rice, Oryza sativa L., lines (G6H1, G6H2, G6H3, G6H4, G6H5, and G6H6) expressing a fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein, were evaluated for resistance against the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and the stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage was up to 100% at 168 h after infestation. The cumulative feeding area by Asiatic rice borer neonate larvae on all transgenic lines was significantly reduced compared with the untransformed parental 'Xiushui 110' rice. A 2-yr field evaluation showed that damage during the vegetative stage (deadheart) or during the reproductive stage (whitehead) caused by Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens for transgenic lines was much lower than the control. For three lines (G6H1, G6H2, and G6H6), no damage was found during the entire growing period. Estimation of fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein concentrations using PathoScreen kit for Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac protein indicated that the expression levels of Cry1Ab protein both in main stems (within the average range of 0.006-0.073% of total soluble protein) and their flag leaves (within the average range of 0.001-0.038% of total soluble protein) were significantly different among six transgenic lines at different developmental stages. Both laboratory and field researches suggested that the transgenic rice lines have considerable potential for protecting rice from attack by both stem borers.

  15. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae.

  16. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range.

  17. Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M

    2015-10-01

    We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyaszek, Aneta; Szpyrka, Ewa; Podbielska, Magdalena; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Kurdziel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a leading grower/producer of berries in Europe that are either eaten raw or processed. As well as berries this includes fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other small fruits. Testing for the presence of active substances in Plant Protection Products, (PPP), in such fruit is however important, as part of measures taken to minimise human intake. To determine the incidence of pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland in 2009-2011. . Chromatographic separation followed by analytical detection was performed on 250 samples of various test fruits using an accredited methodology: GC/ECD/NPD, together with spectrophotometric detection wherever necessary, according to PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025. As part of previous monitoring, 126 active substances were identified in 2009, 132 in 2010 and 153 in 2011; levels were compared to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). RESULTS;. Analyses showed that 46.4% of samples contained PPPs of which 4% exceeded the MRL. The most were found in raspberries, (58.8% of all tested), followed by 58.3% redcurrants, and gooseberries as well as 50% grapes. The most frequently found active substances of PPPs were pyrimethanil (15.6%), dithiocarbamates (12.4%), procymidone (8%), cyprodinil (5.6%) and difenoconazole (5.2%). The highest MRL exceedances were found in blackcurrants. Testing also revealed many examples of pesticides not recommended for the protection of specific crops: propiconazole in gooseberries, cyprodinil, flusilazole, iprodione, pyrimethanil in blackcurrants and folpet and captan in raspberries. Furthermore, active substances whose use in PPPs have been forbidden since 2008 were also detected, ie. endosulfan in blackcurrants and strawberries, fenitrothion in black and red currants as well as procymidone in raspberries, blackcurrants and strawberries. These data are consistent to those obtained from the whole of Poland and the European Union (EU). Most pesticides were present in raspberries, redcurrants

  19. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F

    2007-11-01

    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Characterizing and improving the sensory and hedonic responses to polyphenol-rich aronia berry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Valerie B; Rawal, Shristi; Park, Jeeha; Brand, Mark H; Sharafi, Mastaneh; Bolling, Bradley W

    2016-12-01

    Interest in nutrient-rich berry juices is growing, but their high polyphenol levels render them sensorily unappealing. Fifty adults, who were assessed for sensory phenotype and dietary behaviors, provided sensory and palatability ratings of juices from 'Viking' aronia berries for each of seven harvest weeks. By peak harvest, juice preference increased two-fold, averaging neither like/dislike. This hedonic shift was associated with: increases in juice sugars paralleling increases in perceived sweetness (maximum = weak); reductions in percent acidity paralleling reductions in sourness (minimum = moderate), astringency (minimum = to just above weak) and bitterness (minimum = just below weak). About 25% of adults liked the aronia juice, including adults who also liked an aqueous citric acid solution (average rating = moderately sour) or those who reported adventurous eating behaviors. Bitter taste phenotype, measured by propylthiouracil or quinine bitterness, failed to explain significant variation in juice sensation or preference. We also collected sensory and preference ratings from juice collected at peak harvest blended with sugar and/or sweet olfactory flavoring (10 ppm ethyl butyrate). Increasing juice sweetness by adding 5% sucrose decreased sourness and improved preference from weak dislike to weak like. Adding sweet olfactory flavoring decreased juice sourness without changing preference. Adding sweet flavoring and 3% sucrose resulted in reduction of sourness and improvements in preference ratings comparable to 5% added sucrose. Neither added sugar nor flavoring blocked juice astringency. In summary, these findings suggest that aronia juice, even from berries picked at peak harvest, appealed to only a few adults (sour likers or adventurous eaters). Although enhanced sweetness, with added sugar and sweet olfactory flavoring, improved aronia juice preference, broader sensory approaches are required to blunt astringency for greater consumer appeal