WorldWideScience

Sample records for bermuda grass cynodon

  1. Ergot fungus Claviceps cynodontis found on Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) in the Americas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Odvody, G.; Frederickson, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2005), s. 1-6 ISSN 0706-0661 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : claviceps cynodon tis * ergot * bermuda grass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.066, year: 2005

  2. Ruminal production of methane ''in vitro'' with Coast Cross No. 1 bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerken, C M; Funes, F; Gonzalez, R

    1980-11-01

    1. Samples of Coast Cross No. 1 bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days of cut, irrigated and fertilized at a rate of 400 kg N/ha/year, were used to determine their bromatological composition, digestibility and methane production ''in vitro''. 2. Crude protein concentration of the pasture fell sharply from 20 to 4% and crude fibre increased from 26 to 34% as the pasture grew older. DM digestibility decreased from 58 to 44% from the 6th to the 15th week of cut. Methane production ''in vitro'' was significantly lower (P is less than 0,01), at 3 and 6 weeks, than that obtained at older ages. The differences were more marked when calculated per unit of digested DM. 3. These results could be of interest in the search of a better utilization of dietary energy for grazing animals. (Refs. 16).

  3. Indole-diterpenes and ergot alkaloids in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) infected with Claviceps cynodontis from an outbreak of tremors in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Silvio; Botha, Christo J; Vrålstad, Trude; Rolén, Elin; Miles, Christopher O

    2009-12-09

    Tremorgenic syndromes in mammals are commonly associated with indole-diterpenoid alkaloids of fungal origin. Cattle are sometimes affected by tremors (also called "staggers") when they graze on toxic grass pastures, and Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon , kweek) has been known to be associated with tremors for several decades. This study reports the identification of paspalitrems and paspaline-like indole-diterpenes in the seedheads of Claviceps cynodontis -infected Bermuda grass collected from a pasture that had caused a staggers syndrome in cattle in South Africa and thereby links the condition to specific mycotoxins. The highest concentration (about 150 mg/kg) was found for paspalitrem B. Ergonovine and ergine (lysergic acid amide), together with their C-8 epimers, were found to co-occur with the indole-diterpenes at concentrations of about 10 microg/kg. The indole-diterpene profile of the extract from the ergotized Bermuda grass was similar to that of Claviceps paspali sclerotia. However, the C. paspali sclerotia contained in addition agroclavine and elymoclavine. This is the first study linking tremors associated with grazing of Bermuda grass to specific tremorgenic indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins.

  4. Monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to quantify the major allergen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen, Cyn d 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffort, O; Calabozo, B; González, R; Carpizo, J A; Barber, D; Polo, F

    2004-12-01

    Pollen of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is an important cause of pollinosis in many areas of the world. Most patients show sensitivity to the major allergen Cyn d 1, a glycoprotein composed of a number of isoforms with a molecular mass of 31-32 kDa. The aim of this work was to develop a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based ELISA to quantify Cyn d 1, and to assess the correlation of the allergen content with the biological activity of C. dactylon pollen extracts. After fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from a BALB/c mouse immunized with C. dactylon pollen extract, Cyn d 1-specific mAbs secreting hybridomas were selected, and the antibodies characterized. One of them (4.4.1) was used as the capture antibody in an ELISA method for Cyn d 1 quantitation. An anti-Cyn d 1 rabbit serum was used as the second antibody. Cyn d 1 was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with mAb 4.4.1, characterized, and used as the standard in the assay. The identity, purity and isoallergen composition of affinity-purified Cyn d 1 was confirmed by N-terminal amino acid sequencing, SDS-PAGE, Western blot and 2D electrophoresis. The Cyn d 1 ELISA is highly specific and sensitive, with a detection limit of 0.24 ng/ml and a linear range of 1.1-9.2 ng/ml. An excellent correlation was found when the content of Cyn d 1, measured in 16 different extracts, was compared with the allergenic activity of the same extracts determined by RAST inhibition. The results prove the usefulness of the Cyn d 1 ELISA for the standardization of C. dactylon-allergen products on the basis of major allergen content. 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Comparative physiological and proteomic analyses reveal the actions of melatonin in the reduction of oxidative stress in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wang, Xin; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-08-01

    The fact of melatonin as an important antioxidant in animals led plant researchers to speculate that melatonin also acts in the similar manner in plants. Although melatonin has significant effects on alleviating stress-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS), the involvement of melatonin in direct oxidative stress and the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear in plants. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin significantly alleviated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-modulated plant growth, cell damage, and ROS accumulation in Bermuda grass. Additionally, 76 proteins significantly influenced by melatonin during mock or H2O2 treatment were identified by gel-free proteomics using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation). Metabolic pathway analysis showed that several pathways were markedly enhanced by melatonin and H2O2 treatments, including polyamine metabolism, ribosome pathway, major carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, redox, and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study provides more comprehensive insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of melatonin in Bermuda grass responses to direct oxidative stress. This may relate to the activation of antioxidants, modulation of metabolic pathways, and extensive proteome reprograming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Depleted Uranium Toxicity, Accumulation, and Uptake in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda) and Aristida purpurea (Purple Threeawn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Afrachanna D; Wynter, Michelle; Medina, Victor F; Bednar, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) in western Arizona is a testing range where Depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been historically fired. A portion of the fired DU penetrators are being managed under controlled conditions by leaving them in place. The widespread use of DU in armor-penetrating weapons has raised environmental and human health concerns. The present study is focused on the onsite management approach and on the potential interactions with plants local to YPG. A 30 day study was conducted to assess the toxicity of DU corrosion products (e.g., schoepite and meta-schoepite) in two grass species that are native to YPG, Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea). In addition, the ability for plants to uptake DU was studied. The results of this study show a much lower threshold for biomass toxicity and higher plant concentrations, particularly in the roots than shoots, compared to previous studies.

  7. Evaluation of molecular basis of cross reactivity between rye and Bermuda grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ruby; Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2009-12-01

    Allergenic cross reactivity between the members of the Pooids (Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis) and Chloridoids (Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum notatum) is well established. Studies using crude extracts in the past have demonstrated limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and the Chloridoids suggesting separate diagnosis and therapy. However, little is known regarding the molecular basis for the limited cross reactivity observed between the 2 groups of grasses. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular basis of cross allergenicity between the major allergens from rye and Bermuda grass pollens. Immunoblot inhibition tests were carried out to determine the specificity of the proteins involved in cross reactivity. Crude pollen extract and bacterially expressed and purified recombinant Lol p 1and Lol p 5 from rye grass were subjected to cross inhibition experiments with crude and purified recombinant Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass using sera from patients allergic to rye grass pollen. The immunoblot inhibition studies revealed a high degree of cross inhibition between the group 1 allergens. In contrast, a complete lack of inhibition was observed between Bermuda grass group 1 allergen rCyn d 1, and rye grass group 5 allergen rLol p 5. Crude rye grass extract strongly inhibited IgE reactivity to Bermuda grass, whereas crude Bermuda grass pollen extract showed a weaker inhibition. Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  8. Desenvolvimento e migração de larvas infectantes de ciatostomíneos (Nematoda: Cyathostominae em gramínea coast cross (Cynodon dactylon em clima tropical, na Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brasil Development and migration of cyathostome infective larvae (Nematoda: Cyathostominae in bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon in tropical climate, in Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C. M. do Couto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo foi realizado no período de julho de 2003 a novembro de 2004, para avaliar o desenvolvimento, a sobrevivência, a migração das larvas infectantes em gramínea "coast cross" (Cynodon dactylon e o horário de maior disponibilidade, em condições de clima tropical, na Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brasil. De julho de 2003 a setembro de 2004, massas fecais de equinos naturalmente infectados foram depositadas mensalmente sobre a gramínea. Sete dias após, amostras de fezes e gramínea foram coletadas semanalmente em diferentes horários (8, 13 e 17 horas, pesadas e processadas pela técnica de Baermann. O desenvolvimento, a sobrevivência e a migração das larvas infectantes nas fezes e na gramínea foram observados durante todo o período. A sobrevivência das L3 foi de até 15 semanas nas fezes e 12 semanas na gramínea no período seco e de nove e oito semanas, respectivamente, para o período chuvoso. No período chuvoso, maior número de L3 foi recuperado nas fezes e, no período seco, na gramínea. Condições climáticas influenciaram diretamente o número larvas infectantes. Pela análise multivariada, ficou demonstrado uma forte relação entre o tempo e o número de L3 nas fezes, sendo esta relação menos acentuada para a gramínea. Não se observou diferença significativa entre os horários de coleta.A study following the development and migration of Cyathostominae infective larvae was conducted from July 2003 to November 2004 in tropical climate, Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brazil. Samples of naturally infected feces were placed on 12 m² plot each month on a cyathostomin-free "Bermuda grass" pasture (Cynodon dactylon. After Seven days, samples of feces and grass were collected every week at 8 a.m, 1 and 5 p.m., weighed and processed by Baermann technique. Higher survival of L3 was found at dry season, 15 and 12 weeks on feces and sward respectively, at rainy season the survival was smaller. The multivariable analysis of main

  9. Mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated turf and forage Bermuda grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Hanna, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Tifgreen, Tifway and Tifdwarf, sterile triploid (2n = 27)F 1 hybrids between Cynodon dactylon and C. transvaalensis, are widely used turf grasses bred at Tifton, Georgia. They cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Attempts to improve them by treating short dormant rhizome sections with EMS failed but exposing them to 7-9 kR of gamma radiation produced 158 mutants. These have been evaluated at Tifton, and Beltsville, Maryland, and nine that appear to be better than the parents in one or more characteristics were planted in 8 x 10 m plots in triplicate in 1977. Test results to date suggest that one or more of these will be good enough to warrant a name and release to the public. Coastcross-1 is an outstanding sterile F 1 hybrid Bermuda grass that gives 35% more beef per acre but lacks winter hardiness. Since 1971, several million sprigs of Coastcross-1 have been exposed to 7 kR and have been planted and screened for winter survival at the Georgia Mountain Experiment Station. Chlorophyll-deficient mutants have appeared and one mutant slightly, but significantly, more winter hardy than Coastcross-1 has been obtained. Sprigs of this mutant named Coastcross 1-M3 are being irradiated and screened in an attempt to increase its winter hardiness. (author)

  10. Effect of two phyto hormone producer rhizobacteria on the bermuda grass growth response and tolerance to phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Rojas-Contreras, A.; Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria that have the ability to relieve environmental stress in plants, increasing the plant growth potential. Of importance to phytoremediation, PGPR stimulate plant root development and enhance root growth.This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to phenanthrene of Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon inoculated with two phytohormone producer rhizobacteria: strains II and III, isolated from a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. (Author)

  11. Effect of two phyto hormone producer rhizobacteria on the bermuda grass growth response and tolerance to phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Rojas-Contreras, A.; Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-07-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria that have the ability to relieve environmental stress in plants, increasing the plant growth potential. Of importance to phytoremediation, PGPR stimulate plant root development and enhance root growth.This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to phenanthrene of Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon inoculated with two phytohormone producer rhizobacteria: strains II and III, isolated from a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. (Author)

  12. DOSES DE LODO DE ESGOTO SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO DA GRAMA BERMUDA (Cynodon dactylon)

    OpenAIRE

    NOBILE, Fabio Olivieri de; NUNES, Hugo Dias; NEVES, Jéssica Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Population growth occurred rapidly, resulting in cities with poor infrastructure on the sanitation sector. So, there was the introduction of sanitary treatment, causing difficulty in choosing alternatives for the proper disposal of sewage sludge, rich in essential nutrients for the plants. The experiment was conducted to determine the best dose of sewage sludge to Grass Cynodon dactylon. It was conducted in greenhouse in the University Center of Educational Foundation of Barretos-SP. The expe...

  13. Comparative study of the growth and carbon sequestration potential of Bermuda grass in industrial and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global phenomenon occurring throughout the world. Greenhouse gases (GHGs especially carbon dioxide (CO2 considered to be the major culprit to bring these changes. So, carbon (C sequestration by any mean could be useful to reduce the CO2 level in atmosphere. Turf grasses have the ability to sequester C and minimize the effects of GHGs on the environment. In order to study that how turf grasses can help in C sequestration, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon was grown both at industrial and urban location and its effect on C storage were assessed by soil and plant analysis. Dry deposition of ammonium and nitrate was maximum at both locations through the year. However wet deposition was highest during the months of high rainfall. It was examined through soil analysis that soil organic matter, soil C and nitrogen in both locations increased after second mowing of grass. However, soil pH 6.68 in urban and 7.00 in industrial area and EC 1.86 dS/m in urban and 1.90 dS/m in industrial area decreased as the grass growth continue. Soil fresh weight (27.6 g in urban and (27.28 g industrial area also decreased after first and second mowing of grass. The C levels in plant dry biomass also increased which showed improved ability of plant to uptake C from the soil and store it. Similarly, chlorophyll contents were more in industrial area compared to urban area indicates the positive impact of high C concentration. Whereas stomatal conductance was reduced in high C environment to slow down respiration process. Hence, from present study it can be concluded that the Bermuda grass could be grown in areas with high C concentration in atmosphere for sequestrating C in soil.

  14. Effect of lime, N, P, and K amendments to surface-mined coal spoils on yield and chemical composition of common Bermuda grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebelhar, M W; Barnhisel, R I; Akin, G W; Powell, J L

    1982-12-01

    Common Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, L. Pers.) was used as an alternative to cool-season grasses such as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) on acid sandstone surface-mine spoils in western Kentucky. Lime, N, P, and K fertilizer amendments were evaluated as to their effects in promoting Bermuda grass growth and development. The applied lime was effective in raising the pH from 3.4 to 4.6, 5.7, and 6.3 for the 18, 36 and 72 metric ton/ha treatments, respectively, over a 17-month period. Nitrogen was found to affect Bermuda grass production significantly and severe deficiency symptoms were observed where N was not applied. Dry matter yields increased significantly with each additional increment of N applied. Although the application of P and K increased the concentration of these ions in the plant tissues, the main influence of P and K was to increase the plants' resistance to winter killing; little effect on total dry matter production was observed. 19 references.

  15. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  16. HYPOLIPEDEMIC EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON ON HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY AND DNA FRAGMENTATION ANALYSIS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEREMIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Selva Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of Ayurvedic herbal formulation Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) on histopathological study and DNA fragmentation analysis in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats. Four groups of rats were employed namely control, hypercholesterolemia rats (4% Cholesterol+1% cholic acid), Cynodon dactylon treatment in hypercholesteremic rats and Cynodon dactylon alone treated rats. Re...

  17. Differential metabolic responses of perennial grass Cynodon transvaalensis×Cynodon dactylon (C₄) and Poa Pratensis (C₃) to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongmei; Wang, Zhaolong; Yu, Wenjuan; Liu, Yimin; Huang, Bingru

    2011-03-01

    Differential metabolic responses to heat stress may be associated with variations in heat tolerance between cool-season (C₃) and warm-season (C₄) perennial grass species. The main objective of this study was to identify metabolites associated with differential heat tolerance between C₄ bermudagrass and C₃ Kentucky bluegrass by performing metabolite profile analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plants of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa Pratensis'Midnight') and hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x Cynodon dactylon'Tifdwarf') were grown under optimum temperature conditions (20/15 °C for Kentucky bluegrass and 30/25 °C for bermudagrass) or heat stress (35/30 °C for Kentucky bluegrass and 45/40 °C for bermudagrass). Physiological responses to heat stress were evaluated by visual rating of grass quality, measuring photochemical efficiency (variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence) and electrolyte leakage. All of these parameters indicated that bermudagrass exhibited better heat tolerance than Kentucky bluegrass. The metabolite analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 36 heat-responsive metabolites identified in both grass species, mainly consisting of organic acids, amino acids, sugars and sugar alcohols. Most metabolites showed higher accumulation in bermudagrass compared with Kentucky bluegrass, especially following long-term (18 days) heat stress. The differentially accumulated metabolites included seven sugars (sucrose, fructose, galactose, floridoside, melibiose, maltose and xylose), a sugar alcohol (inositol), six organic acids (malic acid, citric acid, threonic acid, galacturonic acid, isocitric acid and methyl malonic acid) and nine amino acids (Asn, Ala, Val, Thr, γ-aminobutyric acid, IIe, Gly, Lys and Met). The differential accumulation of those metabolites could be associated with the differential heat tolerance between C₃ Kentucky bluegrass and C₄ bermudagrass. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  18. Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Bermuda's population characteristics, history, government, political situation, economy, and foreign relations were briefly described. Bermuda, a parliamentary British colony, is situated on a group of island in the Atlantic Ocean, about 650 miles east of North Carolina. Bermuda was discovered by the Spaniards in 1503; however, it was the British who founded the 1st settlement on the islands in 1612. The current population size is 56,652, and the annual rate of growth is 0.3%. About 2/3 of the population is of African descent, and the remaining inhabitants are of British, American, Portuguese, or Caribbean descent. The literacy rate is 98%, and school enrollment is universal and compulsory for 12 years. The infant mortality rate is 7.1/1000 live births and life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Although Bermuda is a British colony, it was granted considerable internal autonomy in 1968. A governor, appointed by the British Crown, is in charge of external affairs, defense, and the country's internal security. Under the constitution, adopted in 1968, the internal affairs of the country are conducted by an elected bicameral legislative body and a premier who represents the majority party in the lower legislative house. The current premier is John W. D. Swan of the United Bermuda Party (UBP). The UBP is supported mainly by the white minority and by a few blacks. The Progressive Labor Party (PLP) is supported primarily by the black majority. The UBP has retained power since it was established in 1965, but at each election, its winning margin decreased. Although there is universal suffrage, only a small proportion of the public participates in elections. Despite the fact that the governor was assassinated in 1972 and there was civil unrest in 1977, the country is politically stable. This political stability is due in part to the government's efforts since the 1950s to promote racial equality, to the government's willingness to recognize labors' right

  19. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS AND COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS PRETREATED USING DIFFERENT CHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiele Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of biomass feedstock and pretreatment method on the enzyme requirement during hydrolysis, swichgrass and coastal Bermuda grass pretreated using H2SO4, NaOH, and Ca(OH2 at the optimal conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using two enzyme combinations: NS 50013 + NS 50010 and Cellic CTec + Cellic HTec. The enzyme loadings were optimized, and correlations between feedstock property, pretreatment strategy, and enzyme usage were evaluated. The results show that pretreatment methods resulting in greater lignin contents in the pretreated biomass were generally associated with higher enzyme requirements. More sugars could be recovered from alkaline-pretreated biomass during enzymatic hydrolysis due to the better carbohydrate preservation achieved at mild pretreatment temperatures. The cellulase enzyme, Cellic CTec, was more efficient in catalyzing the hydrolysis of coastal Bermuda grass, a feedstock more digestible than the pretreated swichgrass, following pretreatment with NaOH or Ca(OH2.

  20. Relevance of Allergenic Sensitization to Cynodon dactylon and Phragmites communis: Cross-reactivity With Pooideae Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Matas, M A; Moya, R; Cardona, V; Valero, A; Gaig, P; Malet, A; Viñas, M; García-Moral, A; Labrador, M; Alcoceba, E; Ibero, M; Carnés, J

    The homologous group of sweet grasses belongs to the Pooideae subfamily, but grass pollen species from other subfamilies can also cause allergy, such as Cynodon dactylon (Chloridoideae) and Phragmites communis (Arundinoideae). C dactylon and P communis have not been included in the sweet grasses homologous group because of their low cross-reactivity with other grasses. The aims of this study were to investigate the profile of sensitization to C dactylon and P communis in patients sensitized to grasses and to analyze cross-reactivity between these 2 species and temperate grasses. Patients were skin prick tested with a grass mixture (GM). Specific IgE to GM, C dactylon, P communis, Cyn d 1, and Phl p 1 was measured by ImmunoCAP. A pool of sera was used for the immunoblot assays. Cross-reactivity was studied by ELISA and immunoblot inhibition. Thirty patients had sIgE to GM. Twenty-four (80%) had positive results for C dactylon, 27 (90%) for P communis, 22 (73.3%) for nCyn d 1, and 92.9% for rPhl p 1. Bands were detected in the 3 extracts by immunoblot. Inhibition of GM was not observed with C dactylon or P communis by immunoblot or ELISA inhibition. When C dactylon or P communis were used in the solid phase, GM produced almost complete inhibition. Eighty percent of patients sensitized to grasses were also sensitized to C dactylon and 90% were sensitized to P communis. Sensitization to these species seems to be induced by allergens different to those in sweet grasses.

  1. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005 se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y pasto bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L. establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides (Vitis vinifera L. en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

  2. Evaluation of off-type grasses in hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) putting greens using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of hybrid ultradwarf bermudagrasses (UDBG; Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) on golf course putting greens is increasing in the southern United States. However, off-type grasses within many putting surfaces have been observed. To explore the genetic variation among UD...

  3. Transfer factor of Radium -226, lead-210 and Polonium-210 from Norm contaminated soil to Atriplex, Afelfa and Bermuda grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mukhallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.

    2011-10-01

    transfer factors of Radium -226, lead-210 and Polonium-210 from contaminated soil with oil coproduced water to grazing plants in the north eastern region of Syria have been determined. contaminated soil was collected from one of the AL-Furat Petroleum Oil company oil fields;soil was distributed into several pots where the studied plants were planted in order to study the transfer factors of radioisotopes to them. Results have shown that the mean transfer factors of radium to green parts have reached has reached 0.0016 in Atriplex halimus L.,0.0021 in Atriplex canescens Nutt, 0.0025 in Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss,0.0082 in Bermuda grass and 0.0167 in Medicago Sativ L,which was the highest,while the transfer factors of polonium and lead were ten times higher than those for radium and reacted 0.012 in Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, 0.011 in Atriplex canescens Nutt, 0.007 in Atriplex halimus L.0.32 in bermuda grass and 0.025 in Afelfa.(author)

  4. Agronomic performance of tifton 85 (cynodon spp grass cultivated in constructed wetlands used in milk processing wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in order to study the performance of the tifton 85 (Cynodon spp grass cultivated in wetlands (SACs and submitted to different organic load application rates (TCOs of milk processing wastewater (ARL, in the climatic conditions of Viçosa - MG. The experimental structure was constituted by five SACs with horizontal subsuperficial flow, using tanks of 0.40 x 0.75 x 3.00 m (depth, width and length filled with 0.33 m depth of fine stones. The ARL was applied in average flow of 60 L.day-1, hydraulic time residence of 4.8 days and TCOs of 66, 130, 190, 320 and 570 kg.ha-1.day-1 of DBO. The tifton 85 grass adapted well to SACs, presenting good rooting, high yield and capacity of nutrients (N, P and K and sodium removal of the ARL, whose values were, respectively, between 216 - 544, 24 - 61, 115 - 204 and 4.3 – 10.9 kg.ha-1.

  5. Evaluation of Molecular Basis of Cross Reactivity between Rye and Bermuda Grass Pollen Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  6. Transfer factors of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po from NORM-contaminated oil field soil to some Atriplex species, Alfalfa and Bermuda grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masria, M.S.; Mukalallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transfer factors of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po from soil contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil fields to some grazing plants were determined using pot experiments. Contaminated soil was collected from a dry surface evaporation pit from a Syrian oil field in the Der Ezzor area. Five types of plants (Atriplex halimus L., Atriplex canescens, Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, Alfalfa and Bermuda grass) were grown and harvested three times over two years. The results show that the mean transfer factors of 226 Ra from the contaminated soil to the studied plant species were 1.6 x 10 -3 for Atriplex halimus L., 2.1 x 10 -3 for Atriplex canescens, 2.5 x 10 -3 for Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, 8.2 x 10 -3 for Bermuda grass, and the highest value was 1.7 x 10 -2 for Alfalfa. Transfer factors of 210 Pb and 210 Po were higher than 226 Ra TFs by one order of magnitude and reached 7 x 10 -3 , 1.1 x 10 -2 , 1.2 x 10 -2 , 3.2 x 10 -2 and 2.5 x 10 -2 for Atriplex halimus, Atriplex canescens, Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, Bermuda grass and Alfalfa, respectively. The results can be considered as base values for transfer factors of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in semiarid regions. (authors)

  7. On-site hydrolytic enzymes production from fungal co-cultivation of Bermuda grass and corn cob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Gracida, Jorge; Huizache-Peña, Nelson; Elizondo-García, Norberto; Salazar-Martínez, José; García Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) is used to produce industrial enzymes. The objective of this study was to use a co-culture of Aspergillus niger GS1 and Trichoderma reesei, grown on a mixture of Bermuda grass and corn cob to obtain fermented forage (FF) rich in hydrolytic enzymes, as a value added ingredient for animal feed. FPase, amylase and xylanase productivities (dry matter, DM) were 8.8, 181.4, and 42.1Ug(-1)h(-1), respectively (1U=reducing sugars released min(-1)), after 12-16h of SSF with C/N=60. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased 1.6-, 2.7- and 1.9-fold (DM), respectively. In vitro ruminal and true digestibility of DM was improved 2.4- and 1.4-fold. Ruminal digestion of FF reduced 1.32-fold the acetate:propionate ratio, which may reduce the environmental impact of ruminants feeding. On-site hydrolytic enzymes productivity using SSF without enzymes extraction could be of economic potential for digestibility improvement in animal feed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  9. An experimental model of allergic asthma in cats sensitized to house dust mite or bermuda grass allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris Reinero, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Berghaus, Roy D; Williams, Kurt J; Leutenegger, Christian M; Walby, William F; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2004-10-01

    Animal models are used to mimic human asthma, however, not all models replicate the major characteristics of the human disease. Spontaneous development of asthma with hallmark features similar to humans has been documented to occur with relative frequency in only one animal species, the cat. We hypothesized that we could develop an experimental model of feline asthma using clinically relevant aeroallergens identified from cases of naturally developing feline asthma, and characterize immunologic, physiologic, and pathologic changes over 1 year. House dust mite (HDMA) and Bermuda grass (BGA) allergen were selected by screening 10 privately owned pet cats with spontaneous asthma using a serum allergen-specific IgE ELISA. Parenteral sensitization and aerosol challenges were used to replicate the naturally developing disease in research cats. The asthmatic phenotype was characterized using intradermal skin testing, serum allergen-specific IgE ELISA, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgG and IgA ELISAs, airway hyperresponsiveness testing, BALF cytology, cytokine profiles using TaqMan PCR, and histopathologic evaluation. Sensitization with HDMA or BGA in cats led to allergen-specific IgE production, allergen-specific serum and BALF IgG and IgA production, airway hyperreactivity, airway eosinophilia, an acute T helper 2 cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and BALF cells, and histologic evidence of airway remodeling. Using clinically relevant aeroallergens to sensitize and challenge the cat provides an additional animal model to study the immunopathophysiologic mechanisms of allergic asthma. Chronic exposure to allergen in the cat leads to a variety of immunologic, physiologic, and pathologic changes that mimic the features seen in human asthma.

  10. Desidratação de cultivares de Cynodon spp. durante o processo de fenação Dehydration of Cynodon grass cultivars during haymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Dias Gonçalves

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve por objetivo avaliar a desidratação de cultivares de Cynodon spp. (Poaceae durante o processo de fenação. Foram realizadas amostragens nos tempos zero (momento do corte, 3, 6, 21, 24, 27 e 30 horas após o corte, a fim de se determinar a curva de desidratação e os teores de proteína bruta (PB da planta inteira e das frações folhas e colmos. Determinou-se também a espessura dos colmos de cada cultivar. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos completamente casualizados em esquema fatorial 3x7 (cultivares x tempos de amostragens, com três repetições. A velocidade de perda de água foi semelhante para os cultivares avaliados, tanto para a planta como para as frações colmos e folhas. Não houve efeito para os teores de PB com o avanço nos tempos de secagem. Porém, houve diferença para a relação L/C, onde o Tifton 85 apresentou maior valor. Já para o diâmetro do colmo, o Tifton 44 foi superior em relação aos demais cultivares.Dehydration of cultivars of the genus Cynodon (Poaceae and the possible variations of chemical composition of forages during the haymaking process were evaluated. Three cultivars of Cynodon, Tifton 85, Coast cross and Tifton 44 were used, in plots of 15 m2, with three randomized blocks. Samples at 0 (cutting time, 3, 6, 21, 24, 27 and 30 hours after cutting were taken to determine the dehydration curve of whole plant, leaves and stem. Speed in water loss in plant, leaves and stem segments was similar in all cultivars. Drying did not affect CP taxes. There was, however, a difference for the leaves/stem relationship in which Tifton 85 had the highest value. Tifton 44 was higher in the other cultivars with regard to stem diameter.

  11. Genotypic and phenotypic evaluation of off-type grasses in hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis burtt-Davy) putting greens using genotyping-by-sequencing and morphological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) is one of the most widely used grasses on golf courses, with cultivars derived from ‘Tifgreen’ or ‘Tifdwarf’ particularly used for putting greens in the southern agronomic region. Many bermudagrass cultiv...

  12. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerts, J A; Prins, H H T; Bomhoff, D; Verhagen, I; Swart, J M; de Boer, W F

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns.

  13. Kinetics of caesium and potassium absorption by roots of three grass pastures and competitive effects of potassium on caesium uptake in Cynodon sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, J. Juri; Valverde, L. Rubio; Garcia-Sanchez, M. J.; Fernandez, J. A.; Velasco, R. H.

    2008-08-01

    Caesium uptake by plant roots has been normally associated with the uptake of potassium as the potassium transport systems present in plants have also the capacity to transport caesium. Three grass species (Eragrostis curvula, Cynodon sp and Distichlis spicata) growing in seminatural grassland of central Argentina were selected to study their capability to incorporate Cs+ (and K+) using electrophysiological techniques. Although the 137Cs soil inventory ranged between 328-730 Bq m-2 in this region, no 137Cs activity was detected in these plants. However, all the species, submitted previously to K+ starvation, showed the uptake of both Cs+ and K+ when micromolar concentrations of these cations were present in the medium. The uptake showed saturation kinetics for both cations that could be fitted to the Michelis-Menten model. KM values were smaller for K+ than for Cs+, indicating a higher affinity for the first cation. The presence of increasing K+ concentrations in the assay medium inhibited Cs+ uptake in Cynodon sp., as expected if both cations are transported by the same transport systems. This effect is due to the competition of both ions for the union sites of the high affinity potassium transporters. In field situation, where soil concentration of Cs+ is smaller than K+ concentration, is then expectable that caesium activity in plants is not detectable. Nevertheless, the studied plants would have the capacity to incorporate caesium if its availability in soil solution increases. In addition, studies of Cs/K interaction can help us to understand the variability in transfer factors.

  14. Kinetics of caesium and potassium absorption by roots of three grass pastures and competitive effects of potassium on caesium uptake in Cynodon sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, J. Juri; Velasco, R. H.; Valverde, L. Rubio; Garcia-Sanchez, M. J.; Fernandez, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Caesium uptake by plant roots has been normally associated with the uptake of potassium as the potassium transport systems present in plants have also the capacity to transport caesium. Three grass species (Eragrostis curvula, Cynodon sp and Distichlis spicata) growing in seminatural grassland of central Argentina were selected to study their capability to incorporate Cs + (and K + ) using electrophysiological techniques. Although the 137 Cs soil inventory ranged between 328-730 Bq m -2 in this region, no 137 Cs activity was detected in these plants. However, all the species, submitted previously to K + starvation, showed the uptake of both Cs + and K + when micromolar concentrations of these cations were present in the medium. The uptake showed saturation kinetics for both cations that could be fitted to the Michelis-Menten model. K M values were smaller for K + than for Cs + , indicating a higher affinity for the first cation. The presence of increasing K + concentrations in the assay medium inhibited Cs + uptake in Cynodon sp., as expected if both cations are transported by the same transport systems. This effect is due to the competition of both ions for the union sites of the high affinity potassium transporters. In field situation, where soil concentration of Cs + is smaller than K + concentration, is then expectable that caesium activity in plants is not detectable. Nevertheless, the studied plants would have the capacity to incorporate caesium if its availability in soil solution increases. In addition, studies of Cs/K interaction can help us to understand the variability in transfer factors

  15. Evaluation of the grass mixture (Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp.) as Sb phyto-stabilizer in tailings and Sb-rich soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora Armienta, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, Margarita; Ruiz-Villalobos, Carlos E.; Labastida, Israel; Ceniceros, Nora; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra

    2017-04-01

    Green house experiments were carried out to evaluate the growth and Sb assimilation of a grass assemblage: Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp, in tailings and Sb-rich soils. Tailings and soil samples were obtained at the Mexican historical mining zone of Zimapán, Central México. More than 6 tailings impoundments are located at the town outskirts and constitute a contamination source from windblown and waterborne deposit on soils, besides acid mine drainage. Four substrates were used in the experiments: 100% tailings, 20% tailings + 80% soil, 50% tailings + 50% soil , and a soil sample far from tailings as a background. Concentrations of Sb ranged from 310 mg/kg to 413 mg/kg in tailings. A pH of 7.43, 1.27% organic matter, and high concentrations of N, K and P indicated adequate conditions for plant growth. The grass assemblage was raised during 21 days as indicated by OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline 208 Terrestrial Plant Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test. The highest Sb concentrations were measured in plants grown on tailings with 139 mg/kg in the aerial part and 883 mg/kg in roots. Concentrations of Sb decreased as the proportion of tailings diminished with 22.1 mg/kg in the aerial part and 10 mg/kg in roots corresponding to the plants grown in the 20 % tailings + 80% soil . Bioaccumulation (BAC) and bioconcentration factors (BF) of plants grown on tailings (BAC= 0.42, BCF=3.93) indicated their suitability as a phyto-stabilization option. The grass mixture may be thus applied to control windblown particulate tailings taking advantage to their tolerance to high Sb levels.

  16. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadoss Karthikeyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.. In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ, Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines.

  17. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  18. IgE profiles of Bermuda grass pollen sensitised patients evaluated by Phleum pratense allergens Phl P 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 , 7, 11, 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Renato E; Monasterolo, Giorgio; Prina, Paolo; Coco, Giuseppe; Operti, Daniela; Rossi, Lucilla

    2008-06-01

    Despite the difference in geographical dominance of certain grasses, a high degree of allergenic similarity or cross-reactivity between Bermuda grass pollen (BGP) and timothy grass pollen (TGP) has been previously demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the sensitisation to TGP in 411 patients known for their reactivity to BGP extracts by analysing their reactivity to crude timothy pollen extract and timothy pollen purified allergens, establishing their specific IgE-profiles. Using the immunoenzymatic CAP method we evaluated IgE-specific antibodies for BGP- and TGP- extracts and the timothy recombinant (r) and natural (n) allergens rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, nPhl p 4, rPhl p 5, rPhl p 6, rPhl p 7, rPhl p 11, and rPhl p 12. BGP-IgE positive patients (median = 8.0 kUA/l, 2.8-22.2 kUA/l 25th-75th percentile) simultaneously had IgE positive results for TGP (100% of subjects)(median = 48.9 kUA/l, 19.8- > 100 kUA/l 25th-75th percentile) and high prevalence of sensitization to 6/8 Phleum pratense allergens (Phl p 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, markers of genuine sensitisation to TGP) other than profilin and calcium binding protein. More than 72% of BGP allergic patients were co-sensitised to rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, nPhl p 4, rPhl p 5, rPhl p 6. A decrease of total and specific IgE with patients' age was observed. Our data show that all BGP-allergic patients simultaneously exhibit higher IgE antibody levels to recombinant and natural P. pratense allergens as well as to crude TGP extract. This suggests that when choosing an immunotherapeutic regimen for BGP-sensitised patients (after establishing their IgE profile via purified TGP-allergens), subcutaneous or sublingual TGP-extract vaccines in appropriate doses, in order to influence T epitope specificity, might be beneficial. Though extremely uncommon, in cases where a patient is exclusively BGP allergen-sensitised, BGP-extract therapy is the appropriate therapeutic response.

  19. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  20. Genotypic and phenotypic evaluation of off-type grasses in hybrid Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] putting greens using genotyping-by-sequencing and morphological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasor, Eric H; Brosnan, James T; Staton, Margaret E; Lane, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N; Wadl, Phillip A; Conner, Joann A; Schwartz, Brian M

    2018-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] is one of the most widely used grasses on golf courses, with cultivars derived from 'Tifgreen' or 'Tifdwarf' particularly used for putting greens. Many bermudagrass cultivars established for putting greens can be genetically unstable and lead to the occurrence of undesirable off-type grasses that vary in phenotype. The objective of this research was to genetically and phenotypically differentiate off-type grasses and hybrid cultivars. Beginning in 2013, off-type and desirable hybrid bermudagrass samples were collected from golf course putting greens in the southeastern United States and genetically and phenotypically characterized using genotyping-by-sequencing and morphology. Genotyping-by-sequencing determined that 11% (5) of off-type and desirable samples from putting greens were genetically divergent from standard cultivars such as Champion, MiniVerde, Tifdwarf, TifEagle, and Tifgreen. In addition, genotyping-by-sequencing was unable to genetically distinguish all standard cultivars from one another due to their similar origin and clonal propagation; however, over 90,000 potentially informative nucleotide variants were identified among the triploid hybrid cultivars. Although few genetic differences were found in this research, samples harvested from golf course putting greens had variable morphology and were clustered into three distinct phenotypic groups. The majority of off-type grasses in hybrid bermudagrass putting greens were genetically similar with variable morphological traits. Off-type grasses within golf course putting greens have the potential to compromise putting surface functionality and aesthetics.

  1. Two new stilbene trimers from Cynodon dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bi-Jun; Liu, Yao; Gu, Ai-Tong; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Lei; Wang, Shu-Mei; Wang, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Many naturally occurring oligostilbenes have drawn considerable attention because of their intricate structures and diverse bioactivities. Two new stilbene trimers, cystibenetrimerol A (1) and cystibenetrimerol B (2) were isolated from the dried grass of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. The planar structures and stereo configurations of them were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. The isolation and structures elucidation of two new stilbene trimers suggested the ordinary grass belonging to the family Poaceae may be a rich source of stilbene oligomers.

  2. Predição da composição química de bermudas (Cynodon spp. pela espectroscopia de reflectância no infravermelho proximal Prediction of chemical composition of Cynodon spp. by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Serena Fontaneli

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversos cultivares de Cynodon dactylon têm sido cultivados no Rio Grande do Sul para alimentação do rebanho leiteiro, na forma de pastejo ou feno. A rápida determinação do valor nutritivo dessas forrageiras pode ser útil para seu manejo e para o planejamento da dieta dos animais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver curvas de calibração para análise do valor nutritivo de quatro cultivares de Cynodon (Tifton 68, Tifton 85, Florakirk, Coastcross, utilizando o método de reflectância no infravermelho proximal (NIRS. Foram utilizadas 129 amostras de forragem verde, coletadas e analisadas entre 1998 e 2001. Os coeficientes de determinação para proteína bruta, fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro, fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido, matéria seca, cálcio, fósforo, potássio e magnésio foram, respectivamente: 0,98; 0,97; 0,99; 1; 0,92; 0,97; 0,99 e 0,72%. Os erros-padrão de calibração foram de 0,38; 0,60; 0,35; 0,14; 0,02; 0,01; 0,05 e 0,01%, respectivamente. As equações obtidas foram consideradas de excelente resolução para todos os parâmetros estimados, o que indica a acurácia do método para a espécie avaliada.Many Cynodon dactylon cultivars have been cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul state to be used as pasture or hay to feed dairy cattle. Quick determination of the nutritional value of these forages would be valuable for management and diet planning. This work had the objective to develop calibration curves for analysis of the nutritional value of four Cynodon cultivars (Tifton 68, Tifton 85, Florakirk, Coastcross, using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS. A total of 129 fresh samples of green pasture were collected and analyzed from 1998 to 2001. The determination coefficients for crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, dry matter, calcium, phosphorus, potash and magnesium were, respectively, .98, .97, .99, 1, .92, .97, .99 and .72%. The calibration standard error for the same

  3. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerts, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Bomhoff, D.; Verhagen, I.; Swart, J.M.; Boer, de W.F.

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of

  4. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple introductions of Cynodon species in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, M; Frère, C H; Harris-Shultz, K; Anderson, W F; Godwin, I D; Lambrides, C J

    2012-11-01

    The distinction between native and introduced flora within isolated land masses presents unique challenges. The geological and colonisation history of Australia, the world's largest island, makes it a valuable system for studying species endemism, introduction, and phylogeny. Using this strategy we investigated Australian cosmopolitan grasses belonging to the genus Cynodon. While it is believed that seven species of Cynodon are present in Australia, no genetic analyses have investigated the origin, diversity and phylogenetic history of Cynodon within Australia. To address this gap, 147 samples (92 from across Australia and 55 representing global distribution) were sequenced for a total of 3336bp of chloroplast DNA spanning six genes. Data showed the presence of at least six putatively introduced Cynodon species (C. transvaalensis, C. incompletus, C. hirsutus, C. radiatus, C. plectostachyus and C. dactylon) in Australia and suggested multiple recent introductions. C. plectostachyus, a species often confused with C. nlemfuensis, was not previously considered to be present in Australia. Most significantly, we identified two common haplotypes that formed a monophyletic clade diverging from previously identified Cynodon species. We hypothesise that these two haplotypes may represent a previously undescribed species of Cynodon. We provide further evidence that two Australian native species, Brachyachne tenella and B. convergens belong in the genus Cynodon and, therefore, argue for the taxonomic revision of the genus Cynodon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of protein and carbohydrate fractions of Cynodon grasses in different cut age Determinação das frações de proteína e de carboidratos de gramíneas do gênero Cynodon em idades ao corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Dias Gonçalves

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Three Cynodon grasses (Poaceae (Tifton 85, Tifton 44 and Coast-cross harvested at ages 21, 42 and 63 days in the summer were evaluated for protein and carbohydrate fractions composition. Crude protein was divided into 5 fractions: A (non-protein nitrogen, B1 (soluble protein with fast rumen degradability, B2 (insoluble protein with intermediate rumen degradability, B3 (insoluble protein with slow rumen degradability and C (indigestible protein. Carbohydrates were divided into 3 fractions: A + B1 (fast and intermediate rumen digestibility, B2 (slow rumen digestibility and C (indigestible fiber. Experimental design consisted of a split-plot (grasses as plots and cut age as sub-plots with three repetitions. Cut age was analyzed by regression and models were chosen on the analysis of identity. There were no differences (p> 0,05 among grasses with regard to protein and carbohydrate fractions composition. C fraction of protein showed linear increase (p 1 fraction decreased (p 2 and C fractions increased (p O experimento teve por objetivos quantificar as frações de proteína e de carboidratos de três cultivares de Cynodon (Poaceae (Tifton 85, Tifton 44 e Coast-cross, colhidos com idades ao corte de 21, 42 e 63 dias no verão. Para a proteína bruta (PB, determinou-se a fração A (nitrogênio não-protéico, fração B1 (proteína solúvel de rápida degradabilidade no rúmen, fração B2 (proteína insolúvel com taxa de degradação intermediária, fração B3 (proteína com taxa de degradação lenta e fração C (proteína indigestível. Para os carboidratos, determinaram-se as frações A+B1 (frações de rápida e média degradação ruminal, fração B2 (fração lentamente degradada no rúmen e a fração C (carboidratos não digeríveis no rúmen. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de parcelas subdivididas (cultivares como parcelas e idade ao corte como subparcelas com três repetições. Para o fator idade ao corte, foi usada regress

  6. [Influence of saltwater irrigation on the yield and quality of Cynodon dactylon under desert conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruilian; Dov, Paternak; Zhao, Halin

    2002-08-01

    Responses of six varieties (Suwannee, Coast cross, Tifton44, Tifton68, Tifton78 and Tifton85) of Cynodon dactylon to irrigation-water salinity were investigated in field by means of a double line source experimental design. The digestibility of the grass by goat was analyzed using the rumen gastric justice digestion method. The results showed that the six varieties grew well, and had a high yield of fresh grass when eletro-conductivity (Eci) Cynodon dactylon were not effected by saltwater irrigation.

  7. Phyto-bioconversion of hard coal in the Cynodon dactylon/coal rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinigie, Eric E; Mutambanengwe, Cecil C Z; Rose, Peter D

    2010-03-01

    Fundamental processes involved in the microbial degradation of coal and its derivatives have been well documented. A mutualistic interaction between plant roots and certain microorganisms to aid growth of plants such as Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) on hard coal dumps has recently been suggested. In the present study coal bioconversion activity of nonmycorrhizal fungi was investigated in the C. dactylon/coal rhizosphere. Fungal growth on 2% Duff-agar, gutation formation on nitric acid treated coal and submerged culture activity in nitrogen-rich and -deficient broth formed part of the screening and selection of the fungi. The selected fungal isolates were confirmed to be found in pristine C. dactylon/coal rhizosphere. To simulate bioconversion, a fungal aliquot of this rhizosphere was used as inoculum for a Perfusate fixed bed bioreactor, packed with coal. The results demonstrate an enhanced coal bioconversion facilitated by low molecular weight organics and the bioconversion of coal may be initiated by an introduction of nitrogen moieties to the coal substrate. These findings suggest a phyto-bioconversion of hard coal involving plant and microbes occurring in the rhizosphere to promote the growth of C. dactylon. An understanding of this relationship can serve as a benchmark for coal dumps rehabilitation as well as for the industrial scale bioprocessing of hard coal.

  8. Anti-atherosclerotic effect of Cynodon dactylon extract on experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaie, Belal; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Malekinejad, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) is a perennial plant traditionally used as an herbal medicine in many countries. In the present study, anti-atherosclerotic property of ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was investigated in the experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. In this study, 36 male Wistar rats were selected and allocated into six groups (n = 6). The control group received a normal diet, sham group received a high cholesterol diet (HCD; 1.50% cholesterol and 24.00% fat) and other groups received a HCD and ethanolic extract of C. dactylon at low (100 mg kg -1 ), moderate (200 mg kg -1 ) and maximum (400 mg kg -1 ) doses via gavages. The last group received atorvastatin (10 mg kg -1 ) through gavage with a HCD. The study period for all groups was six months. At the end of this period, parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were assessed in the blood samples. Additionally, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations on coronary and aorta arteries sections were performed. The results showed an increase in vessels wall thickness and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the HCD group, while these pathological changes were not seen in C. dactylon -treated groups. Treatment of HCD animals with C. dactylon positively changed lipid profile by lowering of TC, TG and LDL-C. The results indicate that C. dactylon prevents from early atherosclerotic changes in the vessels wall.

  9. Characterization and multiplexing of EST-SSR primers in Cynodon (Poaceae) species1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Margaret C; Frere, Celine H; Prentis, Peter J; Lambrides, Christopher J; Godwin, Ian D

    2010-10-01

    Cynodon species are multiple-use grasses that display varying levels of adaptation to biotic and abiotic stress. Previously identified EST-SSR primers were characterized and multiplexed to assess the level of genetic diversity present within a collection of almost 1200 Cynodon accessions from across Australia. • Two multiplex reactions were developed comprising a total of 16 EST-SSR markers. All SSR markers amplified across different Cynodon species and different levels of ploidy. The number of alleles ranged from one to eight per locus and the total number of alleles for the germplasm collection was 79. • The 16 markers show sufficient variation for the characterization of Cynodon core collections and analysis of population genetic diversity in Cynodon grasses.

  10. Micro-PIXE mapping of elemental distribution in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of the grass, Cynodon dactylon, from gold and uranium mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiersbye, I. M.; Straker, C. J.; Przybylowicz, W. J.

    1999-10-01

    A combination of PIXE, proton back-scattering (BS) spectrometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to determine in situ elemental concentrations in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) grass roots and AM fungal spores from gold and uranium mine tailings in South Africa. AM regions of roots were characterised by locally elevated P and vesicles were defined by distinctive transition metal and radionuclide distributions. Vesicles (AM structures responsible for nutrient storage), accumulated Mn, Cu, Ni and U, whereas Fe and Zn were present at lower levels than in host tissue. AM spores from mine tailings accumulated Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Br, Y, Th and U, but were deficient in P and K. The sequestration of excess metals and radionuclides in vesicles may limit metal availability, and thus toxicity, to the host.

  11. Micro-PIXE mapping of elemental distribution in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of the grass, Cynodon dactylon, from gold and uranium mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiersbye, I.M. E-mail: isabel@gecko.biol.wits.ac.za; Straker, C.J.; Przybylowicz, W.J

    1999-09-02

    A combination of PIXE, proton back-scattering (BS) spectrometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to determine in situ elemental concentrations in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) grass roots and AM fungal spores from gold and uranium mine tailings in South Africa. AM regions of roots were characterised by locally elevated P and vesicles were defined by distinctive transition metal and radionuclide distributions. Vesicles (AM structures responsible for nutrient storage), accumulated Mn, Cu, Ni and U, whereas Fe and Zn were present at lower levels than in host tissue. AM spores from mine tailings accumulated Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Br, Y, Th and U, but were deficient in P and K. The sequestration of excess metals and radionuclides in vesicles may limit metal availability, and thus toxicity, to the host.

  12. Micro-PIXE mapping of elemental distribution in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of the grass, Cynodon dactylon, from gold and uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiersbye, I.M.; Straker, C.J.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    A combination of PIXE, proton back-scattering (BS) spectrometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to determine in situ elemental concentrations in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) grass roots and AM fungal spores from gold and uranium mine tailings in South Africa. AM regions of roots were characterised by locally elevated P and vesicles were defined by distinctive transition metal and radionuclide distributions. Vesicles (AM structures responsible for nutrient storage), accumulated Mn, Cu, Ni and U, whereas Fe and Zn were present at lower levels than in host tissue. AM spores from mine tailings accumulated Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Br, Y, Th and U, but were deficient in P and K. The sequestration of excess metals and radionuclides in vesicles may limit metal availability, and thus toxicity, to the host

  13. Establishing Cynodon dactylon on mining tailings and mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining for copper and cobalt generates extensive mounds of removed topsoil and subsoil, and tailings with toxic levels of copper and cobalt. The threat of soil erosion in a high rainfall regime can be countered with rapid establishment of a sod-forming grass, such as Cynodon dactylon, that covers and binds the soil.

  14. Real-time mapping of salt glands on the leaf surface of Cynodon dactylon L. using scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Meera; Pemaiah, Brindha; Natesan, Ravichandran; Padmavathy, Saralla R; Pachiappan, Jayaraman

    2015-02-01

    Salt glands are specialized organelles present in the leaf tissues of halophytes, which impart salt-tolerance capability to the plant species. These glands are usually identified only by their morphology using conventional staining procedures coupled with optical microscopy. In this work, we have employed scanning electrochemical microscopy to identify the salt glands not only by their morphology but also by their salt excretion behavior. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.) species was chosen for the study as they are known to be salt-tolerant and contain salt glands on leaf surfaces. Scanning electrochemical microscopy performed in sodium chloride medium in the presence and absence of potassium ferrocyanide as redox mediator, reveals the identity of salt glands. More insight into the ion expulsion behavior of these glands was obtained by mapping lateral and vertical variations in ion concentrations using surface impedance measurements which indicated five times higher resistance over the salt glands compared to the surrounding tissues and bulk solution. The protocol could be used to understand the developmental processes in plants grown in different soil/water conditions in order to improve salt tolerance of food crops by genetic engineering and hence improve their agricultural productivity.

  15. Valor nutritivo do capim-elefante (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, do feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa, L. e do feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. para eqüinos Nutritive value of elephant grass (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, L. and coast-cross grass hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. for horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Vieira de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes nos alimentos volumosos capim-elefante, feno de alfafa e feno de capim coast-cross em eqüinos adultos. Dezoito éguas adultas da raça Mangalarga Marchador foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos, que consistiram em dietas contendo os seguintes alimentos volumosos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - feno de alfafa e T3 - feno de capim coast-cross. Os animais foram alimentados ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia. O período experimental constituiu de uma fase de oito dias para adaptação às dietas e cinco dias para a coleta total das fezes. Não houve diferenças no consumo diário de matéria seca (MS das forragens, sendo observados valores médios de 6,27 kg MS, 68,41 g MS/kg0,75 ou 1,51%PV. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade aparente do capim-elefante e dos fenos de alfafa e capim coast-cross foram de 43,10; 55,20; e 49,80% para a MS; 41,60; 53,40; e 47,90% para a energia bruta; 24,60; 71,20; e 56,10% para a proteína bruta; e 40,60; 35,50; e 63,30% para a fibra em detergente neutro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients of elephant grass forages, alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays in adult horses. Eighteen adult Mangalarga Marchador mares were allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments that consisted on diets with the following forages: T1 - elephant grass, T2 - alfalfa hay, T3 - coast-cross grass hay. The animals were ad libitum fed twice a day. The experimental period was constituted by a phase of eight days for diet adaptation and a phase of five days for total collection of feces. There were no differences of forage dry matter intake, with average values of 6.27 kg DM, 68.41 g DM/kg0,75 or 1.51% LW. The average coefficients of apparent digestibility of elephant grass and alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays were 43.10, 55

  16. Modeling a Sustainable Salt Tolerant Grass-Livestock Production System under Saline Conditions in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Kaffka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and trace mineral accumulation threaten the sustainability of crop production in many semi-arid parts of the world, including California’s western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV. We used data from a multi-year field-scale trial in Kings County and related container trials to simulate a forage-grazing system under saline conditions. The model uses rainfall and irrigation water amounts, irrigation water quality, soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to predict Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. growth, quality, and use by cattle. Simulations based on field measurements and a related container study indicate that although soil chemical composition is affected by irrigation water quality, irrigation timing and frequency can be used to mitigate salt and trace mineral accumulation. Bermuda grass yields of up to 12 Mg dry matter (DM·ha−1 were observed at the field site and predicted by the model. Forage yield and quality supports un-supplemented cattle stocking rates of 1.0 to 1.2 animal units (AU·ha−1. However, a balance must be achieved between stocking rate, desired average daily gain, accumulation of salts in the soil profile, and potential pollution of ground water from drainage and leaching. Using available weather data, crop-specific parameter values and field scale measurements of soil salinity and nitrogen levels, the model can be used by farmers growing forages on saline soils elsewhere, to sustain forage and livestock production under similarly marginal conditions.

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Construction of a Gas Station, Car-Care Center, Shoppette and Class Six, and Taco John’s Restaurant at Keesler Air Force Base, Biloxi, Harrison County, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Groundcover on base consists primarily of Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon), centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiluroides), and St. Augustine grass...notification to allow adequate lime fori eview. COASTAL PROGRAM COMPLIANCE (Coastal ari • activities only) : ( ) The activity has been reviewed and

  18. Estimativa do consumo de matéria seca de vacas em lactação em pastejo rotativo em capim coastcross (Cynodon dactylon, (L. Pers cv. coast-cross Estimative of the dry matter intake of lactating cows in intensive grazing coastcross grass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo estimar o consumo total de MS de vacas das raças gir e girolanda, em pastagem de capim coastcross [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross]. Foram utilizadas oito vacas gir e oito girolanda com 30 a 90 dias de lactação. Foi utilizada uma área de cinco hectares (ha, dividida em 10 piquetes de um hectare, e a pastagem manejada em pastejo rotacionado, com três dias de ocupação e 27 dias de descanso e taxa de lotação de 1,6 animais/ha no final da seca e 3,2 animais/ha nas demais épocas experimentais. Para a estimativa do consumo, foi utilizado o marcador cromo mordente. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com dois tratamentos (gir e girolanda, oito repetições e quatro blocos (épocas. O consumo total médio foi de 7,68kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça girolanda e 5,71kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça gir, correspondentes a 1,58% e 1,38% do peso vivo, respectivamente. Os consumos médios de capim coastcross estimados foram de 2,70kg e 4,68kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça gir e girolanda, correspondendo a 0,66 e 1,16% de PV, respectivamente.The objective of this experiment was to estimate the total dry matter intake of gir and girolanda breed cows kept in coastcross pasture [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross]. Eight gir and eight girolanda cows were used, all between 30 and 90 days of lactation period. The pasture (five ha was divided in 10 paddocks, grazed for three days with 27 days of resting period with stocking rate of 1.6 cows/ha at the end of the dry season and 3.2 cows/ha in the other experimental periods. Chromic mordant marker was used to estimate dry matter intake. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with two treatments (gir and girolanda, eight replications and four blocks (seasons. The total mean dry matter intake for girolanda cows was of 7.68 kg DM/cow/day and 5.71 kg DM/cow/day for gir cows, corresponding to 1.58% and 1.38% live weight

  19. Functional immunoglobulin E cross-reactivity between Pas n 1 of Bahia grass pollen and other group 1 grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M; Dang, T D; Voskamp, A; Drew, A C; Biondo, M; Phung, M; Upham, J W; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    2011-02-01

    Grass pollens are major triggers of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the immunological relationships between pollen allergens of the subtropical Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, and temperate grasses are unresolved. To assess serum IgE cross-reactivity between subtropical P. notatum and temperate Lolium perenne (Ryegrass) pollen allergens. Serum IgE reactivities of grass pollen-allergic patients with P. notatum, L. perenne and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen extracts and their respective purified group 1 allergens, Pas n 1, Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1, were compared by immunoblotting, ELISA and basophil activation. In a cohort of 51 patients from a temperate region, a high frequency of IgE reactivity with each grass pollen was detected, but reactivity with L. perenne pollen was substantially greater than with P. notatum and C. dactylon pollen. Similarly, serum IgE reactivity with Lol p 1 was greater than with Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. For seven of eight sera studied in detail, asymmetric serum IgE cross-reactivity was observed; L. perenne pollen inhibited IgE reactivity with P. notatum pollen but not the converse, and IgE reactivity with Pas n 1 was inhibited by Lol p 1 but IgE reactivity with Lol p 1 was not inhibited by Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. Importantly, P. notatum pollen and Pas n 1 activated basophils in grass pollen-allergic patients from a temperate region, although stimulation was greater by pollen of L. perenne than P. notatum or C. dactylon, and by Lol p 1 than Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. In contrast, a cohort of 47 patients from a subtropical region showed similar IgE reactivity with P. notatum and L. perenne pollen, and reciprocal cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity between L. perenne and P. notatum. Pollen allergens of the subtropical P. notatum, including Pas n 1, show clinically relevant IgE cross-reactivity with pollen allergens of L. perenne but also species-specific IgE reactivity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Polyploidy creates higher diversity among Cynodon accessions as assessed by molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsen, Osman; Sever-Mutlu, Songul; Mutlu, Nedim; Tuna, Metin; Karaguzel, Osman; Shearman, Robert C; Riordan, Terrance P; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M

    2009-05-01

    Developing a better understanding of associations among ploidy level, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of Cynodon accessions could be beneficial to bermudagrass breeding programs, and would enhance our understanding of the evolutionary biology of this warm season grass species. This study was initiated to: (1) determine ploidy analysis of Cynodon accessions collected from Turkey, (2) investigate associations between ploidy level and diversity, (3) determine whether geographic and ploidy distribution are related to nuclear genome variation, and (4) correlate among four nuclear molecular marker systems for Cynodon accessions' genetic analyses. One hundred and eighty-two Cynodon accessions collected in Turkey from an area south of the Taurus Mountains along the Mediterranean cost and ten known genotypes were genotyped using sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), peroxidase gene polymorphism (POGP), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The diploids, triploids, tetraploids, pentaploids, and hexaploids revealed by flow cytometry had a linear present band frequency of 0.36, 0.47, 0.49, 0.52, and 0.54, respectively. Regression analysis explained that quadratic relationship between ploidy level and band frequency was the most explanatory (r = 0.62, P Cynodon accessions' genetic structure can aid to enhance breeding programs and broaden genetic base of commercial cultivars.

  1. Ruminal degradability of oat (Avena sativum L., Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., and Esmeralda grass (Joysia japonica hay pellet or not/ Degradabilidade ruminal dos fenos de aveia (Avena sativum L, Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., e grama Esmeralda (Joysia japonica peletizado ou não

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of the oat hay (OH, Coast cross hay (CCH, pellet Esmeralda grass hay (PEH and Esmeralda grass hay (EH. The in situ technique was used, with four bovines, castrated, rumen fistulated, distributed in an Latin square 4x4 experimental design. The material was incubated in the rumen in the times 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hours. There was no difference between hays on the degradation rate (c, %/h for the CP, NDF and ADF. For the DM, the OH and PEH presented higher degradation rate. There was difference on the effective degradability (ED, % of the hays, and the observed values were: OH, 48.74%; PEH, 42.44%; EH, 35.13%; CCH, 30.24%. It can be concluded that oat hay presented the highest values for the soluble fraction and for the ED of all nutrients evaluated. The pellet process of the Esmeralda grass resulted in higher ED of the DM and of the fiber, with no alteration on the CP ED.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do feno de aveia (FA, feno de Coast cross (FCC, feno de grama Esmeralda peletizado (FEP e feno de grama Esmeralda (FE. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ com quatro bovinos machos, castrados, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4. O material foi incubado no rúmen nos tempos de 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 e 144 horas. Não houve diferença entre os fenos na taxa de degradação (c, %/h para a PB, FDN e FDA. Para a MS, o FA e FEP apresentaram maior taxa de degradação. Houve diferença na degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS dos fenos sendo os valores observados: FA, 48,74%; FEP, 42,44%; FE, 35,13%; FCC, 30,24%. Conclui-se que o feno de aveia obteve maiores valores para a fração solúvel e maior

  2. IN VITRO FERMENTATION EFFICIENCY OF MIXTURES OF Cynodon nlemfuensis, Leucaena leucocephala AND TWO ENERGY SOURCES (MAIZE OR SUGAR CANE MOLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martin Estrada-Liévano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fermentation efficiency of Cynodon nlemfuensis forage (star grass and Leucaena leucocephala foliage (leucaena and two energy sources (i.e. maize and sugar cane molasses mixture was evaluated. Mixture samples (1 g DM were incubated for 24 h. All the mixtures were added with 500 mg of polyetilenglycol (PEG. Adding molasses to star grass increased dry matter true digestibility and carbohydrate fermentation (P

  3. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses and an assessment of the genetic and cytogenetic effects. Progress report, May 1, 1975--April 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Hanna, W.W.

    1976-06-01

    Irradiation ( 60 Coγ source) was used for the genetic improvement of several warm season grasses and pearl millet. Results of plant breeding experiments using radioinduced mutants of Bermuda grass and millet are reported

  4. Hilly grasses and leaves: a promising unconventional feed resource for livestock.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain M.E.; Karim M.H.; Ahmed M.I.; Sultana S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different hilly grasses and leaves available in Bandarban areas of Bangladesh. Total 10 different hilly grasses and leaves such as Bottle gourd leaf (Lagenaria siceraria), Castor bean leaf (Ricinus communis), Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), Dhol kolmi (Ipomoea carnea), Giant reed leaf (Arundo donax), Hilly grass (Cynodon dactylon), Pithraj leaf (Aphanamixis polystachya), Sal leaf (Shorea robusta), Shegun leaf (Tectona grandis...

  5. Techniques for Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. control suitable for use in fallow organic transition in the southeastern U.S. coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (common bermudagrass) is a troublesome perennial grass common in the southeastern U. S. and extremely difficult to control in organic crop production systems. Research trials in a site heavily infested with C. dactylon were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate systems...

  6. Greenhouse studies on the phyto-extraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M. J.; Schutte, C. F.; Nyamangara, J.

    For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated pasturelands. This study was conducted to assess the capacity of star grass to accumulate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and develop models incorporating grass yield, metal uptake and soil bio-available (EDTA extractable) metal content, that could be used to determine critical grass and soil concentrations at which grass productivity declines. Star grass was planted in 30 fertilized pots containing sandy soil within a greenhouse. The pots consisted of nine treatments of varying levels of added inorganic Pb and Cd subjected to treated wastewater application and one control that had no added metals and received water application only. The elements were applied to the soils once just after planting the grass. Chemical analyses showed that star grass had a relatively high phyto-extraction capacity of Pb and Cd, comparable to that of hyper-accumulating grasses such as Lolium perenne (rye grass). It accumulated Pb and Cd to levels far beyond the recommended maximum limits for pasture grass. Analysis of variance on log-normal transformed data showed that bio-available soil metal concentrations correlated strongly with grass metal content and grass metal content correlated strongly with the yield. There was however a weak correlation between the yield and bio-available soil levels. The yield versus grass metal content models that were developed for the first crop and re-growth predicted similar critical metal concentrations and yields. Using the critical grass metal concentrations in the soil bio-available metal concentration versus grass metal concentration models allowed for the prediction of the

  7. Bermuda Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bermuda Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  8. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  9. Bermuda 3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  10. Bermuda 1 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  11. Diversity of alkane hydroxylase genes on the rhizoplane of grasses planted in petroleum-contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboi, Shun; Yamamura, Shigeki; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the diversity and genotypic features of alkane hydroxylase genes on rhizoplanes of grasses planted in artificial petroleum-contaminated soils to acquire new insights into the bacterial communities responsible for petroleum degradation in phytoremediation. Four types of grass (Cynodon dactylon, two phenotypes of Zoysia japonica, and Z. matrella) were used. The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon effectively decreased in the grass-planted systems compared with t...

  12. CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS., AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words/phrases: Cynodon dactylon, salinity, salt glands, salt secretion ... associated with salt glands, sensitivity of secretion to temperature and metabolic inhibitors (Thomson. .... G, salt gland; Magnification = X400; scale bar = 50 n. Fig. 4. .... relative humidity causes a rapid transpiration rate in excess of absorption from ...

  13. Physiological integration enhanced the tolerance of Cynodon dactylon to flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z J; Fan, D Y; Chen, F Q; Yuan, Q Y; Chow, W S; Xie, Z Q

    2015-03-01

    Many flooding-tolerant species are clonal plants; however, the effects of physiological integration on plant responses to flooding have received limited attention. We hypothesise that flooding can trigger changes in metabolism of carbohydrates and ROS (reactive oxygen species) in clonal plants, and that physiological integration can ameliorate the adverse effects of stress, subsequently restoring the growth of flooded ramets. In the present study, we conducted a factorial experiment combining flooding to apical ramets and stolon severing (preventing physiological integration) between apical and basal ramets of Cynodon dactylon, which is a stoloniferous perennial grass with considerable flooding tolerance. Flooding-induced responses including decreased root biomass, accumulation of soluble sugar and starch, as well as increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in apical ramets. Physiological integration relieved growth inhibition, carbohydrate accumulation and induction of antioxidant enzyme activity in stressed ramets, as expected, without any observable cost in unstressed ramets. We speculate that relief of flooding stress in clonal plants may rely on oxidising power and electron acceptors transferred between ramets through physiological integration. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Comportamiento de céspedes de Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. en Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Laurencena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En zonas subtropicales o templadas cálidas las gramíneas estivales constituyen la base del césped pero presentan dormancia durante el invierno. Por ello es importante el conocimiento de céspedes con períodos de emergencia a implantación y vegetativo inactivo cortos, de textura fina, buen color, buen comportamiento sanitario y respuesta a fertilización. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento en el Departamento Paraná (Entre Ríos, Argentina de céspedes de Cynodon dactylon (bermuda comercializados para uso ornamental y deportivo. Se evaluaron cobertura, textura, color, dormancia, rebrote y respuesta a fertilización en un ensayo en dos tratamientos: con y sin drenaje, con cuatro repeticiones. El diseño experimental fue de parcelas apareadas y las mediciones se realizaron desde marzo de 2005 a noviembre de 2006. No hubo diferencias entre las bermudas evaluadas y todas presentaron alta cobertura, textura fina, color verde medio, dormancia con bajas temperaturas y buena respuesta a la fertilización.

  15. What is Cynodon radiatus Roth ex R. & S. (Poaceae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowack, R.

    1992-01-01

    Roemer and Schultes (1817) described Cynodon radiatus, basing themselves on a manuscript by A.W. Roth, copying Roth's brief diagnosis and comment. It was compared to Cynodon dactylon, differing by its larger habit, the number and direction of the spikes, and the glabrous blades and sheaths. This was

  16. Karyotype asymmetry in Cynodon Rich. (Poaceae) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavegatto, R B; Paula, C M P; Souza Sobrinho, F; Benites, F R G; Techio, V H

    2016-12-02

    Cynodon is a genus of plants with forage potential that has attracted the interest of breeders. These species have high morphological variability in a large number of varieties and cytotypes, hampering identification. This study aimed to determine the karyotype asymmetry index among accessions of Cynodon to discriminate between them. Karyotype symmetry was based on three estimates, which were compared. The basic number for the genus is x = 9. The results of the chromosome count and DNA quantification, respectively, were as follows: two diploid accessions (2n = 2x = 18 and 1.08 ± 0.094 to 1.17 ± 0.036 pg DNA and ± standard deviation), one triploid accession (2n = 3x = 27 and 1.63 ± 0.017 pg DNA), four tetraploid accessions (2n = 4x = 36 and 1.88 ± 0.069 to 2.10 ± 0.07 pg DNA), and one pentaploid accession (2n = 5x = 45 and 2.55 ± 0.098 pg DNA). C. incompletus var. hirsutus had the longest total length of the haploid lot (29.05 µm), with chromosomes that ranged from 1.7 to 6.2 µm in length. On the basis of the karyotype asymmetry indices, the accessions were divided into two groups: 1) C. dactylon var. dactylon, C. transvaalensis, C. dactylon var. polevansii, three accessions of Cynodon sp, and C. nlemfuensis; and 2) C. incompletus var. hirsutus. This is the first description of tetraploidy in C. transvaalensis. The karyotypic data facilitated a determination of the degree of proximity between the accessions.

  17. Root growth of Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica collected from motorways at different concentrations of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M H; Lau, W M

    1985-04-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on the roadside vegetation at three different sites: Tai Po, a commercial and residential area (average annual daily traffic (AADT) = 23730; and Shek O and Wu Kai Sha, recreational areas (AADT = 1590 and 20, respectively). Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica were the two most dominant species recorded. The Tai Po site had higher Pb contents in both soil and plant, followed by Shek O, and then Wu Kai Sha. Tillers of C. dactylon and E. indica from the three sites were subjected to a series concentrations of Pb(NO3)2. By comparing their indexes of tolerance and values of 14-day EC50 (effective concentration reducing the normal root growth by 50%), roadside populations of the two grasses collected from Tai Po and Shek O, especially the former one, were more tolerant to elevated levels of Pb compared with those collected from Wu Kai Sha.

  18. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory and DNA protective activities of the shoots of Cynodon dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangathayaru, K; Umadevi, M; Reddy, C Umamaheswara

    2009-05-04

    Fresh juice of Cyanodon dactylon known as 'durva' grass is employed in India as a rejuvenator and for wound healing. To validate the traditional use of the herb through evaluation of DNA protective activity in vitro and immunomodulatory activity in vivo. Fresh juice of the grass was prepared as indicated for use in traditional medicine and standardized for solid content. Its total phenol content was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Freshly prepared juice was investigated for its effect on doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in vitro. Its immunomodulatory activity was tested on balb/c mice by the humoral antibody response which was determined by haemagglutination antibody titer and spleen cell assay. Fresh juice of Cyanodon dactylon of 1.46% (w/w) solid content had a phenolic content of 47+/-0.33 mg/kg GAE. At doses equivalent to 50, 100 and 200mg total solids/kg body weight the juice protected human DNA against doxorubicin-induced DNA damage as demonstrated in DNA spectral studies, where the ratio of absorbance of DNA at 260 and 280 nm in samples pretreated with the juice was 1.66, 1.53 and 1.63 respectively, while it was 1.37 for DNA treated with doxorubicin only. This indicates nucleic acid purity in the Cynodon dactylon treated samples. Oral administration of the juice at 250 and 500 mg/kg in balb/c mice increased humoral antibody response upon antigen challenge, as evidenced by a dose-dependent, statistically significant increase in antibody titer in the haemagglutination antibody assay and plaque forming cell assay. The present report demonstrated the DNA protective activity and immunomodulatory property of the fresh juice of Cynodon dactylon validating the traditional use of the herb as a 'rasayana' in ayurvedic system of medicine.

  19. Naise võim Bermudas : kubjas kukutati / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Suurbritanniale kuuluva Bermuda saare parlamendivalimised vallandasid sündmuste ahela, mis võivad muuta asumaa poliitikat. Ametist tagandati peaminister Jennifer Meredith Smith ja uueks peaministriks sai senine tööminister William Alexander Scott

  20. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses and an assessment of the genetic and cytogenetic effects. Annual report, August 1, 1976--October 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Hanna, W.W.

    1977-08-01

    New techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of several warm season grasses are described. The economic value of radiation induced plant mutants and the genetic and cytogenetic effects of these treatments are discussed. Alterations in protein quality in pearl millet grain and improved varieties of Bermuda grass following radiation treatment are reported

  1. Antiarthritic activity of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangale, Jitendra; Acharya, Sanjeev

    2014-03-01

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) (Poaceae) is traditionally used herb to treat fevers, skin diseases and rheumatic affections. The ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was found to be safe at all the dose levels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) and there was no mortality up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg of extract when administered orally. C. dactylon showed significant antiarthritic activity against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Treatment with C. dactylon significantly reduced the mean percentage change in injected and non injected paw, ankle diameter, clinical severity and significantly increased body weight. Results were confirmed using biochemical parameters; there was a significant improvement in the levels of Hb and RBC in C. dactylon treated rats. The increased levels of WBC, ESR, C- reactive protein (CRP) and TNFalpha were significantly suppressed in C. dactylon treated rats. C. dactylon showed protective effect in arthritic joints but it has been supported by an improvement in bone lesions rather than in cartilage lesions. It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of C. dactylon at a dose of 400 mg/kg is effective in improving haematological level, CRP and reducing TNFalpha level. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides in ethanolic extract. All the above results support the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Fungal disease prevention in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa) and other grasses by growth-promoting seed-associated endophytic bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Satish K.; Kingsley, Kathryn L.; Bergen, Marshall S.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James F.

    2018-01-01

    Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium, Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusariumblights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), or annual bluegrass (Poa annua) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. We found that three bacteria belonging to genus Pseudomonas spp. (SLB4-P. fluorescens, SLB6-Pseudomonas sp. and SY1-Pseudomonassp.) promoted seedling development, including enhancement of root and shoot growth, and stimulation of root hair formation. These bacteria were also found to increase phosphate solubilization in in vitro experiments. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) significantly protected grass seedlings from Fusarium infection. In co-culture experiments, strain SY1 strongly inhibited fungal pathogens with 85.71% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum, 86.33% growth inhibition of Curvularia sp. and 82.14% growth inhibition of Alternaria sp. Seedlings previously treated with bacteria were found much less infected by F. oxysporum in comparison to non-treated controls. On microscopic observation we found that bacteria appeared to degrade fungal mycelia actively. Metabolite products of strain SY1 in agar were also found to inhibit fungal growth on nutrient media. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) was found to produce antifungal volatiles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using specific primers for pyrrolnitirin synthesis and HCN (hydrogen cyanide) production

  3. Physiological responses of somaclonal variants of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x Cynodon dactylon) to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyun; Chen, Chuanhao; Wang, Zhongcheng; Guo, Zhenfei; Li, Haihang

    2009-03-01

    Eight somaclonal variants with enhanced drought tolerance were isolated from regenerated plants of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis cv., TifEagle). Three of them (10-17, 89-02, 117-08) with strong drought tolerance were selected for investigations of physiological responses to drought stress. Compared to the parent control, TifEagle, the somaclonal variants had higher relative water contents and relative growth, and lower ion leakages in the greenhouse tests, while no difference in evapotranspirational water losses and soil water contents was observed between the variants and TifEagle. The variants also had less leaf firing in the field tests under drought stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities decreased gradually in responses to drought stress in all plants and exhibited negative correlations with ion leakage, indicating that the declined activities of these antioxidant enzymes were associated with drought injury in the triploid bermudagrass. However, CAT activities were significantly higher in all three variants than in TifEagle during drought stress. Two variants, 10-17 and 89-02, also had significantly higher APX activities than TifEagle before and during the first 4 days of drought treatments. These two lines also showed higher SOD activities after prolonged drought stress. Proline, total soluble sugars and sucrose were accumulated under drought stress in all plants and exhibited positive correlations with ion leakage. More proline and sugars were accumulated in TifEagle than in the variants. The results indicated that higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes in the variants during drought stress are associated with their increased drought tolerance.

  4. Lead, zinc and copper accumulation and tolerance in populations of Paspalum distichum and Cynodon dactylon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, W.S.; Ye, Z.H.; Lan, C.Y.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Wong, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Metal-tolerant populations of the plants Paspalum distichum and Cunodon dactylon were identified. - Both Fankou and Lechang lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings located at Guangdong Province contained high levels of total and DTPA-extractable Pb, Zn and Cu. Paspalum distichum and Cynodon dactylon were dominant species colonized naturally on the tailings. Lead, zinc and copper accumulation and tolerance of different populations of the two grasses growing on the tailings were investigated. Tillers of these populations including those from an uncontaminated area were subjected to the following concentrations: 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg l -1 Pb, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg l -1 Zn, or 0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2 mg l -1 Cu for 14 days, respectively, then tolerance index (TI) and EC 50 (the concentrations of metals in solutions which reduce 50% of normal root growth) were calculated. The results indicated that both Lechang and Fankou populations of the two grasses showed a greater tolerance to the three metals than those growing on the uncontaminated area, which suggested that co-tolerant ecotypes have evolved in the two grasses. P. distichum collected from Fankou tailings had the highest tolerance to Cu while Lechang population the highest tolerance to Pb and Zn among the tested populations, and tolerance levels in P. distichum were related to metal concentrations in the plants. P. distichum had a better growth performance than C. dactylon when both of them were grown on the tailings sites. Tolerant populations of these species would serve as potential candidates for re-vegetation of wastelands contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cu

  5. Lead, zinc and copper accumulation and tolerance in populations of Paspalum distichum and Cynodon dactylon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, W.S.; Ye, Z.H.; Lan, C.Y.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Wong, M.H

    2002-12-01

    Metal-tolerant populations of the plants Paspalum distichum and Cunodon dactylon were identified. - Both Fankou and Lechang lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings located at Guangdong Province contained high levels of total and DTPA-extractable Pb, Zn and Cu. Paspalum distichum and Cynodon dactylon were dominant species colonized naturally on the tailings. Lead, zinc and copper accumulation and tolerance of different populations of the two grasses growing on the tailings were investigated. Tillers of these populations including those from an uncontaminated area were subjected to the following concentrations: 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg l{sup -1} Pb, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg l{sup -1} Zn, or 0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2 mg l{sup -1} Cu for 14 days, respectively, then tolerance index (TI) and EC{sub 50} (the concentrations of metals in solutions which reduce 50% of normal root growth) were calculated. The results indicated that both Lechang and Fankou populations of the two grasses showed a greater tolerance to the three metals than those growing on the uncontaminated area, which suggested that co-tolerant ecotypes have evolved in the two grasses. P. distichum collected from Fankou tailings had the highest tolerance to Cu while Lechang population the highest tolerance to Pb and Zn among the tested populations, and tolerance levels in P. distichum were related to metal concentrations in the plants. P. distichum had a better growth performance than C. dactylon when both of them were grown on the tailings sites. Tolerant populations of these species would serve as potential candidates for re-vegetation of wastelands contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cu.

  6. Grass genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    1998-01-01

    For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...

  7. Accumulation and resistance to copper of two biotypes of Cynodon dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youbao; Zhang, Li; Yao, Jing; Huang, Yongjie; Yan, Mi

    2009-04-01

    The effects of copper accumulation and resistance in two biotypes of Cynodon dactylon were studied. Results showed that at a low concentration of copper (Cynodon dactylon was generally unaffected. As copper concentration increased, negative effects on the growth of Cynodon dactylon became apparent. The critical concentration at which the plant exhibited poisoning symptoms was different for the two biotypes of Cynodon dactylon. At 500 mg/kg copper concentration in soil, the biotype from the polluted area showed significantly higher tolerance of copper than the biotype from the unpolluted area.

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis provides new insights into erect and prostrate growth in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Xiaolin; Zong, Junqin; Chen, Jingbo; Li, Jianjian; Guo, Hailin; Liu, Jianxiu

    2017-12-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) is a prominent warm-season turf and forage grass species with multiple applications. In most C. dactylon cultivars and accessions, erect-growing stems (shoot) and prostrate-growing stems (stolon) often coexist. These two types of stems are both formed through tillering but grow in two directions with different tiller angles. Elucidating the mechanism of tiller angle regulation in bermudagrass could provide important clues to breed cultivars with different plant architectural features for diverse usage. In this study, we compared the stem internode transcriptome of two bermudagrass wild accessions with extremely different tiller angles and stem growth directions. A total of 2088 and 12,141 unigenes were preferentially expressed in prostrate-growing wild accession C792 and erect-growing wild accession C793, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology-based Annotation System (KOBAS) analyses further indicated that light- and gravity-responsive genes were enriched in accession C792, whereas lignin synthesis-related genes were enriched in accession C793, which well explains the difference in lignification of vascular bundles and mechanical tissues in the two accessions. These results not only expand our understanding of the genetic control of tiller angle and stem growth direction in bermudagrass but also provide insight for future molecular breeding of C. dactylon and other turfgrass species with different plant architectures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. A potent feed preservative candidate produced by Calcarisporium sp., an endophyte residing in stargrass (Cynodon dactylon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L L; Song, Y C; Tan, R X

    2004-01-01

    The cultures of an endophytic fungus Calcarisporium sp. were screened for inhibitors on the growth of feed-associated moulds and on the aflatoxin biosynthesis to find a safe and effective feed preservative. Eight test fungi were isolated from the spoiled poultry feed. The endophytic fungus Calcarisporium sp. was separated from the Chinese coastal grass Cynodon dactylon. The antifungal action concerning the endophytic culture extract (ECE) was performed with propionic acid (PPA) as the corresponding reference. The ECE had a similar antifungal efficacy to PPA in a concentration-dependent manner. The susceptibility order of the ECE to the test fungi was found to be Fusarium sp. > Aspergillus spp. > Penicillium spp. Furthermore, the application of the ECE in pelleted-layer duck feed as a preservative was carried out at a humidity of 10, 15 and 20%. It has been discerned that mould growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis could be co-inhibited almost completely by ECE at concentrations higher than 1.0% (w/w). The LD50 of the ECE on mice was shown to be higher than 28 g kg-1. The ECE can be selected as an inhibitor to preserve poultry feed on inhibiting the growth of mould and aflatoxin biosynthesis during feed storage. The ECE may be an effective and biosafe antifungal ingredient for poultry feed and holds a potential market prospect in feed industry.

  10. Comparative analyses of physiological responses of Cynodon dactylon accessions from Southwest China to sulfur dioxide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Sun, Lingxia; Cai, Shizhen; Huang, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity.

  11. Avaliação de cultivares do gênero Cynodon com e sem nitrogênio Evaluation of cultivars of the genus Cynodon with or without nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Cecato

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, da matéria orgânica (DIVMO, da parede celular (DIVPC, a produção de matéria seca verde total (PMSVT, vigor da rebrota (VR e relação colmo/lâmina foliar (C/L de cinco cultivares do gênero Cynodon (Tifton 44, Tifton 85, “Coast-cross”, Estrela Porto Rico e Estrela Roxa, em 4 cortes a cada 35 dias no verão (PV e 2 cortes a cada 70 dias no inverno (PI com e sem N (0 e 400 kg/ha/ano. Na avaliação da composição química, a PB não diferiu (P ≤ 0,05 entre as gramíneas, porém diferiu (P ≤ 0,05 quanto ao nível de nitrogênio e ao corte. A concentração da FDA e FDN apresentou diferença estatística (P ≤ 0,05 entre as gramíneas, nível de adubação e cortes realizados. As gramíneas apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre si (P ≤ 0,05 para a DIVMS, DIVMO e DIVPC. A Tifton 44 apresentou digestibilidade maior para todos os parâmetros, enquanto que a cultivar Estrela Porto Rico apresentou DIVPC menor em relação às demais, e as outras não diferiram entre si. A PMSVT diferiu (P Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDDM, organic matter (IVDOM and cell wall (IVDCW, green dry matter production (GDMP, plant re-growth (PR and stem/leaf ratio (S/L of five cultivars of the genus Cynodon at two levels of N fertilization (0 and 400 kg/ha in the summer and spring are provided. CP did not differ (P > 0.05 from other grasses in chemical composition. However differences (P ≤ 0.05 occurred due to nitrogen level and cut intervals. Values for ADF and NDF were affected (P ≤ 0,05 by grass, nitrogen level and cut intervals. Grasses showed statistical differences (P ≤ 0.05 for IVDDM, IVDOM and IVDCW. Tifton 44 showed the highest digestibility for all parameters, while Estrela Porto Rico the lowest digestibility for IVDCW. Other grasses did not differ from each other. There were

  12. Lead and cadmium interactions in Cynodon nlemfuensis and sandy soil subjected to treated wastewater application under greenhouse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyiwa, Simon; Chimbari, Moses John; Schutte, Frederik

    Pb and Cd are known to influence each other’s uptake by some plants when the two metals exist in the soil in significant amounts. This influence may be beneficial if it reduces uptake of metal by plants but may be detrimental if it increases uptake of the metal. This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of Pb and Cd in sandy soils and Cynodon nlemfluensis (star grass). Star grass was grown under greenhouse conditions in 33 fertilized pots containing sandy soils. Three weeks after planting the grass the pots were randomly assigned to the following treatments replicated three times; (a) application of three varying concentrations of Pb or Cd in addition to effluent and sludge, (b) application of three varying concentrations of combined Pb and Cd in addition to effluent and sludge, (c) application of water and (d) application of only effluent and sludge. Analysis of grass samples was done 45 and 90 days after addition of Pb and Cd to pots and that of the soil was done 90 days after addition of Pb and Cd to pots. The log normal mean level (in mg/kg) of Pb detected in the soil was 1.75 and that of Cd was 0.057 in mixed treatments while for single treatments the levels were 1.67 for Pb and 0.03 for Cd. The presence of Cd in the soil had no effect on the bio-available level of Pb but Pb significantly ( p < 0.05) increased the bio-available concentration of Cd. The log normal mean levels of Pb in grass re-growth from mixed treatment was 1.68 and that of Cd was 0.57 while the values for single treatments were 1.47 for Pb and 0.31 for Cd. There was no significant change in the level of uptake of Pb between single treatments and mixed treatments. However, Pb significantly increased uptake of Cd in mixed treatments compared to single treatments ( p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that co-presence of Pb and Cd may have the detrimental effect of increasing uptake of Cd in star grass.

  13. Evaluation of Cynodon dactylon for wound healing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Pandit, Srikanta; Chakrabarti, Shrabana; Banerjee, Saheli; Poyra, Nandini; Seal, Tapan

    2017-02-02

    Research in the field of wound healing is very recent. The concept of wound healing is changing from day to day. Ayurveda is the richest source of plant drugs for management of wounds and Cynodon dactylon L. is one such. The plant is used as hemostatic and wound healing agent from ethnopharmacological point of view. Aim of the present study is scientific validation of the plant for wound healing activity in detail. Aqueous extract of the plant was prepared and phytochemical constituents were detected by HPLC analysis. Acute and dermatological toxicity study of the extract was performed. Pharmacological testing of 15% ointment (w/w) of the extract with respect to placebo control and standard comparator framycetin were done on full thickness punch wound in Wister rats and effects were evaluated based on parameters like wound contraction size (mm 2 ), tensile strength (g); tissue DNA, RNA, protein, hydroxyproline and histological examination. The ointment was applied on selected clinical cases of chronic and complicated wounds and efficacy was evaluated on basis of scoring on granulation, epithelialization, vascularity as well as routine hematological investigations. Significant results (pCynodon dactylon explores its potential wound healing activity in animal model and subsequent feasibility in human subjects. Phenolic acids and flavonoids present in c. dactylon supports its wound healing property for its anti-oxidative activity that are responsible for collagenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective role of Cynodon dactylon in ameliorating the aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Kumari, Balasubramanian Rathina; Nandhini, Devarajulu Nisha

    2011-12-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) is a creeping grass used as a traditional ayurvedic medicine in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of C. dactylon (AECD) could potentially prevent aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat brain. Male albino rats were administered with AlCl(3) at a dose of 4.2 mg/kg/day i.p. for 4 weeks. Experimental rats were given C. dactylon extract in two different doses of 300 mg and 750 mg/keg/day orally 1 h prior to the AlCl(3) administration for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiments, antioxidant status and activities of ATPases in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rat brain were measured. Aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of GSH and the activities of SOD, GPx, GST, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase and increased the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with AECD at a dose of 750 mg/kg b.w increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase) and also decreased the level of LPO significantly, when compared with aluminium-induced rats. The results of this study indicated that AECD has potential to protect the various brain regions from aluminium-induced neurotoxicity.

  15. Trace metals bioaccumulation potentials of three indigenous grasses grown on polluted soils collected around mining areas in Pretoria, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lion, G. N.; Olowoyo, J. O.; Modise, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phyto remediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in re mediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three indigenous grasses as bioaccumulators of trace metals from polluted soils. Seeds of these grasses were introduced into pots containing polluted soil samples after the addition of organic manure. The seeds of the grasses were allowed to germinate and grow to maturity before harvesting. The harvested grasses were later separated into shoots and roots and the trace metal contents were determined using ICP –MS. From all the grasses, the concentrations of trace metals in the roots were more than those recorded in the shoot with a significant difference (P Themeda trianda > Cynodon dactylon. The study concluded that the three grasses used were all able to bioaccumulate trace metals in a similar proportion from the polluted soils. However, since livestock feed on these grasses, they should not be allowed to feed on the grasses used in this study especially when harvested from a polluted soil due to their bioaccumulative potentials. (au)

  16. Ocean time-series near Bermuda: Hydrostation S and the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic time-series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Anthony F.; Knap, Anthony H.

    1992-01-01

    Bermuda is the site of two ocean time-series programs. At Hydrostation S, the ongoing biweekly profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen now span 37 years. This is one of the longest open-ocean time-series data sets and provides a view of decadal scale variability in ocean processes. In 1988, the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study began a wide range of measurements at a frequency of 14-18 cruises each year to understand temporal variability in ocean biogeochemistry. On each cruise, the data range from chemical analyses of discrete water samples to data from electronic packages of hydrographic and optics sensors. In addition, a range of biological and geochemical rate measurements are conducted that integrate over time-periods of minutes to days. This sampling strategy yields a reasonable resolution of the major seasonal patterns and of decadal scale variability. The Sargasso Sea also has a variety of episodic production events on scales of days to weeks and these are only poorly resolved. In addition, there is a substantial amount of mesoscale variability in this region and some of the perceived temporal patterns are caused by the intersection of the biweekly sampling with the natural spatial variability. In the Bermuda time-series programs, we have added a series of additional cruises to begin to assess these other sources of variation and their impacts on the interpretation of the main time-series record. However, the adequate resolution of higher frequency temporal patterns will probably require the introduction of new sampling strategies and some emerging technologies such as biogeochemical moorings and autonomous underwater vehicles.

  17. First record of Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae feeding on Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv. Jiggs, Poaceae in Brazil: morphological and molecular tools for identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro do Prado Ribeiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv. Jiggs is an important food source for dairy cattle in the semi-intensive milk production systems most often used in southern Brazil. Although many insect pests are associated with feed grasses, we report here the first occurrence of the fly Atherigona (Atherigona reversura Villeneuve, 1936 (Diptera: Muscidae feeding on bermudagrass in Brazil. This potential pest was observed in April 2015 in three localities (Abelardo Luz, Palmitos, and Videira in western Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil. The infested plants had senescent and necrotic terminal leaves that reduced plant growth. New growth had to sprout new tillers from basal nodes, which resulted in a reduced plant growth rate. We also provide a morphological identification key (with figures for A. (Atherigona reversura and A. (Acritochaeta orientalis Schiner, 1868. A molecular identification based on COI is also provided to better differentiate species. Keywords: COI gene, Insect pest, Pastures, Plant–insect interaction

  18. BERMUDA-1DG: a one-dimensional photon transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tomoo; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kunio.

    1984-10-01

    A one-dimensional photon transport code BERMUDA-1DG has been developed for spherical and infinite slab geometries. The purpose of development is to equip the function of gamma rays calculation for the BERMUDA code system, which was developed by 1983 only for neutron transport calculation as a preliminary version. A group constants library has been prepared for 30 nuclides, and it now consists of the 36-group total cross sections and secondary gamma ray yields by the 120-group neutron flux. For the Compton scattering, group-angle transfer matrices are accurately obtained by integrating the Klein-Nishina formula taking into account the energy and scattering angle correlation. The pair production cross sections are now calculated in the code from atomic number and midenergy of each group. To obtain angular flux distribution, the transport equation is solved in the same way as in case of neutron, using the direct integration method in a multigroup model. Both of an independent gamma ray source problem and a neutron-gamma source problem are possible to be solved. This report is written as a user's manual with a brief description of the calculational method. (author)

  19. Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery between 20110607 and 20110627

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the three week NOAA Ocean Exploration project, Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery, our four member deep team, aided by numerous assistants,...

  20. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses and an assessment of the genetic and cytogenetic effects. Progress report, November 1, 1977--October 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, W.W.; Burton, G.W.

    1978-05-01

    Progress is reported on plant breeding programs for the genetic improvement of warm season grasses using irradiation as a tool. Data are included from studies on alteration of the protein quantity and quality in pearl millet grain by irradiation and mutation breeding; the effects of nitrogen and genotype on pearl millet grain; the effects of seed size on quality in pearl millet; irradiation breeding of sterile triploid turf Bermuda grasses; irradiation breeding of sterile coastcross-1, a forage grass, to increase winter hardiness; use of irradiation to induce resistance to rust disease; and an economic assessment of irradiation-induced mutants for plant breeding programs

  1. Integrative, Interdisciplinary Learning in Bermuda Through Video Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. J.; Connaughton, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding an ecosystem and how humans impact it requires a multidisciplinary perspective and immersive, experiential learning is an exceptional way to achieve understanding. In summer 2017 we took 18 students to the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS) as part of a Washington College two-week, four-credit summer field course. We took a multi-disciplinary approach in choosing the curriculum. We focused on the ecology of the islands and surrounding coral reefs as well as the environmental impacts humans are having on the islands. Additionally, we included geology and both local and natural history. Our teaching was supplemented by the BIOS staff and local tour guides. The student learning was integrated and reinforced through student-led video projects. Groups of three students were tasked with creating a 5-7 minute video appropriate for a public audience. We selected video topics based upon locations we would visit in the first week and topics were randomly assigned. The project intention was for the students to critically analyze and evaluate an area of Bermuda that is a worthwhile tourist destination. Students presented why a tourist should visit a locale, the area's ecological distinctiveness and complexity, the impact humans are having, and ways tourists can foster stewardship of that locale. These projects required students to learn how to make and edit videos, collaborate with peers, communicate a narrative to the public, integrate multi-disciplinary topics for a clear, whole-system perspective, observe the environment from a critical viewpoint, and interview local experts. The students produced the videos within the two-week period, and we viewed the videos as a group on the last day. The students worked hard, were proud of their final products, and produced excellent videos. They enjoyed the process, which provided them opportunities to collaborate, show individual strengths, be creative, and work independently of the instructors.

  2. Attractiveness of botanical infusions to ovipositing Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nigripalpus, and Cx. erraticus in San Antonio, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhatter, Lee P; Debboun, Mustapha

    2009-12-01

    Field experiments were conducted on the Fort Sam Houston Military Reservation, San Antonio, TX, in fall 2008 to observe the attractiveness of selected botanical infusions to ovipositing female mosquitoes. The following infusions were tested in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gravid traps: Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), oak leaf (Quercus virginiana), acacia leaf (Acacia schaffneri), rabbit chow (alfalfa pellets), and algae (Spirogyra sp.). Four (Bermuda, acacia, oak, and algae) of the 5 infusions were effective in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nigripalpus, and Cx. erraticus. Of the 4 infusions, Bermuda collected the greatest number of the mosquitoes sampled. Female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were collected in moderate numbers during this study.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  4. Inhibitory effects of Cynodon dactylon L. on inflammation and oxidative stress in adjuvant treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G; Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Helen, A

    2009-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon is one of the 10 auspicious herbs that constitute the group Dasapushpam in Ayurveda. Traditionally Cynodon dactylon L. is used against many chronic inflammatory diseases in India. The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Cynodon dactylon against rats with adjuvant- induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the right hind paw produce inflammation of the joint. A significant increase in the levels of inflammatory mediators, myeloperoxidase, nitrite, C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin was observed. This was associated with oxidative stress with a marked reduction in the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and the levels of glutathione, vitamins C and E and an increase in the lipid peroxidation as indicated by the higher levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Cynodon dactylon (20mg/kg/b.wt) was orally administered to arthritic rats after adjuvant injection produced a significant attenuation in the inflammatory response, oxidative stress and ameliorated the arthritic changes to near normal conditions. Hence, the results of this study clearly indicate that Cynodon dactylon extract has a promising protective role against arthritis.

  5. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  6. The genetic and phenotypic variability of interspecific hybrid bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) used on golf course putting greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasor, Eric H; Brosnan, James T; Trigiano, Robert N; Elsner, J Earl; Henry, Gerald M; Schwartz, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Some interspecific hybrid bermudagrass cultivars used on golf course putting greens are genetically unstable, which has caused phenotypically different off-type grasses to occur in production nurseries and putting surfaces. Management practices to reduce the occurrence of off-type grasses in putting green surfaces and the effect they can have on putting quality and performance need to be researched until genetically stable cultivars are developed. Golf course putting green surfaces in subtropical and tropical climates are typically planted with an interspecific hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), because of the superior putting quality and performance of these cultivars. 'Tifgreen' was one of the first interspecific hybrids developed for putting green use in lieu of common bermudagrass. However, off-type grasses began appearing in established Tifgreen stands soon after commercial release. Off-type grasses are those with different morphology and performance when compared to the surrounding, desirable cultivar. Off-types have the potential to decrease surface uniformity, which negatively affects putting surface quality. However, several unique off-types from Tifgreen have been selected as commercial cultivars, the first being 'Tifdwarf'; then 'Floradwarf', 'MS-Supreme', 'Pee Dee-102', and 'TL-2', identified later. The cultivars 'Champion Dwarf', 'P-18', 'RJT', and 'Emerald Dwarf' were subsequently selected as off-types in Tifdwarf. The naturally occurring off-types and cultivars that have been identified within the Tifgreen family have widely differing phenotypes; however, they are reported to be genetically similar, supporting the hypothesis that their occurrence is a result of somatic mutations. Genetic instability in currently available commercial cultivars is likely to lead to the continued presence of off-types in production nurseries and putting greens. Additional research is needed to understand the nature of

  7. Development of innovative technique that may be used as models for the increase of biomass production with grasses and other species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. W.; Hanna, W. W.

    1981-09-01

    Techniques for biomass increase are discussed: irradiation breeding of sterile triploid turf bermuda grasses; irradiation breeding of sterile Coastcross-1, a forage grass hybrid to increase winter hardiness; heterosis resulting from crossing specific irradiation induced mutants with their normal inbred parent; use of mitomycin and streptomycin to create cytoplasmic male sterile mutants in pearl millet; biomass of napiergrass; evaluation of mutagen induced lignin mutants to maximize metabolizable energy in sorghum; interspecific crosses in Pennisetum; production of homozygous translocation tester stocks; use of radiation to induce and transfer reproductive behavior in plants; and genetics of radiation induced mutations.

  8. Fluoride sorption using Cynodon dactylon based activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagumuthu G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals the application of Cynodon dactylon based thermally activated carbon for fluoride toxicity. The batch adsorption techniques was followed at neutral pH as the functions of contact time, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, temperature and the effect of co-anions. The data indicate that the prepared adsorbent surface sites are heterogeneous in nature and that fits into a heterogeneous site-binding model. The present system followed the Redlich-Peterson isotherm as well as Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Lagergren pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra particle diffusion and Elovich kinetics were modeled to describe the adsorption rate of fluoride and determined as this scheme followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The calculated enthalpy change, ΔH°, and entropy change, ΔS°, for the adsorption process are +8.725 kJ/mol and +0.033 J/mol K respectively and shows endothermic experience. Instrumental analysis of XRD, FTIR and SEM gives the idea about the fluoride binding ability of adsorbent.

  9. Induced mutations in highly heterozygous vegetatively propagated grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Experience with mutation induction of turf and forage grasses indicates that much progress can be achieved by this method. More than 300 mutations have been produced in our laboratory in the cultivars Tifgreen and Tifdwarf bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.). In the Tifway and Tifcote bermudagrasses we have demonstrated similar mutation responses. The first three clones are triploids and Tifcote is a probable tetraploid. No seeds are set on these clones. Two clones of bermudagrass, Coastal and Coastcross-1, occupy millions of hectares in the USA. Both are mutable and are known to be hybrids with 36 chromosomes. Biotypes of dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) exist with 40 and 50 chromosomes and reproduce as sexual and obligate apomictic forms. Gamma-ray and thermal-neutron treatment of seed of these biotypes produced mutants that maintained the maternal characteristics in subsequent generations. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge) also has sexual and apomictic biotypes. Some success was indicated for increased seed set by mutagen treatment. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a facultative apomict with varying numbers of chromosomes in different cultivars. Gamma-ray mutagen treatment of rhizomes produced numerous mutations for plant type and disease reaction. Most mutations perpetuate themselves through the seed. The characteristic in common with all these grasses is their heterozygosity, which is maintained by the vegetative propagation or apomictic mode of reproduction. The experience in using ionizing radiation to induce heritable changes in these vegetatively propagated grasses is one of considerable success. Mutation rates in some of these irradiated grasses exceeded 65% and aberrant plants with characteristics previously never observed were found. Numerous hemizygous and heterozygous loci seem to be a sensitive target for mutagens. (author)

  10. Energy analysis in Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers hay production; Analise energetica na producao de feno de Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro T. [UNIOESTE, Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose R.C.; Bueno, Osmar C. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Facudade de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio T. [EMBRAPA - Gado de leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the energy consumption related to the introduction, development, hay processing and storage of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers allied to the analysis of the energetic efficiency. The data used in this project were collected from EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, localized in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from a seven year period of an intensive system of milk production. Energetic coefficients were used to generate the survey and several matrix components obtained from pertinent literature. The direct energy, related to the inputs, showed more efficient participation on the energetic matrix than the indirect energy and the percentages were 94.64 and 5.31, respectively. Farm tractor was the main indirect energy consumer, which is responsible for turning on all the equipment, followed by the irrigation system. The energetic efficiency presented by the whole system was 4.2, being considered positive and demonstrating that the agriculture ecosystem is sustainable. Most of the direct energy employed in this system was oil derived on fuel form. There was, however, a great consume of another oil derived energy such as fertilizer, but mainly on the nitrogen form (28.89% of the total employed energy). (author)

  11. Phytostabilisation of copper-contaminated soil in Katanga: an experiment with three native grasses and two amendments.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoy Shutcha; Mpundu Mubemba; Michel-Pierre Faucon; Michel Ngongo Luhembwe; Marjolein Visser; G Colinet; Pierre Jacques Meerts

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility of using the grass species Rendlia altera, Monocymbium ceresiiforme, Cynodon dactylon, and amendments (compost and lime) for the phytostabilisation of soils contaminated by Cu in the province of Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo). Species were grown on control and Cu-contaminated plots (artificially contaminated with 2,500 mg kg-1 Cu) unamended (NA), amended with 4.5 kg compost m-2 or 0.2 kg lime m-2. R. altera was also grown on contaminated plots amen...

  12. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  13. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  14. Bermuda as an evolutionary life raft for an ancient lineage of endangered lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Brandley

    Full Text Available Oceanic islands are well known for harboring diverse species assemblages and are frequently the basis of research on adaptive radiation and neoendemism. However, a commonly overlooked role of some islands is their function in preserving ancient lineages that have become extinct everywhere else (paleoendemism. The island archipelago of Bermuda is home to a single species of extant terrestrial vertebrate, the endemic skink Plestiodon (formerly Eumeces longirostris. The presence of this species is surprising because Bermuda is an isolated, relatively young oceanic island approximately 1000 km from the eastern United States. Here, we apply Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using a relaxed molecular clock to demonstrate that the island of Bermuda, although no older than two million years, is home to the only extant representative of one of the earliest mainland North American Plestiodon lineages, which diverged from its closest living relatives 11.5 to 19.8 million years ago. This implies that, within a short geological time frame, mainland North American ancestors of P. longirostris colonized the recently emergent Bermuda and the entire lineage subsequently vanished from the mainland. Thus, our analyses reveal that Bermuda is an example of a "life raft" preserving millions of years of unique evolutionary history, now at the brink of extinction. Threats such as habitat destruction, littering, and non-native species have severely reduced the population size of this highly endangered lizard.

  15. Grass Rooting the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  16. Screening of salt-tolerance potential of some native forage grasses from the eastern part of Terai-Duar grasslands in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnendu Roy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The salt tolerance of 12 native forage grasses from the eastern part of Terai-Duar grasslands was assessed using a rapid method of leaf disc senescence bioassay. Samples of these grasses were grown in untreated water as well as 100 and 200 mM NaCl solutions for periods of 3, 6 and 9 days. Discs of fresh leaf were then placed in untreated water as well as in 100 and 200 mM NaCl solutions for 96 hours. Quantitative effects were measured as the effects on chlorophyll concentration in leaves in response to exposure to the varying solutions. From these results, the salt sensitivity index (SSI of the individual grasses was determined. The SSI values indicated that Imperata cylindrica, Digitaria ciliaris and Cynodon dactylon were most salt-tolerant of all grasses tested. Further characterization of the grasses was done by observing the changes in 6 biomarkers for salinity tolerance: relative water content, total sugar concentration, proline concentration, electrolyte leakage, membrane lipid peroxidation and H2O2 concentration following exposure to 100 and 200 mM NaCl concentrations for 3, 6 and 9 days. Finally, hierarchical cluster analysis using the software CLUSTER 3.0 was used to represent the inter-relations among the physiological parameters and to group the grasses on the basis of their salinity tolerance. The overall results indicated that Imperata cylindrica, Eragrostis amabilis, Cynodon dactylon and Digitaria ciliaris were potentially salt-tolerant grasses and should be planted on saline areas to verify our results. On the other hand, Axonopus compressus, Chrysopogon aciculatus, Oplismenus burmanni and Thysanolaena latifolia were found to be highly salt-sensitive and would be unsuitable for use in saline areas. 

  17. Transferability of SSR and RGA markers developed in Cynodon spp. to Zoysia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), which are both used as warm-season turfgrasses in the United States, are members of subfamily Chloridoideae and are reported to be at least 55% genetically similar. To assess if molecular tools between the two species can be interchanged, 93...

  18. Evaluation of the contamination of infecting larvae of nematodes on pasture of Cynodon sp. in a milk producing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Augusto Perazza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the contamination of infecting larvae of parasitic nematodes in cattle on Cynodon sp. pasture. The research was conducted in a milkproduction system situated in the town of Boa Esperança, in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, during the fall-winter seasons 2008. The samples of the grass were collected in ten points inserted into an outline in “W”, previously designed, in the period of morning between at 7:30 and 8:30, observing the presence of dew in all the collections performed. The samples were CUT close to the soil and separated in half, which constituted an upper and lower sample of each collecting point, their being afterwards placed into plastic bag, identified and carried to a plastic foam box . The samples were processed singly. The infecting larvae (L3 were identified and the amount per kilogram of dry matter in forage was estimated (L3/kg DM. The climatic conditions such as temperature, air relative humidity and rainfall enabled the development of the free life stages throughout the period. Even at low rainfall rates during the months of May to August, the counts of the amount of larvae in the pastures were high. Under the conditions of the dry period (Fall/Winter, the L3 forms of Cooperia sp. presented an expressive predominance in relation to the other genera throughout the period. The greatest amount of infecting larvae of this species was found in the months of July and August in the upper pasture, while for the samples of the lower part were found peaks in the months of June and August. The large number of genera of pathogenic helminths to animals in this study along the drier seasons of the year, especially in the upper pasture, demonstrates the importance of these agents as cause of losses in milk production in Minas Gerais state.

  19. Dietary supplementation with Cynodon dactylon (L.) enhances innate immunity and disease resistance of Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleeswaran, B; Ilavenil, S; Ravikumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Indian major carp (Catla catla) was subjected to study the immunostimulatory effects when the grass Cynodon dactylon(L) ethanolic extract administrated as feed supplement. C. catla was fed with 0% (Control), 0.05% (group I), 0.5% (group II) and 5% (group III) extract provided for 60 days. Blood samples were collected at every 10 days of interval up to 60 days for analyzing the non-specific humoral (lysozyme activity, antiprotease activity and haemolytic complement) and cellular (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, myeloperoxidase activity) immune response study. The results indicate that C. dactylon ethanolic extract administered as feed supplement significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced most of the non-specific immune parameters tested. Among the experimental diet groups, significantly increased response of non-specific immunity was seen in group III (5%). Disease resistant analysis against Aeromonas hydrophila was performed in control group and plant extract treated fish for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Relative percent survival rate (RPS) was observed in treated samples, which is directly proportional to concentration of the extract. Additionally, electron microscopic studies and gelatin zymography for Matrix Metalo Proteinase (MMPs) were examined in spleen at 7th and 28th days of feeding. Administration of C. dactylon mixed diet delayed the lymphocyte destruction with positive ultrastructural changes. An induced stress (A. hydrophila infection) was observed by using MMPs expression, which was reduced in the experimental diet groups than the control. All these experimental results prove that C. dactylon ethanolic extract enhances the immunity of Catla fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) and comparative analysis within the family Poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Cho, Shu-Ting; Haryono, Mindia; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2017-01-01

    Common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) belongs to the subfamily Chloridoideae of the Poaceae family, one of the most important plant families ecologically and economically. This grass has a long connection with human culture but its systematics is relatively understudied. In this study, we sequenced and investigated the chloroplast genome of common bermudagrass, which is 134,297 bp in length with two single copy regions (LSC: 79,732 bp; SSC: 12,521 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (21,022 bp). The annotation contains a total of 128 predicted genes, including 82 protein-coding, 38 tRNA, and 8 rRNA genes. Additionally, our in silico analyses identified 10 sets of repeats longer than 20 bp and predicted the presence of 36 RNA editing sites. Overall, the chloroplast genome of common bermudagrass resembles those from other Poaceae lineages. Compared to most angiosperms, the accD gene and the introns of both clpP and rpoC1 genes are missing. Additionally, the ycf1, ycf2, ycf15, and ycf68 genes are pseudogenized and two genome rearrangements exist. Our phylogenetic analysis based on 47 chloroplast protein-coding genes supported the placement of common bermudagrass within Chloridoideae. Our phylogenetic character mapping based on the parsimony principle further indicated that the loss of the accD gene and clpP introns, the pseudogenization of four ycf genes, and the two rearrangements occurred only once after the most recent common ancestor of the Poaceae diverged from other monocots, which could explain the unusual long branch leading to the Poaceae when phylogeny is inferred based on chloroplast sequences.

  1. Diversity among Cynodon accessions and taxa based on DNA amplification fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, S; Taliaferro, C M; Anderson, M P; de los Reyes, B G; Edwards, R M

    1999-06-01

    The genus Cynodon (Gramineae), comprised of 9 species, is geographically widely distributed and genetically diverse. Information on the amounts of molecular genetic variation among and within Cynodon taxa is needed to enhance understanding of phylogenetic relations and facilitate germplasm management and breeding improvement efforts. Genetic relatedness among 62 Cynodon accessions, representing eight species, was assessed using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF). Ten 8-mer oligonucleotides were used to amplify specific Cynodon genomic sequences. The DNA amplification products of individual accessions were scored for presence (1) or absence (0) of bands. Similarity matrices were developed and the accessions were grouped by cluster (UPGMA) and principal coordinate analysis. Analyses were conducted within ploidy level (2x = 18 and 4x = 36) and over ploidy levels. Each primer revealed polymorphic loci among accessions within species. Of 539 loci (bands) scored, 496 (92%) were polymorphic. Cynodon arcuatus was clearly separated from other species by numerous monomorphic bands. The strongest species similarities were between C. aethiopicus and C. arcuatus, C. transvaalensis and C. plectostachyus, and C. incompletus and C. nlemfuensis. Intraspecific variation was least for C. aethiopicus, C. arcuatus, and C. transvaalensis, and greatest for C. dactylon. Accessions of like taxonomic classification were generally clustered, except the cosmopolitan C. dactylon var. dactylon and C. dactylon var. afganicus. Within taxa, accessions differing in chromosome number clustered in all instances indicating the 2x and 4x forms to be closely related. Little, if any, relationship was found between relatedness as indicated by the DAF profiles and previous estimates of hybridization potential between the different taxa.

  2. Recuperação de matéria seca e composição química de silagens de gramíneas do gênero Cynodon submetidas a períodos de pré-emurchecimento Recovery of dry matter and chemical composition of Cynodon sp. stargrass silage under periods of pre-wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Souza Quaresma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de períodos de pré-emurchecimento das gramíneas Estrela- Africana-Branca [Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg.] e Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp. sobre algumas características de suas silagens. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dez tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo duas gramíneas (Estrela-Africana-Branca e Tifton 85 e cinco períodos de pré-emurchecimento da forragem (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 h. As gramíneas foram cortadas aos 50 dias de rebrotação e permaneceram ensiladas por 55 dias em silos experimentais. O pré-emurchecimento promoveu aumento no teor de matéria seca da forragem cortada e da silagem das gramíneas Tifton 85 e Estrela Africana Branca. Houve diminuição nos teores de N-amoniacal (N-NH3/N-total da silagem do capim-estrela-africana-branca, a uma taxa de 1,66 unidade percentual por hora de pré-emurchecimento, mas não houve alteração nessa variável da silagem do capim-tifton 85. A silagem do capim-tifton 85 apresentou maior recuperação de matéria seca, maior teor de FDN e menor teor de proteína bruta do que a silagem do capim-estrela-africana-branca. O pH e o teor de FDA das silagens não foram influenciados pelo pré-emurchecimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of periods of pre-wilting of stargrass [Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg.] and Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon sp. on some characteristics of their silage. Arandomized design with ten treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were arranged in a 2x5 factorial, two grasses (stargrass and Tifton 85 and five periods of pre-wilting of forage (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. The grasses were harvested at 50 days regrowth and stored for 55 days in experimental silos. The pre-wilting caused an increase in dry matter content of forage and silage of both, Tifton 85 and stargrass. There was a decrease in the levels of ammonia-N (N-NH3/N

  3. Responsiveness to timothy grass pollen in individuals without known natural exposure in an allergen challenge chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Andrews, Charles P; Rather, Cynthia G; Jacobs, Robert L

    2015-03-01

    The responsiveness to a nonendemic grass species is unknown and cannot be research without an allergen challenge chamber. To determine the clinical responsiveness to timothy grass pollen (TGP) in participants without known natural exposure in an allergen challenge chamber (ACC). Of the 26 screened participants, 22 met screening criteria and completed the 2 chamber exposures. The study consisted of an initial screening visit that included a blood draw for serum specific IgE (ssIGE) to Bermuda grass pollen and TGP followed by a 4½-day run-in phase and two 3-hour ACC exposure visits. This study was performed early in the first week of December 2013, when no seasonal pollens were detected in San Antonio, Texas. Symptom scores were recorded at baseline and every 30 minutes. Of the 26 screened participants, 22 met the screening criteria and completed the 2 chamber exposures. Thirteen participants had always lived in South Texas without natural exposure, and 9 had previously lived in areas with TGP exposure. All participants tested positive to TGP and Bermuda grass pollen. Twelve and 13 of 22 had positive ssIgE test results to Timothy and Bermuda allergens, respectively, with 11 having positive results for both allergens. There were strong correlations among skin prick test size, a positive ssIgE test result, and high symptoms from TGP exposure. There was little difference in symptoms between those who had lived their entire lives in South Texas and those who had lived elsewhere. In Texas, where exposure to TGP is minimal, strongly positive SPT and ssIgE test results were predictors of high symptoms to TGP exposure. Never exposed participants in South Texas reacted to TGP similar to those who had previous natural exposure, suggesting that in vivo cross-reactivity may be higher than predicted by prior in vitro data and may allow the use in clinical trials of allergens not endemic to the locale of an ACC. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  4. Role of sodium ion transporters and osmotic adjustments in stress alleviation of Cynodon dactylon under NaCl treatment: a parallel investigation with rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swarnendu; Chakraborty, Usha

    2018-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the responses to NaCl in Cynodon dactylon and a sensitive crop species like rice could effectively unravel the salt tolerance mechanism in the former. C. dactylon, a wild perennial chloridoid grass having a wide range of ecological distribution is generally adaptable to varying degrees of salinity stress. The role of salt exclusion mechanism present exclusively in the wild grass was one of the major factors contributing to its tolerance. Salt exclusion was found to be induced at 4 days when the plants were treated with a minimum conc. of 200 mM NaCl. The structural peculiarities of the salt exuding glands were elucidated by the SEM and TEM studies, which clearly revealed the presence of a bicellular salt gland actively functioning under NaCl stress to remove the excess amount of Na + ion from the mesophyll tissues. Moreover, the intracellular effect of NaCl on the photosynthetic apparatus was found to be lower in C. dactylon in comparison to rice; at the same time, the vacuolization process increased in the former. Accumulation of osmolytes like proline and glycine betaine also increased significantly in C. dactylon with a concurrent check on the H 2 O 2 levels, electrolyte leakage and membrane lipid peroxidation. This accounted for the proper functioning of the Na + ion transporters in the salt glands and also in the vacuoles for the exudation and loading of excess salts, respectively, to maintain the osmotic balance of the protoplasm. In real-time PCR analyses, CdSOS1 expression was found to increase by 2.5- and 5-fold, respectively, and CdNHX expression increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively, in plants subjected to 100 and 200 mM NaCl treatment for 72 h. Thus, the comparative analyses of the expression pattern of the plasma membrane and tonoplast Na + ion transporters, SOS1 and NHX in both the plants revealed the significant role of these two ion transporters in conferring salinity tolerance in Cynodon.

  5. Development of new techniques of using irradiation in the genetic improvement of warm season grasses and assessment of the genetic and cytogenetic effects. Report period, May 1, 1974--April 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Hanna, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies were conducted: altering protein quantity and quality in pearl millet grain by irradiation and mutation breeding; gamma-radiation breeding of sterile triploid turf Bermuda grasses; irradiation breeding of sterile coast cross-1, a forage grass hybrid, to increase winter hardiness; heterosis resulting from crossing specific radioinduced mutants with their normal inbred parent; economic assessment of radioinduced mutants; use of irradiation to induce resistance to rust disease; production of homozygous translocation tester stocks; use of radiation to control reproductive behavior in plants; and genetics of radioinduced mutations. (U.S.)

  6. Bermuda's balancing act: The economic dependence of cruise and air tourism on healthy coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beukering, P.J.H.; Sarkis, S.; van der Putten, L.; Papyrakis, E.

    2015-01-01

    Although Bermuda has to date managed to achieve equilibrium between tourism and coral reef conservation, this delicate balance may be threatened by the growth and changing face of the tourism industry. This may result in negative impacts on the coral reefs and services provided by this valuable

  7. Vernon Bermuda Workshop: A Course in Sub-tropical Island Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    More than 30 years ago, educators in central Connecticut developed the Vernon Bermuda Workshop as a means of introducing middle- and high-school students to subtropical island ecology. Each year, after months of classroom preparation, approximately 20 top students spend one week at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (St. George's, Bermuda) studying the local flora and fauna in both the field and laboratory. The curriculum includes an additional array of activities, ranging from historical and ecological tours to spelunking, and culminates in a series of field-observation-related presentations. I am responsible for the meteorological and oceanographic components of the curriculum. In the field, my students collect time-series of biophysical variables over the course of a day, which they use to interpret diurnal patterns and interactions amongst the variables. I also add remote-sensing and phytoplankton biology components to the curriculum - in previous years, my students have studied time-series of Sea WIFS imagery collected at Bermuda during our trip. I have been an Instructor for this Workshop since 2003. The Workshop provides an outreach activity for GSFC Code 616.

  8. Evaluation of Warm Season Turfgrass under Different Irrigation Regimes in Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Hassan ALSHEHHI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrasses play a very important role in enhancing quality of life in modern urban living. Water quantity is the most important challenge worldwide in establishing and maintaining quality turf. The present study was aimed to test the performance of three warm season turfgrasses under four water levels for plantation in arid zones. Pits (48 measuring 1m length x 1m width x 0.6 m depth were planted with four replications of Common Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, Tifway Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis and Seashore Paspalum grass (Paspalum vaginatum in complete randomized design (CRD. Irrigation was done daily with 15 l/plot during the first 4 weeks (establishment period and four irrigation levels (5, 10, and 15, 20 l/lot were maintained in the following 8 weeks (treatment period. Physical parameters (canopy temperatures, ambient temperature, leaf area, shoot production and relative water content were measured once in two week as well as the visual quality (shoot color, shoot density and shoot uniformity was assessed, however, chlorophyll analysis was done in the end of the study. It was found that temperature has significant effect on performance of turfgrasses. Canopy temperature was higher than ambient temperature in the three turfgrasses but it has different level in each variety. Five liter of water per day per square meter gave acceptable turf quality when ambient temperature ranged from 20 to 33�C. Seashore paspalum performed best followed by Tifway Bermuda grass and common Bermuda grass respectively.

  9. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  10. Molecular detection of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’ and ‘Ca. P. cynodontis’ in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkuwaiti Nawres Abdulelah Sadeq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of phytoplasma was investigated in symptomatic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., eggplant (Solanum melongen L., mallow (Malva spp. and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. plants exhibiting witches’ broom and white leaf diseases, respectively. Total DNA was extracted from tomato (n=3, eggplant (n=2, mallow (n=2 and Bermuda grass (n=8 samples. Direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed using P1/P7 primer set, then PCR products were sequenced. Sequences obtained from tomato, eggplant and mallow shared 99% maximum nucleotide identity with phytoplasma belonging to subgroup 16SrII-D, and resulted therefore ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’-related. Sequences obtained from Bermuda grass showed 100% maximum nucleotide identity to 16SrXIV-A subgroup and were ‘Ca. P. cynodontis’-related. The study presents the first molecular confirmation and sequence data of presence of ‘Ca. P. australasia’ and ‘Ca. P. cynodontis’ in Iraq.

  11. Cynodon dactylon extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmani, F; Sadki, C; Aziz, M; Mimouni, M; Hacht, B

    2009-04-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae family) decoction was used in the treatment of kidney stones. However, no scientific study was undertaken so far to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the plant. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of Cynodon aqueous extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used in the experiment to induce calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition into kidneys. In preventive protocol, Cynodon decoction was administered in the same day with EG to evaluate the ability of the extract to prevent crystal deposition. However, in curative protocol, rats were first rendered nephrolithiasic and then the extract was administered to assess the ability of the plant to eliminate the pre-existing crystal deposition. In both protocols, urinary biochemical and other variables were measured during the course of the study. Crystalluria and renal histology were examined as well. The results showed that, in both protocols, all measured variables were similar for both the rat groups. Nevertheless, urinary biochemical analysis was apparently unaffected by the extract except oxalate in preventive protocol, and calcium, sodium, and potassium in curative protocol which were significantly highly excreted in treated rats compared to untreated animals. Crystalluria was characterized mostly by the presence of large quantities of CaOx monohydrate and CaOx dihydrate particles in untreated rats. However, crystalluria was mainly dominated by the presence of CaOx dihydrate particles with reduced size. The most apparent beneficial effect of Cynodon extract was seen in kidney tissues where reduced levels of CaOx deposition have been noticed especially in medullary and papillary sections from treated rats. We concluded that C. dactylon extract has beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys. Such findings provide a scientific explanation for its use in the

  12. Crescimento de folhas do capim-bermuda tifton 85 submetido à adubação nitrogenada após o corte Leaf growth of tifton 85 bermudagrass submitted to nitrogen fertilization after cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Monica Premazzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de doses e épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio após o corte no fator de correção de área foliar, na taxa de alongamento de folhas e no comprimento e área da lâmina foliar do capim-bermuda tifton 85 (Cynodon spp foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. Ambos os experimentos foram estabelecidos em vasos com capacidade para 7 kg de terra, com solo classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico típico, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, para avaliação de quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 80, 160 e 240 mg kg-1 de solo e duas épocas de aplicação (imediatamente após o corte e sete dias após o corte das plantas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Com o fornecimento de nitrogênio, observou-se diminuição no fator de correção de área foliar. O nitrogênio proporciona variação positiva no comprimento foliar, na área da lâmina foliar e na taxa de alongamento da folha, variações que ocorreram em maior grandeza entre a não-aplicação de nitrogênio e a dose de 80 mg kg-1 de solo.With the objective of evaluating the influence of nitrogen rates and application time after cutting on correction factor for leaf area, on leaf elongation rate and on blade leaf length and area of tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse. Both experiments were established in pots with capacity for 7 kg of soil classified as Entisol, in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme, for evaluation of four nitrogen rates (0, 80, 160 and 240 mg kg-1 of soil and two application times (immediately after cutting and seven days after cutting of the plants. It was used a complete randomized block design, with four replications. As nitrogen was supplied, it was observed a decrease in the correction factor for leaf area. There is a predominance of positive effects of nitrogen on leaf length, on leaf blade area and on leaf elongation rate

  13. [Responses of antioxidation system of Cynodon dactylon to recirculated landfill leachate irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruyi; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Bin; Li, Guojian

    2005-05-01

    With pot experiment, this paper studied the membrane lipid peroxidation and the variations of antioxidation system in Cynodon dactylon under recirculated landfill leachate irrigation. The results showed that when irrigated with low dilution ratio ( 25%), there existed an obvious negative fect on Cynodon dactylon, i.e., the chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased, while cell membrane permeability and MDA and H2O2 contents increased, which meant that the membrane lipid peroxidation was accelerated. The contents antioxidants AsA, GSH and Car also showed the similar trend, i.e., they increased with increasing leachate dilution ratio when irrigated with low dilution ratio leachate, but decreased under medium or high dilution ratio leachate irrigation. Among three test anti-oxidative enzymes, SOD and POD activities showed a similar change test antioxidants, and POD activity was more sensitive, while CAT activity was on the contrary. The contents test antioxidants and the activities of SOD and POD were negatively and significantly correlated to MDA content, indicating that they might play an important role in preventing Cynodon dactylon from cell membrane lipid peroxdation.

  14. [Genetic diversity of wild Cynodon dactylon germplasm detected by SRAP markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yang-Jie; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Huang, Lin-Kai; Ling, Yao; Ma, Xiao; Liu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers were used to detect the genetic diversity of 32 wild accessions of Cynodon dactylon collected from Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou and Tibet, China. The following results were obtained. (1) Fourteen primer pairs produced 132 polymorphic bands, averaged 9.4 bands per primer pair. The percentage of polymorphic bands in average was 79.8%. The Nei's genetic similarity coefficient of the tested accessions ranged from 0.591 to 0.957, and the average Nei's coefficient was 0.759. These results suggested that there was rich genetic diversity among the wild resources of Cynodon dactylon tested. (2) Thirty two wild accessions were clustered into four groups. Moreover, the accessions from the same origin frequently clustered into one group. The findings implied that a correlation among the wild resources, geographical and ecological environment. (3) Genetic differentiation between and within six eco-geographical groups of C. dactylon was estimated by Shannon's diversity index, which showed that 65.56% genetic variance existed within group, and 34.44% genetic variance was among groups. (4) Based on Nei's unbiased measures of genetic identity, UPGMA cluster analysis measures of six eco-geographical groups of Cynodon dactylon, indicated that there was a correlation between genetic differentiation and eco-geographical habits among the groups.

  15. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Eberechi Akpaka

    Full Text Available Molecular characteristics of vancomycin resistant enterococci isolates from Bermuda Island is currently unknown. This study was conducted to investigate phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE isolates from Bermuda Island using the chromogenic agar, E-tests, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Eighteen E. faecium isolates were completely analyzed and were all resistant to vancomycin, susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin, positive for vanA and esp genes. The MLST analysis confirmed most isolates were of the sequence types linked to clonal complex 17 (CC17 that is widely associated with outbreaks in hospitals. Infection control measures, antibiotic stewardship, and surveillance activities will continue to be a priority in hospital on the Island.

  16. Genetic ancestry and indigenous heritage in a Native American descendant community in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Vilar, Miguel G; Dulik, Matthew C; Gaieski, David F; Gittelman, Rachel M; Lindo, John; Gau, Lydia; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-11-01

    Discovered in the early 16th century by European colonists, Bermuda is an isolated set of islands located in the mid-Atlantic. Shortly after its discovery, Bermuda became the first English colony to forcibly import its labor by trafficking in enslaved Africans, white ethnic minorities, and indigenous Americans. Oral traditions circulating today among contemporary tribes from the northeastern United States recount these same events, while, in Bermuda, St. David's Islanders consider their histories to be linked to a complex Native American, European, and African past. To investigate the influence of historical events on biological ancestry and native cultural identity, we analyzed genetic variation in 111 members of Bermuda's self-proclaimed St. David's Island Native Community. Our results reveal that the majority of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplotypes are of African and West Eurasian origin. However, unlike other English-speaking New World colonies, most African mtDNA haplotypes appear to derive from central and southeast Africa, reflecting the extent of maritime activities in the region. In light of genealogical and oral historical data from the St. David's community, the low frequency of Native American mtDNA and NRY lineages may reflect the influence of genetic drift, the demographic impact of European colonization, and historical admixture with persons of non-native backgrounds, which began with the settlement of the islands. By comparing the genetic data with genealogical and historical information, we are able to reconstruct the complex history of this Bermudian community, which is unique among New World populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Origin of Bermuda's clay-rich Quaternary paleosols and their paleoclimatic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwitz, S.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Mahan, S.; Vaughn, B.

    1996-01-01

    Red clayey paleosols that are chiefly the product of aerosolic dust deposition are interbedded in the Quaternary carbonate formations of the Bermuda oceanic island system. These paleosols provide a basis for reconstructing Quaternary atmospheric circulation patterns in the northwestern Atlantic. Geochemical analyses were performed on representative paleosol samples to identify their parent dust source. Fine-grained fractions were analyzed by energy-dispersive X ray fluorescence to determine trace element (Zr, Y, La, Ti, and Nb) concentrations and to derive geochemical signatures based on immobile element ratios. These ratios were compared with geochemical signatures determined for three possible sources of airborne dust: (1) Great Plains loess, (2) Mississippi River Valley loess, and (3) Saharan dust. The Zr/Y and Zr/La ratios provided the clearest distinction between the hypothesized dust sources. The low ratios in the paleosol B horizons most closely resemble Saharan dust in the the two North American loessial source areas could not be clearly detected. Thus Bermuda paleosols have a predominantly Saharan aerosolic dust signature. Saharan dust deposition on Bermuda during successive Quaternary glacial periods is consistent with patterns of general circulation models, which indicate that during glacial maxima the northeast summer trade winds were stronger than at present and reached latitudes higher than 30 ?? N despite lower-than-present sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic.

  18. Elevated temperatures and bleaching on a high latitude coral reef: the 1988 Bermuda event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Clayton B.; Logan, Alan; Ward, Jack; Luckhurst, Brian; Berg, Carl J.

    1990-03-01

    Sea temperatures were normal in Bermuda during 1987, when Bermuda escaped the episodes of coral bleaching which were prevalent throughout the Caribbean region. Survey transecs in 1988 on 4 6 m reefs located on the rim margin and on a lagoonal patch reef revealed bleaching only of zoanthids between May and July. Transect and tow surveys in August and September revealed bleaching of several coral species; Millepora alcicornis on rim reefs was the most extensively affected. The frequency of bleaching in this species, Montastrea annularis and perhaps Diploria labyrinthiformis was significantly higher on outer reefs than on inshore reefs. This bleaching period coincided with the longest period of elevated sea temperatures in Bermuda in 38 years (28.9 30.9°C inshore, >28° offshore). By December, when temperatures had returned to normal, bleaching of seleractinians continued, but bleaching of M. alcicornis on the outer reefs was greatly reduced. Our observations suggest that corals which normally experience wide temperature ranges are less sensitive to thermal stress, and that high-latitude reef corals are sensitive to elevated temperatures which are within the normal thermal range of corals at lower latitudes.

  19. Assessment of in situ and ex situ phytorestoration with grass mixtures in soils polluted with nickel, copper, and arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías Salinas, Montserrat; Beltrán Villavicencio, Margarita; Bustillos, Luis Gilberto Torres; González Aragón, Abelardo

    This work shows a study of in situ and ex situ phytoextraction as a polishing step in the treatment of an industrial urban soil polluted with nickel, arsenic and copper. The soil was previously washed, and phytoextraction was performed by application of a mixture of grass (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum). The soil had initial heavy metals concentrations of 131 ppm for Ni, 717 for As and 2734 for Cu (mg of metal/kg of dry soil). After seeding and emerging of grass, vegetal and soil samples were taken monthly during 4 months. Biomass generation, and concentration of Ni, As and Cu in vegetal tissue and soil were determined for every sample. Plants biomass growth in ex situ process was inhibited by 37% when compared with blank soil. Grass showed remarkable phytoextraction capability in situ, it produced 38 g of biomass every 15 days (wet weight) during a period of 3 months, but then declined in the fourth month. Concentrations of metals in grass biomass were up to 83 mg Ni/kg, 649 mg As/kg and 305 mg Cu/kg dry weight. Metal reduction of 49% for Ni, and 35% for Cu and As was observed at rhizospheric soil.

  20. Desempenho agronômico de capim tifton 85 (cynodon spp cultivado em sistemas alagados construídos utilizados no tratamento de água residuária de laticínios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in order to study the performance of the tifton 85 (Cynodon spp grass cultivated in wetlands (SACs and submitted to different organic load application rates (TCOs of milk processing wastewater (ARL, in the climatic conditions of Viçosa - MG. The experimental structure was constituted by five SACs with horizontal subsuperficial flow, using tanks of 0.40 x 0.75 x 3.00 m (depth, width and length filled with 0.33 m depth of fine stones. The ARL was applied in average flow of 60 L.day-1, hydraulic time residence of 4.8 days and TCOs of 66, 130, 190, 320 and 570 kg.ha-1.day-1 of DBO. The tifton 85 grass adapted well to SACs, presenting good rooting, high yield and capacity of nutrients (N, P and K and sodium removal of the ARL, whose values were, respectively, between 216 - 544, 24 - 61, 115 - 204 and 4.3 – 10.9 kg.ha-1.

  1. Acute diuretic activity of aqueous Erica multiflora flowers and Cynodon dactylon rhizomes extracts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadki, Chrifa; Hacht, Brahim; Souliman, Amrani; Atmani, Fouad

    2010-03-24

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diuretic potential and effect on urinary electrolytes of aqueous Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae) flowers and Cynodon dactylon L. (Poaceae) rhizomes extracts in rats. Different concentrations of these plants extract (0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 g/kg of body weight) or the reference drug furosemide (0.015 g/kg) were administrated orally to hydrated male Wistar rats and their urine output was measured at several interval of time after a single dose administration. Furthermore, a toxicological effect of both plants was undertaken as well. The results showed that furosemide induced significant diuresis and electrolytes excretion during the first hours. Plant extracts increased significantly urinary output and electrolytes excretion at the dose of 0.250 g/kg for Erica multiflora and 0.500 g/kg for Cynodon dactylon. This diuretic effect seems to be not related to K(+) plant content. Urinary pH remained mostly unchanged during the course of the study for both plant extracts. No lethality was observed among animals when using Erica multiflora even at the dose of 10 g/kg while Cynodon dactylon, instead, caused 50% of rat death (LD50) at 4.5 g/kg. We concluded that both aqueous herb extracts administered, particularly, at the dose of 0.500 g/kg induce significant effect on urinary output of water and electrolytes and justify their use as diuretic remedy in traditional medicine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cynodon dactylon extract in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Kesari, Achyut Narayan; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly; Watal, Geeta

    2007-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, respectively. The effect of repeated oral administration of aqueous extract on serum lipid profile in diabetic rats was also examined. A range of doses, viz. 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg bw of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon were evaluated and the dose of 500mg/kg was identified as the most effective dose. It lowers blood glucose level around 31% after 4h of administration in normal rats. The same dose of 500mg/kg produced a fall of 23% in blood glucose level within 1h during glucose tolerance test (GTT) of mild diabetic rats. This dose has almost similar effect as that of standard drug tolbutamide (250mg/kg bw). Severely diabetic rats were also treated daily with 500mg/kg bw for 14 days and a significant reduction of 59% was observed in fasting blood glucose level. A reduction in the urine sugar level and increase in body weight of severe diabetic rats were additional corroborating factors for its antidiabetic potential. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased by 35, 77 and 29%, respectively, in severely diabetic rats whereas, cardioprotective, high density lipoprotein (HDL) was increased by 18%. These results clearly indicate that aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon has high antidiabetic potential along with significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects.

  3. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  4. Heavy metal concentration in forage grasses and extractability from some acid mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted on several forage grasses, bermudagrass ([ital Cynodon dactylon]), creeping red fescue ([ital Festuca rubra]), Kentucky 31-tall fescue ([ital Festuca arundinacea]), oat ([ital Avena sativa]), orchardgrass ([ital Dactylis glomerata]), perennial ryegrass ([ital Lolium perenne]), sorghum ([ital Sorghum bicolor]), triticale (X. [ital triticosecale Wittmack]), and winter wheat ([ital Triticum aestivum]) grown on three Alabama acid mine spoils to study heavy metal accumulation, dry matter yield and spoil metal extractability by three chemical extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl). Heavy metals removed by these extractants were correlated with their accumulation by several forage grasses. Among the forages tested, creeping red fescue did not survive the stressful conditions of any of the spoils, while orchard grass and Kentucky 31-tall fescue did not grow in Mulberry spoil. Sorghum followed by bermudagrass generally produced the highest dry matter yield. However, the high yielding bermudagrass was most effective in accumulating high tissue levels of Mn and Zn from all spoils (compared to the other grasses) but did not remove Ni. On the average, higher levels of metals were extracted from spoils in the order of 0.1 M HCl[gt] Mehlich 1[gt] DTPA. However, DTPA extracted all the metals from spoils while Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract detectable levels of Ni. All of the extractants were quite effective in determining plant available Zn from the spoils. For the other metals, the effective determination of plant availability depended on the crop, the extractant, and the metal in concert. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  6. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon and Oxalis corniculata on Hep2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, H; Mansoor, Q; Batool, R; Farooqi, A A; Mahmood, T; Ismail, M

    2016-04-30

    Bioactive chemicals isolated from plants have attracted considerable attention over the years and overwhelmingly increasing laboratory findings are emphasizing on tumor suppressing properties of these natural agents in genetically and chemically induced animal carcinogenesis models. We studied in vitro anticancer activity of organic extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Oxalis corniculata on Hep2 cell line and it was compared with normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) by using MTT assay. Real Time PCR was conducted for p53 and PTEN genes in treated cancer cell line. DNA fragmentation assay was also carried out to note DNA damaging effects of the extracts. The minimally effective concentration of ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon and methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata that was nontoxic to HCEC but toxic to Hep2 was recorded (IC50) at a concentration of 0.042mg/ml (49.48 % cell death) and 0.048mg/ml (47.93% cell death) respectively, which was comparable to the positive control. Our results indicated dose dependent increase in cell death. P53 and PTEN did not show significant increase in treated cell line. Moreover, DNA damaging effects were also not detected in treated cancer cell line. Anticancer activity of these plants on the cancer cell line showed the presence of anticancer components which should be characterized to be used as anticancer therapy.

  7. EcoTurf - a case study: genetic variation and agronomic potential of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) germplasm collected from Australian biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Cynodon germplasm has not been comprehensively exploited for bermudagrass improvement. In this paper we will describe ‘EcoTurf’ a four year (2007-2011) project to develop water and nutrient use efficient bermudagrasses from Australian biodiversity. We describe the sampling strategies of A...

  8. Effect of alfalfa (medicago sativa) on fermentation profile and nutritive value of switchgrass (panicum virgatum) and bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon) silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silages. ...

  9. RNA-seq for gene identification and transcript profiling in relation to root growth of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Li, Huiying; Chen, Liang; Lou, Yanhong; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-08-04

    Soil salinity is one of the most significant abiotic stresses affecting plant shoots and roots growth. The adjustment of root architecture to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in salinity is particularly critical for plant growth and survival. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used turf and forage perennial grass with a high degree of salinity tolerance. Salinity appears to stimulate the growth of roots and decrease their mortality in tolerant bermudagrass. To estimate a broad spectrum of genes related to root elongation affected by salt stress and the molecular mechanisms that control the positive response of root architecture to salinity, we analyzed the transcriptome of bermudagrass root tips in response to salinity. RNA-sequencing was performed in root tips of two bermudagrass genotypes contrasting in salt tolerance. A total of 237,850,130 high quality clean reads were generated and 250,359 transcripts were assembled with an average length of 1115 bp. Totally, 103,324 unigenes obtained with 53,765 unigenes (52 %) successfully annotated in databases. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that major transcription factor (TF) families linked to stress responses and growth regulation (MYB, bHLH, WRKY) were differentially expressed in root tips of bermudagrass under salinity. In addition, genes related to cell wall loosening and stiffening (xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases, peroxidases) were identified. RNA-seq analysis identified candidate genes encoding TFs involved in the regulation of lignin synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis controlled by peroxidases, and the regulation of phytohormone signaling that promote cell wall loosening and therefore root growth under salinity.

  10. Evaluation of a public health intervention to lower mercury exposure from fish consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dewailly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of a public health intervention to reduce blood mercury (Hg concentration levels in pregnant Bermudian women. METHODS: In 2003, we conducted a study entitled "Prenatal exposure of the Bermudian Population to Environmental Contaminants" which provided Bermuda's first baseline data on prenatal exposure to several environmental contaminants, including Hg. The mean Hg concentration from 42 healthy newborns measured in umbilical cord blood was 41.3 nmol/L, ranging from 5-160 nmol/L. This concentration was much higher than expected, being approximately 8 times the general levels found in Canada and the U.S. Furthermore, we estimated that 85% of total Hg measured was in the form of methylmercury (MeHg, indicating that seafood consumption was the primary source of Hg exposure during pregnancy in Bermuda. Locally sourced seafood was identified as the most significant possible contributory source of Hg exposure. In 2005 the authors began a complementary research programme to study the levels of Hg in local commercial fish species. Coming out of this research were specific local fish consumption guidelines issued by the Department of Health advising pregnant women to avoid those local fish species found to be high in Hg while still encouraging consumption of fish species having lower Hg levels. RESULTS: In 2010, under another research initiative, we returned to Bermuda to carry out another evaluation of Hg in human blood. Hg was measured in the blood of 49 pregnant women. The arithmetic mean Hg blood concentration was 6.6 nmol/L and the geometric mean 4.2 nmol/L. The maximum concentration found was 24 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: Hg exposure of Bermudian pregnant women has dropped significantly by a factor of around 5 since the foetal cord blood study in 2003.

  11. Grass and forb species for revegetation of mixed soil-lignite overburden in East Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skousen, J.G.; Call, C.A. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Sciences)

    Ten grasses and seven forbs were seeded into mixed soil-lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas and monitored for establishment and growth over a 3-year period without fertilization. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and kleingrass (P. coloratum) developed monotypic stands with sufficent density, aerial cover, and aboveground biomass to stabilize the mixed soil-lignite overburden surface by the end of the first growing season. Plant mortality eliminated buffelgrass and green sprangletop stands by the end of the third growing season. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) developed a satisfactory stand by the end of the third growing season, while Oldworld bluestem (Bothriochloa X Dicanthium), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) established at a slower rate. Cover and biomass measurements from an adjacent, unfertilized stand of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were compared with those of seeded grasses throughout the study. Partidge pea (Cassia fasciculata) established rapidly and had the greatest cover and biomass of all seeded forbs by the end of the first growing season. Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis), and western indigo (Indigofera miniata) developed adequate stands for surface stabilization by the end of the third growing season, while faseanil indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa), virgata lespedeza (Lespedeza virgata), and awnless bushsunflower (Simsia calva) showed slower establishment. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. The Effect of Soil Type and Moisture Content on Head Impacts on Natural Grass Athletic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyley Dickson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies are warranted to evaluate head injury criterion (HIC on athletic fields to determine baseline numbers and compare those findings to current critical thresholds for impact attenuation. A two year (2016 and 2017 study was conducted on University of Tennessee athletic fields (Knoxville, TN, USA to determine the effect of soil type (cohesive soil, United States Golf Association sand specifications and grass species (Poa pratensis and Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis on HIC. Additionally soil moisture conditions monitored were: dry (0.06–0.16 m3/m3, acceptable (0.17–0.29 m3/m3, and wet (0.30–0.40 m3/m3. A linear relationship (r = 0.91 was identified between drop height (0.5–2.9 M and HIC value (35-1423 HIC on granular root zones of both grass types. However, HIC on cohesive soil is a function of soil water content in addition to drop height. These results demonstrate to aid in head injury prevention on cohesive soil athletic fields the HIC can be lowered by managing soil water content.

  13. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg-1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg-1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems.

  14. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    E-mail addresses: 1 mike.ajieh@gmail.com, 2 dracigboanugo@yahoo.com, ... machine design was considered for processing biomass of grass origin. The machine operations include pulverization, compaction and extrusion of the briquettes.

  15. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  16. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  17. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    OpenAIRE

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-01-01

    Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India) level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG) 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green ...

  18. Bermuda Triangle: a subsystem of the 168/E interfacing scheme used by Group B at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Levinson, L.J.; Trang, Q.H.

    1979-12-01

    The Bermuda Triangle system is a method of interfacing several 168/E microprocessors to a central system for control of the processors and overlaying their memories. The system is a three-way interface with I/O ports to a large buffer memory, a PDP11 Unibus and a bus to the 168/E processors. Data may be transferred bidirectionally between any two ports. Two Bermuda Triangles are used, one for the program memory and one for the data memory. The program buffer memory stores the overlay programs for the 168/E, and the data buffer memory, the incoming raw data, the data portion of the overlays, and the outgoing processed events. This buffering is necessary since the memories of 168/E microprocessors are small compared to the main program and the amount of data being processed. The link to the computer facility is via a Unibus to IBM channel interface. A PDP11/04 controls the data flow. 7 figures, 4 tables

  19. Population Structure of Montastraea cavernosa on Shallow versus Mesophotic Reefs in Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen; Marchini, Chiara; Chequer, Alex D.; Goffredo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Mesophotic coral reef ecosystems remain largely unexplored with only limited information available on taxonomic composition, abundance and distribution. Yet, mesophotic reefs may serve as potential refugia for shallow-water species and thus understanding biodiversity, ecology and connectivity of deep reef communities is integral for resource management and conservation. The Caribbean coral, Montastraea cavernosa, is considered a depth generalist and is commonly found at mesophotic depths. We surveyed abundance and size-frequency of M. cavernosa populations at six shallow (10m) and six upper mesophotic (45m) sites in Bermuda and found population structure was depth dependent. The mean surface area of colonies at mesophotic sites was significantly smaller than at shallow sites, suggesting that growth rates and maximum colony surface area are limited on mesophotic reefs. Colony density was significantly higher at mesophotic sites, however, resulting in equal contributions to overall percent cover. Size-frequency distributions between shallow and mesophotic sites were also significantly different with populations at mesophotic reefs skewed towards smaller individuals. Overall, the results of this study provide valuable baseline data on population structure, which indicate that the mesophotic reefs of Bermuda support an established population of M. cavernosa. PMID:26544963

  20. Fractions of carbohydrates and of nitrogenous compounds of tropical grasses at different cutting ages Fracionamento de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados de gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Regina de Souza Siqueira Campos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated by the Cornell System carbohidrates fractions and nitrogenous compounds of the following grasses at the cutting ages of 14, 28, 42, and 56 days: nilo grass (Acroceras macrum, angola grass (Brachiaria purpurascens, aleman grass (Echinochloa polystachya, limpo grass (Hemarthria altíssima, setaria grass (Setaria anceps, tanner grass (Brachiaria arrecta, and tifton-85 grass (Cynodon spp. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design, in a split plot arrangement in a way that the grasses were evaluated in the plots and the ages of cut in the split-plots. The age of cutting had an effect on the composition of the studied grasses. In most of the grasses, total carbohydrate levels, non-fibrous carbohydrates and A+B1 fraction carbohydrates increased linearly according to the age of cutting. The potentially degradable fraction of carbohydrates (fraction B2 showed a quadratic behavior according to the cutting ages for all grasses. The C fraction of the carbohydrates in tifton-85 grass linearly increased with the age but it did not increase significantly for the other grasses. In setaria grass, the intermediate levels of B2 and B3 nitrogenous fractions were high, which might represent a potential source of protein for ruminal degradation and for the small intestine. Except for setaria grass, all studied grasses show similar values of the A, B1, B2 and B3 nitrogenous fractions.Avaliaram-se pelo Sistema Cornell as frações de carboidratos e os compostos nitrogenados dos capins acroceres (Acroceras macrum, angola, (Brachiaria purpurascens, canarana (Echinochloa polystachya, hemarthria (Hemarthria altíssima, setária (Setaria anceps, tanner grass (Brachiaria arrecta e tifton 85 (Cynodon spp nas idades de corte de 14, 28, 42 e 56 dias. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas de modo que as gramíneas foram avaliadas nas parcelas e as idades de corte, nas subparcelas. Houve

  1. Role of glycemic elements of Cynodon dactylon and Musa paradisiaca in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly; Rai, Nilesh K; Pandhija, Shiwani; Rai, A K; Watal, Geeta

    2009-09-01

    The study defined the scientific evaluation of glycemic elements of extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Musa paradisiaca. A dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) of C. dactylon produced maximum falls of 23.2% and 22.8% in blood glucose levels of normoglycemic rats during studies of fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance, respectively, whereas the same dose of M. paradisiaca produced a rise of 34.9% and 18.4%. In diabetic rats during glucose tolerance tests, a fall of 27.8% and a rise of 17.5% were observed with the same dose of C. dactylon and M. paradisiaca, respectively. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used for detection of glycemic elements present in both the extracts indicated that C. dactylon was rich in magnesium (Mg), whereas M. paradisiaca was rich in potassium (K) and sodium (Na), comparatively, suggesting thereby the defined roles of these elements in diabetes management.

  2. [Transformation of Cu forms in Cynodon dactylon rhizosphere soil of copper tailings yard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-bao; Huang, Yong-jie; Zhen, Quan; Yan, Mi; Yang, Hong-fei; Liu, Deng-yi

    2007-06-01

    The study on the Cu forms in Cynodon dactylon rhizosphere soil of copper tailings yard in Tongling City, Anhui Province showed that among the test Cu forms, the amount of residual form occupied the majority, while that of exchangeable form was relatively low. Compared with non-rhizosphere soil, rhizosphere soil had a higher organic matter content but a lower pH. With the growth of C. dactylon, the contents of organically combined and exchangeable Cu in rhizosphere soil increased by 7.89% and 5%, respectively, while those of carbonate-combined and Fe-Mn oxides-combined Cu decreased. The growth of C. dactylon accelerated the transformation of Cu forms in rhizosphere soil, and decreased the rhizosphere soil Cu content through its absorption.

  3. Genetic analysis of 430 Chinese Cynodon dactylon accessions using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunqiong; Liu, Guodao; Bai, Changjun; Wang, Wenqiang

    2014-10-21

    Although Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) is widely distributed in China, information on its genetic diversity within the germplasm pool is limited. The objective of this study was to reveal the genetic variation and relationships of 430 C. dactylon accessions collected from 22 Chinese provinces using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Fifteen primer pairs were used to amplify specific C. dactylon genomic sequences. A total of 481 SRAP fragments were generated, with fragment sizes ranging from 260-1800 base pairs (bp). Genetic similarity coefficients (GSC) among the 430 accessions averaged 0.72 and ranged from 0.53-0.96. Cluster analysis conducted by two methods, namely the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principle coordinate analysis (PCoA), separated the accessions into eight distinct groups. Our findings verify that Chinese C. dactylon germplasms have rich genetic diversity, which is an excellent basis for C. dactylon breeding for new cultivars.

  4. Anti-Helicobacter pylori metabolites from Rhizoctonia sp. Cy064, an endophytic fungus in Cynodon dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y M; Li, Y; Liu, J Y; Song, Y C; Tan, R X

    2004-07-01

    A new benzophenone, named rhizoctonic acid (1), together with three known compounds monomethylsulochrin (2), ergosterol (3) and 3beta,5alpha,6beta-trihydroxyergosta-7,22-diene (4) were isolated through bioassay-guided fractionations from the culture of Rhizoctonia sp. (Cy064), an endophytic fungus in the leaf of Cynodon dactylon. The structure of the new acid 1 was elucidated to be 5-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methylbenzoyl)-3-methoxybenzoic acid by a combination of spectral analyses. Furthermore, the structure of monomethylsulochrin 2 was confirmed by 13C-NMR analysis. All four metabolites were subjected to a more detailed in vitro assessment of their antibacterial action against five clinically isolated and one reference (ATCC 43504) Helicobacter pylori strains.

  5. Evaluation of CNS activities of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar

    2008-01-01

    The dried extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. (Graminae) were evaluated for CNS activities in mice. The ethanol extract of aerial parts of C. dactylon (EECD) was found to cause significant depression in general behavioral profiles in mice. EECD significantly potentiated the sleeping time in mice induced by standard hypnotics viz. pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependant manner. EECD showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. EECD inhibited the onset and the incidence of convulsion in a dose dependent manner against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion. The present study indicates that EECD has significant CNS depressant activities.

  6. Kidney stone formation and antioxidant effects of Cynodon dactylon decoction in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Alireza; Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Al-Reza; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Mohamadian Roshan, Nema; Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Pakdel, Roghayeh; Zarei, Batool; Aghaee, Azita

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity impairs in kidney and urinary bladder of animals with stone disease. Herbal medicine can improve the antioxidant condition of renal tissue. Cynodon dactylon ( C. dactylon ) is a medicinal plant with antioxidative and diuretic properties and different preparations of this plant have shown promising effects in stone disease. Assessment of the whole plant decoction to prevent kidney stone disease as well as its antioxidant effects was the aim of this paper. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10). One group was left without treatment and four groups received ethylene glycol (1% v/v) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Three doses of Cynodon dactylon aqueous decoction (12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg BW) were added to the drinking water of groups 3-5. Finally, water intake, 24-hour urine volume, MDA, total thiol concentration and FRAP value were measured in the serum and kidney tissues. The CaOx depositions were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Compared to the ethylene glycol-treated group, 200 mg/kg C. dactylon , lowered stone incidents, decreased urine volume, increased FRAP/g Cr (43%) and thiol content (p<0.05) with no significant alteration of water intake, MDA decreased significantly compared to C. dactylon 12.5 (p<0.01). Kidney weight increased and body weight decreased in ethylene glycol-treated group compared to the control group (p<0.05). A minimum dose of 200 mg/kg C. dactylon reduced stone formation and simultaneously increased total antioxidant power of serum and preserved MDA content and water.

  7. Utilisation of forage grasses for decontamination of spray-irrigated leachate from a municipal sanitary landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menser, H.A.; Winant, W.M.; Bennett, O.L.; Lundberg, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Spray irrigation was used to test the survival and efficiency of forage grasses as a concentrating mechanism for the inorganic waste elements in leachate from a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. Lime (0.67 metric tonnes ha), rock phosphate, and superphosphate (each at 11.2 metric tonnes ha) were applied in a randomised complete block design to reed canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea L., tall fescue Festuca arundinacea Schreb., cv. Ky31, orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata L., bromegrass Bromus inermis Leyss., and bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. cvs. Midland and Tufcote. Leachate was applied by overhead rotary sprinklers in weekly 8-h applications from 22 October 1974 to 28 April 1975. The total application averages about 155 cm. Sprayed leachate contained about 500 ppM of Ca, 150 to 200 ppM of Na, Fe, and Cl, 50 to 100 ppM of Mn, K, Mg, and N, 2 to 5 ppM of Al, Sr, Zn, and P, and less than 0.5 ppM of Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from approximately 7500 mg liter in water emerging from landfill drains to 5000 mg litre in sprayed leachate. Electroconductivity ranged from 3000 to 4000 ..mu..mhos cm and pH from 5.3 to about 5.5. Leachate irrigation appreciably increased Na, Fe, Mn, Cl, and S levels in all forages except orchardgrass. Lime significantly prevented Mn accumulation and benefited forage grass persistence. Reed canarygrass generally contained the highest levels of most elements and along with Tufcote bermudagrass was more leachate-tolerant than other grasses. Seasonal factors affected the uptake of several elements, e.g. Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, K and Co were significantly lower in regrowth cuttings as compared with first cuttings of Midland bermudagrass and reed canarygrass.

  8. Unique and cross-reactive T cell epitope peptides of the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etto, Tamara; de Boer, Carmela; Prickett, Sara; Gardner, Leanne M; Voskamp, Astrid; Davies, Janet M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Rolland, Jennifer M

    2012-01-01

    Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) is a major cause of allergic rhinitis. Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for grass pollen allergy, but is unsuitable for patients with moderate to severe asthma due to the risk of anaphylaxis. T cell-reactive but IgE nonreactive peptides provide a safer treatment option. This study aimed to identify and characterize dominant CD4(+) T cell epitope peptides of the major BaGP allergen, Pas n 1. Pas n 1-specific T cell lines generated from the peripheral blood of BaGP-allergic subjects were tested for proliferative and cytokine response to overlapping 20-mer Pas n 1 peptides. Cross-reactivity to homologous peptides from Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1 of Ryegrass and Bermuda grass pollen, respectively, was assessed using Pas n 1 peptide-specific T cell clones. MHC class II restriction of Pas n 1 peptide T cell recognition was determined by HLA blocking assays and peptide IgE reactivity tested by dot blotting. Three Pas n 1 peptides showed dominant T cell reactivity; 15 of 18 (83%) patients responded to one or more of these peptides. T cell clones specific for dominant Pas n 1 peptides showed evidence of species-specific T cell reactivity as well as cross-reactivity with other group 1 grass pollen allergens. The dominant Pas n 1 T cell epitope peptides showed HLA binding diversity and were non-IgE reactive. The immunodominant T cell-reactive Pas n 1 peptides are candidates for safe immunotherapy for individuals, including those with asthma, who are allergic to Bahia and possibly other grass pollens. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. CaracterÃsticas produtivas e parÃmetros bromatolÃgicos de pastagens de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp) e Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon) e desempenho de bovinos da raÃa PurunÃ

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Antonio Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho animal da raÃa Purunà e de pastagens de Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp) e Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon) com e sem irrigaÃÃo sendo o experimento realizado no municÃpio de Santa Tereza do Oeste/PR. Inicialmente, avaliou-se a produÃÃo de matÃria seca (MS) e composiÃÃo bromatolÃgica das pastagens de capim tifton 85 e coastcross sem irrigaÃÃo e com irrigaÃÃo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial com parcelas subd...

  10. Depth, temperature, oxygen and salinity profile data from repetitive occupation of a hydrographic station off St. George's, Bermuda from 1954 through 1984 (NODC Accession 0000650)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the PANULIRUS and other platforms from repetitive occupations of a hydrographic station off St. George's, Bermuda....

  11. Comparaison du Pangola (Digitaria decumbens) et du Stargrass (Cynodon nlemfluensis) exploités par des ovins

    OpenAIRE

    Boval, Maryline

    1989-01-01

    A la Martinique l'utilisation comparée de Digitaria decumbens (Dd) et de Cynodon nlemfuensis (Cn) par des brebis allaitantes a été étudiée pendant une période d'observation de 6 mois. Le cheptel est à un taux élevé de 1 600 kg de poids vif par hectare et par an, obtenu par une fertilisation de 450 kg/ha/an en azote.

  12. Geotechnical properties of sediments from North Pacific and Northern Bermuda Rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.J.; Laine, E.P.; Lipkin, J.; Heath, G.R.; Akers, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of geotechnical properties for the Sub-seabed Disposal Program have been oriented toward sediment characterization related to effectiveness as a containment media and determination of detailed engineering behavior. Consolidation tests of the deeper samples in the North Pacific clays indicate that the sediment column is normally consolidated. The in-situ coefficient of permeability (k) within the cored depth of 25 meters is relatively constant at 10 -7 cm/sec. Consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests indicate stress-strain properties characteristic of saturated clays with effective angles of friction of 35 0 for smectite and 31 0 for illite. These results are being used in computer modeling efforts. Some general geotechnical property data from the Bermuda Rise are also discussed

  13. Sharing Data to Build a Medical Information Commons: From Bermuda to the Global Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; Ankeny, Rachel A; Maxson Jones, Kathryn

    2017-08-31

    The Human Genome Project modeled its open science ethos on nematode biology, most famously through daily release of DNA sequence data based on the 1996 Bermuda Principles. That open science philosophy persists, but daily, unfettered release of data has had to adapt to constraints occasioned by the use of data from individual people, broader use of data not only by scientists but also by clinicians and individuals, the global reach of genomic applications and diverse national privacy and research ethics laws, and the rising prominence of a diverse commercial genomics sector. The Global Alliance for Genomics and Health was established to enable the data sharing that is essential for making meaning of genomic variation. Data-sharing policies and practices will continue to evolve as researchers, health professionals, and individuals strive to construct a global medical and scientific information commons.

  14. Examining the Impact of a Public Health Message on Fish Consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McLean Pirkle

    Full Text Available In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish, substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies. Recent evidence indicates mercury concentrations in Bermuda's pregnant women have fallen five- fold.Assess whether changes in women's fish eating patterns during pregnancy are consistent with the public health messaging. Determine who is making changes to their diet during pregnancy and why.Mixed methods study with a cross-sectional survey of 121 pregnant women, including 13 opened-ended interviews. Health system, social vulnerability, public health messaging, and socio-demographic variables were characterized and related to changes in fish consumption during pregnancy. Qualitative data were coded according to nutritional advice messages, comprehension of communication strategies, and sources of information.95% of women surveyed encountered recommendations about fish consumption during pregnancy. 75% reported modifying fish eating behaviors because of recommendations. Principal sources of information about fish consumption in pregnancy were health care providers and the Internet. 71% of women reported reducing consumption of large fish species with greater mercury levels, but 60% reported reduced consumption of smaller, low mercury fish. No participant mentioned hearing about the benefits of fish consumption. More frequent exposure to public health messages during pregnancy was associated with lower reported consumption. Bermudian born women were less likely to reduce consumption of large fish species during pregnancy.In Bermuda, public health messages advocating reduced consumption of larger

  15. allergenicity and cross- reactivity of buffalo grass (stenotaphrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bermuda on solid phase, but 100% inhibition was never achieved, indicating .... injected intraperitoneally into male Balb/c mice, with boosting at 2-week intervals ..... particles (DEPs), industrial emissions and wood smoke from the burgeoning ...

  16. Establishment of native and exotic grasses on mine overburden and topsoil in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxtable, C.H.A.; Koen, T.B.; Waterhouse, D. [DNR, Dangar, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Current recommendations for rehabilitation of open-cut coal mines in the Hunter Valley involve the sowing of exotic pasture species to reinstate mined land to Class IV and V under the Rural Land Capability System. Despite the importance of native grasses in the pre-mined landscape, they are currently not widely included in mine rehabilitation. To address this issue a project was conducted between 1994 and 2000 to research the use of native grasses for rehabilitation of open-cut coal mines in the Hunter Valley. This paper reports on 2 mine site experiments that aimed to assess establishment and persistence of a broad range of native and exotic grass species from an autumn sowing in both topsoil and raw spoil over a period of 61 months. The most promising natives in terms of early establishment, persistence and spread over time, included six C-3 accessions (five Austrodanthonia spp. and Austrostipa bigeniculata) and one C-4 accession (Cynodon dactylon). Persistence of these accessions was better in raw spoil than topsoil, despite initial low numbers, due to a lack of weed competition and their ability to spread by self-seeding. In topsoil, and in the absence of any biomass reduction, native species were mostly out-competed by vigorous exotic perennial grasses which were sown in these experiments and from seed influx from adjacent rehabilitation areas or from the soil seed bank. The effects of climatic conditions and differences in soil physical, chemical and seed bank characteristics at the 2 mine sites are also discussed.

  17. Bioenergy production from roadside grass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show...

  18. The effects of cynodon dactylon on the immune response of NMRI-MICE after challenge with REV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Ilkhanizadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cynodon dactylon is used in Iranian traditional medicine as a healing agent for reducing the complications of diabetes mellitus. We proposed that Cynodon dactylon may perform its effects through moderating humoral and cellular immune responses. We aimed to determine the possible effects of hydroalcholic extract of Cynodon dactylonon humoral and cellular immune responses following the Rev1 challenge in the mouse model. 20 NMRI male mice were randomly grouped in two equal groups and immunized with Rev1[0.1 ml Rev1+0.9 PBS[. Mice in the treatment group orally received 400 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of Cynodon dactylon every day from the beginning of the study for 2 weeks. Blood samples were obtained from the animals 5 days after the last injection. Moreover, 48 hr before bleeding time, Rev1[0.1 ml Rev1+0.9 PBS[was injected into the left hind foot pad of mice. The levels of anti-Rev1 antibody and the specific cellular immune responses were measured by microhemagglutination test and footpad thickness, respectively. Moreover, susceptibility of macrophages respiratory burst and proliferation of immune cells were measured in order withNitroblue tetrazolium[NBT] and Microculture Tetrazolium Assay [MTT]. The concentrations of IL-1, TNFα, Il-6, and IL-10 in the serum were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. We found a significant increase in anti-Rev1 antibody levels and simultaneously a significant decrease in the level of cellular immunity[DTH] in the treatment group compared to the control group. Lymphocyte proliferation index in splenocytes was significantly increased in the treatment group. However, the level of respiratory burst in phagocytic population of splenocytes dramatically decreased in the treatment group compared to the control. A significant decrease in IL-6, TNF-α , IL-1 and increaseIl-10 serum levels were also seen in the treatment group. Cynodon dactylon extract could have an anti-inflammatory effect through

  19. Perennial grasses for recovery of the aggregation capacity of a reconstructed soil in a coal mining area in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizete Stumpf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a soil after surface coal mining involves heavy machinery traffic during the topographic regeneration of the area, resulting in compaction of the relocated soil layers. This leads to problems with water infiltration and redistribution along the new profile, causing water erosion and consequently hampering the revegetation of the reconstructed soil. The planting of species useful in the process of soil decompaction is a promising strategy for the recovery of the soil structural quality. This study investigated the influence of different perennial grasses on the recovery of reconstructed soil aggregation in a coal mining area of the Companhia Riograndense de Mineração, located in Candiota-RS, which were planted in September/October 2007. The treatments consisted of planting: T1- Cynodon dactylon cv vaquero; T2 - Urochloa brizantha; T3 - Panicum maximun; T4 - Urochloa humidicola; T5 - Hemarthria altissima; T6 - Cynodon dactylon cv tifton 85. Bare reconstructed soil, adjacent to the experimental area, was used as control treatment (T7 and natural soil adjacent to the mining area covered with native vegetation was used as reference area (T8. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected in October/2009 (layers 0.00-0.05 and 0.10-0.15 m to determine the percentage of macro- and microaggregates, mean weight diameter (MWD of aggregates, organic matter content, bulk density, and macro- and microporosity. The lower values of macroaggregates and MWD in the surface than in the subsurface layer of the reconstructed soil resulted from the high degree of compaction caused by the traffic of heavy machinery on the clay material. After 24 months, all experimental grass treatments showed improvements in soil aggregation compared to the bare reconstructed soil (control, mainly in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, particularly in the two Urochloa treatments (T2 and T4 and Hemarthria altissima (T5. However, the great differences between the

  20. Analysis of Natural Variation in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Reveals Physiological Responses Underlying Drought Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H2O2 content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system. PMID:23285294

  1. Nutrients removal by Typha latifolia and Cynodon spp. grown in constructed wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Pimentel de Matos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extraction capacity of two species when grown in constructed wetlands with subsurface horizontal flow (SACs for the treatment of swine wastewater (ARS. To this end, were built 8 SACs of 2.0 m x 0.5 m x 0.6 m, fiber glass, filled with 0.55 m of fine gravels. In SAC2; SAC4; SAC6 and SAC8 was cultivated cattail (Typha latifolia and in SAC3; SAC5; SAC7 and SAC9 was cultivated tifton-85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.. The SAC2 and SAC3, SAC4 and SAC5, SAC6 and SAC7 and SAC8 and SAC9 received 163, 327, 461 and 561 kg ha-1 day-1 of BOD, respectively. During the 120 days of the SACs monitoring, it was found that the cattail has not adapted to the conditions of exposure. The highest yields were obtained with the application of organic load average of 327 kg ha-1 day-1 of BOD. The tifton-85 was the plant species with the highest capacity to extract nutrients, getting to draw between 443 and 540, 86 and 99, 193 and 241, 0.77 and 2.17, and 1.21 and 3.68 kg ha-1 TKN, P, K, Cu and Zn, respectively, while cattail showed greater capacity to absorb sodium.

  2. Dry matter genotypes of Cynodon by microwave and conventional oven methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this work was to comparing the drying process in a microwave oven and forced air ventilation, as well as their effects on the chemical composition of different genotypes of the genus Cynodon (Tifton 85, Jiggs, Russell, Tifton 68 and Vaquero collected at different ages cutting (28, 48, 63 and 79 days. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-plot design, with 4 replicates. There was no difference (P>0.05 between the methods analyzed on the chemical composition of the genotypes studied. Increasing age cutoff negatively influenced (P<0.05 the crude protein content of the different plant parts. A significant increase (P<0.05 of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and dry matter production was observed with increasing age cut. The use of the microwave oven is a quick and precise method obtain the dry matter content of the fodder showing efficiency similar to the method of drying in an oven with forced air circulation. The genotypes showed better chemical composition results when handled at age 28 days.

  3. Agronomic behaviour of some Cynodon dactylon ecotypes for turfgrass use in the Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viggiani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the expansion of turfgrasses is limited by the lack of suitable species for cultivation in the Mediterranean climate. With this view, Mi.Te.A.Med. (Turfgrass improvement in the Mediterranean climate research project was developed with the main purpose to find out and agronomically characterise native turfgrass species of Southern and Central Italy and to compare them with some commercial cultivars. During the first step of the research, 11 sites from 6 regions of Southern and Central Italy were identified. In these sites 24 ecotypes of Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers. were collected and their habitus, phenology plus some biometric parameters have been determined. During the two years of research both botanic and agronomic characterisation of the collected C. dactylon ecotypes and their comparison with 3 commercial cultivars (Panama, Transcontinental and Yukon was carried out. In the first year the colour loss interval was assessed. In the second year, colour index was measured by an electronic colorimeter, weekly growth rate was measured by a turfmeter, turf quality and ground cover percentage were assessed by visual estimate. Some native accessions showed behaviour similar to commercial cultivars while an ecotype from the Abruzzo region showed better results compared to the commercial cultivars for several quality indices.

  4. Identification and determination of flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration in Cynodon dactylon (L.) by HPLC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Saradha Devi; Kaliyaperumal, Ashokkumar; Subramaniyan, Annapoorani

    2015-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) is a potent medicinal plant in the traditional and current Indian medicinal systems. The objective of this research was to find out the levels of flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll b in C. dactylon leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a diode array detector. HPLC analysis revealed that total carotenoid and total flavonoid concentration were 62 mg/100 g and 249.1 μg/g, respectively. The mean chlorophyll b was 85.1 mg/100 g in C. dactylon. Among the flavonoids, quercetin (164.7 μg/g) was the major flavonoid followed by kaempferol (48.2 μg/g), rutin (18.4 μg/g), catechin (12.1 μg/g) and myricetin (5.7 μg/g). Of the carotenoids, β-carotene (35.2 mg/100 g) was predominant followed by lutein (17.0 mg/100 g), violaxanthin (5.8 mg/100 g) and zeaxanthin (4.2 mg/100 g). Chlorophyll b concentration was 85.1 mg/100 g in C. dactylon. The results of this investigation should be useful information for further pharmacological studies.

  5. Isolation and in silico evaluation of antidiabetic molecules of Cynodon dactylon (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapurna, Hasthi V; Apoorva, Babu; Ravichandran, Natesan; Arun, Kallur Purushothaman; Brindha, Pemaiah; Swaminathan, Sethuraman; Vijayalakshmi, Mahadevan; Nagarajan, Arumugam

    2013-02-01

    Cynodon dactylon is a potential source of metabolites such as flavanoids, alkaloids, glycosides and β-sitosterol and has been traditionally employed to treat urinary tract and other microbial infections and dysentery. The present work attempts to evaluate the activity of C. dactylon extracts for glycemic control. Aqueous extracts of C. dactylon analyzed by HPLC-ESI MS have identified the presence of apigenin, luteolin, 6-C-pentosyl-8-C-hexosyl apigenin and 6-C-hexosyl-8-C-pentosyl luteolin. Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity through an extensive in silico docking approach with PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor), GLUT-4 (glucose transporter-4) and SGLT2 (sodium glucose co-transporter-2) revealed that luteolin, apigenin, 6-C-pentosyl-8-C-hexosyl apigenin, 6-C-hexosyl-8-C-pentosyl luteolin interact with SGLT2. Interactions of these molecules with Gln 295 and Asp 294 residues of SGLT2 have been shown to compare well with that of the phase III drug, dapagliflozin. These residues have been proven to be responsible for sugar sensing and transport. This work establishes C. dactylon extract as a potential SGLT2 inhibitor for diabetic neuropathy thus enabling a possibility of this plant extract as a new alternative to existing diabetic approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of natural variation in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) reveals physiological responses underlying drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Cheng, Zhangmin; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used warm-season turfgrass and one of the most drought tolerant species. Dissecting the natural variation in drought tolerance and physiological responses will bring us powerful basis and novel insight for plant breeding. In the present study, we evaluated the natural variation of drought tolerance among nine bermudagrass varieties by measuring physiological responses after drought stress treatment through withholding water. Three groups differing in drought tolerance were identified, including two tolerant, five moderately tolerant and two susceptible varieties. Under drought stress condition, drought sensitive variety (Yukon) showed relative higher water loss, more severe cell membrane damage (EL), and more accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen) exhibited significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities. Further results indicated that drought induced cell injury in different varieties (Yukon, SR9554 and Tifgreen) exhibited liner correlation with leaf water content (LWC), H₂O₂ content, MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, Tifgreen plants had significantly higher levels of osmolytes (proline level and soluble sugars) when compared with Yukon and SR9554 under drought stress condition. Taken together, our results indicated that natural variation of drought stress tolerance in bermudagrass varieties might be largely related to the induced changes of water status, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant defense system.

  7. A study on the protective effect of Cynodon dactylon leaves extract in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, D; Ravikumar, S

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic efficacy of Cynodon dactylon in diabetic rats. The experimental rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group I: control; Group II: Alloxan diabetic, untreated; and Group III: Alloxan diabetic treated with ethanolic extract of C. dactylon leaves (450 mg/kg·bw). Experimental diabetes was induced by alloxan in a single dose of 150 mg/kg·bw. A Significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level was observed and also significant increase in HDL and decrease (P<0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL were observed after 15 days of treatment. The investigation also revealed, the activities of AST, ALT, ALP, AP, LDH, and CPK (P<0.05) were decreased in the extract-supplemented group. The significant decrease in protein content and SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH (P<0.05) activity and increase in LPO in plasma were found to be ameliorated after treatment. Our result supports the fact that administration of extract of C. dactylon leave is able to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduced the oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence-based Critical Evaluation of Glycemic Potential of Cynodon dactylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly

    2008-01-01

    The present study is an extension of our previous work carried out on Cynodon dactylon. This study deals with the critical evaluation of glycemic potential of ethanolic extract of defatted C. dactylon. The doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg kg−1 bw of the extract were administered orally to normal as well as Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats to study its glycemic potential. The effect of repeated oral administration of the same doses of ethanolic extract was also studied on serum lipid profile of severely diabetic (SD) rats. The dose of 500 mg kg−1 bw was identified as the most effective dose as it lowered the blood glucose levels of normal by 42.12% and of diabetic by 43.42% during fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test respectively. The SD rats were also treated daily with this identified dose of 500 mg kg−1 bw for 2 weeks and a significant reduction of 56.34% was observed in FBG level. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels were also decreased by 32.94, 64.06 and 48.46% respectively in SD rats whereas, cardioprotective high density lipoprotein increased by 16.45%. The reduced urine sugar level and increased body weight are additional advantages. These evidences clearly indicate that the ethanolic extract of defatted C. dactylon has high antidiabetic potential along with good hypolipidemic profile. PMID:18955211

  9. [Growth analysis on modules of Cynodon dactylon clones in Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Janar; Li, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yun-Fei

    2009-04-01

    By the method of randomly digging up whole ramet tuft while maintaining natural integrity, large samples of Cynodon dactylon clones were collected from a grape orchard abandoned for 2 years without any management in the Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang, aimed to quantitatively analyze the growth patterns of their modules. The results showed that the average ramet number of test 30 clones reached 272.6 +/- 186. 6, among which, vegetative ramets occupied 82.3%, being 4.3 times higher than reproductive ones. The total biomass of the clones was 45.4 +/- 40.0 g, in which, rhizomes accounted for 54.4%, while the vegetative ramets, stolons, and reproductive ramets occupied 21.0%, 14.8%, and 9.4% of the total, respectively. The accumulative length of rhizomes and stolons reached 5.1 + 4.7 m and 3.3 +/- 3.4 m, while the bud number on stolons and rhizomes was 291.5 +/- 246.8 and 78.8 +/- 87.4, respectively. The bud number on stolons and rhizomes was positively correlated to the quantitative characters of vegetative ramets, reproductive ramets, stolons, and rhizomes (P < 0.01), indicating that in Yili River Valley Plain, C. dactylon clone could achieve and maintain its continuous renovation via rhizome buds.

  10. Functional dissection of drought-responsive gene expression patterns in Cynodon dactylon L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Lemke, Cornelia; Paterson, Andrew H

    2009-05-01

    Water deficit is one of the main abiotic factors that affect plant productivity in subtropical regions. To identify genes induced during the water stress response in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), cDNA macroarrays were used. The macroarray analysis identified 189 drought-responsive candidate genes from C. dactylon, of which 120 were up-regulated and 69 were down-regulated. The candidate genes were classified into seven groups by cluster analysis of expression levels across two intensities and three durations of imposed stress. Annotation using BLASTX suggested that up-regulated genes may be involved in proline biosynthesis, signal transduction pathways, protein repair systems, and removal of toxins, while down-regulated genes were mostly related to basic plant metabolism such as photosynthesis and glycolysis. The functional classification of gene ontology (GO) was consistent with the BLASTX results, also suggesting some crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress. Comparative analysis of cis-regulatory elements from the candidate genes implicated specific elements in drought response in Bermudagrass. Although only a subset of genes was studied, Bermudagrass shared many drought-responsive genes and cis-regulatory elements with other botanical models, supporting a strategy of cross-taxon application of drought-responsive genes, regulatory cues, and physiological-genetic information.

  11. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawar, VR; Chitme, HR; Patel, KN; Patel, NJ; Racharla, VR; Dhoraji, NC; Vadalia, KR

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  12. Comparative proteomic responses of two bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-09-01

    Drought (water-deficit) stress is a serious environmental problem in plant growth and cultivation. As one of widely cultivated warm-season turfgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) exhibits drastic natural variation in the drought stress resistance in leaves and stems of different varieties. In this study, proteomic analysis was performed to identify drought-responsive proteins in both leaves and stems of two bermudagrass varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance, including drought sensitive variety (Yukon) and drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen). Through comparative proteomic analysis, 39 proteins with significantly changed abundance were identified, including 3 commonly increased and 2 decreased proteins by drought stress in leaves and stems of Yukon and Tifgreen varieties, 2 differentially regulated proteins in leaves and stems of two varieties after drought treatment, 23 proteins increased by drought stress in Yukon variety and constitutively expressed in Tifgreen variety, and other 3 differentially expressed proteins under control and drought stress conditions. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis (PS), glycolysis, N-metabolism, tricarboxylicacid (TCA) and redox pathways were largely enriched, which might be contributed to the natural variation of drought resistance between Yukon and Tifgreen varieties. These studies provide new insights to understand the molecular mechanism underlying bermudagrass response to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsani, Tayebeh Mohammadi; Etemadi, Nematollah; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim; Talebi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is a major turfgrass for home lawns, public parks, golf courses and sport fields and is known to have originated in the Middle East. Morphological and physiological characteristics are not sufficient to differentiate some bermudagrass genotypes because the differences between them are often subtle and subjected to environmental influences. In this study, twenty seven bermudagrass accessions and introductions, mostly from different parts of Iran, were assayed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. Fourteen ISSR primers amplified 389 fragments of which 313 (80.5%) were polymorphic. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.328, which shows that the majority of primers are informative. Cluster analysis using the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) method and Jaccard's similarity coefficient (r = 0.828) grouped the accessions into six main clusters according to some degree to geographical origin, their chromosome number and some morphological characteristics. It can be concluded that there exists a wide genetic base of bermudograss in Iran and that ISSR markers are effective in determining genetic diversity and relationships among them.

  14. The beneficial effect of cynodon dactylon fractions on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Rajaei, Ziba; Mohammadian, Nema; Valiollahi, Saleh; Sonei, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    To assess the beneficial effect of different fractions of Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ethylene glycol, curative, and preventive groups. The control group received tap drinking water for 35 days. Ethylene glycol, curative, and preventive groups received 1% ethylene glycol for induction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) calculus formation. Preventive and curative subjects also received different fractions of C. dactylon extract in drinking water at 12.8 mg/kg, since day 0 and day 14, respectively. After 35 days, the kidneys were removed and examined for histopathological findings and counting the CaOx deposits in 50 microscopic fields. In curative protocol, treatment of rats with C. dactylon N-butanol fraction and N-butanol phase remnant significantly reduced the number of the kidney CaOx deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. In preventive protocol, treatment of rats with C. dactylon ethyl acetate fraction significantly decreased the number of CaOx deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. Fractions of C. dactylon showed a beneficial effect on preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition in the rat kidney. These results provide a scientific rational for preventive and treatment roles of C. dactylon in human kidney stone disease.

  15. Contrasting Changes Caused by Drought and Submergence Stresses in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tiantian; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which bermudagrass withstands the drought and submergence stresses through physiological, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. The results showed that significant physiological changes were observed after drought treatment, while only slight changes after submergence treatment, including compatible solute contents, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. Proteomics results showed that 81 proteins regulated by drought or submergence treatment were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Among them, 76 proteins were modulated by drought stress with 46 increased abundance and 30 decreased abundance. Forty-five showed abundance changes after submergence treatment with 10 increased and 35 decreased. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that pathways of amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial electron transport/ATP synthesis were only enriched by drought treatment, while other pathways including photosynthesis, biodegradation of xenobiotics, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis and redox were commonly over-represented after both drought and submergence treatments. Metabolomic analysis indicated that most of the metabolites were up-regulated by drought stress, while 34 of 40 metabolites contents exhibited down-regulation or no significant changes when exposed to submergence stress, including sugars and sugar alcohols. These data indicated that drought stress extensively promoted photosynthesis and redox metabolisms while submergence stress caused declined metabolisms and dormancy in Cynodon dactylon. Taken together, the quiescence strategy with retarded growth might allow bermudagrass to be adaptive to long-term submerged environment, while activation of photosynthesis and redox, and accumulation of compatible solutes and molecular chaperones increased bermudagrass tolerance to drought stress. PMID:26617615

  16. AFLP analysis of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y Q; Taliaferro, C M; Bai, G H; Anderson, M P

    2004-08-01

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon (common bermudagrass) is geographically widely distributed between about lat 45 degrees N and lat 45 degrees S, penetrating to about lat 53 degrees N in Europe. The extensive variation of morphological and adaptive characteristics of the taxon is substantially documented, but information is lacking on DNA molecular variation in geographically disparate forms. Accordingly, this study was conducted to assess molecular genetic variation and genetic relatedness among 28 C. dactylon var. dactylon accessions originating from 11 countries on 4 continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe). A fluorescence-labeled amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA profiling method was used to detect the genetic diversity and relatedness. On the basis of 443 polymorphic AFLP fragments from 8 primer combinations, the accessions were grouped into clusters and subclusters associating with their geographic origins. Genetic similarity coefficients (SC) for the 28 accessions ranged from 0.53 to 0.98. Accessions originating from Africa, Australia, Asia, and Europe formed major groupings as indicated by cluster and principal coordinate analysis. Accessions from Australia and Asia, though separately clustered, were relatively closely related and most distantly related to accessions of European origin. African accessions formed two distant clusters and had the greatest variation in genetic relatedness relative to accessions from other geographic regions. Sampling the full extent of genetic variation in C. dactylon var. dactylon would require extensive germplasm collection in the major geographic regions of its distributional range.

  17. Genetic diversity among Korean bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) ecotypes characterized by morphological, cytological and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Si-Yong; Lee, Geung-Joo; Lim, Ki Byung; Lee, Hye Jung; Park, In Sook; Chung, Sung Jin; Kim, Jin-Baek; Kim, Dong Sub; Rhee, Hye Kyung

    2008-04-30

    The genus Cynodon comprises ten species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Korean bermudagrasses at the morphological, cytological and molecular levels. Morphological parameters, the nuclear DNA content and ploidy levels were observed in 43 bermudagrass ecotypes. AFLP markers were evaluated to define the genetic diversity, and chromosome counts were made to confirm the inferred cytotypes. Nuclear DNA contents were in the ranges 1.42-1.56, 1.94-2.19, 2.54, and 2.77-2.85 pg/2C for the triploid, tetraploid, pentaploid, and hexaploid accessions, respectively. The inferred cytotypes were triploid (2n = 3x = 27), tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36), pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45), and hexaploid (2n = 6x = 54), but the majority of the collections were tetraploid (81%). Mitotic chromosome counts verified the corresponding ploidy levels. The fast growing fine-textured ecotypes had lower ploidy levels, while the pentaploids and hexaploids were coarse types. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.42 to 0.94 with an average of 0.64. UPGMA cluster analysis and principle coordinate analysis separated the ecotypes into 6 distinct groups. The genetic similarity suggests natural hybridization between the different cytotypes, which could be useful resources for future breeding and genetic studies.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cynodon dactylon leaves and assessment of their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Nidhi; Soni, Deepika; Chandrashekhar, B; Sarangi, Bijaya Ketan; Satpute, Devanand; Pandey, Ram Avatar

    2013-07-01

    Many methods of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by reducing Ag⁺ ions using aqueous/organic extracts of various plants have been reported in the past, but the methods are rather slow. In this investigation, silver nanoparticles were quickly synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple method using leaf extract of a plant--Cynodon dactylon which served as reducing agent, while sunlight acted as a catalyst. The formation of Ag-NPs was indicated by gradual change in colour and pH and confirmed by ultraviolet--visible spectroscopy. The Ag-NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance at 451 nm. Based on the decrease in pH, a possible mechanism of the synthesis of Ag-NPs involving hydroxyl (OH⁻) ions of polyphenols of the leaf extract is postulated. Ag-NPs having (111) and (200) crystal lattices were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the spherical nature of the Ag-NPs, while transmission electron microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were polydispersed with a size range of 8-10 nm. The synthesized Ag-NPs also demonstrated their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium.

  19. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowsalya, R; Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Vaishnavi, M; Namasivayam, Elangovan

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced significant results in the protective action. The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses significant anticancer properties.

  20. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kowsalya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced signifi cant results in the protective action. Results: The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses signifi cant anticancer properties

  1. Assessment of Bermudagrass and Bunch Grasses as Feedstock for Conversion to Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William F.; Dien, Bruce S.; Brandon, Sarah K.; Peterson, Joy Doran

    Research is needed to allow more efficient processing of lignocellulose from abundant plant biomass resources for production to fuel ethanol at lower costs. Potential dedicated feedstock species vary in degrees of recalcitrance to ethanol processing. The standard dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by simultaneous sacharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed on leaf and stem material from three grasses: giant reed (Arundo donax L.), napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.), and bermudagrass (Cynodon spp). In a separate study, napiergrass, and bermudagrass whole samples were pretreated with esterase and cellulose before fermentation. Conversion via SSF was greatest with two bermudagrass cultivars (140 and 122 mg g-1 of biomass) followed by leaves of two napiergrass genotypes (107 and 97 mg g-1) and two giant reed clones (109 and 85 mg g-1). Variability existed among bermudagrass cultivars for conversion to ethanol after esterase and cellulase treatments, with Tifton 85 (289 mg g) and Coastcross II (284 mg g-1) being superior to Coastal (247 mg g-1) and Tifton 44 (245 mg g-1). Results suggest that ethanol yields vary significantly for feedstocks by species and within species and that genetic breeding for improved feedstocks should be possible.

  2. Characterization of gene expression associated with drought avoidance and tolerance traits in a perennial grass species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    Full Text Available To understand molecular mechanisms of perennial grass adaptation to drought stress, genes associated with drought avoidance or tolerance traits were identified and their expression patterns were characterized in C4 hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.×C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy, cv. Tifway] and common bermudagrass (C. dactylon, cv. C299. Plants of drought-tolerant 'Tifway' and drought-sensitive 'C299' were exposed to drought for 5 d (mild stress and 10 d (severe stress by withholding irrigation in a growth chamber. 'Tifway' maintained significantly lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content than 'C299' at both 5 and 10 d of drought stress. Four cDNA libraries via suppression subtractive hybridization analysis were constructed and identified 277 drought-responsive genes in the two genotypes at 5 and 10 d of drought stress, which were mainly classified into the functional categories of stress defense, metabolism, osmoregulation, membrane system, signal and regulator, structural protein, protein synthesis and degradation, and energy metabolism. Quantitative-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of 36 drought up-regulated genes that were more highly expressed in drought-tolerant 'Tifway' than drought-sensitive 'C299', including those for drought avoidance traits, such as cuticle wax formation (CER1 and sterol desaturase, for drought tolerance traits, such as dehydration-protective proteins (dehydrins, HVA-22-like protein and oxidative stress defense (superoxide dismutase, dehydroascorbate reductase, 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, and for stress signaling (EREBP-4 like protein and WRKY transcription factor. The results suggest that the expression of genes for stress signaling, cuticle wax accumulation, antioxidant defense, and dehydration-protective protein accumulation could be critically important for warm-season perennial grass adaptation to long-term drought stress.

  3. Radiomodulatory potential of hydroalcoholic extract of a medicinal plant Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae), against radiation-induced cytogenetic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satish Rao, B.S.; Upadhya, D.; Adiga, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    The exposure of humans to ionizing radiations may be advertently by routine diagnostic and therapeutic purposes or inadvertently during natural, occupational and nuclear accident situations. Therefore, in order to overcome the deleterious biological effects of radiation several chemical agents have been studied for their radioprotective potential. The medicinal plants being one of the resources for such clinically important natural agents, used extensively in several drug discovery related research. Here the radiomodulatory potential of hydroalcoholic extract of a medicinal plant Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae), against radiation-induced cytogenetic damage was analyzed using Chinese hamster fibroblast cells (V79) and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) growing in vitro is reported

  4. Comportamiento de céspedes de Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. en Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Laurencena, María I; Carponi, María S; Reinoso, Patricia D; Butus, Marina; Scorciapino, Claudia; Galli, Martín; Pérez, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    En zonas subtropicales o templadas cálidas las gramíneas estivales constituyen la base del césped pero presentan dormancia durante el invierno. Por ello es importante el conocimiento de céspedes con períodos de emergencia a implantación y vegetativo inactivo cortos, de textura fina, buen color, buen comportamiento sanitario y respuesta a fertilización. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento en el Departamento Paraná (Entre Ríos, Argentina) de céspedes de Cynodon dactylon (b...

  5. A molecular evaluation of the Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in Bermuda including Liagora nesophila sp. nov. and Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolizio, Thea R; Schneider, Craig W; Lane, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive, molecular-assisted alpha-taxonomic examination of the rhodophyte family Liagoraceae sensu lato, a group that has not previously been targeted for molecular studies in the western Atlantic. Sequence data from three molecular markers indicate that in Bermuda alone there are 10 species in nine different genera. These include the addition of three genera to the flora - Hommersandiophycus, Trichogloeopsis, and Yamadaella. Liagora pectinata, a species with a type locality in Bermuda, is phylogenetically allied with Indo-Pacific species of Hommersandiophycus, and the species historically reported as L. ceranoides for the islands is morphologically and genetically distinct from that taxon, and is herein described as L. nesophila sp. nov. Molecular sequence data have also uncovered the Indo-Pacific L. mannarensis in Bermuda, a long-distance new western Atlantic record. DNA sequences of Trichogloeopsis pedicellata from the type locality (Bahamas) match with local specimens demonstrating its presence in Bermuda. We described Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov. from Bermuda, a species phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from the generitype, Y. caenomyce of the Indo-Pacific. Our data also indicated a single species each of Ganonema, Gloiocallis, Helminthocladia, Titanophycus, and Trichogloea in the flora. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Environmental assessment of metal exposure to corals living in Castle Harbour, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Goodkin, N.F.; Jones, R.; Lamborg, C.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Hughen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination in Castle Harbour, Bermuda, has been linked to the dissolution and leaching of contaminants from the adjacent marine landfill. This study expands the evidence for environmental impact of leachate from the landfill by quantitatively demonstrating elevated metal uptake over the last 30 years in corals growing in Castle Harbour. Coral Pb/Ca, Zn/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios and total Hg concentrations are elevated relative to an adjacent control site in John Smith's Bay. The temporal variability in the Castle Harbour coral records suggests that while the landfill has increased in size over the last 35 years, the dominant input of metals is through periodic leaching of contaminants from the municipal landfill and surrounding sediment. Elevated contaminants in the surrounding sediment suggest that resuspension is an important transport medium for transferring heavy metals to corals. Increased winds, particularly during the 1990s, were accompanied by higher coral metal composition at Castle Harbour. Coupled with wind-induced resuspension, interannual changes in sea level within the Harbour can lead to increased bioavailability of sediment-bound metals and subsequent coral metal assimilation. At John Smith's Bay, large scale convective mixing may be driving interannual metal variability in the coral record rather than impacts from land-based activities. Results from this study provide important insights into the coupling of natural variability and anthropogenic input of contaminants to the nearshore environment.

  7. Development and characterization of genomic SSR markers in Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengcheng; Wu, Yanqi; Taliaferro, Charles M; Bell, Greg E; Martin, Dennis L; Smith, Mike W

    2014-08-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are a major molecular tool for genetic and genomic research that have been extensively developed and used in major crops. However, few are available in African bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), an economically important warm-season turfgrass species. African bermudagrass is mainly used for hybridizations with common bermudagrass [C. dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers.] in the development of superior interspecific hybrid turfgrass cultivars. Accordingly, the major objective of this study was to develop and characterize a large set of SSR markers. Genomic DNA of C. transvaalensis '4200TN 24-2' from an Oklahoma State University (OSU) turf nursery was extracted for construction of four SSR genomic libraries enriched with [CA](n), [GA](n), [AAG](n), and [AAT](n) as core repeat motifs. A total of 3,064 clones were sequenced at the OSU core facility. The sequences were categorized into singletons and contiguous sequences to exclude redundancy. From the two sequence categories, 1,795 SSR loci were identified. After excluding duplicate SSRs by comparison with previously developed SSR markers using a nucleotide basic local alignment tool, 1,426 unique primer pairs (PPs) were designed. Out of the 1,426 designed PPs, 981 (68.8 %) amplified alleles of the expected size in the donor DNA. Polymorphisms of the SSR PPs tested in eight C. transvaalensis plants were 93 % polymorphic with 544 markers effective in all genotypes. Inheritance of the SSRs was examined in six F(1) progeny of African parents 'T577' × 'Uganda', indicating 917 markers amplified heritable alleles. The SSR markers developed in the study are the first large set of co-dominant markers in African bermudagrass and should be highly valuable for molecular and traditional breeding research.

  8. Anti-chikungunya activity of luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from Cynodon dactylon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnan Saravana Murali; Srinivasan Sivasubramanian; Savariar Vincent; Shanmugaraj Bala Murugan; Bupesh Giridaran; Sundaram Dinesh; Palani Gunasekaran; Kaveri Krishnasamy; Ramalingam Sathishkumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To obtain luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract ofCynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers and evaluate the fraction’s cytotoxicity and anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells.Methods:The ethanolic extract ofC. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical standards. Cytotoxicity and the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluatedin vitrousing Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction.Results:Reverse Phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction ofC. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, and the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells.Conclusions:Luteolin and apigenin rich ethanolic fraction fromC. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus.

  9. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cynodon Dactylon (L. Pers. on ISchemia/Reperfusion-Induced Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Garjani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Probable antiarrhythmic effects of Cynodon dactylon (L. pers. (family Poaceae against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced arrhythmias were investigated in isolated rat heart. Methods: The hearts were subjected to 30min regional ischemia followed by 30min reperfusion and perfused with hydroalcoholic extract of rhizome of C. dactylon (25, 50, 100 and 200µg/ml. Results: During ischemia, the extract produced marked reduction in the number, duration and incidences of ventricular tachycardia (VT at 25 and 50µg/ml (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively. Total number of ischemic ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs were lowered by 25-100µg/ml (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. At the reperfusion phase, C. dactylon (25 and 50µg/ml decreased incidence of VT from 100% (control to 13 and 33% (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively. Duration and number of VT and total VF incidence were also reduced at the same concentration (p<0.05 for all. Perfusion of the extract (25-100µg/ml was markedly lowered reversible VF duration from 218±99sec to 0 sec, 0 sec and 10±5sec (p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively. Moreover, C. dactylon (25 and 50µg/ml decreased number of total VEBs from 349±73 to 35±17 (p<0.001 and 66±26 (p<0.01. In this study, it was also shown that perfusion of the extract produced a marked and concentration-dependent positive inotropic effect. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that C. dactylon produce protective effects against I/R-induced arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts probably by increase in the myocardial contractility and as a result by improvement of hemodynamic factors.

  10. Anti-chikungunya activity of luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from Cynodon dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Krishnan Saravana; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Vincent, Savariar; Murugan, Shanmugaraj Bala; Giridaran, Bupesh; Dinesh, Sundaram; Gunasekaran, Palani; Krishnasamy, Kaveri; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam

    2015-05-01

    To obtain luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers and evaluate the fraction's cytotoxicity and anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells. The ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical standards. Cytotoxicity and the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluated in vitro using Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction. Reverse Phase-HPLC and GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction of C. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, and the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells. Luteolin and apigenin rich ethanolic fraction from C. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Responses of meristematic callus cells of two Cynodon dactylon genotypes to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgareeb, Sumita; Cooke, John A; Watt, M Paula

    2004-11-01

    Responses to Al3+ of embryogenic callus cells of an Al-sensitive (Al-S) and Al-resistant (Al-R) Cynodon dactylon genotype were evaluated with regard to Al3+ toxicity and resistance. A chemical equilibrium speciation model (MINTEQA2) was used to ensure the availability of the Al3+ ion in culture media, which was supplied as 0.08-2.3 mM Al3+ for 2-8 weeks. Increasing Al3+ concentration and exposure time had a greater negative impact on the Al-S than on the Al-R genotype, in terms of callus growth rate and frequency of non-embryogenic cells. Exposure to 0.8 mM Al3+ for 2 weeks resulted in an 88% reduction in the Al-S meristematic cell number, whereas that of the Al-R genotype remained unaffected. In addition, the Al-S cells accumulated three times more Al in the nucleus than did the Al-R cells, suggesting that Al interfered with mitosis. The Al-R cells appeared to exclude Al3+ from its cells through an increase in extracellular pH (4.34 in Al-R and 4.08 in Al-S) and by the immobilisation of Al in the cell wall (33% more in Al-R). The results showed that by studying the cellular responses to Al3+ it is possible to discriminate between the Al-S and Al-R C. dactylon genotypes.

  12. Growth performance and stomatal behavior in relation to ecotypic adaptations in cynodon dactylon (L.) pers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufail, A.; Ahmad, F.; Hameed, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2017-01-01

    Evolution has great ecological significance in terms of plant morphological and stomatal characteristics that must have been genetically fixed during the long evolutionary period. Impact of environmental conditions on growth and stomatal features of twelve ecotypes of Cynodon dactylon that were collected from ecologically different habitats in the Punjab, Pakistan were evaluated. The collected ecotypes Derawar Fort-saline desert (DF-SD), Muzaffar garh-River bank (M-RB), Khabbeki Lake-hyper saline (KL-HS), Ucchali Lake-hyper saline (UL-HS), Kalar Kahar Lake-saline (KKL-S), Treemu-saline wetland (T-SW), Sahianwala-saline wetland (S-SW), Sahianwala-hyper saline (S-HS), Pakka Anna-hyper saline (PA-HS), Pakka Anna-reclaimed field (PA-RF), Botanic Garden-non saline (BG-NS) and Gatwala-saline semiarid (G-SSA) were grown in controlled environments at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad till their acclimatization to evaluate genetically fixed characteristics. After 6-month growth in soil, the plants were transferred to half-strength Hoagland's nutrient medium. There was a huge variation in all morphological characteristics recorded during the investigation, which were due to environmental heterogeniety to which these ecotypes were originally adapted. An exclusive feature of the DF-SD ecotypes is the long and numerous roots, and tillering capacity that surpassed all other ecotypes. Leaves per plant were also exceptionally high that may improve the photosymthetic efficiency of the plant. It showed a good potential of overall growth and biomass production. The robust growth was also recorded in the KKL-S ecotypes, and this can be related to the complete dominance of these two ecotypes in their respective habitats. Small stomata were recorded in the three ecotypes (DF-SD, KL-HS and PA-HS), which are of great ecological significance. Stomatal shape, however, is different in different ecotypes, but its contribution towards stress tolerance is still to be investigated. (author)

  13. Diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both composition and aggregation patterns of species in a community are the outcome of community self-organizing. In this paper we conducted analysis on species diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community, Zhuhai, China. According to the sampling survey, in total of 47 plant species, belonging to 16 families, were found. Compositae had 10 species (21.3%, seconded by Gramineae (9 species, 19.1%, Leguminosae (6 species, 12.8%, Cyperaceae (4 species, 8.5%, and Malvaceae (3 species, 6.4%. The results revealed that the means of aggregation indices Iδ, I and m*/m were 21.71, 15.71 and 19.89 respectively and thus individuals of most of plant species strongly followed aggregative distribution. Iwao analysis indicated that both individuals of all species and clumps of all individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution. Taylor's power law indicated that individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution and aggregation intensity strengthened as the increase of mean density. We held that the strong aggregation intensity of a species has been resulted from the strong adaptation ability to the environment, the strong interspecific competition ability and the earlier establishment of the species. Fitting goodness of the mean, I, Iδ, m*/m with probability distributions demonstrated that the mean (density, I, Iδ, and m*/m over all species followed Weibull distribution rather than normal distribution. Lophatherum gracile, Paederia scandens (Lour. Merr., Eleusine indica, and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. were mostly aggregative, and Oxalis sp., Eleocharis plantagineiformis, Vernonia cinerea (L. Less., and Sapium sebiferum (L. Roxb, were mostly uniform in the spatial distribution. Importance values (IV showed that Cynodon dactylon was the most important species, seconded by Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Cajanus scarabaeoides (L. Benth., Paspalum scrobiculatum L., and Rhynchelytrum repens. Oxalis

  14. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  15. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  16. Fermentation characteristics in hay from Cynodon and crop stubble treated with exogenous enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yânez André Gomes Santana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of treatment with xylanase and β-glucanase was evaluated for gas production and the ruminal degradation of nutrients from the hay of Tifton 85 grass and the stubble of maize, sorghum, peanut, sunflower and sesame crops. Two commercial fibrolytic enzymes were used (Dyadic xylanase PLUS - Xylanase; BrewZyme LP-β-glucanase, added to the hay at doses of 7.5 units of endoglucanase and 0.46 units of xylanase per 500 mg/gDM, for the cellulase and xylanase products respectively. The chemical composition of the hay was determined for no enzyme application and 24 hours after enzyme treatment, and the in vitro gas production and in situ microbial degradation was estimated for dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and truly-degradable organic matter after 24 hours of incubation in the rumen. Enzyme treatment of the hay from Tifton 85 grass and the stubble of maize, sorghum, sunflower, peanut and sesame crops with the exogenous fibrolytic enzymes β-glucanase and xylanase influences in vitro gas production, and the in situ degradation of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre and truly-degradable organic matter in the rumen. This variation can be attributed to differences in the chemical composition of the hay from the grass and the crop stubble, and to the different ways the enzymes act upon the cell wall.

  17. Study on the mechanism of the bronchodilatory effects of Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) and identification of the active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Maulik R; Bhalodia, Yagnik S; Pathak, Nimish L; Patel, Maulik S; Suthar, Kunal; Patel, Nilesh; Golwala, Dharmesh K; Jivani, Nurudin P

    2013-12-12

    In the traditional medicine, Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) is used in asthma, but scientific studies to provide evidence for medicinal uses are sparse. Thus this study was undertaken to provide evidence for medicinal use in asthma as a bronchodilator, and to identify active ingredient(s). In vivo, acetylcholine (Ach)-induced bronchospasm was conducted in guinea pig while isolated rat tracheal strip was suspended in organ bath to measure the concentration response curve using multichannel data acquisition system. The chloroform extract of Cynodon dactylon (CECD) protected against Ach-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs, similar to atropine. In the in vitro studies, CECD relaxed carbachol (CCh) and high K+-induced contraction of rat tracheal strip, similar to atropine and verapamil respectively, suggesting antimuscarinic and calcium channel blocking (CCB) activities, which were confirmed by right ward shifting of CCh and Ca(+2) concentration response curve (CRC). The phosphodiestrase (PDE) inhibitory activity was confirmed by potentiation of isoprenaline-induced inhibitory response, similar to papaverine. Densitometry analyses led to the identification of scopoletin as an active ingredient. Effectively, it significantly inhibited high K+, and Ca(+2) induced contractile response, similar to verapamil. The phosphodiestrase (PDE) inhibitory activity was confirmed by direct evidence of potentiation of isoprenaline-induced inhibitory response, similar to papaverine. These results suggest that the bronchodilator activity of CECD is partly due to presence of scopoletin, and mediated possibly through CCB and PDE inhibition.

  18. Comparação entre dois métodos analíticos para determinação da lignina de algumas gramíneas forrageiras Comparison between two analytical methods for determining lignin concentration of some grass forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Shigueo Fukushima

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados dois métodos analíticos para a determinação da lignina (lignina em detergente ácido - LDA e lignina permanganato de potássio - LPer bem como para averiguar a possível relação dos teores desse componente com a digestibilidade da fibra dos seguintes fenos: andropogon (Andropogon gayanus; aveia (Avena sativa; e dois tipos de coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, um bem fenado e outro de baixa qualidade. Os valores de LDA e LPer foram diferentes (p This work was carried out aiming to compare lignin concentration of some grass forages through two analytical methods (acid detergent lignin - ADL and permanganate lignin - PerL as well to verify a possible relationship of lignin concentration with fiber digestion of the following grass hays: andropogon (Andropogon gayanus; oats (Avena sativa; a good quality and another of poor quality coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon. Acid detergent and permanganate lignin values were different (p <= 0.05 among the hays, however PerL concentrations were consistently lower than ADL values. There were differences (p <= 0.05 among the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fiber fractions, however a clear relationship between these values with lignin concentration could not be assessed. The data suggested that lignin concentration, taken individually, is not the only factor to explain a given value of digestibility.

  19. Organic geochemistry and pore water chemistry of sediments from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Neumann, A.C.; Thorstenson, D.C.; Gerchakov, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Mangrove Lake, Bermuda, is a small coastal, brackish-water lake that has accumulated 14 m of banded, gelatinous, sapropelic sediments in less than 104 yr. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that Mangrove Lake's sedimentary environment has undergone three major depositional changes (peat, freshwater gel, brackish-water gel) as a result of sea level changes. The deposits were examined geochemically in an effort to delineate sedimentological and diagenetic changes. Gas and pore water studies include measurements of sulfides, ammonia, methane, nitrogen gas, calcium, magnesium, chloride, alkalinity, and pH. Results indicate that sulfate reduction is complete, and some evidence is presented for bacterial denitrification and metal sulfide precipitation. The organic-rich sapropel is predominantly algal in origin, composed mostly of carbohydrates and insoluble macromolecular organic matter called humin with minor amounts of proteins, lipids, and humic acids. Carbohydrates and proteins undergo hydrolysis with depth in the marine sapropel but tend to be preserved in the freshwater sapropel. The humin, which has a predominantly aliphatic structure, increases linearly with depth and composes the greatest fraction of the organic matter. Humic acids are minor components and are more like polysaccharides than typical marine humic acids. Fatty acid distributions reveal that the lipids are of an algal and/or terrestrial plant source. Normal alkanes with a total concentration of 75 ppm exhibit two distribution maxima. One is centered about n-C22 with no odd/even predominance, suggestive of a degraded algal source. The other is centered at n-C31 with a distinct odd/even predominance indicative of a vascular plant origin. Stratigraphic changes in the sediment correlate to observed changes in the gas and pore water chemistry and the organic geochemistry. ?? 1982.

  20. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  1. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  2. Thermogravimetric analysis of forest understory grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; John S. Kush; Sharon M. Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Forest understory grasses are of significance in the initiation, establishment and maintenance of fire, whether used as a management tool or when occurring as wildfire. The fundamental thermal properties of such grasses are critical to their behavior in fire situations and have been investigated in the current work by the application of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA...

  3. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  4. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  5. Comparative and Mixture Effect of Cynodon Dactylon, ElectroMagnetic Field and Insulin on Diabetic Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafisi, Saeid; Nezhady, Mohammad Ali Mohammad; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-12-01

    New investigations are in progress to find some alternative treatments for diabetes mellitus. Herbs are some of the interesting medications in this regard. Cynodon dactylon (C.d) is a potential plant to be considered as a new medication. On the other hand, the effect of the Electromagnetic Field (EMF) on bio organisms is becoming clearer. In this study, the effect of C.d, EMF and insulin have been investigated on the diabetic mouse. Diabetes was induced by a combination of ketamine (60 mg/Kg) and xylazine (10 mg/Kg) which induces a sustained hyperglycemia. Mice were divided into 12 groups: 1) control, 2) normal saline, 3 and 4) 50mg/Kg C.d, 5 and 6) 100 mg/Kg C.d, 7) insulin, 8) insulin and C.d, 9) EMF (110 KHz, 700±20 mG), 10) insulin and EMF, 11) EMF plus C.d and 12) insulin plus C.d and EMF. Blood glucose level was measured after 5 and 60 minutes in C.d administrated groups, and 5 minutes in the other groups by a glucometer set. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and different means were compared by Tukey and Bonferroni tests (p<0.05). According to results, both dosages of C.d had significant lowering effect on blood glucose level. The first dose was more effective than the second, and its impact was just like insulin. The 6(th), 9(th) and 10(th) groups were significant, also. However, they did not show a higher effect than insulin or C.d. The application of EMF had a significant effect compared to the second group, but it did not reduce the glucose level to the normal range. The effect of the 8th group was very impressive and the mean glucose levels in this group were lower than the control group. Considering the data, C.d is a good alternative medication for diabetes mellitus.

  6. Produção de massa seca e composição química de cinco cultivares de Cynodon = Dry matter production and chemical composition of five Cynodon cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Roberto de Andrade Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp, Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo. Os tratamentos consistiram na avaliação de 5 cultivares de Cynodon, em 11 idades de corte, para estudo da característica crescimento e 5 idades para a avaliação da composição química. O delineamento experimental foi ointeiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas, com 3 repetições, considerando-se, nas parcelas, as cultivares (C e, nas subparcelas, as idades de corte (I. Foram avaliados a produção de massa seca (PMS, a relação folha/colmo, os teores de proteína bruta (PB, defibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, nas folhas, nos colmos e na planta inteira. A PMS aumentou dos 14 aos 84 dias (PThe experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. The treatments aimed to evaluate five Cynodon cultivars at eleven cutting ages to study the characteristics of growing, and at five cutting ages toevaluate the chemical composition. A random design with split plot was adopted, with three replications, considering cultivars as plot and cutting age as subplots. The following variables were studied: dry matter (DM production, leaf/stem ratio and the contents of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, in green leaf, stem and total plant. The highest DM production was from 14 to 84 days (P<0.01, and did not differ among cultivars. The leaf/stem ratio differ (P<0.01 among cultivars (C and decreased with plant age (I showing interaction C x I. The CP contents of the total plant were superior to the stem and inferior to the leaf. The NDF and ADF contents were similar among cultivars. The Cynodon cultivars would be better managed during 28 days of plant growth.

  7. Investigating Bermuda's pollution history through stable isotope analyses of modern and museum-held gorgonian corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, David M.; Murdoch, Thaddeus J.T.; Conti-Jerpe, Inga; Fogel, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, Bermuda has been challenged with wastewater management for the protection of human and environmental health. By quantifying the δ 15 N of the common sea fan Gorgonia ventalina sampled from 30 sites throughout Bermuda we show that sewage-derived nitrogen is detectable on nearshore coral reefs and declines across the lagoon to the outer rim. We also sampled gorgonians from two museum collections representing a 50y time-series (1958–2008). These samples revealed an increase in δ 15 N of > 4.0‰ until the mid-1970s, after which δ 15 N values slowly declined by ~ 2.0‰. A δ 15 N chronology from a gorgonian skeleton exhibited a similar decline over the last 30–40 years of approximately 0.6‰. We conclude that policies have been effective in reducing sewage impacts to Bermudian reefs. However, significant sources of sewage pollution persist and are likely have a strong impact on harbor and nearshore coral communities and human health.

  8. METHODS OF TAXATION IN THE TAX HAVENS. EXAMPLES OF TAXATION IN THE BAHAMAS, BERMUDA AND THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We should never trust appearances: "the drum, with all the noise it makes is not only filled with wind"[1]. This old oriental proverb perfectly illustrates our proposal regarding the "true false" tax havens. Only at the beginning of this century, learned before firms to exercise their activity in the national territory, returned to international trade. The continuous search for new outlets to escape the growing production, export them first and then they were implanted overseas sales platforms and then installing production. Zero Haven sites or havens with zero tax consisting essentially of small economies, the British colonies (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, dependent territories of the Commonwealth (Bermuda or territories became independent (Antigua, Bahamas 1963 or Vanuatu 1980. Our study will analyze tax havens most common: Bahamas, Bermuda or the Cayman Islands, where we find all models of reception that can be viewed in other areas zero-haven: International Business Companies (Antigua, the Virgin Islands, Nevis exemption schemes to insurance companies or banks (Barbados, Vanuatu. The subject of tax evasion subject of much debate, targeting both the domestic economic space and the world. Unlike their concerns globally, domestic concerns to reduce tax evasion resumes, especially on taxation of small businesses, avoiding knowingly scope of tax havens.

  9. Predation as the primary selective force in recurrent evolution of gigantism in Poecilozonites land snails in Quaternary Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Storrs L.; Hearty, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    During the last half million years, pulses of gigantism in the anagenetic lineage of land snails of the subgenus Poecilozonites on Bermuda were correlated with glacial periods when lower sea level resulted in an island nearly an order of magnitude larger than at present. During those periods, the island was colonized by large vertebrate predators that created selection pressure for large size and rapid growth in the snails. Extreme reduction in land area from rising seas, along with changes in ecological conditions at the onset of interglacial episodes, marked extinction events for large predators, after which snails reverted to much smaller size. The giant snails were identical in morphology during the last two glacials when the predators included a large flightless rail Rallus recessus (marine isotope stages (MIS) 4-2) and a crane Grus latipes and a duck Anas pachysceles (MIS 6). In a preceding glacial period (MIS 10), when the fauna also included the tortoise Hesperotestudo bermudae, the snails were not only large, but the shells were much thicker, presumably to prevent crushing by tortoises. Evolution of Poecilozonites provides an outstanding example of dramatic morphological change in response to environmental pressures in the absence of cladogenesis. PMID:20554560

  10. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The Multilateral Disarmament Process. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (16th, Warwick, Bermuda, June 21-26, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    This is a report of a conference held in Bermuda in 1981 to discuss a multilateral approach to disarmament. The conference was an informal, off-the-record exchange of ideas and opinions among 24 diplomats and scholars from 18 countries and two international agencies. Participants considered current disarmament concepts, assessed UN disarmament…

  12. Nutritive value of pastures of Cynodon mixed with forage peanut in southwestern Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Fernando Ziech

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the nutritive value of pastures of Coastcross-1 and Tifton 85 mixed with increasing inclusion of forage peanut (0, 25, 50, 75% occupancy area, subjected to cuts, over two study years in Southwestern Paraná State. The experimental design was factorial (three factors distributed in randomized block. The factors were cultivars (2, the occupancy area of forage peanut (4 and seasons of cuts (5, with three replications. It was evaluated the percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and in vitro digestibility of dry matter of leaf blades, stem + sheath of grasses and available forage mass of pastures. Values of crude protein ranged from 17.0 to 20.4% and from 16.8 to 19.3% for the forage mass available of Coastcross-1 and Tifton 85, respectively. Higher digestibility values were found at the beginning of evaluations. On average, the Coastcross-1 showed better nutritive value compared to Tifton 85, and, the inclusion of forage peanut increased crude protein content in leaf blades of grasses studied, in the second year after planted.

  13. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings...... by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology...

  14. Particulate organic carbon mass distribution at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kjell; Orcutt, Karen M.; Purdie, Duncan A.; Michaels, Anthony F.; Knap, Anthony H.

    Errors in total particulate organic carbon (total POC) measurements caused by particles settling in Niskin water samplers, loss of bacterial cells during filtration and undersampling of rare particles such as the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. were investigated at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Regular core samples of temperature, primary production, bacterial abundance, chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) and POC were collected at monthly intervals from 1991 to 1996. During this period of time, shorter investigations of particles settling in water samples (1991-1992), bacterial cells lost during filtration (1992-1993), and Trichodesmium abundance (1995-1996) were performed at the BATS site. The BATS site shows striking seasonal patterns in hydrography and phytoplankton primary productivity, with a strong maximum immediately following the deep winter mixing of the water column. Following the peak in primary production, bacterial abundance showed only slightly elevated levels in spring. Maxima of Chl- a and POC also were associated with the primary production peaks, but these particle concentrations became less pronounced through summer and fall. An average of 26% of total POC collected in Niskin water bottles settled below the spigot before it could be sampled. An average of 47% of all bacterial cells passed the nominal pore size of a Whatman GF/F filter, and total POC measurements generated from GF/F filtered seawater samples had to be corrected for this loss. The average integrated stocks of total POC in the upper 65 m of the water column was 32% pigmented phytoplankton, 15% microheterotrophs, 54% other detrital matter (32 : 15 : 54). Phytoplankton C equaled bacterial C in the 65-135 m depth range (16 : 19 : 65), but phytoplankton C was virtually non-existent deeper than 135 m (2 : 14 : 74). Bacterial C biomass was higher than phytoplankton in surface waters outside the spring bloom period, but carbon not accounted for by phytoplankton

  15. Transformation of triploid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis cv. TifEagle) by means of biolistic bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Lu, S; Chen, T A; Funk, C R; Meyer, W A

    2003-06-01

    A transformation system for triploid bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis cv. TifEagle) was established with a biolistic bombardment delivery system. Embryogenic callus was induced from stolons and maintained on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 30 microM dicamba, 20 microM benzylaminopurine, and 100 mg/l myo-inositol. Using the hygromycin phosphotransferase ( hpt) gene as the selectable marker gene, we obtained 75 transgenic lines from 18 petri dishes bombarded. Integration of the hpt gene into genomic DNA and transcription of hpt was confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analyses, respectively. Through suspension culture screening, we obtained homogeneously transformed plants showing stable transcription of the hpt gene.

  16. Development of highly regenerable callus lines and biolistic transformation of turf-type common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Qu, R

    2004-01-01

    Common bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, is a widely used warm-season turf and forage species in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. Improvement of bermudagrass via biotechnology depends on improved tissue culture responses, especially in plant regeneration, and a successful scheme to introduce useful transgenes. When the concentration of 6-benzylaminopurine was adjusted in the culture medium, yellowish, compact calluses were observed from young inflorescence tissue culture of var. J1224. Nine long-term, highly regenerable callus lines (including a suspension-cultured line) were subsequently established, of which six were used for biolistic transformation. Five independent transgenic events, with four producing green plants, were obtained following hygromycin B selection from one callus line. Three transgenic events displayed resistance to the herbicide glufosinate, and one of these showed beta-glucuronidase activity since the co-transformation vector used in the experiments contained both the gusA and bar genes.

  17. In Vitro Virucidal and Virustatic Properties of the Crude Extract of Cynodon dactylon against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonghiran, Oapkun; Kunanoppadol, Suchaya; Potha, Teerapong; Chuammitri, Phongsakorn

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro virustatic and virucidal tests of the crude extract of Cynodon dactylon against infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a cause of major devastating pig disease, were described. Crude extract of C. dactylon was prepared for cytotoxicity on tissue-culture cells that were used to measure virustatic and virucidal activities against PRRSV. Crude extract of C. dactylon at 0.78 mg/mL showed no cytotoxicity on the cell line, and at that concentration significantly inhibited replication of PRRSV as early as 24 hours post infection (hpi). C. dactylon also inactivated PRRSV as determined by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) compared to the control experiments. In summary, the present study may be among the earliest studies to describe virustatic and virucidal activities of C. dactylon crude extract against PRRSV in vitro. Extracts of C. dactylon may be useful for PRRSV control and prevention on pig farms. PMID:24744959

  18. Chemopreventive effect of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. extract against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert-Baskar, Arul; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2010-07-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the chemopreventive property of Cynodon dactylon. The antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic potentials of the plant were investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NO(-)) and MTT assay on four cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM, MCH-7, AGS, A549) and a normal cell line (VERO). In vivo chemopreventive property of the plant extract was studied in DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon was found to be antiproliferative and antioxidative at lower concentrations and induced apoptotic cell death in COLO 320 DM cells. Treatment with methanolic extract of C. dactylon increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the number of dysplastic crypts in DMH-induced colon of albino rats. The present investigation revealed the anticancer potential of methanolic extract of C. dactylon in COLO 320 DM cells and experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

  19. Zinc fractions in a sandy soil and its relations with availability to Cynodon spp cv. Tifton-85

    OpenAIRE

    André, E. M. [UNESP; Cruz, M. C. P. [UNESP; Ferreira, M. E. [UNESP; Palma, L. A. S.

    2003-01-01

    Para avaliar um esquema de fracionamento de zinco em Argissolo arenoso e suas relações com a disponibilidade de Zn para Cynodon spp cv. Tifton-85, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 x 2 (5 doses de Zn, 2 doses de calcário e 2 épocas de amostragem), em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As doses de Zn foram de 0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10 mg dm-3; metade dos vasos não recebeu calagem (V = 42 %) e metade recebeu a calagem com vistas em e...

  20. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  1. Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Datura metel Linn. and Cynodon dactylon Linn. Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumen; Pawar, Sandip; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of Datura metel L. and Cynodon dactylon L. extracts. The extraction of plants parts (datura seed and fruit pulp) and areal parts of durva was carried out using soxhlet and cold extraction method using solvents namely methanol and distilled water. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined by established methods. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed in vero cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay method. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was performed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. We found that the highest amount of TPC and TFC in methanolic extracts of seed (268.6 μg of gallic acid equivalence/mg of dry plant material) and fruit pulp (8.84 μg of quercetin equivalence/mg dry plant material) of D. metel, respectively prepared by Soxhlet method. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon prepared using soxhlation has shown potent free radical scavenging activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 100 μg/ml. The IC50 of a methanolic cold extract of datura fruit was found to be 3 mg/ml against vero cell line. We observed that plant parts of C. dactylon and D. metel have a high antioxidant activity. Further research is needed to explore the therapeutic potential of these plant extracts. In the present study we observed a positive correlation was between the phenolic and flavanoid content of the Datura metel and cynodon doctylon (durva) extracts with the free radical scavenging activities. Both were found to have a high antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: BHA: Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene, CC50: 50% cell cytotoxic concentration, CNS: Central nervous system, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), TFC: Total flavonoid content, TPC: Total

  2. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  3. Phytostabilisation of copper-contaminated soil in Katanga: an experiment with three native grasses and two amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutcha, Mylor Ngoy; Mubemba, Michel Mpundu; Faucon, Michel-Pierre; Luhembwe, Michel Ngongo; Visser, Marjolein; Colinet, Gilles; Meerts, Pierre

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility of using the grass species Rendlia altera, Monocymbium ceresiiforme, Cynodon dactylon, and amendments (compost and lime) for the phytostabilisation of soils contaminated by Cu in the province of Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo). Species were grown on control and Cu-contaminated plots (artificially contaminated with 2,500 mg kg(-1) Cu) unamended (NA), amended with 4.5 kg compost m(-2) or 0.2 kg lime m(-2). R. altera was also grown on contaminated plots amended with 22.5 kg compost m(-2) or 1 kg lime m(-2). Plant survival, growth, and reproduction were monitored for two years. Cu-concentration in leaves of R. altera and M. ceresiiforme were analysed. pH and extractable Cu (0.01 M CaCl2) in soil were analysed in April 2007 and 2008. Results showed that R. altera seems to be the best candidate because of its highest survival on NA, followed by M. ceresiiforme, while liming was necessary to ensure survival of C. dactylon. Lime increased plant reproduction and reduced Cu accumulation in leaves compared to compost. However, higher survival and number of spikes of R. altera obtained in experiment 2 with 22.5 kg compost m(-2) suggest that lime x compost interactions should be investigated in further studies.

  4. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  5. Tree-grass interactions in savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Savannas occur where trees and grasses interact to create a biome that is neither grassland nor forest. Woody and gramineous plants interact by many mechanisms, some negative (competition) and some positive (facilitation). The strength and sign...

  6. POTENTIALS OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND GRASSES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    Potentials of some agricultural waste and grasses were investigated. ... to education, printing, publishing and ... technical form, paper is an aqueous deposit ..... Period of. Soaking. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight.

  7. Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

  8. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantification

    The potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for

  9. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  10. Nitrogen fertilization strategies for xaraes and tifton 85 grasses irrigated in the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Queiroz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to assess rates and nitrogen fertilization strategies on the forage yield using irrigation to supply the water deficit during the dry season. The grasses Cynodon spp cv. tifton 85 and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés were cultivated with nitrogen (N at levels of 200 and 400 kg/ha according to strategies: 1 half dose applied during the rainy season (RS and half during the dry season (DS; 2 1/3 during the RS and 2/3 during the DS; 3 2/3 during the RS and 1/3 during the DS; 4 all doses applied during the DS. In each season the dose was divided in three applications. Eleven harvests were conducted: six in the RS and five in the DS. When 2/3 of N was applied in the DS, forage yield in this period was statistically equivalent to those obtained in the RS in three of the five harvests for both 200 and 400 kg/ha of N. With 100% of N applied in the DS, the yield of four of five cuts of forage was similar to that obtained in the RS for both rates of N. The strategy of applying more N in the DS rather than in the RS was effective, keeping the yield steadily throughout the year. The application of 100% of the dose of 200 kg/ha N and 2/3 of the dose of 400 kg/ha N both in the dry period, under irrigation, promote uniform productions per harvest throughout the year.

  11. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  12. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  13. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkus Kristen A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis.

  14. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and digestibility coefficients were obtained for the protein, fibre, ash and fat contents of both ... Cabbage is a superior feed compared to grass for raising grass carp and a suitable low-cost alternative ... Materials and Methods ... from jumping out and was fitted with an air lift under- .... In: Aquatic weeds in South East Asia.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Crisp Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.

  16. Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Soliman, I.A.; Visser, de H.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and

  17. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil

  18. Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein

  19. The roles of temperature and light in black band disease (BBD) progression on corals of the genus Diploria in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Kristin; Jones, Ross; Gibbs, David; Richardson, Laurie

    2011-03-01

    On Bermuda reefs the brain coral Diploria labyrinthiformis is rarely documented with black band disease (BBD), while BBD-affected colonies of Diploria strigosa are common. D. labyrinthiformis on these reefs may be more resistant to BBD or less affected by prevailing environmental conditions that potentially diminish host defenses. To determine whether light and/or temperature influence BBD differently on these two species, infection experiments were conducted under the following experimental treatments: (1) 26 °C, ambient light; (2) 30 °C, ambient light; (3) 30 °C, low light; and (4) 30 °C, high light. A digital photograph of the affected area of each coral was taken each day for 7 days and analyzed with ImageJ image processing software. The final affected area was not significantly different between species in any of the four treatments. BBD lesions were smaller on both species infected under ambient light at 26 °C versus 30 °C. Low light at 30 °C significantly reduced the lesion size on both species when compared to colonies infected at the same temperature under ambient light. Under high light at 30 °C, BBD lesions were larger on colonies of D. strigosa and smaller on colonies of D. labyrinthiformis when compared to colonies infected under ambient light at the same temperature. The responses of both species suggests that BBD progression on both D. strigosa and D. labyrinthiformis is similarly influenced by a combination of light and temperature and that other factors present before infections become established likely contribute to the difference in BBD prevalence in Bermuda. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Apparent digestibility of diets with combinations of soybean hulls and coastcross (Cynodon sp. hay offered to ram lambs Digestibilidade aparente de dietas com combinações de casca de soja e feno de "coastcross" (Cynodon sp. oferecidas para cordeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Canonenco de Araujo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean hulls (SH are an alternative fiber source that may be used to maintain neutral detergent fiber (NDF concentration while increasing the energy concentration of ruminant diets. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing coastcross (Cynodon sp. hay NDF by SH NDF on the apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance of Santa Inês ram lambs. Twenty-four animals (42.5 ± 3.6 kg of body weight and six months old were placed in metabolism crates and assigned in a randomized complete block design defined by body weight (BW. Experimental diets provided a similar concentration of NDF (52% and crude protein (15%. Hay NDF from a 70% roughage-based diet was replaced with SH NDF by 33%, 67%, and 100%, resulting in 0, 25, 52, and 77% of SH in the dietary dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a linear increase (p 0.05 on water intake when SH replaced hay. The SH can replace forage and may be included up to 77% in the dietary DM of ram lambs with satisfactory values of nutrient digestibilities.A casca de soja (CS é uma fonte de fibra alternativa que visa manter o teor de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e aumentar a concentração energética da dieta de ruminantes. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar os efeitos da substituição da FDN de feno de "coastcross" (Cynodon sp. pela FDN da CS sobre a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e balanço de nitrogênio em cordeiros Santa Inês. Vinte e quatro animais (42,5 ± 3,6 kg de peso vivo e seis meses de idade foram colocados em gaiolas para ensaio de digestibilidade e arranjados em delineamento blocos completos casualizados definidos pelo peso vivo (PV. As dietas isonitrogenadas (15% de proteína bruta continham concentrações semelhantes de FDN (52%. O tratamento controle foi composto de 70% de feno na matéria seca (MS da dieta, sendo a FDN proveniente do feno substituída em 33%, 67% e 100% pela FDN proveniente da CS, correspondendo a 0, 25, 52 e 77% de

  1. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  2. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species...... that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants responded to flaming. Regrowth of the grasses was measured by harvesting aboveground biomass 2 wk after......, as they did not increase the reduction of aboveground biomass compared with the 7-d treatment interval. Knowledge on the regrowth of grass weeds after flaming treatments provided by this study can help improve recommendations given to road keepers and park managers for management on these weeds. Nomenclature...

  3. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  4. Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

  5. Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and geographical variation. ... Seven species are important pasture grasses throughout the western Transvaal, Orange Free State, northern Cape and Natal. ... Language: English.

  6. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume sward in ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture ...

  7. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  8. Angiogenic effect of the aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and granulation tissue in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraya, Hamid; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Javaherypour, Soheil; Mokarizadeh, Aram; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Esmaeli Gouvarchin Ghaleh, Hadi; Mikaili, Peyman; Garjani, Alireza

    2015-01-29

    Cynodon dactylon, a valuable medicinal plant, is widely used in Iranian folk medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure and atherosclerosis. Moreover, its anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties have been also reported. Concerning the critical role of angiogenesis in the incidence and progression of tumors and also its protective role in cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of the aqueous extract prepared from the rhizomes of C. dactylon on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) and also on angiogenesis in carrageenan induced air-pouch model in rats. In the air-pouch model, carrageenan was injected into an air-pouch on the back of the rats and following an IV injection of carmine red dye on day 6, granulation tissue was processed for the assessment of the dye content. Furthermore, in an in vitro study, angiogenic property of the extract was assessed through its effect on VEGF expression in HUVECs. Oral administration of 400 mg/kg/day of the extract significantly increased angiogenesis (p<0.05) and markedly decreased neutrophil (p<0.05) and total leukocyte infiltration (p<0.001) into the granulation tissues. Moreover, the extract increased the expression of total VEGF in HUVECs at a concentration of (100 μl/ml). The present study showed that the aqueous extract of C. dactylon promotes angiogenesis probably through stimulating VEGF expression.

  9. Disomic Inheritance and Segregation Distortion of SSR Markers in Two Populations of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanwen; Wu, Yanqi; Anderson, Jeff A; Moss, Justin Q; Zhu, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Common bermudagrass [C. dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon] is economically and environmentally the most important member among Cynodon species because of its extensive use for turf, forage and soil erosion control in the world. However, information regarding the inheritance within the taxon is limited. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine qualitative inheritance mode in common bermudagrass. Two tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36), first-generation selfed (S1) populations, 228 progenies of 'Zebra' and 273 from A12359, were analyzed for segregation with 21 and 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, respectively. It is concluded that the inheritance mode of tetraploid bermudagrass was complete or near complete disomic. It is evident that the two bermudagrass parents had an allotetraploid genome with two distinct subgenomes since 33 SSR primer pairs amplified 34 loci, each having two alleles. Severe transmission ratio distortions occurred in the Zebra population while less so in the A12359 population. The findings of disomic inheritance and segregation ratio distortion in common bermudagrass is significant in subsequent linkage map construction, quantitative trait locus mapping and marker-assisted selection in the species.

  10. Protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract from rhizomes of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. on compensated right heart failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garjani, Alireza; Afrooziyan, Arash; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Najafi, Moslem; Kharazmkia, Ali; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin

    2009-08-05

    The rhizomes of Cynodon dactylon are used for the treatment of heart failure in folk medicine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of C. dactylon rhizomes on cardiac contractility in normal hearts and on cardiac functions in right-heart failure in rats. Right-heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (50 mg/kg). Two weeks later, the animals were treated orally with different doses of the extract for fifteen days. At the end of the experiments cardiac functions and markers of myocardial hypertrophy were measured. The treated rats showed very less signs of fatigue, peripheral cyanosis and dyspnea. The survival rate was high in the extract treated groups (90%). Administration of C. dactylon in monocrotaline-injected rats led to profound improvement in cardiac functions as demonstrated by decreased right ventricular end diastolic pressure (RVEDP) and elevated mean arterial pressure. RVdP/dtmax, and RVdP/dt/P as indices of myocardial contractility were also markedly (p < 0.001; using one way ANOVA) increased by the extract. The extract reduced heart and lung congestion by decreasing tissue wet/dry and wet/body weight ratios (p < 0.01). In the isolated rat hearts, the extract produced a remarkable (P < 0.001) positive inotropic effect concomitant with a parallel decrease in LVEDP. The results of this study indicated that C. dactylon exerted a strong protective effect on right heart failure, in part by positive inotropic action and improving cardiac functions.

  11. Aspergillus fumigatus CY018, an endophytic fungus in Cynodon dactylon as a versatile producer of new and bioactive metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J Y; Song, Y C; Zhang, Z; Wang, L; Guo, Z J; Zou, W X; Tan, R X

    2004-11-09

    Aspergillus fumigatus CY018 was recognized as an endophytic fungus for the first time in the leaf of Cynodon dactylon. By bioassay-guided fractionation, the EtOAc extract of a solid-matrix steady culture of this fungus afforded two new metabolites, named asperfumoid (1) and asperfumin (2), together with six known bioactive compounds including monomethylsulochrin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, physcion, helvolic acid and 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6,22-diene-3beta-ol as well as other four known compounds ergosta-4,22-diene-3beta-ol, ergosterol, cyclo(Ala-Leu) and cyclo(Ala-Ile). Through detailed spectroscopic analyses including HRESI-MS, homo- and hetero-nuclear correlation NMR experiments (HMQC, COSY, NOESY and HMBC), the structures of asperfumoid and asperfumin were established to be spiro-(3-hydroxyl-2,6-dimethoxyl-2,5-diene-4-cyclohexone-(1,3')-5'-methoxyl-7'-methyl-(1'H, 2'H, 4'H)-quinoline-2',4'-dione) and 5-hydroxyl-2-(6-hydroxyl-2-methoxyl-4-methylbenzoyl)-3,6-dimethoxyl-benzoic methyl ester, respectively. All of the 12 isolates were subjected to in vitro bioactive assays against three human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Tricophyton rubrum and Aspergillus niger. As a result, asperfumoid, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, physcion and helvolic acid were shown to inhibit C. albicans with MICs of 75.0, 31.5, 62.5, 125.0 and 31.5 microg/mL, respectively.

  12. Anatomical adaptations of cynodon dactylon (l.) pers., from the salt range Pakistan, to salinity stress. I. root and stem anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, M.; Ashraf, M.; Naz, N.; Al-qurainy, F.

    2010-01-01

    A naturally adapted salt tolerant population of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., from highly saline soils of Uchhali Lake, the Salt Range, Pakistan was evaluated for root and stem anatomical modifications. A population from the normal (non-saline) soils of the Faisalabad region was also collected for comparison. Both populations were subjected to salt stress hydroponically. The salt treatments used were: control (0 mM salt), 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl in 0.5 strength Hoagland's nutrient solution. The Salt Range population showed specific root and stem anatomical adaptations for its better survival under harsh saline environments. Increased exodermis and sclerenchyma, endodermis, cortex and pith parenchyma in roots were critical for checking water loss and enhancing water storage capability. In stem, increased stem area (succulence), increased epidermis and sclerenchyma thicknesses (preventing water loss), increased cortex thickness (increasing water storage), and increased number and area of vascular tissue (increased water conduction) seemed to be crucial for its better survival under harsh saline environments. (author)

  13. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  14. Notes on the nomenclature of some grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1941-01-01

    In a former article 1) many new combinations and critical observations were published on various grasses all over the world. New investigations in critical genera together with the study of the existing literature made it necessary to accept various other arrangements in this important family. The

  15. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203 ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  16. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental conditions.

  17. Convex relationships in ecosystems containing mixtures of trees and grass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between grass production and the quantity of trees in mixed tree-grass ecosystems (savannas) is convex for all or most of its range. In other words, the grass production declines more steeply per unit increase in tree quantity...

  18. Names of Southern African grasses: Name changes and additional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main reasons for changes in botanical names are briefly reviewed, with examples from the lists. At this time, about 1040 grass species and subspecific taxa are recognized in the subcontinent. Keywords: botanical research; botanical research institute; botany; grass; grasses; identification; name change; nomenclature; ...

  19. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  20. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces highly cross-reactive IgG antibodies to group V allergen from different grass species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Brewczyński, P. Z.; Tan, K. Y.; Mulder-Willems, H. J.; Widjaja, P.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kroon, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on IgG reactivity with group V allergen from six different grass species. One group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. Only Lolium perenne, Dactylis

  1. Avaliação de gramíneas forrageiras na região sul de Minas Gerais Evaluation of forage grasses for the south region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Andrade Botrel

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos na região do sul de Minas Gerais para avaliar o potencial de gramíneas forrageiras. No experimento 1 foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies, consideradas de baixa exigência nutricional: Andropogon gayanus, Kunt; Brachiaria brizantha, Stapf; Brachiaria decumbens, Stapf; Brachiaria ruziziensis, Germain Evrard; Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweickt e Melinis minutiflora, Beauv. No experimento 2 foram avaliadas as gramíneas consideradas de média e alta exigência nutricional, a saber: Setaria sphacelata (Schum. Moss; Hemarthria altissima (Poir. Stapf; Chloris gayana, Kunt; Cynodon nlemfuensis, Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis; Hyparrhenia rufa, (Ness Stapf. e as cultivares de Panicum maximum, Jacq.: Tobiatã, Green Panic e Makueni. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Os níveis de calagem e de adubação para estabelecimento e manutenção foram diferenciados para os dois experimentos. Cada espécie foi avaliada nos seguintes aspectos: produção de forragem e teor de proteína bruta no período da seca e das chuvas e cobertura vegetal do solo. As gramíneas do experimento 1 que se destacaram na maioria dos aspectos avaliados foram: B. brizantha, B. decumbens, A. gayanus enquanto que no experimento 2 as espécies que apresentaram maior potencial forrageiro foram: S. sphacelata, P. maximum cv. Tobiatã.experiments were undertaken in the South region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to evaluate the yield potential of forage grasses. In experiment 1, the following species, considered as having low nutritional requirements, were evaluated: Andropogon gayanus, Kunt; Brachiaria brizantha, Stapf; Brachiaria decumbens, Stapf; Brachiaria ruziziensis, Germain Evrard; Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweickt and Melinis minutiflora, Beauv. In experiment 2, the species considered as having medium and high nutritional requirements, that is: Setaria sphacelata (Schum.; Hemarthria altissima

  2. Frações de zinco em solo arenoso e suas relações com disponibilidade para Cynodon spp cv. Tifton-85 Zinc fractions in a sandy soil and its relations with availability to Cynodon spp cv. Tifton-85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. André

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar um esquema de fracionamento de zinco em Argissolo arenoso e suas relações com a disponibilidade de Zn para Cynodon spp cv. Tifton-85, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 x 2 (5 doses de Zn, 2 doses de calcário e 2 épocas de amostragem, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As doses de Zn foram de 0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10 mg dm-3; metade dos vasos não recebeu calagem (V = 42 % e metade recebeu a calagem com vistas em elevar o índice de saturação por bases a 70 %. As épocas de amostragem foram 30 e 150 dias após aplicação de Zn, respectivamente, antes do plantio e depois do 3º corte de Tifton-85. A aplicação de Zn resultou em aumento significativo do elemento nas frações: trocável, óxidos de Mn, matéria orgânica e óxidos de Fe. O Zn ligado aos óxidos de Mn aumentou significativamente com a calagem. Após 150 dias de experimentação, houve diminuição do Zn trocável, ligado aos óxidos de Mn, à matéria orgânica e aos óxidos de Fe, e aumento na fração residual. A distribuição de Zn nas frações do solo foi: residual > óxidos de Fe > óxidos de Mn > trocável > matéria orgânica. As relações entre as características estudadas mostraram que tanto o Zn-DTPA quanto o Zn trocável, ligado à M.O. e aos óxidos de Mn, foram eficientes para representar o Zn absorvido pela planta.To evaluate a fractionation scheme for Zn in a sandy soil (Ultisol and its relation with Zn availability for Cynodon spp cv. Tifton-85, an experiment was carried out in greenhouse, with a factorial scheme (5 doses of zinc, 2 doses of lime and 2 times of sampling, in a completely randomized block design, with three replications. The doses of Zn were: 0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10 mg dm-3; half of the pots did not received liming (V = 42% and, in the other half, liming was done to increase the base saturation index to 70%. The sampling times were 30 and 150 days after Zn

  3. SSR-enriched genetic linkage maps of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis), and their comparison with allied plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sameer; Kim, Changsoo; Auckland, Susan A; Rainville, Lisa K; Adhikari, Jeevan; Schwartz, Brian M; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-04-01

    We report SSR-enriched genetic maps of bermudagrass that: (1) reveal partial residual polysomic inheritance in the tetraploid species, and (2) provide insights into the evolution of chloridoid genomes. This study describes genetic linkage maps of two bermudagrass species, Cynodon dactylon (T89) and Cynodon transvaalensis (T574), that integrate heterologous microsatellite markers from sugarcane into frameworks built with single-dose restriction fragments (SDRFs). A maximum likelihood approach was used to construct two separate parental maps from a population of 110 F 1 progeny of a cross between the two parents. The T89 map is based on 291 loci on 34 cosegregating groups (CGs), with an average marker spacing of 12.5 cM. The T574 map is based on 125 loci on 14 CGs, with an average marker spacing of 10.7 cM. Six T89 and one T574 CG(s) deviated from disomic inheritance. Furthermore, marker segregation data and linkage phase analysis revealed partial residual polysomic inheritance in T89, suggesting that common bermudagrass is undergoing diploidization following whole genome duplication (WGD). Twenty-six T89 CGs were coalesced into 9 homo(eo)logous linkage groups (LGs), while 12 T574 CGs were assembled into 9 LGs, both putatively representing the basic chromosome complement (x = 9) of the species. Eight T89 and two T574 CGs remain unassigned. The marker composition of bermudagrass ancestral chromosomes was inferred by aligning T89 and T574 homologs, and used in comparisons to sorghum and rice genome sequences based on 108 and 91 significant blast hits, respectively. Two nested chromosome fusions (NCFs) shared by two other chloridoids (i.e., zoysiagrass and finger millet) and at least three independent translocation events were evident during chromosome number reduction from 14 in the polyploid common ancestor of Poaceae to 9 in Cynodon.

  4. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Stanley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2 m−2 yr−1. This is comparable to previous AOUR-based estimates of export production at the BATS site but is several times larger than export estimates derived from sediment traps or 234Th fluxes. We compare AOUR determined in this study to AOUR measured in the 1980s and show AOUR is significantly greater today than decades earlier because of changes in AOU, rather than changes in ventilation rates. The changes in AOU are likely a methodological artefact associated with problems with early oxygen measurements.

  5. Modeling Biogeochemical-Physical Interactions and Carbon Flux in the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; McClain, Charles R.; Christian, James R.

    2001-01-01

    An ecosystem-carbon cycle model is used to analyze the biogeochemical-physical interactions and carbon fluxes in the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site for the period of 1992-1998. The model results compare well with observations (most variables are within 8% of observed values). The sea-air flux ranges from -0.32 to -0.50 mol C/sq m/yr, depending upon the gas transfer algorithm used. This estimate is within the range (-0.22 to -0.83 mol C/sq m/yr) of previously reported values which indicates that the BATS region is a weak sink of atmospheric CO2. The overall carbon balance consists of atmospheric CO2 uptake of 0.3 Mol C/sq m/yr, upward dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) bottom flux of 1.1 Mol C/sq m/yr, and carbon export of 1.4 mol C/sq m/yr via sedimentation. Upper ocean DIC levels increased between 1992 and 1996 at a rate of approximately 1.2 (micro)mol/kg/yr, consistent with observations. However, this trend was reversed during 1997-1998 to -2.7 (micro)mol/kg/yr in response to hydrographic changes imposed by the El Nino-La Nina transition, which were manifested in the Sargasso Sea by the warmest SST and lowest surface salinity of the period (1992-1998).

  6. Perfil hematológico de éguas Quarto de Milha alimentadas com feno ou haylage de Tifton-85 ( Cynodon spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, T.C.; Rezende, A.S.C.; Costa, M.L.L.; Ferreira, M.G.; Soto-Blanco, B.; Melo, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO O capim Tifton-85 (Cynodon spp.) vem sendo utilizado na alimentação de equinos na forma de pré-secado (haylage) e feno, todavia não existem estudos conclusivos a respeito da influência da haylage sobre o estado de saúde dessa espécie. Portanto, esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o perfil sanguíneo como indicador de higidez de éguas Quarto de Milha alimentadas com haylage e feno de Tifton-85. A gramínea utilizada foi cortada com 30 dias de crescimento. Para produção da haylage, a planta co...

  7. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  8. Cynodon dactylon and Sida acuta extracts impact on the function of the cardiovascular system in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rajaretinam Rajesh; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen cardioactive herbs from Western Ghats of India. The heart beat rate (HBR) and blood flow during systole and diastole were tested in zebrafish embryos. We found that Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) induced increases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos with a HBR of (3.968±0.344) beats/s, which was significantly higher than that caused by betamethosone [(3.770±0.344) beats/s]. The EC50 value of C. dactylon was 3.738 µg/mL. The methanolic extract of Sida acuta (S. acuta) led to decreases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos [(1.877±0.079) beats/s], which was greater than that caused by nebivolol (positive control). The EC50 value of Sida acuta was 1.195 µg/mL. The untreated embryos had a HBR of (2.685±0.160) beats/s at 3 d post fertilization (dpf). The velocities of blood flow during the cardiac cycle were (2,291.667±72.169) µm/s for the control, (4,250±125.000) µm/s for C. dactylon and (1,083.333±72.169) µm/s for S. acuta. The LC50 values were 32.6 µg/mL for C. dactylon and 20.9 µg/mL for S. acuta. In addition, the extracts exhibited no chemical genetic effects in the drug dosage range tested. In conclusion, we developed an assay that can measure changes in cardiac function in response to herbal small molecules and determine the cardiogenic effects by microvideography.

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese natural bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] germplasm based on SRAP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiqi; Xu, Shaojun; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jianxiu

    2017-01-01

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], an important turfgrass used in public parks, home lawns, golf courses and sports fields, is widely distributed in China. In the present study, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and population structure among 157 indigenous bermudagrass genotypes from 20 provinces in China. The application of 26 SRAP primer pairs produced 340 bands, of which 328 (96.58%) were polymorphic. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.36 to 0.49 with a mean of 0.44. Genetic distance coefficients among accessions ranged from 0.04 to 0.61, with an average of 0.32. The results of STRUCTURE analysis suggested that 157 bermudagrass accessions can be grouped into three subpopulations. Moreover, according to clustering based on the unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA), accessions were divided into three major clusters. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that accessions from identical or adjacent areas were generally, but not entirely, clustered into the same cluster. Comparison of the UPGMA dendrogram and the Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed general agreement between the population subdivisions and the genetic relationships among accessions. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with SRAP markers revealed a similar grouping of accessions to the UPGMA dendrogram and STRUCTUE analysis. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 18% of total molecular variance was attributed to diversity among subpopulations, while 82% of variance was associated with differences within subpopulations. Our study represents the most comprehensive investigation of the genetic diversity and population structure of bermudagrass in China to date, and provides valuable information for the germplasm collection, genetic improvement, and systematic utilization of bermudagrass.

  10. Factors Influencing Dislodgeable 2, 4-D Plant Residues from Hybrid Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) Athletic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Matthew D; Gannon, Travis W; Brosnan, James T; Ahmed, Khalied A; Breeden, Gregory K

    2016-01-01

    Research to date has confirmed 2,4-D residues may dislodge from turfgrass; however, experiments have not been conducted on hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis), the most common athletic field turfgrass in subtropical climates. More specifically, previous research has not investigated the effect of post-application irrigation on dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from hybrid bermudagrass and across turfgrass species, research has been nondescript regarding sample time within a d (TWD) or conducted in the afternoon when the turfgrass canopy is dry, possibly underestimating potential for dislodgement. The effect of irrigation and TWD on 2,4-D dislodgeability was investigated. Dislodgeable 2,4-D amine was reduced > 300% following irrigation. From 2 to 7 d after treatment (DAT), ≤ 0.5% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged from irrigated turfgrass, while ≤ 2.3% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged when not irrigated. 2,4-D dislodgeability decreased as TWD increased. Dislodgeable 2,4-D residues declined to < 0.1% of the applied at 1 DAT- 13:00, and increased to 1 to 3% of the applied 2 DAT- 5:00, suggesting 2,4-D re-suspended on treated turfgrass vegetation overnight. In conclusion, irrigating treated turfgrass reduced dislodgeable 2,4-D. 2,4-D dislodgeability increased as TWD decreased, which was attributed to non-precipitation climatic conditions favoring turfgrass canopy wetness. This research will improve turfgrass management practices and research designed to minimize human 2,4-D exposure.

  11. A transcriptomic analysis of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) provides novel insights into the basis of low temperature tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Fan, Jibiao; Hu, Longxing; Hu, Zhengrong; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Yingzi; Lou, Yanhong; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-09-11

    Cold stress is regarded as a key factor limiting widespread use for bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). Therefore, to improve cold tolerance for bermudagrass, it is urgent to understand molecular mechanisms of bermudagrass response to cold stress. However, our knowledge about the molecular responses of this species to cold stress is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the transcriptomic response to low temperature in bermudagrass by using RNA-Seq platform. Ten cDNA libraries were generated from RNA samples of leaves from five different treatments in the cold-resistant (R) and the cold-sensitive (S) genotypes, including 4 °C cold acclimation (CA) for 24 h and 48 h, freezing (-5 °C) treatments for 4 h with or without prior CA, and controls. When subjected to cold acclimation, global gene expressions were initiated more quickly in the R genotype than those in the S genotype. The R genotype activated gene expression more effectively in response to freezing temperature after 48 h CA than the S genotype. The differentially expressed genes were identified as low temperature sensing and signaling-related genes, functional proteins and transcription factors, many of which were specifically or predominantly expressed in the R genotype under cold treatments, implying that these genes play important roles in the enhanced cold hardiness of bermudagrass. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis for DEGs revealed that photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and carbon fixation pathways play key roles in bermudagrass response to cold stress. The results of this study may contribute to our understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the responses of bermudagrass to cold stress, and also provide important clues for further study and in-depth characterization of cold-resistance breeding candidate genes in bermudagrass.

  12. Lead-210 and polonium-210 in grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C R

    1960-07-16

    It appears that an important contribution to the observed ..cap alpha..-activity of grass may be provided by a process of natural fall-out in which lead-210 resulting from decay of atmospheric radon, together with a fraction of the equilibrium amount of its descendant polonium-210 are deposited by rainfall directly on to foliage. Metabolic uptake of part of this activity by sheep is indicated by the presence in the kidney of polonium-210. 6 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. Chemostratigraphy at DSDP Sites 386 (Bermuda Rise) and 144 (Demerara Rise), Implications for Euxinic Conditions During OAE-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, P. A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Sinninghe-Damsté, J. S.; Sandler, A.

    2008-05-01

    Chemostratigraphic studies of DSDP Site 386 on the Bermuda Rise and Site 144 on the Demerara Rise indicate that euxinic conditions developed at these deep-water sites during the time interval that corresponds to Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2). The data show a large increase in Fe/Al ratios, and dispersed pyrite aggregates (Site 386 Core 43, Section 3). Such findings at these deep oceanic sites are compatible with earlier studies showing that sediments in euxinic settings display increases in Fe/Al ratios due to the scavenging of dissolved Fe, and is also in agreement with previous Pr/Ph ratio of cyanobacteria showing low thermal stress, supporting in situ derivation. Elemental analyses at Site 386 also show that relatively high Sr/CaO ratios are present before and after OAE 2, indicating an increased contribution of biogenic carbonates, but not during the C/T boundary event. When Cr is plotted against Al2O3 in conjunction with a solid line representing the Cr/Al2O3 ratio in average shale, half of the samples fall above and half fall below this line. The values that plot above this line are all from Cores 47, 44, 43, and 42, which contain higher TOC. Their strong Cr enrichment with respect to the average shale can be indicative of an algal source of the OM, as this biota preferentially concentrates Cr. Competitive exclusion due to dominance of opportunistic prokaryotic blooms in combination with oxygen depletion can be invoked to explain the conditions that developed and were unfavorable to most other organisms throughout the water column during OAE 2. Sediments from DSDP Site 144 also reveal increased molecular fossils indicative of green sulfur bacteria, which are further characteristic of euxinic conditions (Kuypers et al., 2002; Forster et al., 2004). These results are in agreement with earlier works that showed lipids at DSDP Site 144 are predominantly of an autochthonous origin with primary production as the dominant source (Simoneit and Stuermer, 1982

  14. An international marine-atmospheric 222Rn measurement intercomparison in Bermuda. Part 2: Results for the participating laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colle, R.; Unterweger, M.P.; Hutchinson, J.M.R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of an international measurement intercomparison of instruments used to measure atmospheric 222 Rn, four participating laboratories made nearly simultaneous measurements of 222 Rn activity concentration in commonly sampled, ambient air over approximately a 2 week period, and three of these four laboratories participated in the measurement comparison of 14 introduced samples with known, but undisclosed (blind) 222 Rn activity concentration. The exercise was conducted in Bermuda in October 1991. The 222 Rn activity concentrations in ambient Bermudian air over the course of the intercomparison ranged from a few hundredths of a Bq · m -3 to about 2 Bq · m -3 , while the standardized sample additions covered a range from approximately 2.5 Bq · m -3 to 35 Bq · m -3 . The overall uncertainty in the latter concentrations was in the general range of 10%, approximating a 3 standard deviation uncertainty interval. The results of the intercomparison indicated that two of the laboratories were within very good agreement with the standard additions, and almost within expected statistical variations. These same two laboratories, however, at lower ambient concentrations, exhibited a systematic difference with an averaged offset of roughly 0.3 Bq · m -3 . The third laboratory participating in the measurement of standardized sample additions was systematically low by about 65% to 70%, with respect to the standard addition which was also confirmed in their ambient air concentration measurements. The fourth laboratory, participating in only the ambient measurement part of the intercomparison, was also systematically low by at least 40% with respect to the first two laboratories

  15. Nutrient-enhanced growth of Cladophora prolifera in harrington sound, bermuda: Eutrophication of a confined, phosphorus-limited marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Brian E.; O'Connell, Julie

    1989-04-01

    The green alga Cladophora prolifera (Chlorophyta, Cladophorales) has formed widespread blooms in Bermuda's inshore waters during the past 20 years, but, to date, no conclusive evidence links these blooms to nutrient enrichment. This study assessed the nutrient-dependance of productivity of Cladophora collected from Harrington Sound, a confined P-limited marine system where Cladophora first became abundant. Both N- and P-enrichment decreased the doubling time of Cladophora, which ranged from 14 days (with N and P enrichment) to 100 days (without enrichment). Nutrient enrichment also enhanced the light-saturated photosynthetic capacity (i.e. P max) of Cladophora, which ranged from 0·50 mg C g dry wt -1 h -1 (without enrichment) to 1·0 mg C g dry wt -1 h -1 (with enrichment). Tissue C:N, C:P and N:P ratios of unenriched Cladophora were elevated—25, 942, and 49, respectively—levels that suggest limitation by both N and P but primary limitation by P. Pore-waters under Cladophora mats had reduced salinities, elevated concentrations of NH 4, and high N:P ratios (N:P of 85), suggesting that N-rich groundwater seepage enriches Cladophora mats. The alkaline phosphatase capacity of Cladophora was high compared to other macroalgae in Harrington Sound, and its capacity was enhanced by N-enrichment and suppressed by P-enrichment. Because the productivity of Cladophora is nutrient-limited in shallow waters of Harrington Sound, enhanced growth and increased biomass of Cladophora result from cumulative seepage of N-rich groundwaters coupled with efficient utilization and recycling of dissolved organo-phosphorus compounds.

  16. Estimating the potential impacts of large mesopredators on benthic resources: integrative assessment of spotted eagle ray foraging ecology in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ajemian

    Full Text Available Declines of large sharks and subsequent release of elasmobranch mesopredators (smaller sharks and rays may pose problems for marine fisheries management as some mesopredators consume exploitable shellfish species. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari is the most abundant inshore elasmobranch in subtropical Bermuda, but its predatory role remains unexamined despite suspected abundance increases and its hypothesized specialization for mollusks. We utilized a combination of acoustic telemetry, benthic invertebrate sampling, gut content analysis and manipulative experiments to assess the impact of spotted eagle rays on Bermudian shellfish resources. Residency and distribution of adult spotted eagle rays was monitored over two consecutive summers in Harrington Sound (HS, an enclosed inshore lagoon that has historically supported multiple recreational and commercial shellfish species. Telemetered rays exhibited variable fidelity (depending on sex to HS, though generally selected regions that supported relatively high densities of potential mollusk prey. Gut content analysis from rays collected in HS revealed a diet of mainly bivalves and a few gastropods, with calico clam (Macrocallista maculata representing the most important prey item. Manipulative field and mesocosm experiments with calico clams suggested that rays selected prey patches based on density, though there was no evidence of rays depleting clam patches to extirpation. Overall, spotted eagle rays had modest impacts on local shellfish populations at current population levels, suggesting a reduced role in transmitting cascading effects from apex predator loss. However, due to the strong degree of coupling between rays and multiple protected mollusks in HS, ecosystem-based management that accounts for ray predation should be adopted.

  17. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  18. Evaluating grasses as a long-term energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, D.G.; Riche, A.B.

    2001-07-01

    The work reported here is part of an ongoing project that aims to evaluate the yields of three perennial rhizomatous grasses and determine their suitability as bio-energy crops. The work began in 1993, and the grasses have been monitored continuously since that time. This report covers the period 1999/2000, and includes: the performance of plots of the energy grasses Miscanthus grass, switchgrass and reed canary grass seven years after they were planted; assessment of the yield of 15 genotypes of Miscanthus planted in 1997; monitoring all the species throughout the growing period for the presence of pests, weeds and diseases; measurement of the amount of nitrate leached from below Miscanthus grass; investigating the occurrence of lodging in switchgrass. (Author)

  19. Determining the regional potential for a grass biomethane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, Beatrice M.; Smyth, Henry; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. → Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. → The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. → The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr -1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.

  20. Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Roex, E.; Mommer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is

  1. Effect of early weaning and concentrate supplementation at forage intake and ingestive behavior of sheep grazing Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate then early weaning and concentrate supplementation effect at pasture characteristics, forage intake and ingestive behavior of lambs grazing Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.. A randomized block design was used with four treatments, three replications and five lambs per replicate. A total of 60 Suffolk lambs, that 36 were females and 24 steers. The treatments had corresponded to the combinations between early weaning precocious and concentrate supplementation strategies, that resulted in the following ones finishing systems: 1 lambs kept with mothers without supplementation; 2 lambs kept with mothers supplemented with concentrate in creep feeding at 2% of body weigh (BW in DM/day; 3 weaned lambs at 45 ± 5 days without supplementation and 4 weaned lambs at 45 ± 5 days and supplemented with concentrate at 2% of BW in DM/day. Grazing utilization method was continuous stocking with adjustment every 21 days, to maintain forage offer at 12% of BW in DM/day. To characterize the pastoral environment was assessed: morphological composition of pasture. There were made four observations the behavioral activities for individually lambs per 24 hours, such as: grazing, ruminating, suckling, supplementation, and others activities. The intake rate was measured using the technique of double sampling and determination of bite rate was made by visual observation of the number of bits made for animal. The behavior and the distribution of daily activities made by the lambs are influenced for the strategies evaluated. The exclusive presence of milk or supplement concentrate in the diet are important modulators of grazing activity, and the absence of these nutrient sources were offset per an increase in grazing time. This response considered the decrease in nutritional support and lower efficiency in harvesting the forage by lambs. The weaning influenced the morphological characteristics of the pasture, which showed favored the

  2. Performance of holsteins cows in pasture of Cynodon dactylon cv. Coast-cross supplemented with concentrate Desempenho de vacas da raça Holandesa em pastagem de Cynodon dactylon cv. Coast-cross suplementada com concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Carvalho Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the experimental station of Embrapa Gado de Leite (Dairy Cattle Embrapa, in Coronel Pacheco, in Zona da Mata Region of Minas Gerais, with the purpose of evaluating the productive performance of Holstein cows kept on 'Coast-cross' (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pears pasture, fertilized, strategically irrigated and where the cows were daily supplemented with 3 or 6 kg of concentrate/cow/day. The data were collected during three years (October/2000 to October/2003, involving 108 lactations. An experimental randomized block design with two replicate areas per treatment was adopted, with nine animals per area and eighteen animals per treatment being utilized, with fixed stocking rate of five cows/ha. The system of grazing, under rotated stocking, with one day occupation of the enclosures (piquetes and 25 and 35 days rest in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively was used. The pasture was irrigated in the months of lowest rainfall and fertilized with NPK broadcast at six applications/year. The availability of dry matter of the pasture was 7,280 kg/ha and 6,167 kg/ha in early grazing, with the post-grazing waste stubble of 4,885 kg/ha and 3,994 kg/ha, in the rainy (Spring/Summer and dry (Fall/Winter seasons, respectively. During part of the experimental period, a few morphogenic characteristics of the pasture were evaluated, recording availability of 83.9; 125.6 and 89.5 kg of DM of leaf blades/ha/day, on spring, summer and fall, respectively. The daily averages of milk production per cow were 15.57 and 18.80 kg/ day with 3.5% of fat and per area 77.80 and 94.00 kg/ha, when 3 or 6 kg of concentrate/cow/day were fed, respectively. It was concluded that supplemented and managed 'Coast-cross' pasture adequately enables high milk production per animal and per area, as quantitatively and qualitatively adequate for milk production.O trabalho foi desenvolvido na base física da Embrapa Gado de Leite, em Coronel Pacheco, na Zona da Mata de

  3. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Kellogg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180o, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear front and back; this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.

  4. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  5. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  6. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  7. Grass-on-grass competition along a catenal gradient in mesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three aboveground treatments (full light competition, no light competition and clipping to simulate grazing), and two belowground treatments (full belowground competition and belowground competition excluded by a root tube), were used. On all soil depths the three grass species differed in mean mass, with E. racemosa ...

  8. From pasture grass to cattle milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131 I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131 I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131 I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131 I in milk were also presented. (author)

  9. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  10. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  11. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  12. Retenção do fósforo de fenos de gramíneas tropicais em ovinos Phosphorus balance in sheep fed on tropical grass hays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Reis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediu-se a retenção do fósforo de quatro gramíneas tropicais, capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora, capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capim-coastcross (Cynodon dactilon e capim-colonião (Panicum maximum, em cinco ovinos por meio de ensaios de balanço de fósforo. O experimento constou de quatro fases, cada uma com duração de 21 dias (14 dias de adaptação à dieta e sete dias de colheita de fezes, totalizando 20 observações. A análise dos dados foi feita por polinômios ortogonais, testando-se os efeitos de tratamento, de período e de animal, e os contrastes foram comparados pelo teste F. A retenção de fósforo foi negativa nos fenos dos capins gordura, braquiária e coastcross e positiva no feno do capim-colonião. Por análise de regressão, a perda fecal do fósforo endógeno foi estimada em 15,5mg/kg PV/dia e o coeficiente médio de retenção foi de 0,37. Pela razão entre o balanço e a ingestão, estimou-se que o consumo de fósforo necessário para alcançar o equilíbrio foi de 44mg/kg PV/dia.One experiment was conducted using five adult sheep fed on four tropical grass hays to determine phosphorus (P retention. The experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days (14 days adaptation and seven days faeces collection. The treatments were: A molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora, B brachiaria grass (Brachiaria decumbens, C coastcross grass (Cynodon dactilon and D Guinea grass (Panicum maximum. Phosphorus concentrations were 0.05%, 0.07%, 0.11% and 0.18% for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. The effects of treatment, period and animal were evaluated by ortogonal polynomials and the contrasts by F test. Negative P balances were produced in treatments A, B and C (-13.05, -9.36 and -8.26mg/kg LW/day, respectively which were not significantly different from each other. Positive P balance of 8.14mg/kg LW/day was produced in treatment D, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than treatments A, B and C. Endogenous losses

  13. Perennial Grass Bioenergy Cropping on Wet Marginal Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Srabani; Teuffer, Karin; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Walter, Michael F.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Richards, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    The control of soil moisture, vegetation type, and prior land use on soil health parameters of perennial grass cropping systems on marginal lands is not well known. A fallow wetness-prone marginal site in New York (USA) was converted to perennial grass bioenergy feedstock production. Quadruplicate

  14. No positive feedback between fire and a nonnative perennial grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika L. Geiger; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Semi-desert grasslands flank the “Sky Island” mountains in southern Arizona and Northern Mexico. Many of these grasslands are dominated by nonnative grasses, which potentially alter native biotic communities. One specific concern is the potential for a predicted feedback between nonnative grasses and fire. In a large-scale experiment in southern Arizona we investigated...

  15. Analysis of Fusarium causing dermal toxicosis in marram grass planters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, CHA; Samson, RA; Hoekstra, ES; Ouellet, T; Miller, JD; deRooijvanderGoes, PCEM; Baar, AJM; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    1996-01-01

    In the European coastal dunes, marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) is planted in order to control sand erosion. In the years 1986 to 1991, workers on the Wadden islands in the Netherlands planting marram grass showed lesions of skin and mucous membranes, suggesting a toxic reaction. Fusarium culmorum

  16. Conceptual model for reinforced grass on inner dike slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; ComCoast

    2005-01-01

    A desk study has been carried out in order to develop a conceptual model for the erosion of inner dike slopes with reinforced grass cover. Based on the results the following can be concluded: The presence of a geosynthetic in a grass slope can be taken into account in the EPM method by increasing

  17. Grass defoliation affecting survival and growth of seedlings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted, one in the field and the other in the greenhouse, to investigate the effects of the intensity and frequency of grass defoliation on the survival and growth of Acacia karroo seedlings. In the greenhouse, seedlings growing with heavily clipped grasses had higher biomass production than those ...

  18. Defoliation effects of perennial grasses – continuing confusion | DL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although an adequate knowledge of growth patterns and defoliation effects in perennial grasses is a prerequisite for the rational use of veld and pastures for animal production, our knowledge of this subject is far from adequate. The results of various physiological and clipping studies on tropical and sub-tropical grasses are ...

  19. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  20. EBIPM | Finding the Tools to Manage Invasive Annual Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    management decisions for a given landscape based on ecological principles. Take a look at our video " Grass Management How much could prevention save you? Guidelines to Implement EBIPM Weed Prevention Areas Grass Facts/ID The EBIPM Model Crooked River Weed Management Area Guide Tools for Educators EBIPM High

  1. Lessons learned in managing alfalfa-grass mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass-alfalfa mixtures have a number of benefits that make them attractive to producers. However, they can be problematic to establish and maintain. Research programs have made progress in understanding the benefits and challenges of alfalfa-grass mixtures. Mixtures may have greater winter survival ...

  2. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  3. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) .... Felina were evaluated in the present study. The grass was harvested from the primary growth of monocultured grasses on 19 and 26 May of 2004 and 27 May and 10 ...... Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant.

  4. Soil nitrogen mineralization not affected by grass species traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged Ikram Nosshi; Jack Butler; M. J. Trlica

    2007-01-01

    Species N use traits was evaluated as a mechanism whereby Bromus inermis (Bromus), an established invasive, might alter soil N supply in a Northern mixed-grass prairie. We compared soils under stands of Bromus with those from three representative native grasses of different litter C/N: Andropogon...

  5. Seed production and establishment of western Oregon native grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris

    2005-01-01

    It is well understood that native grasses are ecologically important and provide numerous benefits. However, unfavorable economics, low seed yields for some species, genetic issues, and a lack of experience behind the production and establishment of most western Oregon native grasses remain significant impediments for their expanded use. By necessity, adaptation of...

  6. Analysis of Some Heavy Metals in Grass ( Paspalum Orbiculare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased deposition of trace metals from vehicle exhausts on plants has raised concerns about the risks of the quality of food consumed by humans since the heavy metals emitted through the exhaust by vehicles can enter food chain through deposition on grass grazed by animals. Grass (Paspalum Orbiculare) and ...

  7. Identification of grazed grasses using epidermal characters | R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of anatomical features of the abaxial epidermis of grasses is discussed for the identification of fragments of epidermis present in samples of rumen. The reliability of this technique, and the variation of the epidermal characters in two widely distributed species of grass, is given. A "Key" to identity certain genera of ...

  8. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  9. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  10. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. © 2014 SETAC.

  11. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  12. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  13. Protection of ionizing radiation-induced cytogenetic damage by hydroalcoholic extract of Cynodon dactylon in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish; Upadhya, Dinesh; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The radiomodulatory potential of hydroalcoholic extract of a medicinal plant Cynodon dactylon (family: Poaceae) against radiation-induced cytogenetic damage was analyzed using Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) growing in vitro. Induction of micronuclei was used as an index of cytogenetic damage, evaluated in cytokinesis blocked binucleate cells. The hydroalcoholic Cynodon dactylon extract (CDE) rendered protection against the radiation-induced DNA damage, as evidenced by the significant (p<0.001) reduction in micronucleated binucleate cells (MNBNC%) after various doses of CDE treatment in V79 cells and HPBLs. The optimum dose of CDE (40 and 50 microg/ml in HPBLs and V79 cells, respectively) with the greatest reduction in micronuclei was further used in combination with various doses of gamma radiation (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 Gy) exposed 1 h after CDE treatment. A linear dose-dependent MNBNC% increase in radiation alone group was observed, while 40/50 microg/ml CDE significantly resulted in the reduction of MNBNC%, compared to the respective radiation alone groups. CDE resulted in a dose-dependent increase in free radical scavenging ability against various free radicals, viz., 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH); 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS); superoxide anion (O2*-); hydroxyl radical (OH*) and nitric oxide radical (NO*) generated in vitro. Also, an excellent (70%) inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vitro was observed at a dose of 300 microg/ml CDE, attaining the saturation point at higher doses. The present findings demonstrated the radioprotective effect of CDE, also rendering protection against radiation-induced genomic instability and DNA damage. The observed radioprotective effect may be partly attributed to the free radical scavenging and antilipid peroxidative potential of CDE.

  14. Rumen escape protein in grass and grass silage deterimened with a nylon bag and an enzymatic technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Rumen escape protein (REP) was determined for six grasses and 16 grass silages using a nylon bag technique and an in vitro technique using a proteolytic enzyme preparation of Streptomyces griseus. In vitro, the samples were incubated for 0, 1, 6 and 24 h. The highest correlation observed between

  15. EroGRASS : Failure of grass cover layers at seaward and shoreward dike slopes. design, construction and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Verheij, H.J.; Cao, T.M.; Dassanayake, D.; Roelvink, D.; Piontkowitz, T.

    2009-01-01

    A large number of the dikes in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions are covered with grass that is exposed to hydraulic loading from waves and currents during storm surges. During previous storm surges the grass cover layers often showed large strength and remained undamaged. A clear physical

  16. Established native perennial grasses out-compete an invasive annual grass regardless of soil water and nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. McGlone; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Thomas E. Kolb; Ty Nietupsky

    2012-01-01

    Competition and resource availability influence invasions into native perennial grasslands by nonnative annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum. In two greenhouse experiments we examined the influence of competition, water availability, and elevated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability on growth and reproduction of the invasive annual grass B. tectorum and two...

  17. Perrenial Grasses for Sustainable European Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    reduction goals for agriculture. Denmark has an especially vulnerable aquatic environment due to sandy soils, a long coast line, and high precipitation. Thus, fulfilling the WFD means some areas must halve their nitrate leaching, and radical changes are required to reduce losses while maintaining profitable...... crop production. National scenarios show that up to ten million tonnes of additional biomass can be sourced in Denmark without reducing food production or increasing the area under cultivation if a biorefinery industry is established. In one of the scenarios optimized for additional environmental...... in the “environment” scenario. This scenario was achieved by converting approx. 9 % of agricultural land from annual crops into perennial grass. New experimental results support the anticipated increase in total biomass yield and reduction in nitrate leaching, when converting land currently used for grain crop...

  18. Understanding the Steric Height Long Term Variability at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) Site with a Neutral Density Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves Neto, A.; Johnson, R. J.; Bates, N. R.

    2016-02-01

    Rising sea level is one of the main concerns for human life in a scenario with global atmosphere and ocean warming, which is of particular concern for oceanic islands. Bermuda, located in the center of the Sargasso Sea, provides an ideal location to investigate sea level rise since it has a long term tide gauge (1933-present) and is in close proximity to deep ocean time-series sites, namely, Hydrostation `S' (1954-present) and the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study site (1988-present). In this study, we use the monthly CTD deep casts at BATS to compute the contribution of steric height (SH) to the local sea surface height (SSH) for the past 24 years. To determine the relative contribution from the various water masses we first define 8 layers (Surface Layer, Upper Thermocline, Subtropical Mode-Water, Lower Thermocline, Antarctic Intermediate Water, Labrador Sea Water, Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water, Denmark Strait Overflow Water) based on neutral density criteria for which SH is computed. Additionally, we calculate the thermosteric and halosteric components for each of the defined neutral density layers. Surprisingly, the results show that, despite a 3.3mm/yr sea level rise observed at the Bermuda tide gauge, the steric contribution to the SSH at BATS has decreased at a rate of -1.1mm/yr during the same period. The thermal component is found to account for the negative trend in the steric height (-4.4mm/yr), whereas the halosteric component (3.3mm/yr) partially compensates the thermal signal and can be explained by an overall cooling and freshening at the BATS site. Although the surface layer and the upper thermocline waters are warming, all the subtropical and polar water masses, which represent most of the local water column, are cooling and therefore drive the overall SH contribution to the local SSH. Hence, it suggests that the mass contribution to the local SSH plays an important role in the sea level rise, for which we investigate with GRACE data.

  19. Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Bermudagrass is an important warm-season forage and turf species widely grown in the southern United States. This chapter describes a rapid and efficient protocol that allows for the generation of a large number of transgenic bermudagrass plants, bypassing the callus formation phase. Stolon nodes are infected and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA binary vectors. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) is used as the selectable marker and hygromycin is used as the selection agent. Green shoots are directly produced from infected stolon nodes 4 to 5 wk after hygromycin selection. Without callus formation and with minimum tissue culture, this procedure allowed us to obtain well-rooted transgenic plantlets in only 7 wk and greenhouse-grown plants in only 9 wk.

  20. Seasonal and interannual variability in deep ocean particle fluxes at the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP)/Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) site in the western Sargasso Sea near Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Maureen H.; Ralph, Nate; Ross, Edith H.

    Since 1978, the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) time-series sediment traps have measured particle fluxes in the deep Sargasso Sea near Bermuda. There is currently a 20+yr flux record at 3200-m depth, a 12+yr flux at 1500-m depth, and a 9+yr record at 500-m depth. Strong seasonality is observed in mass flux at all depths, with a flux maximum in February-March and a smaller maximum in December-January. There is also significant interannual variability in the flux, especially with respect to the presence/absence of the December-January flux maximum and in the duration of the high flux period in the spring. The flux records at the three depths are surprisingly coherent, with no statistically significant temporal lag between 500 and 3200-m fluxes at our biweekly sample resolution. Bulk compositional data indicate an extremely rapid decrease in the flux of organic constituents with depth between 500 and 1500-m, and a smaller decrease with depth between 1500 and 3200-m depth. In contrast, carbonate flux is uniform or increases slightly between 500 and 1500-m, possibly reflecting deep secondary calcification by foraminifera. The lithogenic flux increases by over 50% between 500 and 3200-m depth, indicating strong deep water scavenging/repackaging of suspended lithogenic material. Concurrent with the rapid changes in flux composition, there is a marked reduction in the heterogeneity of the sinking particle pool with depth, especially within the mesopelagic zone. By 3200-m depth, the bulk composition of the sinking particle pool is strikingly uniform, both seasonally and over variations in mass flux of more than an order of magnitude. These OFP results provide strong indirect evidence for the intensity of reprocessing of the particle pool by resident zooplankton within mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters. The rapid loss of organic components, the marked reduction in the heterogeneity of the bulk composition of the flux, and the increase in terrigenous fluxes with depth are most

  1. PEMANFAATAN SERESAH DAUN BAMBU (Dendrocalamus asper SEBAGAI BIOHERBISIDA PENGENDALI GULMA YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfy Ditya Cahyanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled weed growth in the early stages of crop establishment, can decrease final crop yield. Phytochemical compounds from bamboo’s (Dendrocalamus sasper leaves known as flavonoids, phenolic and coumarin that inhibit the growth and development of weeds. The objective of this study was to utilizing bamboo’s leaves litter as bioherbicide for sustainable agricultural system. Weedy area used for observation of the effectiveness solution of bamboo’s leaves litter as bioherbicide is 1 m², first area for solution of bamboo’s leaves litter 10%, the second area for solution of bamboo’s leaves litter 5% and third plot only distilled water as a control treatment. Weeds SDR observations was done before spraying and 7 days after spraying bamboo’s leaves litter. The selected plot is a plot with diverse species of weeds. Observations SDR weeds to determine the level of effectiveness of a solution of bamboo’s leaf litter, was conducted used quadrant plots Weed species that dominated on our plot are Mikania micrantha, Eleusine indica, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon stolon, Cynodon dactylon, Axonopus compressus dan Sanchus arvensis. Solution of bamboo’s leaves litter as bioherbicide are only capable controlled bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, both at a dose of 5 % and 10 %. For other species, solution of bamboo’s leaves litter did not work at

  2. Environmental performance assessment of Napier grass for bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimmanterdwong, Prathana; Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon; Østergård, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    equivalence. This idea provides the quantitative indicators involving the resource use and the percent renewability of the systems. For the proposed biorefinery model, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) grown in Thailand was used as lignocellulosic feedstock. An emergy assessment was performed in two parts...... cultivation and biorefinery stages. For Napier grass cultivation, most of the emergy support came from local resources in term of evapotranspiration of Napier grass (33%) and the diesel consumption during the cultivation process (21%). The emergy sustainability indicator of the cultivation was 0...

  3. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T; Slater, F

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  4. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-01-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  5. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  6. Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.

  7. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  8. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods......In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  9. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qiulan; Zhu Suijiang; Cheng Yaodong; Chen Gang

    2010-01-01

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. In this paper we first give a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  10. Designing a New Raster Sub-System for GRASS-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hruby

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a design of a new raster sub-system intended for modern GIS systems open for client and server operation, database connection and strong application interface (API. Motivation for such a design comes from the current state of API working in GRASS 6. If found attractive, the here presented design and its implementation (referred as RG7 may be integrated to the future new generation of the GRASS Geographical Information System version 7-8. The paper describes in details the concept of raster tiling, computer storage of rasters and basic raster access procedures. Finally, the paper gives a simple benchmarking experiment of random read access to raster files imported from the Spearfish dataset. The experiment compares the early implementation of RG7 with the current implementation of rasters in GRASS 6. As the result, the experiment shows the RG7 to be significantly faster than GRASS in random read access to large raster files.

  11. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses are members of the plant family Poaceae, and are primar- ily known for their ... Madagascar Conservation & Development is the journal of. Indian Ocean .... cording to the classification by Kellogg (2015). With 64 ..... Flowering plants.

  12. Sonoran Desert ecosystem transformation by a C4 grass without the grass/fire cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure and function, diversity, dominance and disturbance regimes. A classic case is the grass–fire cycle in which grass invasion increases the frequency, scale and/or intensity of wildfires and promotes the continued invasion of invasive grasses. Despite wide acceptance of the grass–fire cycle, questions linger about the relative roles that interspecific plant competition and fire play in ecosystem transformations. Location Sonoran Desert Arizona Upland of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA. Methods We measured species cover, density and saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) size structure along gradients of Pennisetum ciliare invasion at 10 unburned/ungrazed P. ciliare patches. Regression models quantified differences in diversity, cover and density with respect to P. ciliare cover, and residence time and a Fisher's exact test detected demographic changes in saguaro populations. Because P. ciliare may have initially invaded locations that were both more invasible and less diverse, we ran analyses with and without the plots in which initial infestations were located. Results Richness and diversity decreased with P. ciliare cover as did cover and density of most dominant species. Richness and diversity declined with increasing time since invasion, suggesting an ongoing transformation. The proportion of old-to-young Carnegiea gigantea was significantly lower in plots with dominant P. ciliare cover. Main conclusions Rich desert scrub (15–25 species per plot) was transformed into depauperate grassland (2–5 species per plot) within 20 years following P. ciliare invasion without changes to the fire regime. While the onset of a grass–fire cycle may drive ecosystem change in the later stages and larger scales of grass invasions of arid lands, competition by P. ciliare can drive small-scale transformations earlier in the invasion. Linking competition-induced transformation rates with

  13. BUFFEL GRASS MORPHOAGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION FROM Cenchrus GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO, LEILA REGINA GOMES PASSOS; ANTONIO, RAFAELA PRISCILA; ASSIS, JOSÉ GERALDO DE AQUINO; MOREIRA, JOSÉ NILTON; LIRA, IRLANE CRISTINE DE SOUZA ANDRADE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi-Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty-five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each cut. Characterizatio...

  14. Buffel grass morphoagronomic characterization from cenchrus germplasm active bank.

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO, L. R. G. P.; ANTONIO, R. P.; ASSIS, J. G. de A.; MOREIRA, J. N.; LIRA, I. C. de S. A.

    2017-01-01

    his study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi - Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty - five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each ...

  15. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Serensits; Matthew Cutulle; Jeffrey F. Derr

    2011-01-01

    Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual) ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass di...

  16. Postharvest residues from grass seed crops for bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Simić, Aleksandar; Čolić, Vladislava; Vučković, Savo; Dželetović, Željko; Bijelić, Zorica; Mandić, Violeta

    2016-01-01

    During grass seed production, a large amount of low forage quality biomass has been produced. Tall growing perennial grasses such as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) can be used as an alternative source for bioenergy production as they can be grown in less cultivated areas, their residues in seed production could be valuable energy source and can be potentially used as a dual purpose crop (bioenergy and forage). In this research, potentials o...

  17. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  18. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  19. Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markee, E. H. [ARFRO, Environmental Science Services Administration, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

  20. Estimating grass-clover ratio variations caused by traffic intensities using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole

    Grass and especially clover have a negative yield response as a function of  traffic intensity.  Conventional grass-clover production for silage have high traffic intensity due to fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass...... to fulfill the aim [1]http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/index/publications/press_articles/dairy-2/role-of-clover.htm...

  1. Exogenous application of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide enhanced multiple abiotic stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2013-10-01

    As a gaseous molecule, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently found to be involved in plant responses to multiple abiotic stress. In this study, salt (150 and 300 mM NaCl), osmotic (15% and 30% PEG6000) and cold (4 °C) stress treatments induced accumulation of endogenous H2S level, indicating that H2S might play a role in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and cold stresses. Exogenous application of H2S donor (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) conferred improved salt, osmotic and freezing stress tolerances in bermudagrass, which were evidenced by decreased electrolyte leakage and increased survival rate under stress conditions. Additionally, NaHS treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress, via modulating metabolisms of several antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and GR (glutathione reductase)] and non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool and redox state. Moreover, exogenous NaHS treatment led to accumulation of osmolytes (proline, sucrose and soluble total sugars) in stressed bermudagrass plants. Taken together, all these data indicated the protective roles of H2S in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and freezing stresses, via activation of the antioxidant response and osmolyte accumulation. These findings might be applicable to grass and crop engineering to improve abiotic stress tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J; Worm, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.......Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis....

  3. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  4. Produção e contaminação por helmintos parasitos de ovinos, em forrageiras de diferentes hábitos de crescimento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1824 Production and contamination by sheep parasites helminths in different growth habits grasses - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilice Zundt

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no Centro de Pesquisa do Arenito, Cidade Gaúcha, Paraná, pertencente à Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, nos períodos de verão e inverno. Foram utilizadas 60 ovelhas ½ Bergamácia ½ Corriedale, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em três piquetes de um hectare cada, formados por gramíneas de diferentes hábitos de crescimento: Pensacola (Paspalum notatum, Coast cross (Cynodon dactylon e Tanzânia (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia. O objetivo foi determinar o comportamento de larvas infectantes de endoparasitos de ovinos, no terço superior de gramíneas, ao longo do dia, bem como a disponibilidade de matéria seca das mesmas. Não houve diferença quanto ao comportamento das larvas nas pastagens entre os períodos de verão e inverno e entre as espécies forrageiras. Entretanto, obteve-se resposta linear decrescente do número de larvas no terço superior das plantas em função do período de insolação. Provavelmente houve migração das larvas para as partes mais baixas das plantas ao longo do dia, orientando, assim, a entrada dos ovinos nos piquetes nos horários de maior incidência solar. Não houve diferença na disponibilidade de matéria seca entre os períodos, porém, o Pensacola apresentou menor disponibilidade no inverno (1551 vs 1259kg MS/ha. Todas as forrageiras apresentaram menor teor de proteína bruta no inverno.The experiment was carried out during summer and winter seasons at Centro de Pesquisa do Arenito (Arenito Research Center from Universidade Estadual de Maringá (State University of Maringá in Cidade Gaúcha, Paraná, Brazil. Sixty ½ Bergamacia ½ Corriedale ewes were distributed randomly, allocated in three plots of one hectare each, with grasses of different growth habits: Paspalum notatum, Cynodon dactylon and Panicum maximum. The objective of this research was to evaluate the behavior of infective larvae of ewes in the superior third of the

  5. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V P

    1996-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  6. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  7. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management

  8. How much gas can we get from grass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizami, A.S.; Orozco, A.; Groom, E.; Dieterich, B.; Murphy, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. ► The results indicated that methane potential varied from 350 to 493 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. ► We compare two distinct digestion systems using the same grass. ► A two stage wet system achieved 451 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. ► A two phase system achieved 341 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added at a 30 day retention time. -- Abstract: Grass biomethane has been shown to be a sustainable gaseous transport biofuel, with a good energy balance, and significant potential for economic viability. Of issue for the designer is the variation in characteristics of the grass depending on location of source, time of cut and species. Further confusion arises from the biomethane potential tests (BMP) which have a tendency to give varying results. This paper has dual ambitions. One of these is to highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. The results indicated that methane potential from the same grass silage varied from 350 to 493 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. The second ambition is to attempt to compare two distinct digestion systems again using the same grass: a two stage continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR); and a sequentially fed leach bed reactor connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (SLBR–UASB). The two engineered systems were designed, fabricated, commissioned and operated at small pilot scale until stable optimal operating conditions were reached. The CSTR system achieved 451 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. The SLBR–UASB achieved 341 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added at a 30 day retention time.

  9. VAM populations in relation to grass invasion associated with forest decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosatka, M; Cudlin, P; Mejstrik, V

    1991-01-01

    Spruce stands in Northern Bohemia forests, damaged to various degrees by industrial pollution, have shown establishment of grass cover following tree defoliation. Populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi were studied under this grass cover in four permanent plots with spruce under different levels of pollution stress. Soil and root samples were collected in April and June within each plot as follows: (1) sites without grass, (2) sites with initial stages of grass invasion, and (3) sites with fully developed grass cover. In all plots, the highest number of propagules were recovered from samples taken from sites having full grass cover. Mycorrhizal infection of grass was highest in the plot with the severest pollution damage and lowest in the least damaged plot. The development of grass cover and VAM infection of grass increased with tree defoliation caused by air pollution.

  10. Produção de forragem e carga animal de pastagens de Coastcross sobressemeadas com forrageiras de inverno Forage production and stocking rate of Coastcross pastures overseeded with winter grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo nesta pesquisa foi avaliar a produção de forragem e a carga animal de quatro pastagens: Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers. sobressemeada com azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Comum; Coastcross sobressemeada com azevém e trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L., cv. Yi; azevém e trevo branco; e azevém. O experimento foi realizado no período entre 15 de maio e 24 de outubro de 2006, quando foram realizados cinco ciclos de pastejo. Utilizaram-se vacas da raça Holandesa recebendo concentrado (3,5 kg/dia como suplemento alimentar. Nos períodos pré e pós-pastejo, foram avaliadas a massa de forragem, as composições botânica e estrutural da pastagem e a carga animal. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (pastagens, duas repetições (piquetes e cinco períodos de avaliação (pastejos. Não foram detectadas diferenças entre pastagens para as médias de massa de forragem e carga animal. As pastagens exclusivamente de azevém tiveram maiores produções de lâminas foliares de azevém. As pastagens sobressemeadas apresentaram maior produção de forragem. A sobressemeadura do azevém e do trevo-branco em Coastcross permite estender o período de utilização da pastagem anual e aumenta a produção de forragem.The objective of this research was to evaluate the forage production and stocking rate (SR of four Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers. pastures overseeded with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Common; ryegrass plus white clover (Trifolium repens L., cv. Yi over bermudagrass; ryegrass plus white clover and ryegrass. The experiment was carried out from May 15 to October 24, 2006, in five grazing periods. Holstein cows receiving 3.5 kg/daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. In the pre and post grazing periods, the forage mass, botanical and structural pasture composition and the stocking rate were assessed. A randomized complete design was used, with

  11. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) by exogenous calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhong, Bao; Liu, Xun; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-11-01

    As an important second messenger, calcium is involved in plant cold stress response, including chilling (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). Physiological analyses showed that CaCl2 treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage triggered by chilling stress, via activating antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool, while EGTA treatment had the opposite effects. Additionally, comparative proteomic analysis identified 51 differentially expressed proteins that were enriched in redox, tricarboxylicacid cycle, glycolysis, photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and amino acid metabolisms. Consistently, 42 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by CaCl2 treatment under control and cold stress conditions, further confirming the common modulation of CaCl2 treatment in carbon metabolites and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study reported first evidence of the essential and protective roles of endogenous and exogenous calcium in bermudagrass response to cold stress, partially via activation of the antioxidants and modulation of several differentially expressed proteins and metabolic homeostasis in the process of cold acclimation. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. [Responses of Cynodon dactylon population in hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir area to flooding-drying habitat change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ming; Guo, Quan-Shu; Nie, Bi-Hong; Kang, Yi; Pei, Shun-Xiang; Jin, Jiang-Qun; Wang, Xiang-Fu

    2011-11-01

    This paper studied the population density, morphological characteristics, and biomass and its allocation of Cynodon dactylon at different altitudinal sections of the hydro-fluctuation belt in Three Gorges Reservoir area, based on located observations. At the three altitudinal sections, the population density of C. dactylon was in the order of shallow water section (165-170 m elevation) > non-flooded section (above 172 m elevation) > deep water section (145-150 m elevation), the root diameter and root length were in the order of deep water section > shallow water section > non-flooded section, the total biomass, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, and stem biomass allocation ratio were in the order of the shallow water section > non-flooded section > deep water section, and the root biomass allocation ratio, leaf biomass allocation ratio, and underground biomass/aboveground biomass were in the order of deep water section > shallow water section > non-flooded section. The unique adaption strategies of C. dactylon to the flooding-drying habitat change in the shallow water section were the accelerated elongation growth and the increased stem biomass allocation, those in the deep water section were the increased node number of primary and secondary branches, increased number of the branches, and increased leaf biomass allocation, whereas the common strategies in the shallow and deep water sections were the accelerated root growth and the increased tillering and underground biomass allocation for preparing nutrition and energy for the rapid growth in terrestrial environment.

  13. Dose-response relationship of a new Timothy grass pollen allergoid in comparison with a 6-grass pollen allergoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Hohlfeld, J M; Al-Kadah, B; Hauswald, B; Homey, B; Hunzelmann, N; Schliemann, S; Velling, P; Worm, M; Klimek, L

    2017-11-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with grass pollen allergoids has been proven to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Based on the extensive cross-reactivity among Pooideae species, it has been suggested that grass pollen extracts could be prepared from a single species, rather than from a multiple species mixture. To find the optimal dose of a Phleum pratense (P. pratense) allergoid preparation and compare its efficacy and safety to a 6-grass pollen allergoid preparation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study (EudraCT: 2011-000674-58), three doses of P. pratense allergoid (1800 therapeutic units (TU), standard-dose 6000 TU and 18 000 TU) were compared with placebo and the marketed 6-grass pollen allergoid (6000 TU). In a pre-seasonal dosing regimen, 102 patients were randomized to five treatment groups and received nine subcutaneous injections. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in weal size (late-phase reaction [LPR]) in response to the intracutaneous testing (ICT) before and after treatment, comparing the active allergoids to placebo. Secondary outcomes were the change in Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) assessed in the allergen exposure chamber (AEC), the changes in P. pratense-serum-specific IgG 4 and the incidence of adverse events (AEs). All three doses of the P. pratense and the 6-grass pollen allergoid preparations were significantly superior to placebo for the primary outcome, whereas there were no significant differences in the change in TNSS. Compared to the standard-dose, the high-dose of P. pratense did not produce any additional significant benefit, but showed a slight increase in AEs. Yet this increase in AEs was lower than for the 6-grass pollen preparation. The standard-dose of the new P. pratense allergoid was comparable to the marketed 6-grass pollen preparation at equal dose for the parameters measured. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John

  14. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa; Laursen, Mette K; Andersen, Jens S; Sørensen, Helle F; Klink, Rabih

    2018-02-01

    Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet significantly reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms or using asthma medication at the end of trial (odds ratio = 0.66, P year posttreatment follow-up, and during the entire 5-year trial period. Also, grass allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were 22% to 30% reduced (P years). At the end of the trial, the use of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis pharmacotherapy was significantly less (27% relative difference to placebo, P < .001). Total IgE, grass pollen-specific IgE, and skin prick test reactivity to grass pollen were all reduced compared to placebo. Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms and using asthma medication, and had a positive, long-term clinical effect on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use but did not show an effect on the time to onset of asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel method to characterize silica bodies in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Clemon; Ostergaard, Jason; Watkins, Eric; Chen, Changbin

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of silicon into epidermal cells of grass species is thought to be an important mechanism that plants use as a defense against pests and environmental stresses. There are a number of techniques available to study the size, density and distribution pattern of silica bodies in grass leaves. However, none of those techniques can provide a high-throughput analysis, especially for a great number of samples. We developed a method utilizing the autofluorescence of silica bodies to investigate their size and distribution, along with the number of carbon inclusions within the silica bodies of perennial grass species Koeleria macrantha. Fluorescence images were analyzed by image software Adobe Photoshop CS5 or ImageJ that remarkably facilitated the quantification of silica bodies in the dry ash. We observed three types of silica bodies or silica body related mineral structures. Silica bodies were detected on both abaxial and adaxial epidermis of K. macrantha leaves, although their sizes, density, and distribution patterns were different. No auto-fluorescence was detected from carbon inclusions. The combination of fluorescence microscopy and image processing software displayed efficient utilization in the identification and quantification of silica bodies in K. macrantha leaf tissues, which should applicable to biological, ecological and geological studies of grasses including forage, turf grasses and cereal crops.

  16. A capillary pumping device utilizing super-hydrophobic silicon grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Chun-Fei; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Chu, Chin-Chou

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we show that a compact silicon grass surface can be generated by utilizing the induced coupled plasma method with suitably chosen fabrication parameters. This super-hydrophobic structure suspends deionized water on top of the grass and keeps the contact angle at around 153°. The silicon grass is used to improve the driving efficiency of a capillary pumping micro-duct (without sidewalls), which is completely defined by a bottom hydrophilic stripe (adjacent to a Teflon substrate) and a fully top-covered hydrophobic Teflon surface which is coated on a glass substrate. The channel has a height of 3 µm and a width of 100 µm. In this work, the Teflon substrate is replaced with the silicon grass surface. When the fluid is flowing through the micro-duct on the stripe, the interface between the silicon grass and the hydrophilic stripe forms a stable air cushion barrier to the fluid, thus effectively reducing the frictional force. By changing only the interface with this replacement, we demonstrate that the average measured velocities of the new design show improvements of 21% and 17% in the driving efficiency over the original design for transporting deionized water and human blood, respectively. It is also shown that the measured data of the present design are closer to the values predicted by a theoretical analysis which relates the flow velocity to the contact angles, surface tension and fluid viscosity

  17. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  18. Genetic engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Gallagher, Joe A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Bosch, Maurice

    2017-09-01

    Grasses represent an abundant and widespread source of lignocellulosic biomass, which has yet to fulfil its potential as a feedstock for biorefining into renewable and sustainable biofuels and commodity chemicals. The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials to deconstruction is the most crucial limitation for the commercial viability and economic feasibility of biomass biorefining. Over the last decade, the targeted genetic engineering of grasses has become more proficient, enabling rational approaches to modify lignocellulose with the aim of making it more amenable to bioconversion. In this review, we provide an overview of transgenic strategies and targets to tailor grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining applications. The bioengineering efforts and opportunities summarized here rely primarily on (A) reprogramming gene regulatory networks responsible for the biosynthesis of lignocellulose, (B) remodelling the chemical structure and substitution patterns of cell wall polysaccharides and (C) expressing lignocellulose degrading and/or modifying enzymes in planta. It is anticipated that outputs from the rational engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides by such strategies could help in realizing an economically sustainable, grass-derived lignocellulose processing industry. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2015-01-01

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  20. Elevated uptake of Th and U by netted chain fern (Woodwardia areolata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, A.S.; Kaplan, D.I.; Hinton, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the ability of netted chain fern (Woodwardia areolata) to uptake U and Th from wetland soils on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Netted chain fern had the highest Th and U concentrations of all plants collected from the wetland. Ferns grown in contaminated soil (329 mg x kg -1 Th, 44 mg x kg -1 U) in a greenhouse contained 6.4 mg x kg -1 Th and 5.3 mg x kg -1 U compared with 0.13 mg x kg -1 Th and 0.035 mg x kg -1 U in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon). Netted chain fern has potential for the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with Th and U. (author)

  1. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  2. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  3. Indirect effects of an invasive annual grass on seed fates of two native perennial grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan E; Merrill, Katherine T; Allen, Phil S; Beckstead, Julie; Norte, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Invasive plants exhibit both direct and indirect negative effects on recruitment of natives following invasion. We examined indirect effects of the invader Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) on seed fates of two native grass species, Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata, by removing B. tectorum and by adding inoculum of the shared seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda in factorial experiments at xeric and mesic field sites. We also included a supplemental watering treatment to increase emergence and also the potential for pathogen escape. We recorded emergence and survival of native seedlings and also determined the fate of unemerged seeds. At the xeric site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was high (34%), and effects of other pathogens and failed emergence of germinants were smaller. Cheatgrass removal negatively affected both emergence (35 vs. 25%) and spring survival (69 vs. 42%). Pyrenophora-caused seed mortality increased with inoculum augmentation for both species (22 vs. 47% overall), but emergence was negatively impacted only for P. spicata (20 vs. 34%). At the mesic site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was low (6%). Cheatgrass removal doubled emergence (26 vs. 14%). Seed mortality increased significantly with inoculum augmentation for P. spicata (12 vs. 5%) but not E. elymoides, while emergence was not significantly affected in either species. A large fraction of seeds produced germinants that failed to emerge (37%), while another large fraction (35%) was killed by other pathogens. We conclude that facilitation by cheatgrass at the xeric site but interference at the mesic site was probably mediated through litter effects that could be ameliorative or suppressive. Apparent competition between cheatgrass and native grasses could occur through Pyrenophora, especially in a xeric environment, but effects were weak or absent at emergence. This was probably because Pyrenophora attacks the same slow-germinating fraction that is subject to pre-emergence mortality from

  4. Cosmogenic Be-7 in grass of Maamora site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-khoukhi, T.; Fidah, M.; Oublaid, B.

    1994-01-01

    Be-7 is one of the radionuclides produced by the nuclear reactions of protons and alpha particulates of galactic and solar cosmic rays as well as the secondary neutrons produced during those reactions. it is submitted, as soon as it is produced, to the physical and chemical laws of the environment, such as air motions or the fixing to the atmospheric aerosols. In the framework of environmental radioactivity monitoring programme of Maamora site (Morocco), samples of grass were collected, prepared and analyzed using gamma spectrometry. The preparation consists of drying and ashing the grass. The detector used is coaxial Ge HP with 20% efficiency. Samples were counted for more than 50000 s. The activity of Be-7 calculated for samples collected in 10 km around Maamora site varies between 4 and 20 Bq/g of ashed grass. 3 refs. (author)

  5. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project...... conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can...... act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however...

  6. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate the hygro......In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate...

  7. Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily...... invaded. We used a novel, trait-based approach involving two components: identifying differences in trait composition between native and exotic components of the grass flora and evaluating contemporary trait–climate relationships across the state. The combination of trait–climate relationships and trait...

  8. Determination of 90Sr in grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Keil, R.

    1994-10-01

    A radiochemical method for the determination of 90 Sr in non-contaminated grass and soil is presented. The method is based on the leaching of 90 Sr from the mineralized samples followed by liquid-liquid extraction of 90 Y, its short lived daughter, by tributylphosphate and precipitation of Y-oxalate, which is counted in a low-level proportional counter. Based on dried samples of 30 g of soil and 100 g of grass the limit of detection is about 0.1 Bq/kg for both materials. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs

  9. Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) for the production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chughtai, F.A.; Shah, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) was carried of with various concentrations of sulphuric acid, ortho phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid to produce furfural. The study revealed that activity of various hydrolysing acids to produce furfural from kallar grass was of the following order H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ > H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ > HCl. Optimum yield (4.78%) of the produce was obtained when the material was digested with 19% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ for a period of 20 minutes. (author)

  10. Potential of Cogon Grass as an Oil Sorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Barlianti, Vera; Anggraini, Irni Fitria; Hendarsyah, Hendris

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on the potential of Cogon grass (lmperata cylindrica), a weed harmful to other plants, for use as a low-cost and biodegradable oil sorbent were carried out under various spill conditions. Flowers of Cogon grass adsorbed much larger amount of high-viscosity lubricating oil (57.9 g-oil/g-sorbent) than that adsorbed by Peat Sorb (7.7 g-oil/g-sorbent), a commercial oilsorbent based on peat. However, the flowers adsorbed only 27.9 g of low-viscosity crude oillgsorbent. In an oil-water ...

  11. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...... compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial......, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...

  12. Direct comparison of {sup 210}Po, {sup 234}Th and POC particle-size distributions and export fluxes at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gillian, E-mail: gstewart@qc.cuny.ed [Queens College, CUNY Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Moran, S. Bradley, E-mail: moran@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Lomas, Michael W., E-mail: Michael.Lomas@bios.ed [Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, GE01 (Bermuda); Kelly, Roger P., E-mail: rokelly@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Particle-reactive, naturally occurring radionuclides are useful tracers of the sinking flux of organic matter from the surface to the deep ocean. Since the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) began in 1987, the disequilibrium between {sup 234}Th and its parent {sup 238}U has become widely used as a technique to measure particle export fluxes from surface ocean waters. Another radionuclide pair, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, can be used for the same purpose but has not been as widely adopted due to difficulty with accurately constraining the {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb radiochemical balance in the ocean and because of the more time-consuming radiochemical procedures. Direct comparison of particle flux estimated in different ocean regions using these short-lived radionuclides is important in evaluating their utility and accuracy as tracers of particle flux. In this paper, we present paired {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U and {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb data from oligotrophic surface waters of the subtropical Northwest Atlantic and discuss their advantages and limitations. Vertical profiles of total and particle size-fractionated {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th activities, together with particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, were measured during three seasons at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Both {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th reasonably predict sinking POC flux caught in sediment traps, and each tracer provides unique information about the magnitude and efficiency of the ocean's biological pump.

  13. DNA-based molecular fingerprinting of eukaryotic protists and cyanobacteria contributing to sinking particle flux at the Bermuda Atlantic time-series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amacher, Jessica; Neuer, Susanne; Lomas, Michael

    2013-09-01

    We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to examine the protist and cyanobacterial communities in the euphotic zone (0-120 m) and in corresponding 150 m particle interceptor traps at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) in a two-year monthly time-series from May 2008 to April 2010. Dinoflagellates were the most commonly detected taxa in both water column and trap samples throughout the time series. Diatom sequences were found only eight times in the water column, and only four times in trap material. Small-sized eukaryotic taxa, including the prasinophyte genera Ostreococcus, Micromonas, and Bathycoccus, were present in trap samples, as were the cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Synechococcus was usually overrepresented in trap material, whereas Prochlorococcus was underrepresented compared to the water column. Both seasonal and temporal variability affected patterns of ribosomal DNA found in sediment traps. The two years of this study were quite different hydrographically, with higher storm activity and the passing of a cyclonic eddy causing unusually deep mixing in winter 2010. This was reflected in the DGGE fingerprints of the water column, which showed greater phylotype richness of eukaryotes and a lesser richness of cyanobacteria in winter of 2010 compared with the winter of 2009. Increases in eukaryotic richness could be traced to increased diversity of prasinophytes and prymnesiophytes. The decrease in cyanobacterial richness was in turn reflected in the trap composition, but the increase in eukaryotes was not, indicating a disproportionate contribution of certain taxa to sinking particle flux.

  14. An intercomparison of dissolved iron speciation at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site: Results from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Nicolle Buck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The organic complexation of dissolved iron (Fe was determined in depth profile samples collected from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site, as part of the Dutch and U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic programs in June 2010 and November 2011, respectively. The two groups employed distinct competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-AdCSV methods, and resulting ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants from each profile were compared. Excellent agreement was found between the total ligand concentrations determined in June 2010 and the strongest, L1-type, ligand concentrations determined in November 2011. Yet a primary distinction between the datasets was the number of ligand classes observed: a single ligand class was characterized in the June 2010 profile while two ligand classes were observed in the November 2011 profile. To assess the role of differing interpretation approaches in determining final results, analysts exchanged titration data and accompanying parameters from the profiles for reinterpretation. The reinterpretation exercises highlighted the considerable influence of the sensitivity (S parameter applied on interpretation results, consistent with recent intercalibration work on interpretation of copper speciation titrations. The potential role of titration data structure, humic-type substances, differing dissolved Fe concentrations, and seasonality are also discussed as possible drivers of the one versus two ligand class determinations between the two profiles, leading to recommendations for future studies of Fe-binding ligand cycling in the oceans.

  15. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...

  16. Towards regional mapping of grass nutrients using remote sensing in Greater Kruger National Park

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Regional maps of grass nutrients are important to inform decision making regarding the management of savanna ecosystems. Grass nutrients plays a crucial role in understanding the distribution, densities and feeding patterns of both wild herbivores...

  17. Integrating environmental and in situ hyperspectral remote sensing variables for grass nitrogen estimation in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about the distribution of grass nitrogen (N) concentration is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. A challenge in estimating grass N concentration using remote...

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for grass nutrient estimations in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on the distribution of grass quality (nutrient concentration) is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. The spatial distribution of grass nutrient concentration occurs...

  19. Uptake of Radium by Grass and Shrubs Grown on Mineral Heaps: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laili, Z.; Omar, M.; Yusof, M.A. Wahab; Ibrahim, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study of the uptake of 226 Ra and 228 Ra by grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps was carried out. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in grass and shrubs were measured using gamma spectrometry. The result showed that grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps contained elevated levels of radium compared to grass and shrubs grown on normal soils. Thus, these plants might be used for phytoremediation of radium contaminated soil. (author)

  20. Efecto de la liberación controlada de nitrógeno sobre la fermentación y la degradabilidad in situ de Cynodon dactylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ojeda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de una fuente no proteica de liberación controlada de nitrógeno (NnpLC sobre algunos parámetros de la fermentación ruminal y degradabilidad in situ de Cynodon dactylon. Materiales y métodos. 4 vacas fistuladas al rumen alimentadas con una dieta base de heno de Cynodon dactylon (4.8% proteína cruda y 78.4% fibra detergente neutra, 1 kg de melaza de caña y 55 g de mezcla mineral (tratamiento Control, y tratamientos experimentales con adición a la dieta base de 150 g urea (Urea, sustitución de Urea por NnpLC a razón de 50% del aporte de nitrógeno (Urea/ NnpLC y 183 g NnpLC (NnpLC. En un Cuadrado Latino 4x4 y períodos de 17 días, se registró consumo del día 7 al 14. El día 15 fueron tomadas muestras seriadas de contenido ruminal para evaluar pH, nitrógeno amoniacal (N-NH3 y ácidos grasos volátiles. La degradabilidad de la materia orgánica (DMO48 y fibra detergente neutro (DFND48 a las 48 h fueron medidas con bolsas de nylon. Resultados. No hubo diferencias (p>0.05 en consumo de materia seca (8.2±0.35 kgMS/animal/día, pH (6.1±0.21, DMO48 (52.2±6.2% y DFND48 (30.1±2.8%; aunque hubo diferencias (p<0.01 en valores medios de N-NH3 (19.1, 166.7, 181.6 y 281.8 mg/L; respectivamente. NnpLC incrementó (p<0.05 el ácido propiónico (27.3%, redujo el T1/2 (13.2% y optimizó la relación P:E (22.0± 0.76. Conclusiones. El uso de una fuente NnpLC generó un perfil de ácidos grasos volátiles con patrón gluconeogénico, optimizó la concentración de N-NH3 y mejoró la relación P:E, por lo que debe considerarse una alternativa para manipular el medio ambiente ruminal de vacunos alimentados con recursos fibrosos.

  1. Practical aspects of grass forage seed production and quality with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GBENOU

    Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jéricho, Cotonou, Benin. 2Département de ..... size, floret per tiller (Hare and Rolston, 1990) seed per head and .... grasses and legumes cultivated as ley pastures in the ... Grassl., 35: 43-47. Clua AA ...

  2. Lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) essential oil as a potent anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that should be explored in future studies. Keywords: lemon grass; essential oil; antifungal activity; anti-inflammatory effect; citral; aromatherapy ...

  3. Short Communication: Autelogical studies on grass species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature survey of autecological studies on southern African grass species was undertaken. Results revealed that there is a comparative lack of autecological versus community studies. Where autecological studies have been conducted, most of the attention was focused on 'pasture' or 'desirable' species with ...

  4. Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of different grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration (Et) and water use efficiency (WUE) were determined for each of seven grass species during the 1986/87 seasons. The highest and lowest mean daily Et of 2, 39 and 1, 66 mm were recorded respectively for Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus. Between species, the average Et for the two ...

  5. Grass-roots approach: developing qualified nuclear personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power plants experiencing personnel recruitment problems are trying a grass-roots approach to increase the manpower pool. The Philadelphia Electric Co. and the Toledo Edison Co. are working with local educational institutions to offer nuclear-technology training specific to the needs of nuclear plants. The utilities' investment covers much of the cost of instruction as well as continued training for employees

  6. Adaptation of a decreaser and an increaser grass species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses have developed through natural selection to deter, escape and tolerate herbivory, and to escape and tolerate fire. In the semi-arid grassveld of the Eastern Cape, the species Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus have been classified as Decreaser and Increaser II plants respectively. Both species have ...

  7. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant-beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; van Elsas, J.D.

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial

  8. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.D.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial

  9. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  10. Preemergence herbicides on weed control in elephant grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is an important forage crop that has been proposed as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. However, weed interference is a major factor limiting elephant grass production. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate preemergence herbicides for selective weed control in an elephant grass pasture. Herbicide treatments included atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, imazethapyr, and atrazine at label use rates. Weedy and weed-free treatments were included. Atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine did not cause phytotoxicity on elephantgrass 35 days after treatment (DAT. However, diuron + hexazinone and imazethapyr were the most phytotoxic on elephantgrass, resulting in 81 and 70% phytotoxicity in 2014, and 7 and 6% phytotoxicity in 2015 respectively 35 DAT. All treatments provided effective weed control (>81% with the exception of ethoxysulfuron (0 and 11% in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and atrazine (59% in 2014. These results show that atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine were selectives when applied in preemergence in elephant grass pasture.

  11. Survey of Domestication Process of Grass Cutter ( Thryonomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) is cherished by many people but, its conservation status is at risk hence, the quest for domestication. An investigation into the domestication process of this rodent in four farms in Oyo and Osun States was carried out. Sixty structured questionnaires were administered to fifteen ...

  12. Grass species selection patterns on rotationally-grazed Dohne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbaceous species preference was studied during autumn and winter periods of occupation, on rotationally-grazed Dohne Sourveld, at four different stocking rates. Reports on species selection by cattle and sheep grazing together. Illustrates with graphsLanguage: English. Keywords: Grass species; Herbage availibility; ...

  13. A new grass frog from Namibia | Channing | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of grass frog of lhe genus Ptychadena is described from northern Namibia. Although superficially similar to Ptychadena schillukorum and Ptychadena mossambica, the new species differs In advertisement call, and external characters. An examination of a series of published sonagrams indicates that ...

  14. Detecting bacterial endophytes in tropical grasses of the Brachiaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria include a diverse group of soil bacteria thought to stimulate plant growth by various mechanisms. Brachiaria forage grasses, of African origin, are perennials that often grow under low-input conditions and are likely to harbour unique populations of PGP bacteria. Three bacterial strains ...

  15. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  16. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soils with Vetiver grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan

    2007-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...

  17. A survey of grass-finished beef producers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet our goal of quantifying the environmental impacts of grass-finished beef production, data on production practices in Pennsylvania were collected at the farm level via visits and online surveys. Twenty-three responses represented a total of 1,055 animals on 2,155 acres of land. Farms were rel...

  18. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and... with the endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from...

  19. Soil water use by Ceanothus velutinus and two grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Lopushinsky; G.O. Klock

    1990-01-01

    Seasonal trends of soil water content in plots of snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Dougl.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L), and pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubes- cens Buckl.) and in bare plots were measured on a burned-over forest watershed in north-central Washington. A comparison of soil water contents at depths of 12, 24,...

  20. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  1. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... stored at –20° C in a deep freezer immediately after collection. At the end of each collection period, the samples were bulked for each animal for proximate analysis according to AOAC (1980) procedures. Compositions of the concentrates, Rhodes grass, groundnut haulms, sweet potato forage and soybean ...

  2. Identification of Radical Scavengers in Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers, The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing

  3. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fed on napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) which has been adopted owing to its high dry matter. (DM) yields and palatability (Anindo ... high nutrient yields and therefore high animal output are likely to be achieved. Unfortunately, farm- ers lack specific ..... This consequently led to higher nutrient intake and weight gains.

  4. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  5. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...

  6. IgE-binding capacity of recombinant timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffer, S.; Vrtala, S.; Duchêne, M.; van Ree, R.; Kraft, D.; Scheiner, O.; Valenta, R.

    1994-01-01

    A panel of 60 cDNA clones coding for IgE-binding proteins from timothy grass pollen was immunocharacterized with sera from 30 patients allergic to grass pollen and antibodies raised against natural grass pollen allergens. In the cases of five representative patients in whom the IgE reactivity

  7. Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van M.

    1997-01-01

    In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products

  8. Tensile fracture properties of seven tropical grasses at different phenological stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Scheper, J.A.; Benvenutti, M.A.; Gordon, I.J.; Poppi, D.P.; Elgersma, A.

    2011-01-01

    The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and

  9. Aggressiveness of loose kernel smut isolate from Johnson grass on sorghum line BTx643

    Science.gov (United States)

    An isolate of loose kernel smut obtained from Johnson grass was inoculated unto six BTx643 sorghum plants in the greenhouse to determine its aggressiveness. All the BTx643 sorghum plants inoculated with the Johnson grass isolate were infected. Mean size of the teliospores from the Johnson grass, i...

  10. Secondary metabolites of Cynodon dactylon as an antagonist to angiotensin II type1 receptor: Novel in silico drug targeting approach for diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jananie, R. K.; Priya, V.; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the ability of the secondary metabolites of Cynodon dactylon to serve as an antagonist to angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1); activation of this receptor plays a vital role in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Materials and Methods: In silico methods are mainly harnessed to reduce time, cost and risk associated with drug discovery. Twenty-four compounds were identified as the secondary metabolites of hydroalcoholic extract of C. dactylon using the GCMS technique. These were considered as the ligands or inhibitors that would serve as an antagonist to the AT1. The ACD/Chemsketch tool was used to generate 3D structures of the ligands. A molecular file format converter tool was used to convert the generated data to the PDB format (Protein Data Bank) and was used for docking studies. The AT1 structure was retrieved from the Swissprot data base and PDB and visualized using the Rasmol tool. Domain analysis was carried from the Pfam data base; following this, the active site of the target protein was identified using a Q-site finder tool. The ability of the ligands to bind with the active site of AT1 was studied using the Autodocking tool. The docking results were analyzed using the WebLab viewer tool. Results: Sixteen ligands showed effective binding with the target protein; diazoprogesteron, didodecyl phthalate, and 9,12-octadecadienoyl chloride (z,z) may be considered as compounds that could be used to bind with the active site sequence of AT1. Conclusions: The present study shows that the metabolites of C. dactylon could serve as a natural antagonist to AT1 that could be used to treat diabetic retinopathy. PMID:22368412

  11. Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Visser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alien grasses in South Africa to date using recorded occurrences of alien grasses in the country from various literature and database sources. Using historical literature, we reviewed past efforts to introduce alien grasses into South Africa. We sourced information on the origins, uses, distributions and minimum residence times to investigate pathways and patterns of spatial extent. We identified alien grasses in South Africa that are having environmental and economic impacts and determined whether management options have been identified, and legislation created, for these species. Results: There are at least 256 alien grass species in the country, 37 of which have become invasive. Alien grass species richness increased most dramatically from the late 1800s to about 1940. Alien grass species that are not naturalised or invasive have much shorter residence times than those that have naturalised or become invasive. Most grasses were probably introduced for forage purposes, and a large number of alien grass species were trialled at pasture research stations. A large number of alien grass species in South Africa are of Eurasian origin, although more recent introductions include species from elsewhere in Africa and from Australasia. Alien grasses are most prevalent in the south-west of the country, and the Fynbos Biome has the most alien grasses and the most widespread species. We identified 11 species that have recorded environmental and economic impacts in the

  12. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  13. Differentiation of plant age in grasses using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Nichola M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; Groen, Thomas A.; de Boer, Willem F.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Kohi, Edward; Peel, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development. Spectra of grasses of different ages were collected from a greenhouse study. These were used to determine if NDVI, NDWI, CAI, EVI, EVI2 and the newly proposed PhIX index could sequentially discriminate grasses of different ages, and subsequently classify grasses into their respective age category. The PhIX index was defined as: (AVNIRn+log(ASWIR2n))/(AVNIRn-log(ASWIR2n)), where AVNIRn and ASWIR2n are the respective normalised areas under the continuum removed reflectance curve within the VNIR (500-800 nm) and SWIR2 (2000-2210 nm) regions. The PhIX index was found to produce the highest phenological classification accuracy (Overall Accuracy: 79%, and Kappa Accuracy: 75%) and similar to the NDVI, EVI and EVI2 indices it statistically sequentially separates out the developmental age classes. Discrimination between seedling and dormant age classes and the adult and flowering classes was problematic for most of the tested indices. Combining information from the visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared region (SWIR) region into a single phenological index captures the phenological changes associated with plant pigments and the ligno-cellulose absorption feature, providing a robust method to discriminate the age classes of grasses. This work provides a valuable contribution into mapping spatial variation and monitoring plant growth across savanna and grassland ecosystems.

  14. EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume atsaline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in thisresearch was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged inrandomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grassmonoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grassmonoculture, 6 ton/ha mulch, M4 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, without mulch;M5 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 3 ton/ha mulch; M6 = mixed cropping grass withSesbania grandiflora, 6 ton/ha mulch. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, then followed byDuncan's Multiple Range Test. The highest soil moisture content was achieved at mixed cropping grasslegumewith 6 ton/ha of mulch. The effect of mulch at saline soil significantly increased plant growth,forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Application of 3 ton/ha mulch increased plantgrowth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Plant growth, forage yield and nutritionalquality of guinea grass were not affected by monoculture or mixed cropping with Sesbania at saline soil.

  15. Diet Affects Muscle Quality and Growth Traits of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): A Comparison Between Grass and Artificial Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Honghao; Xia, Jianguo; Zhang, Xi; He, Xugang; Li, Li; Tang, Rong; Chi, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2018-01-01

    Fish muscle, the main edible parts with high protein level and low fat level, is consumed worldwide. Diet contributes greatly to fish growth performance and muscle quality. In order to elucidate the correlation between diet and muscle quality, the same batch of juvenile grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) were divided into two groups and fed with either grass ( Lolium perenne, Euphrasia pectinata and Sorghum sudanense ) or artificial feed, respectively. However, the different two diets didn't result in significant differences in all the detected water quality parameters (e.g., Tm, pH, DO, NH 3 /[Formula: see text]-N, [Formula: see text]-N, [Formula: see text], TN, TP, and TOC) between the two experimental groups. After a 4-month culture period, various indexes and expression of myogenic regulatory factor (MRFs) and their related genes were tested. The weight gain of the fish fed with artificial feed (AFG) was nearly 40% higher than the fish fed with grass (GFG). Significantly higher alkaline phosphatase, total cholestrol, high density cholestrol and total protein were detected in GFG as compared to AFG. GFG also showed increased hardness, resilience and shear force in texture profile analysis, with significantly bigger and compact muscle fibers in histologic slices. The fat accumulation was most serious in the abdomen muscle of AFG. Additionally, the expression levels of MyoG, MyoD, IGF - 1 , and MSTNs were higher, whereas Myf - 5, MRF4 , and IGF -2 were lower in most positional muscles of GFG as compared to AFG. Overall, these results suggested that feeding grass could promote muscle growth and development by stimulating muscle fiber hypertrophy, as well as significantly enhance the expression of CoL1A s. Feeding C. idellus with grass could also improve flesh quality by improving muscle characteristics, enhancing the production of collagen, meanthile, reducing fat accumulation and moisture in muscle, but at the cost of a slower growth.

  16. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jacqueline P; Hartnett, David C

    2015-09-01

    Tiller recruitment from the belowground bud bank of caespitose grasses influences their ability to monopolize local resources and, hence, their genet fitness. Differences in bud production and outgrowth among tiller types within a genet and among species may explain co-occurrence of caespitose grasses. This study aimed to characterize genet bud-bank and tiller production and dynamics in two co-occurring species and compare their vegetative reproductive strategies. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of Hesperostipa comata and Nassella viridula, dominant C3 caespitose grasses in the northern mixed-grass prairie of North America, were assessed throughout an annual cycle. The two species showed similar strategies, maintaining polycyclic tillers and thus creating mixed-age genet bud banks comprising multiple bud cohorts produced in different years. Vegetative tillers produced the majority of buds, whereas flowering tillers contributed little to the bud bank. Buds lived for at least 2 yr and were maintained in multiple developmental stages throughout the year. Because bud longevity rarely exceeded tiller longevity, tiller longevity drove turnover within the bud bank. Tiller population dynamics, more than bud production per tiller, determined the differential contribution of tiller types to the bud bank. Nassella viridula had higher bud production per tiller, a consistent annual tiller recruitment density, and greater longevity of buds on senesced and flowering tillers than H. comata. Co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses had similar bud-bank and tiller dynamics contributing to genet persistence but differed in bud characteristics that could affect genet longevity and species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  17. Diet Affects Muscle Quality and Growth Traits of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus: A Comparison Between Grass and Artificial Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish muscle, the main edible parts with high protein level and low fat level, is consumed worldwide. Diet contributes greatly to fish growth performance and muscle quality. In order to elucidate the correlation between diet and muscle quality, the same batch of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus were divided into two groups and fed with either grass (Lolium perenne, Euphrasia pectinata and Sorghum sudanense or artificial feed, respectively. However, the different two diets didn't result in significant differences in all the detected water quality parameters (e.g., Tm, pH, DO, NH3/NH4+-N, NO3--N, NO2-, TN, TP, and TOC between the two experimental groups. After a 4-month culture period, various indexes and expression of myogenic regulatory factor (MRFs and their related genes were tested. The weight gain of the fish fed with artificial feed (AFG was nearly 40% higher than the fish fed with grass (GFG. Significantly higher alkaline phosphatase, total cholestrol, high density cholestrol and total protein were detected in GFG as compared to AFG. GFG also showed increased hardness, resilience and shear force in texture profile analysis, with significantly bigger and compact muscle fibers in histologic slices. The fat accumulation was most serious in the abdomen muscle of AFG. Additionally, the expression levels of MyoG, MyoD, IGF-1, and MSTNs were higher, whereas Myf-5, MRF4, and IGF-2 were lower in most positional muscles of GFG as compared to AFG. Overall, these results suggested that feeding grass could promote muscle growth and development by stimulating muscle fiber hypertrophy, as well as significantly enhance the expression of CoL1As. Feeding C. idellus with grass could also improve flesh quality by improving muscle characteristics, enhancing the production of collagen, meanthile, reducing fat accumulation and moisture in muscle, but at the cost of a slower growth.

  18. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... red clover-grass silage diet (1,494μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  19. Microbiological Quality of Panicum maximum Grass Silage with Addition of Lactobacillus sp. as Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsih, S.; Sulistiyanto, B.; Utama, C. S.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate microbiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp as starter. The completely randomized design was been used on this research with 4 treaments and 3 replications. The treatments were P0 ( Panicum maximum grass silage without addition Lactobacillus sp ), P1 ( Panicum maximum grass silage with 2% addition Lactobacillus sp), P2 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 4% addition Lactobacillus sp) and P3 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 6% addition Lactobacillus sp).The parameters were microbial populations of Panicum maximum grass silage (total lactic acid bacteria, total bacteria, total fungi, and Coliform bacteria. The data obtained were analyzed variance (ANOVA) and further tests performed Duncan’s Multiple Areas. The population of lactic acid bacteria was higher (PMicrobiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp was better than no addition Lactobacillus sp.

  20. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  1. A Coupled Epipelagic-Meso/Bathypelagic Particle Flux Model for the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station (BATS)/Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, D. M.; Conte, M.

    2002-12-01

    Of considerable scientific interest is the role remineralization plays in the global carbon cycle. It is the ``biological pump'' that fixes carbon in the upper water column and exports it for long time periods to the deep ocean. From a global carbon cycle point-of-view, it is the processes that govern remineralization in the mid- to deep-ocean waters that provide the feedback to the biogeochemical carbon cycle. In this study we construct an ecosystem model that serves as a mechanistic link between euphotic processes and mesopelagic and bathypelagic processes. We then use this prognostic model to further our understanding of the unparalleled time-series of deep-water sediment traps (21+ years) at the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) and the euphotic zone measurements (10+ years) at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Site (BATS). At the core of this mechanistic ecosystem model of the mesopelagic zone is a model that consists of an active feeding habit zooplankton, a passive feeding habit zooplankton, large detritus (sinks), small detritus (non-sinking), and a nutrient pool. As the detritus, the primary source of food, moves through the water column it is fed upon by the active/passive zooplankton pair and undergoes bacterially mediated remineralization into nutrients. The large detritus pool at depth gains material from the formation of fecal pellets from the passive and active zooplankton. Sloppy feeding habits of the active zooplankton contribute to the small detrital pool. Zooplankton mortality (both classes) also contribute directly to the large detritus pool. Aggregation and disaggregation transform detrital particles from one pool to the other and back again. The nutrients at each depth will gain from detrital remineralization and zooplankton excretion. The equations that model the active zooplankton, passive zooplankton, large detritus, small detritus, and nutrients will be reviewed, results shown and future model modifications discussed.

  2. Correlações entre componentes anatômicos, químicos e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca de gramíneas forrageiras Chemical and anatomical traits, and in vitro dry matter digestibility correlations in forage grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Campos Paciullo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Lâminas foliares e segmentos de colmo das gramíneas forrageiras capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora e capim-bermuda Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp foram amostradas em dois níveis de inserção no perfilho (inferior e superior, em duas idades (momento da exposição da lígula da folha e 20 dias após e em duas estações de crescimento (verão e outono. Amostras dos segmentos de colmo e lâminas foliares foram submetidas à determinação de sua composição química, composição anatômica e digestibilidade in vitro. Após obtenção dos dados, foram estabelecidas as correlações entre os componentes químicos e anatômicos e entre estes e a DIVMS, na lâmina, no colmo e no agrupamento dos dados das duas frações. A espessura da parede celular foi a característica anatômica a se correlacionar mais fortemente com todos os componentes químicos, independente da fração considerada. Suas correlações foram positivas com os teores de fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e lignina e negativa com os de proteína bruta. A proporção de mesofilo se correlacionou positivamente com os teores de proteína bruta e negativamente com os de fibra em detergente ácido, enquanto a proporção de esclerênquima apresentou correlação positiva com os teores de fibra em detergente neutro. Os componentes químicos se correlacionaram fortemente entre si e com a DIVMS. Entre as características anatômicas, somente a espessura da parede celular mostrou correlação significativa com a DIVMS, independente da fração. O mesofilo se correlacionou positivamente e o xilema negativamente com a DIVMS, respectivamente, na lâmina e no colmo.Leaf blades and stem segments at two stages of development (day of leaf ligule exposure and 20 days thereafter and two insertion levels on tillers (lower and upper of signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens, molassesgrass (Melinis minutiflora and tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon sp

  3. Estimating the content of clover and grass in the sward using a consumer camera and image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Karstoft, Henrik; Søegaard, Karen

    the dry matter ratio of clover and grass in clover grass fields from sparse close up images. First, the light conditions is determined, which is used for selecting model parameters to estimate the coverage of both clover and grass. Next, the clover and grass coverage are transformed to give the dry matter...

  4. The determination of radionuclides in grass ecosystem samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Schelenz, R.; Perkins, R.W.

    1987-07-01

    The radioactive debris cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in some deposition over essentially all of the Northern Hemisphere. Shortly after the accident invitations were sent out by the IAEA to Member States to collect grass samples according to specific instructions so that the ratio of the various radionuclides in the fallout debris could be established over a wide area of Europe. In response to this request, 20 grass samples were provided by Member States. To establish a protocol for analysis of these valuable samples and to recommend a protocol for future sample collection, a Consultants Meeting was called by the IAEA for 23-25 September 1986. This document contains the considerations and recommendations of the consultants

  5. Extraction and characterization of whiskers from Panicum grass cellulose fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Douglas F.; Vieira, Julia G.; Pasquini, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this work are presented studies of the extraction of cellulose whiskers from Panicum grass fibers (Panicum maximum) by acid hydrolysis performed with H 2 SO 4 11.22 M. The fibers used in the hydrolysis process were previously purified and the efficiency of the purification process was evaluated by determining the lignin content by Klason method, before and after purification. The hydrolysis was performed at 40 degree C for 30 minutes. The whiskers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was verified a reduction in the crystallinity index and also a reduction of the degradation temperature of the whiskers in relation to the purified grass Panicum fibers. (author)

  6. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  8. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  9. Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlik, V.; Indruch, I.; Fojtik, A.; Bajer, K.

    1980-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induced sexuality in this apomictic grass. Sexual strains were isolated and selected individuals were crossed. Polycross and recurrent single cross methods allowed restoring apomixis. The resulting apomictic strains showed excellent traits and transgressed hereditary potentials of parental components. The method is described of breeding and the productivity of individual breeding techniques is discussed. It is shown that the number of strains should be reduced and the most productive strains should be used for the formation of synthetic cultivars. (author)

  10. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing

  11. EGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SUDANESE GRASSES AND GAS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Idris; C. Kijora; A.M. Salih; I. Bushara; H.A.A. Elbukhary

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen plant species, three ingredients, and six diets were studied for their degradation characteristics, using gas production techniques. The palatable grasses were selected during the rainy season from the range land of Kordofan, Sudan. The ingredients were Roselle seeds, Sorghum grain and Groundnut cake. The samples were incubated for 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, using rumen inoculum of three of the sheep used for the nylon bag. The results showed a large variation between the differe...

  12. Perfil hematológico de éguas Quarto de Milha alimentadas com feno ou haylage de Tifton-85 ( Cynodon spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Guimarães

    Full Text Available RESUMO O capim Tifton-85 (Cynodon spp. vem sendo utilizado na alimentação de equinos na forma de pré-secado (haylage e feno, todavia não existem estudos conclusivos a respeito da influência da haylage sobre o estado de saúde dessa espécie. Portanto, esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o perfil sanguíneo como indicador de higidez de éguas Quarto de Milha alimentadas com haylage e feno de Tifton-85. A gramínea utilizada foi cortada com 30 dias de crescimento. Para produção da haylage, a planta cortada permaneceu no campo até atingir 70% de matéria seca, quando foi colhida. Foram utilizadas 12 éguas Quarto de Milha, com idade entre oito e 12 anos e com peso vivo médio inicial de 451,6kg. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos (n=6, sendo o grupo 1 alimentado com feno e o grupo 2 alimentado com haylage, por um período de 28 dias. Foram realizadas cinco coletas de sangue em intervalos de uma semana, para a determinação do perfil hematológico. Em relação ao eritrograma, observou-se discreta diminuição da concentração de hemoglobina, do hematócrito e do volume globular médio (VGM em ambos os grupos. No leucograma, houve aumento dos leucócitos totais nas coletas iniciais em ambos os grupos, mas sem significado clínico. Conclui-se que éguas adultas Quarto de Milha, após a ingestão de feno e haylage de Tifton-85, não apresentaram alterações no perfil hematológico que indicassem prejuízos à saúde.

  13. Evaluación agronómica y nutricional del pasto estrella africana (cynodon nlemfuensis En la zona de monte verde, puntarenas, Costa Rica. II. valor nutricional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Villalobos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el valor nutricional del pasto estrella africana ( Cynodon nlemfuensis a lo largo de 2 años en muestreos bimensuales, en 4 fincas comerciales de ganado lechero ubicadas en los cantones de Tilarán y Central (latitud 10°20’ N, longitud 84°50’, altitud 800 a 1200 msnm de las provincias de Guanacaste y Puntarenas, respectivamente. Las muestras se recolectaron en el aparto siguiente a ser pastoreado y se utilizó una altura de cosecha de 10 cm, para simular el pastoreo que hacen los animales. La composición nutricional promedio para los 2 años de evalua - ción fue de 23,57% MS, 20,27% PC, 2,67% EE, 10,97% cenizas, 64,21% FDN, 34,95% FDA, 4,06% lignina y 68,02% DIVMS y su contenido energético para las variables de TND, ED, EM, EN L (3X y EN G fue 61,37%; 2,71; 2,05; 1,25 y 0,78 Mcal.kg -1 de MS, respectivamente. El valor nutricional del pasto estrella africana varió a lo largo del año como resultado de la climatología de la zona de Monteverde, siendo las fincas con influencia de la vertiente del Pacífico las de menor afectación en la calidad del forraje. El pasto estrella africana mostró un contenido de PC superior a lo reportado para dicha especie y, en general, para pastos tropicales, por lo cual no es limitante para la producción láctea, y la suplementación del ganado lechero en la zona debe utilizar fuentes que permitan una utiliza - ción eficiente del N soluble a nivel ruminal. La rotación del pasto estrella cada 25 días debe ser flexible para permitir, en conjunto con programas de fertilización, optimizar la productividad de las pasturas y su persistencia.

  14. Disponibilidad de biomasa y hábitos alimenticios de ovinos en un sistema silvopastoril con Leucaena leucocephala, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Y Cynodon nlemfuensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Candelaria-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del pastoreo a los 50, 60 y 70 días en época de lluvias y seca con nortes que son los frentes fríos, que corresponden de octubre a enero junto con la disponibilidad, calidad de biomasa y hábitos alimenticios de ovinos en un sistema silvopastoril de pasto estrella (Cynodon nlemfuensis, tulipán (Hibiscus rosasinensis y leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala. Para cada tratamiento se utilizaron 2 parcelas de 8x24 m y 6 ovejas adultas raza pelibuey. La disponibilidad de biomasa en leucaena y tulipán se evaluó mediante cosecha total de 20 a 40 plantas por tratamiento. El pasto estrella se midió antes y después del pastoreo. Las 3 especies se separaron en componentes morfológicos, y se determinó proteína cruda y fibra detergente neutra en las hojas. Los hábitos de los ovinos se determinaron mediante observación directa. La disponibilidad de biomasa total, consumo por grupo y utilización del pasto estrella fueron mayores a los 70 días y en la época de lluvias. La proporción de hoja de las 3 especies fue mayor a los 50 días; por efecto de la época, fue más abundante en lluvias, nortes y seca para estrella, leucaena y tulipán, respectivamente. La disponibilidad de PC no varió (p>0,05 por efecto de frecuencia ni época de pastoreo. El mayor tiempo de consumo estuvo destinado a pasto estrella, tulipán y leucaena. Los diseños favorecieron los sistemas silvopastoriles multiasociados pues potenciaron los efectos positivos de sus relaciones. Las frecuencias de pastoreo se ajustaron a la época del año, bajo un modelo de manejo mixto de pastoreo y podas, para mejor utilización de la biomasa.

  15. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties.

  16. Carboidratos não estruturais e acúmulo de forragem em pastagens de Cynodon spp. sob lotação contínua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Carlos Augusto Brandão de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Reservas orgânicas são compostos capazes de determinar o vigor e a velocidade da rebrota de plantas forrageiras influenciando sua persistência na pastagem. Dentre os compostos constituintes das reservas orgânicas estão os carboidratos não estruturais (CNE. Os teores e a quantidade de CNE foram avaliados em amostras de pastagens de 'Tifton-85', 'Florakirk' e 'Coastcross', estabelecidas em Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, durante as estações de inverno, primavera e verão. Os tratamentos corresponderam a quatro situações de "steady state" do relvado, caracterizadas por alturas de pasto de 5, 10, 15 e 20 cm mantidas por ovinos sob regime de lotação contínua. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados, com um arranjo de parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Os cultivares foram alocados nas parcelas e alturas de pasto nas subparcelas. As coletas das amostras para determinação de CNE foram realizadas mensalmente utilizando-se tubos de aço de 15 cm de diâmetro por 50 cm de altura. Os teores de CNE foram quantificados através de metodologia analítica baseada em digestão ácida e as taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram mensuradas através de gaiolas de exclusão. Os cultivares de Cynodon spp. avaliados apresentaram um padrão de variação sazonal quanto à prioridade de alocação de CNE para os órgãos de reserva (base do colmo e raízes. Os teores de CNE obtidos não atingiram níveis que pudessem ser considerados danosos à perenidade e à produtividade das pastagens de 'Tifton-85', 'Florakirk' e 'Coastcross'. 'Tifton-85' apresentou maior quantidade de CNE na base do colmo e raízes, o que poderia contribuir para uma maior tolerância a períodos de estresse.

  17. Evaluation of Diversity Based on Morphological Variabilities and ISSR Molecular Markers in Iranian Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Accessions to Select and Introduce Cold-Tolerant Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, M; Salehi, H; Niazi, A

    2018-04-01

    The main goals of the present study were to screen Iranian common bermudagrasses to find cold-tolerant accessions and evaluate their genetic and morphological variabilities. In this study, 49 accessions were collected from 18 provinces of Iran. One foreign cultivar of common bermudagrass was used as control. Morphological variation was evaluated based on 14 morphological traits to give information about taxonomic position of Iranian common bermudagrass. Data from morphological traits were evaluated to categorize all accessions as either cold sensitive or tolerant using hierarchical clustering with Ward's method in SPSS software. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primers were employed to evaluate genetic variability of accessions. The results of our taxonomic investigation support the existence of two varieties of Cynodon dactylon in Iran: var. dactylon (hairless plant) and var. villosous (plant with hairs at leaf underside and/or upper side surfaces or exterior surfaces of sheath). All 15 primers amplified and gave clear and highly reproducible DNA fragments. In total, 152 fragments were produced, of which 144 (94.73%) being polymorphic. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.700 to 0.928. The average PIC value obtained with 15 ISSR primers was 0.800, which shows that all primers were informative. Probability identity (PI) and discriminating power between all primers ranged from 0.029 to 0.185 and 0.815 to 0.971, respectively. Genetic data were converted into a binary data matrix. NTSYS software was used for data analysis. Clustering was done by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages and principle coordinate analysis, separated the accessions into six main clusters. According to both morphological and genetic diversity investigations of accessions, they can be clustered into three groups: cold sensitive, cold semi-tolerant, and cold tolerant. The most cold-tolerant accessions were: Taft, Malayear, Gorgan, Safashahr

  18. A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dornelas Marcelo C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret. In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST Project (SUCEST database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2 family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

  19. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  20. Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species

  1. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  2. Insects traversing grass-like vertical compliant beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Small running animals encounter many challenging terrains. These terrains can be filled with 3D, multi-component obstacles. Here, we study cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) moving through grass-like vertical compliant beams during escape. We created an apparatus to control and vary geometric parameters and mechanical properties of model grass including height, width, thickness, lateral and fore-aft spacings, angle, number of layers, stiffness, and damping. We observed a suite of novel locomotor behaviors not previously described on simpler 2D ground. When model grass height was >2 × body length and lateral spacing was test our hypothesis, we modified body shape by adding either a rectangular or an oval plate onto its dorsal surface, and found that P dropped by an order of magnitude and t more than doubled. Upon removal of either plate, both P and t recovered. Locomotor kinematics and geometry effectively coupled to terrain properties enables negotiation of 3D, multi-component obstacles, and provides inspiration for small robots to navigate such terrain with minimal sensing and control.

  3. Production of tropical forage grasses under different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the forage production of three tropical forage grasses under different shading levels. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, University Unit of Aquidauana (UEMS/UUA, in a soil classified as Ultisol sandy loam texture. The treatments consisted of three grasses species combinations (B. brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisck and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, submitted to four shading levels (0, 30, 50 and 75%, arranged in a completely randomized blocks design in a factorial 3 x 4, with eight replications. After harvest, the plants were separated into shoot and roots for determination of shoot fresh mass (SFM, shoot dry mass (SDM and roots dry mass production. After analysis of variance, the qualitative factor was subjected to comparison of averages by Tukey’s test, and the quantitative factor to analysis of polynomial regression, being interactions appropriately unfolded. It was verified that B. decumbens, by its linearly increasing production of forage and less decrease of root formation, is the most recommended for shading conditions compared to grasses Tanzania and Marandu.

  4. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-25

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1989-11-01

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137 Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134 Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  6. The combined effect of fertiliser nitrogen and phosphorus on herbage yield and change in soil nutrients of a grass/clover and grass-only sward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Snijders, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The combined effect of reduced nitrogen ( N ) and phosphorus ( P ) application on the production of grass- only and grass/ clover swards was studied in a five- year cutting experiment on a marine clay soil, established on newly sown swards. Furthermore, changes in soil N, P and carbon ( C ) were

  7. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  8. Ecophysiological responses of native and invasive grasses to simulated warming and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Law, D. J.; Wiede, A.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Breshears, D. D.; Dontsova, K.; Huxman, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Climate models predict that many arid regions around the world - including the North American deserts - may become affected more frequently by recurrent droughts. At the same time, these regions are experiencing rapid vegetation transformations such as invasion by exotic grasses. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes accompanying exotic grass invasion in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Under ambient and warmer (+ 4° C) conditions inside the Biosphere 2 facility, we compared the ecophysiological responses (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, pre-dawn leaf water potential, light & CO2 response functions, biomass) of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tangle head) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffel grass) growing in single and mixed communities. Further, we monitored the physiological responses and mortality of these plant communities under moisture stress conditions, simulating a global change-type-drought. The results indicate that the predicted warming scenarios may enhance the invasibility of desert landscapes by exotic grasses. In this study, buffel grass assimilated more CO2 per unit leaf area and out-competed native grasses more efficiently in a warmer environment. However, scenarios involving a combination of drought and warming proved disastrous to both the native and invasive grasses, with drought-induced grass mortality occurring at much shorter time scales under warmer conditions.

  9. Spatiotemporal Variation in the Environmental Controls of C4-Grass Origin and Ecology: Insights from Grass-Pollen δ13C Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. M.; Urban, M.; Hu, F.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the environmental factors controlling the origin and shifting abundance of C4 grasses in Earth's history is useful for projecting the response of C4-grass dominated grasslands to future environmental change. Unfortunately, grass pollen is typically morphologically indistinct, making palynological analysis a blunt tool for studying C4-grasses in the paleorecord. δ13C of individual grass-pollen grains using a spooling wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis, SPIRAL) overcomes this challenge and the potential biases of δ13C data from other substrates (e.g. leaf waxes). To assess the presence and relative abundance of C3- and C4-grass pollen in samples of unknown composition, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian model, trained with ~1,900 δ13C values from pollen grains of 31 grass species. Surface-sediment data from Africa, Australia, and North America demonstrate the reliability of this technique for quantifying C4-grass abundance on the landscape. To investigate the timing and control of the origin of C4-grasses we analyzed samples from the Oligocene-Miocene from Europe and from the Eocene from North America. Results indicate that C4 grasses appeared on the landscape of southwest Europe no later than the early Oligocene, implying that low atmospheric pCO2 may not have been the main driver and/or precondition for the development of C4 photosynthesis in the grass family. In contrast, we found no evidence for C4 grasses in the southeast United States before pCO2 fell. In application of SPIRAL to the late Quaternary, we found that shifts in pCO2 and moisture balance exerted key controls on the relative abundance of C3 and C4 grasses in Africa and Australia. Overall, our results imply that as in the past, future changes in the C3/C4 composition of grass-dominated ecosystems will likely exhibit striking spatiotemporal variability as a result of differing combinations of

  10. Comparative growth analysis of cool- and warm-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belesky, D.P.; Fedders, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Using both cool-season (C3) and warm-season (C4) species is a viable means of optimizing herbage productivity over varying climatic conditions in temperate environments. Despite well-documented differences in water, N, and radiation use, no consistent evidence demonstrates productivity differences among C3 and C4 perennial grass species under identical management. A field study was conducted to determine relative growth rates (RGR), nitrogen productivity (NP), and mean radiation productivity (RP) (dry matter production as a function of incident radiation) of cool- and warm-season grasses managed identically. Results were used to identify management practices thd could lead to optimal productivity in combinations or mixtures of cool- and warm-season grasses. Dry matter yields of warm-season grasses equaled or surpassed those of cool-season grasses, despite a 40% shorter growth interval. Certain cool- and warm-season grasses appear to be suitable for use in mixtures, based on distribution of herbage production; however, actual compatibility may be altered by defoliation management. Relative growth rates varied among years and were about 40% lower for canopies clipped to a 10-cm residue height each time 20-cm of growth accumulated compared with other treatments. The RGR of warm-season grasses was twice that of cool-season grasses Nitrogen productivity (g DM g-1 N d -1) and mean radiation productivity (g DM MJ-1) for warm-season grasses was also more than twice that of cool-season grasses. Radiation productivity of cool-season grasses was dependent on N, while this was not always the case for warm-season grasses. The superior production capability of certain warm-season compared with cool-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment can be sustained under a range of defoliation treatments and demonstrates suitability for use in frequently defoliated situations

  11. Bioethanol production from recovered napier grass with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Yu, Fan-Chun; Chang, Fang-Chih; Yang, Bing-Yuan; Chen, Wen-Hua; Hwang, Wen-Song; Tu, Ta-Chih

    2017-12-01

    Using plants to absorb and accumulate heavy metals from polluted soil, followed by the recycling of explants containing heavy metals, can help achieve the goal of reverting contaminated soil to low heavy-metal content soil. However, the re-use of recovered explants can also be problematic. Meanwhile, bioethanol has become a popular energy source. In this study, napier grass was used for the remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals (artificially contaminated soil). The influence of bioethanol production from napier grass after phytoremediation was also investigated. The concentration of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the contaminated soil was 1000, 100, and 250 mg/kg, respectively. After napier grass phytoremediation, the concentration (dry biomass) of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the explants was 2701.97 ± 173.49, 6.1 ± 2.3, and 74.24 ± 1.42 mg/kg, respectively. Biomass production in the unpolluted soil was 861.13 ± 4.23 g. The biomass production ratio in high Zn-polluted soil was only 3.89%, while it was 4.68% for Cd and 21.4% for Cr. The biomass obtained after napier grass phytoremediation was pretreated using the steam explosion conditions of 180 °C, for 10 min, with 1.5% H 2 SO 2 , followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for Zn-polluted biomass was 90% of the unpolluted biomass, while it was 77% for Cd, and approximately the same for Cr. The fermentation efficiency of the heavy-metal-containing biomass was higher than the control biomass. The fermentation ethanol concentration obtained was 8.69-12.68, 13.03-15.50, and 18.48-19.31 g/L in Zn, Cd, and Cr environments, respectively. Results show that the heavy metals had a positive effect on bacteria fermentation. However, the fermentation efficiency was lower for biomass with severe heavy metal pollution. Thus, the utilization of napier grass phytoremediation for bioethanol production has a positive effect on the sustainability of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017

  12. Status of exotic grasses and grass-like vegetation and potential impacts on wildlife in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The Northeastern section of the United States, known as New England, has seen vast changes in land cover and human population over the past 3 centuries. Much of the region is forested; grasslands and other open-land cover types are less common, but provide habitat for many species that are currently declining in abundance and distribution. New England also consists of some of the most densely populated and developed states in the country. The origin, distribution, and spread of exotic species are highly correlated with human development. As such, exotics are common throughout much of New England, including several species of graminoids (grasses and grass-like plants such as sedges and rushes). Several of the more invasive grass species can form expansive dense mats that exclude native plants, alter ecosystem structure and functions, and are perceived to provide little-to-no value as wildlife food or cover. Although little research has been conducted on direct impacts of exotic graminoids on wildlife populations in New England, several studies on the common reed (Phragmites australis) in salt marshes have shown this species to have variable effects as cover for birds and other wildlife, depending on the distribution of the plant (e.g., patches and borders of reeds are used more by wildlife than expansive densely growing stands). Direct impacts of other grasses on wildlife populations are largely unknown. However, many of the invasive graminoid species that are present in New England have the capability of outcompeting native plants and thereby potentially affecting associated fauna. Preservation, protection, and restoration of grassland and open-land cover types are complex but necessary challenges in the region to maintain biological and genetic diversity of grassland, wetland, and other open-land obligate species.

  13. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  14. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  15. Biotechnological application of sustainable biogas production through dry anaerobic digestion of Napier grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussadee, Natthawud; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Cheunbarn, Tapana

    2017-05-01

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), represents an interesting substrate for biogas production. The research project evaluated biogas potential production from dry anaerobic digestion of Napier grass using batch experiment. To enhance the biogas production from ensiled Napier grass, thermal and alkaline pre-treatments were performed in batch mode. Alkali hydrolysis of Napier grass was performed prior to batch dry anaerobic digestion at three different mild concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The study results confirmed that NaOH pretreated sample produced high yield of biogas than untreated (raw) and hot water pretreated samples. Napier grass was used as the mono-substrate. The biogas composition of carbon dioxide (30.10%), methane (63.50%) and 5 ppm of H 2 S was estimated from the biogas. Therefore, fast-growing, high-yielding and organic matter-enriched of Napier grass was promising energy crop for biogas production.

  16. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased...... convertibility). The effect of ensiling of grass prior to HTT improved the enzymatic conversion of cellulose for HTT at 170 and 180°C, but the increased glucose release did not make up for the loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) during ensiling. Overall, sugar yields (C6 + C5) were similar for HTT of grass...

  17. Avaliação da densidade de uma pastagem de coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers em níveis residuais de matéria seca sob pastejo Density evaluation of a coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers pasture under grazing in different levels of dry matter residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Coelho

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no Câmpus do Arenito - UEM, em Cidade Gaúcha, no período de outubro de 1997 a março de 1998, com o objetivo de avaliar na pastagem de coastcross -1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, em quatro níveis de resíduo de matéria seca (RMS: 1.978, 2.130, 2.545 e 3.857 kg de MS/ha, com lotação contínua e carga animal variável, as densidades e participação dos componentes botânicos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. As avaliações da densidade de forragem, participação dos componentes botânicos e a relação folha/colmo foram estudados nos estratos inferiores (0 - 10 cm e superiores (10 - 20 cm da pastagem, em função dos níveis RMS. A densidade da pastagem (g de MS/m3 nos estratos inferior e superior teve uma relação positiva com os níveis de RMS e negativa em relação ao tempo (dias do experimento. A percentagem de material morto (MM foi superior no estrato inferior em relação à percentagem de colmos verdes (CV e de folhas verdes (FV. No estrato superior o MM e CV tiveram a maior participação, porém FV, aumentou à medida que se elevaram os níveis de RMS.This experiment was carried out in Arenito Research Center-UEM, in Cidade Gaúcha-PR, from October/1997 to March /1998, to evaluate in coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers grazing, in four levels of dry matter residue (DMR: 1,978; 2,130; 2,545; 3,857 kg of DM/ha, with a continuous allotment system and variable number of allotments, the densities and participation of botanical component. A completely randomized design with two replications was used. Forage density, participation of botanical components and leaf/stem ratio were evaluated in inferior strata (0-10 cm and superior ones (10-20 cm of the pasture, according to the levels of DMR. The pasture density (g of DM/m3 in superior and inferior strata had a positive relation with the DMR levels and negative when associated to the period (days

  18. Overview of the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS): a decade-scale look at ocean biology and biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Deborah K.; Carlson, Craig A.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Johnson, Rodney J.; Michaels, Anthony F.; Knap, Anthony H.

    The Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) commenced monthly sampling in October 1988 as part of the US Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) program. The goals of the US JGOFS time-series research are to better understand the basic processes that control ocean biogeochemistry on seasonal to decadal time-scales, determine the role of the oceans in the global carbon budget, and ultimately improve our ability to predict the effects of climate change on ecosystems. The BATS program samples the ocean on a biweekly to monthly basis, a strategy that resolves major seasonal patterns and interannual variability. The core cruises last 4-5 d during which hydrography, nutrients, particle flux, pigments and primary production, bacterioplankton abundance and production, and often complementary ancillary measurements are made. This overview focuses on patterns in ocean biology and biogeochemistry over a decade at the BATS site, concentrating on seasonal and interannual changes in community structure, and the physical forcing and other factors controlling the temporal dynamics. Significant seasonal and interannual variability in phytoplankton and bacterioplankton production, biomass, and community structure exists at BATS. No strong relationship exists between primary production and particle flux during the 10 yr record, with the relationship slightly improved by applying an artificial lag of 1 week between production and flux. The prokaryotic picoplankton regularly dominate the phytoplankton community; diatom blooms are rare but occur periodically in the BATS time series. The increase in Chl a concentrations during bloom periods is due to increases by most of the taxa present, rather than by any single group, and there is seasonal succession of phytoplankton. The bacterioplankton often dominate the living biomass, indicating the potential to consume large amounts of carbon and play a major ecological role within the microbial food web. Bacterial biomass, production, and

  19. Sources of N2O in organic grass-clover pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2002-01-01

    Organic farming practises, and in particular dairy production systems based on grass-clover pastures are becoming increasingly abundant within Danish agriculture. Grass-clover pastures may provide a mitigation option to reduce grassland nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Velthof et al. 1998). The objectives of this work was to examine the relationship between N2O emissions and transformations of inorganic N in organically managed grass-clover pastures of different ages. Results from the projec...

  20. Respostas do capim-Tifton 85 à aplicação de nitrogênio: cobertura do solo, índice de área foliar e interceptação da radiação solar Responses of the grass Tifton 85 to the application of nitrogen: soil cover, leaf area index, and solar radiation interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.P. Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada sobre o crescimento do capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. cv. Tifton 85, em termos de ocorrência de plantas e altura do dossel, índice de área foliar e interceptação de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa. O estudo foi desenvolvido sobre um planossolo de ocorrência em campo experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis de N (0; 150; 300; 450 e 600kg/ha de N-ureia, aplicados em duas vezes, arranjados em um desenho experimental de blocos inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições. As avaliações foram realizadas semanalmente, entre 10 e 40 dias após o corte. Tanto a ocorrência de plantas como a altura do dossel responderam à adubação nitrogenada, conforme um padrão de resposta que variou, sazonalmente, em função das doses de N em interação com as condições ambientais. A expansão da área foliar e a interceptação da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa associada, também foram controladas direta e proporcionalmente pelas doses de N aplicadas, sendo maximizadas a valores de índice de área foliar em torno de 4,0.The effects of nitrogen (N fertilization levels on the growth patterns of the grass Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. cv.Tifton 85 were studied in terms of occurrence of plants, sward height, leaf area index, and photosynthetically active radiation interception (PARint. The field trial was made in an experimental area. Treatments consisted of N levels (0; 150; 300; 450; and 600kg/ha N-urea, split in two applications arranged in an experimental design of entirely randomized blocks with four repetitions. Plots were weekly sampled, from the day 10th to 40th after cutting. Both occurrence of plants as well as sward height were responsive to nitrogen fertilization according to a response pattern that seasonally varied, depending on N rates and environmental conditions; thus, demonstrating their sensitivity as indicators of growth conditions and canopy structure. Leaf expansion

  1. Grass fields as reservoirs for polyphagous predators (Arthropoda) of aphids (Homopt., Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard; Toft, Søren

    1987-01-01

    In a 4 ha grass field in Denmark three separate plots of 15 times 25 m were cultivated with barley. In each plot a central area of 5 times 5 m were fenced off by a plastic barrier. Thus, each plot consisted of an unfenced area, accessible for predators immigrating from the grass field, and an una......In a 4 ha grass field in Denmark three separate plots of 15 times 25 m were cultivated with barley. In each plot a central area of 5 times 5 m were fenced off by a plastic barrier. Thus, each plot consisted of an unfenced area, accessible for predators immigrating from the grass field...

  2. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    Although intensive agriculture is necessary to sustain the world's growing population, accelerated soil erosion contributes to a decrease in the environmental health of ecosystems at local, regional and global scales. Reversing the process of land degradation using vegetative measures is of utmost importance in such ecosystems. The present study critically analyzes the effect of grasses in reversing the process of land degradation using a systematic review. The collected information was segregated under three different land use and land management situations. Meta-analysis was applied to test the hypothesis that the use of grasses reduces runoff and soil erosion. The effect of grasses was deduced for grass strip and in combination with physical structures. Similarly, the effects of grasses were analyzed in degraded pasture lands. The overall result of the meta-analysis showed that infiltration capacity increased approximately 2-fold after planting grasses across the slopes in agricultural fields. Grazing land management through a cut-and-carry system increased conservation efficiencies by 42 and 63 % with respect to reduction in runoff and erosion, respectively. Considering the comprehensive performance index (CPI), it has been observed that hybrid Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and sambuta (Saccharum munja) grass seem to posses the most desirable attributes as an effective grass barrier for the western Himalayas and Eastern Ghats, while natural grass (Dichanthium annulatum) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) are found to be most promising grass species for the Konkan region of the Western Ghats and the northeastern Himalayan region, respectively. In addition to these benefits, it was also observed that soil carbon loss can be reduced by 83 % with the use of grasses. Overall, efficacy for erosion control of various grasses was more than 60 %; hence, their selection should be based on the production potential of these grasses under given edaphic and agro

  3. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with shredded grass from public green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Taira; Arai, Sayuri; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Adding greenery from public spaces to the co-digestion process with sewage sludge was evaluated by shredding experiments and laboratory-scale batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic fermentation experiments. The ratio of the shredded grass with 20mm or less in length by a commercially available shredder was 93%. The methane production was around 0.2NL/gVS-grass in the batch experiment. The continuous experiment fed with sewage sludge and shredded grass was stably operated for 81days. The average methane production was 0.09NL/gVS-grass when the TS ratio of the sewage sludge and the grass was 10:1. This value was smaller than those of other reports using grass silage, but the grass species in this study were not managed, and the collected grass was just shredded and not ensiled before feeding to the reactor for simple operation. The addition of grass to a digester can improve the carbon/nitrogen ratio, methane production and dewaterability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  5. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Becker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations......We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres of this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark) using three...

  6. Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indruch, I.; Svetlik, V.; Ligocki, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two subspecies of F. rubra occurring in natural localities of north-east Moravia (CSSR) in the Beskydy Mts. were used. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. genuina grandiflora (Hack.) 2n=8x=56, F. rubra represented a model species used for testing the effects of both acute and chronic gamma irradiation. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. vulgaris (Gaud.) Hay 2n=6x=42, new breeding was realized with success. The effects on important features of grasses were identical in both cases. The extension of combining abilities is especially important because it allows the production of forms less frequent in natural populations. (author)

  7. Molecular Physiology of Root System Architecture in Model Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, K.; Ahkami, A. H.; Anderton, C.; Veličković, D.; Myers, G. L.; Chrisler, W.; Lindenmaier, R.; Fang, Y.; Yabusaki, S.; Rosnow, J. J.; Farris, Y.; Khan, N. E.; Bernstein, H. C.; Jansson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Unraveling the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in responses of Root System Architecture (RSA) to abiotic stresses and shifts in microbiome structure is critical to understand and engineer plant-microbe-soil interactions in the rhizosphere. In this study, accessions of Brachypodium distachyon Bd21 (C3 model grass) and Setaria viridis A10.1 (C4 model grass) were grown in phytotron chambers under current and elevated CO2 levels. Detailed growth stage-based phenotypic analysis revealed different above- and below-ground morphological and physiological responses in C3 and C4 grasses to enhanced CO2 levels. Based on our preliminary results and by screening values of total biomass, water use efficiency, root to shoot ratio, RSA parameters and net assimilation rates, we postulated a three-phase physiological mechanism, i.e. RootPlus, BiomassPlus and YieldPlus phases, for grass growth under elevated CO2 conditions. Moreover, this comprehensive set of morphological and process-based observations are currently in use to develop, test, and calibrate biophysical whole-plant models and in particular to simulate leaf-level photosynthesis at various developmental stages of C3 and C4 using the model BioCro. To further link the observed phenotypic traits at the organismal level to tissue and molecular levels, and to spatially resolve the origin and fate of key metabolites involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism in different root sections, we complement root phenotypic observations with spatial metabolomics data using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods. Focusing on plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, six bacterial strains with plant growth promoting features are currently in use in both gel-based and soil systems to screen root growth and development in Brachypodium. Using confocal microscopy, GFP-tagged bacterial systems are utilized to study the initiation of different root types of RSA, including primary root (PR), coleoptile node axile root (CNR

  8. Estimating the energy requirements and CO{sub 2} emissions from production of the perennial grasses miscanthus, switchgrass and reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, M.; Metcalfe, P.

    2001-07-01

    The perennial grasses miscanthus, reed canary and swithchgrass have attractions as energy crops in the United Kingdom: all have low demand for fertilizer and pesticide, and are harvested annually. Research on energy ratios and carbon ratios of the grasses is reported. A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed (from an ADAS database) and the input calculations and assumptions are explained. The study demonstrated the attractions of theses grasses as a source of fuel. The results agreed with those from a model developed for the SRC.

  9. Caracterización de la comunidad vegetal en una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y Leucaena leucocephala cv.: Cunningham Characterization of the plant community in an association of improved grasses and Leucaena leucocephala cv.: Cunningham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sánchez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available En una vaquería de la Empresa Genética de Matanzas se realizó un estudio durante cinco años, con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento de la comunidad vegetal en una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham en condiciones comerciales. Se determinó la composición botánica del pastizal, la densidad de arbóreas, la disponibilidad de materia seca y los contenidos de MS, PB, Ca y P de las especies presentes en el sistema. La composición botánica del pastizal se caracterizó por un porcentaje de pastos mejorados superior al 50%, con predominio de Cynodon nlemfuensis cv. Jamaicano y Panicum maximum cv. Likoni; mientras que la leucaena mantuvo la densidad de plantas, como una adaptación a las condiciones del sistema. La disponibilidad de materia seca total fue superior a las 3 t/ha/rotación durante la etapa experimental. Se concluye que en la asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham se presentó una alta disponibilidad de materia seca y persistencia del pastizal durante los cinco años del estudio, con valores de PB en las gramíneas mejoradas de 9,6-9,8% y en la leucaena de 25%, sin la aplicación de riego ni fertilizantes químicos, lo cual permitió atenuar las diferencias entre los períodos lluvioso y poco lluvioso.In a dairy of the Genetic Enterprise of Matanzas, a work was carried out for five years, with the objective of characterizing the performance of the plant community in an association of improved grasses and Leucaena leucocephala cv Cunningham under commercial conditions. The botanical composition of the pastureland, tree density, dry matter availability and DM, CP, Ca and P contents of the species present in the system were determined. The botanical composition of the pastureland was characterized by a percentage of improved pastures higher than 50%, with predominance of Cynodon nlemfuensis cv. Jamaicano and Panicum maximum cv. Likoni; while leucaena

  10. The Reclamation of Tailing Area Reclamation in The Mining Area with Forages, is it Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Purwantari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailings are what’s left over from mining. The rock where copper, gold, silver and other minerals found is ground up into fine particles so that the valuable material can be taken out and refined. The solid waste would affect the environment physically and biologically. Characteristics of tailing are high porosity with low water holding capacity, poor organic matter, poor macro and micro nutrients and no microorganism activity. Therefore, it takes time and requires strategy to manage and change them to a more productive area. Many technologies have been applied to rehabilitate tailing for agriculture. The technologies including the use of manure, compost, mulch, biosolid, chemical fertilizer, microorganism (bacteria, mycorhiza and phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remediate selected contaminants in the contaminated soil, sludge, sediment, water (ground, surface, waste water. Phytoremediation encompasses a number of different methods that can lead to contaminant degradation, removal or immobilization. Those methods including phytodegradation/rhizodegradation, phytoextraction, phytovolatilization and phytostabilization. The phytoextraction is inexpensive compared with the conventional technology. Some forages have been used for phytoremediation such as Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass, Vetiveria zizonoides (Vetiver grass, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, since they have been known as heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant.

  11. Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1979-05-01

    Measurements of resuspension of particulate matter from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds are described in this report. The measurements were performed in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air on to 10m 2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of silt, sprayed on to a similar grass area, were similar. The resuspension factor declined as the reciprocal of time of wind exposure and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source questions the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10 -11 m -1 . The fraction of deposited fallout resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10 per cent. (author)

  12. Resuspension of particulate material from grass. Experimental programme 1979 - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Further wind tunnel experiments on resuspension are presented. In one, the effect of natural weathering was investigated. The grass was exposed to natural wind and rain between measurement periods. Results showed that natural weathering reduced the concentration of the tungstic oxide (WO 3 ) tracer found in the air in subsequent resuspension measurements at least as rapidly as exposure to high winds alone. Another experiment showed that 60% of the WO 3 resuspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within 4 m. Finally, resuspension from grass of 2 μm and 5 μm iron oxide particles and of ferric chloride applied in solution are reported and compared with tungstic oxide and silt. After the first few hours, the resuspension rate increased in the order: submicron WO 3 powder, silt, ferric chloride, 2 μm particles, 5 μm particles, with a ratio of about a hundred between the highest and lowest. The problem of extrapolating from small-scale experiments to contamination on a larger scale is discussed. Resuspension factors for grassland in N W Europe appear to be comparable with those observed in more arid conditions in the USA, but resuspension formulae previously proposed by American workers are probably conservative by about an order of magnitude if applied in Europe. (author)

  13. BUFFEL GRASS MORPHOAGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION FROM Cenchrus GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA REGINA GOMES PASSOS BRUNO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available his study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB from Embrapa Semi - Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty - five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each cut. Characterization was based on 15 quantitative and qualitative morphoagronomic descriptors. Quantitative descriptors were subjected to individual and joint univariate analysis of variance, followed by the Scott - Knott’s test at 5% significance. Yet qualitative descriptors were submitted to descriptive analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative descriptors were grouped based on the Gower algorithm for divergence analysis. A dendrogram and calculations of the characters relative importance for divergence were established. Genotype and cutting effects were significant for almost all descriptors in the joint analysis. This result indicates a genetic variability between genotypes and, regarding the cut, it indicates mainly differences in growth rate of each genotype in each cutting season. Genotypes were separated into three groups, which showed good genotype variation. The number of tillers per clump, followed by number of inflorescence and color of seeds, were the most relevant characters in genotype separation.

  14. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  15. Towards evidence-based medicine in specific grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, M; Mösges, R; Hellmich, M; Demoly, P

    2010-04-01

    When initiating grass pollen immunotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, specialist physicians in many European countries must choose between modalities of differing pharmaceutical and regulatory status. We applied an evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to commercially available subcutaneous and sublingual Gramineae grass pollen immunotherapies (SCIT and SLIT) by evaluating study design, populations, pollen seasons, treatment doses and durations, efficacy, quality of life, safety and compliance. After searching MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library up until January 2009, we identified 33 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (including seven paediatric trials) with a total of 440 specific immunotherapy (SIT)-treated subjects in seven trials (0 paediatric) for SCIT with natural pollen extracts, 168 in three trials (0 paediatric) for SCIT with allergoids, 906 in 16 trials (five paediatric) for natural extract SLIT drops, 41 in two trials (one paediatric) for allergoid SLIT tablets and 1605 in five trials (two paediatric) for natural extract SLIT tablets. Trial design and quality varied significantly within and between SIT modalities. The multinational, rigorous trials of natural extract SLIT tablets correspond to a high level of evidence in adult and paediatric populations. The limited amount of published data on allergoids prevented us from judging the level of evidence for this modality.

  16. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  17. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Serensits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass did not establish well, resulting in unacceptable cover. Perennial ryegrass generally persisted the most one year after seeding, either because of summer survival of plants or because of new germination the following fall. Plant counts one year after seeding were greater in the higher seeding rate treatment compared to the lower seeding treatment rate of perennial ryegrass, suggesting new germination had occurred. Plant counts one year after seeding plots with intermediate ryegrass or Italian ryegrass were attributed primarily to latent germination and not summer survival. Applications of foramsulfuron generally did not prevent overseeded species stand one year after seeding, supporting the conclusion of new germination. Although quality is less with intermediate ryegrass compared to perennial ryegrass, it transitions out easier than perennial ryegrass, resulting in fewer surviving plants one year later.

  18. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  19. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  20. Common mycelial networks impact competition in an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Rachael E; Cruzan, Mitchell B

    2016-06-01

    Mycorrhizal hyphal complexes can connect multiple host plants to form common mycelial networks (CMNs) that may affect plant competitive outcomes and community composition through differential resource allocation. The impacts of CMN interactions on invasive plants are not well understood and could be crucial to the understanding of invasive plant establishment and success. We grew the invasive grass Brachypodium sylvaticum in intra- and interspecific pairings with native grass Bromus vulgaris in a greenhouse and controlled for the effects of CMN and root interactions by manipulating the belowground separation between competitors. Comparison of plant growth in pots that allowed CMN interactions and excluded root competition and vice versa, or both, allowed us to delineate the effects of network formation and root competition on invasive plant establishment and performance. Brachypodium sylvaticum grown in pots allowing for only hyphal interactions, but no root competition, displayed superior growth compared with conspecifics in other treatments. Invasive performance was poorest when pairs were not separated by a barrier. Shoot nitrogen content in B. sylvaticum was higher in mycorrhizal plants only when connections were allowed between competitors. Our results indicate that the presence of CMN networks can have positive effects on B. sylvaticum establishment and nutrient status, which may affect plant competition and invasion success. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.