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Sample records for bermuda atlantic time

  1. Ocean time-series near Bermuda: Hydrostation S and the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic time-series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Anthony F.; Knap, Anthony H.

    1992-01-01

    Bermuda is the site of two ocean time-series programs. At Hydrostation S, the ongoing biweekly profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen now span 37 years. This is one of the longest open-ocean time-series data sets and provides a view of decadal scale variability in ocean processes. In 1988, the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study began a wide range of measurements at a frequency of 14-18 cruises each year to understand temporal variability in ocean biogeochemistry. On each cruise, the data range from chemical analyses of discrete water samples to data from electronic packages of hydrographic and optics sensors. In addition, a range of biological and geochemical rate measurements are conducted that integrate over time-periods of minutes to days. This sampling strategy yields a reasonable resolution of the major seasonal patterns and of decadal scale variability. The Sargasso Sea also has a variety of episodic production events on scales of days to weeks and these are only poorly resolved. In addition, there is a substantial amount of mesoscale variability in this region and some of the perceived temporal patterns are caused by the intersection of the biweekly sampling with the natural spatial variability. In the Bermuda time-series programs, we have added a series of additional cruises to begin to assess these other sources of variation and their impacts on the interpretation of the main time-series record. However, the adequate resolution of higher frequency temporal patterns will probably require the introduction of new sampling strategies and some emerging technologies such as biogeochemical moorings and autonomous underwater vehicles.

  2. Particulate organic carbon mass distribution at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kjell; Orcutt, Karen M.; Purdie, Duncan A.; Michaels, Anthony F.; Knap, Anthony H.

    Errors in total particulate organic carbon (total POC) measurements caused by particles settling in Niskin water samplers, loss of bacterial cells during filtration and undersampling of rare particles such as the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. were investigated at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Regular core samples of temperature, primary production, bacterial abundance, chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) and POC were collected at monthly intervals from 1991 to 1996. During this period of time, shorter investigations of particles settling in water samples (1991-1992), bacterial cells lost during filtration (1992-1993), and Trichodesmium abundance (1995-1996) were performed at the BATS site. The BATS site shows striking seasonal patterns in hydrography and phytoplankton primary productivity, with a strong maximum immediately following the deep winter mixing of the water column. Following the peak in primary production, bacterial abundance showed only slightly elevated levels in spring. Maxima of Chl- a and POC also were associated with the primary production peaks, but these particle concentrations became less pronounced through summer and fall. An average of 26% of total POC collected in Niskin water bottles settled below the spigot before it could be sampled. An average of 47% of all bacterial cells passed the nominal pore size of a Whatman GF/F filter, and total POC measurements generated from GF/F filtered seawater samples had to be corrected for this loss. The average integrated stocks of total POC in the upper 65 m of the water column was 32% pigmented phytoplankton, 15% microheterotrophs, 54% other detrital matter (32 : 15 : 54). Phytoplankton C equaled bacterial C in the 65-135 m depth range (16 : 19 : 65), but phytoplankton C was virtually non-existent deeper than 135 m (2 : 14 : 74). Bacterial C biomass was higher than phytoplankton in surface waters outside the spring bloom period, but carbon not accounted for by phytoplankton

  3. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

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    R. H. R. Stanley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2 m−2 yr−1. This is comparable to previous AOUR-based estimates of export production at the BATS site but is several times larger than export estimates derived from sediment traps or 234Th fluxes. We compare AOUR determined in this study to AOUR measured in the 1980s and show AOUR is significantly greater today than decades earlier because of changes in AOU, rather than changes in ventilation rates. The changes in AOU are likely a methodological artefact associated with problems with early oxygen measurements.

  4. Modeling Biogeochemical-Physical Interactions and Carbon Flux in the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; McClain, Charles R.; Christian, James R.

    2001-01-01

    An ecosystem-carbon cycle model is used to analyze the biogeochemical-physical interactions and carbon fluxes in the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site for the period of 1992-1998. The model results compare well with observations (most variables are within 8% of observed values). The sea-air flux ranges from -0.32 to -0.50 mol C/sq m/yr, depending upon the gas transfer algorithm used. This estimate is within the range (-0.22 to -0.83 mol C/sq m/yr) of previously reported values which indicates that the BATS region is a weak sink of atmospheric CO2. The overall carbon balance consists of atmospheric CO2 uptake of 0.3 Mol C/sq m/yr, upward dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) bottom flux of 1.1 Mol C/sq m/yr, and carbon export of 1.4 mol C/sq m/yr via sedimentation. Upper ocean DIC levels increased between 1992 and 1996 at a rate of approximately 1.2 (micro)mol/kg/yr, consistent with observations. However, this trend was reversed during 1997-1998 to -2.7 (micro)mol/kg/yr in response to hydrographic changes imposed by the El Nino-La Nina transition, which were manifested in the Sargasso Sea by the warmest SST and lowest surface salinity of the period (1992-1998).

  5. Direct comparison of {sup 210}Po, {sup 234}Th and POC particle-size distributions and export fluxes at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gillian, E-mail: gstewart@qc.cuny.ed [Queens College, CUNY Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Moran, S. Bradley, E-mail: moran@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Lomas, Michael W., E-mail: Michael.Lomas@bios.ed [Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, GE01 (Bermuda); Kelly, Roger P., E-mail: rokelly@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Particle-reactive, naturally occurring radionuclides are useful tracers of the sinking flux of organic matter from the surface to the deep ocean. Since the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) began in 1987, the disequilibrium between {sup 234}Th and its parent {sup 238}U has become widely used as a technique to measure particle export fluxes from surface ocean waters. Another radionuclide pair, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, can be used for the same purpose but has not been as widely adopted due to difficulty with accurately constraining the {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb radiochemical balance in the ocean and because of the more time-consuming radiochemical procedures. Direct comparison of particle flux estimated in different ocean regions using these short-lived radionuclides is important in evaluating their utility and accuracy as tracers of particle flux. In this paper, we present paired {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U and {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb data from oligotrophic surface waters of the subtropical Northwest Atlantic and discuss their advantages and limitations. Vertical profiles of total and particle size-fractionated {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th activities, together with particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, were measured during three seasons at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Both {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th reasonably predict sinking POC flux caught in sediment traps, and each tracer provides unique information about the magnitude and efficiency of the ocean's biological pump.

  6. Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Bermuda's population characteristics, history, government, political situation, economy, and foreign relations were briefly described. Bermuda, a parliamentary British colony, is situated on a group of island in the Atlantic Ocean, about 650 miles east of North Carolina. Bermuda was discovered by the Spaniards in 1503; however, it was the British who founded the 1st settlement on the islands in 1612. The current population size is 56,652, and the annual rate of growth is 0.3%. About 2/3 of the population is of African descent, and the remaining inhabitants are of British, American, Portuguese, or Caribbean descent. The literacy rate is 98%, and school enrollment is universal and compulsory for 12 years. The infant mortality rate is 7.1/1000 live births and life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Although Bermuda is a British colony, it was granted considerable internal autonomy in 1968. A governor, appointed by the British Crown, is in charge of external affairs, defense, and the country's internal security. Under the constitution, adopted in 1968, the internal affairs of the country are conducted by an elected bicameral legislative body and a premier who represents the majority party in the lower legislative house. The current premier is John W. D. Swan of the United Bermuda Party (UBP). The UBP is supported mainly by the white minority and by a few blacks. The Progressive Labor Party (PLP) is supported primarily by the black majority. The UBP has retained power since it was established in 1965, but at each election, its winning margin decreased. Although there is universal suffrage, only a small proportion of the public participates in elections. Despite the fact that the governor was assassinated in 1972 and there was civil unrest in 1977, the country is politically stable. This political stability is due in part to the government's efforts since the 1950s to promote racial equality, to the government's willingness to recognize labors' right

  7. Understanding the Steric Height Long Term Variability at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) Site with a Neutral Density Approach

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    Goncalves Neto, A.; Johnson, R. J.; Bates, N. R.

    2016-02-01

    Rising sea level is one of the main concerns for human life in a scenario with global atmosphere and ocean warming, which is of particular concern for oceanic islands. Bermuda, located in the center of the Sargasso Sea, provides an ideal location to investigate sea level rise since it has a long term tide gauge (1933-present) and is in close proximity to deep ocean time-series sites, namely, Hydrostation `S' (1954-present) and the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study site (1988-present). In this study, we use the monthly CTD deep casts at BATS to compute the contribution of steric height (SH) to the local sea surface height (SSH) for the past 24 years. To determine the relative contribution from the various water masses we first define 8 layers (Surface Layer, Upper Thermocline, Subtropical Mode-Water, Lower Thermocline, Antarctic Intermediate Water, Labrador Sea Water, Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water, Denmark Strait Overflow Water) based on neutral density criteria for which SH is computed. Additionally, we calculate the thermosteric and halosteric components for each of the defined neutral density layers. Surprisingly, the results show that, despite a 3.3mm/yr sea level rise observed at the Bermuda tide gauge, the steric contribution to the SSH at BATS has decreased at a rate of -1.1mm/yr during the same period. The thermal component is found to account for the negative trend in the steric height (-4.4mm/yr), whereas the halosteric component (3.3mm/yr) partially compensates the thermal signal and can be explained by an overall cooling and freshening at the BATS site. Although the surface layer and the upper thermocline waters are warming, all the subtropical and polar water masses, which represent most of the local water column, are cooling and therefore drive the overall SH contribution to the local SSH. Hence, it suggests that the mass contribution to the local SSH plays an important role in the sea level rise, for which we investigate with GRACE data.

  8. An intercomparison of dissolved iron speciation at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site: Results from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A

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    Kristen Nicolle Buck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The organic complexation of dissolved iron (Fe was determined in depth profile samples collected from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site, as part of the Dutch and U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic programs in June 2010 and November 2011, respectively. The two groups employed distinct competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-AdCSV methods, and resulting ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants from each profile were compared. Excellent agreement was found between the total ligand concentrations determined in June 2010 and the strongest, L1-type, ligand concentrations determined in November 2011. Yet a primary distinction between the datasets was the number of ligand classes observed: a single ligand class was characterized in the June 2010 profile while two ligand classes were observed in the November 2011 profile. To assess the role of differing interpretation approaches in determining final results, analysts exchanged titration data and accompanying parameters from the profiles for reinterpretation. The reinterpretation exercises highlighted the considerable influence of the sensitivity (S parameter applied on interpretation results, consistent with recent intercalibration work on interpretation of copper speciation titrations. The potential role of titration data structure, humic-type substances, differing dissolved Fe concentrations, and seasonality are also discussed as possible drivers of the one versus two ligand class determinations between the two profiles, leading to recommendations for future studies of Fe-binding ligand cycling in the oceans.

  9. DNA-based molecular fingerprinting of eukaryotic protists and cyanobacteria contributing to sinking particle flux at the Bermuda Atlantic time-series study

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    Amacher, Jessica; Neuer, Susanne; Lomas, Michael

    2013-09-01

    We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to examine the protist and cyanobacterial communities in the euphotic zone (0-120 m) and in corresponding 150 m particle interceptor traps at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) in a two-year monthly time-series from May 2008 to April 2010. Dinoflagellates were the most commonly detected taxa in both water column and trap samples throughout the time series. Diatom sequences were found only eight times in the water column, and only four times in trap material. Small-sized eukaryotic taxa, including the prasinophyte genera Ostreococcus, Micromonas, and Bathycoccus, were present in trap samples, as were the cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Synechococcus was usually overrepresented in trap material, whereas Prochlorococcus was underrepresented compared to the water column. Both seasonal and temporal variability affected patterns of ribosomal DNA found in sediment traps. The two years of this study were quite different hydrographically, with higher storm activity and the passing of a cyclonic eddy causing unusually deep mixing in winter 2010. This was reflected in the DGGE fingerprints of the water column, which showed greater phylotype richness of eukaryotes and a lesser richness of cyanobacteria in winter of 2010 compared with the winter of 2009. Increases in eukaryotic richness could be traced to increased diversity of prasinophytes and prymnesiophytes. The decrease in cyanobacterial richness was in turn reflected in the trap composition, but the increase in eukaryotes was not, indicating a disproportionate contribution of certain taxa to sinking particle flux.

  10. A Coupled Epipelagic-Meso/Bathypelagic Particle Flux Model for the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station (BATS)/Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) Site

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    Glover, D. M.; Conte, M.

    2002-12-01

    Of considerable scientific interest is the role remineralization plays in the global carbon cycle. It is the ``biological pump'' that fixes carbon in the upper water column and exports it for long time periods to the deep ocean. From a global carbon cycle point-of-view, it is the processes that govern remineralization in the mid- to deep-ocean waters that provide the feedback to the biogeochemical carbon cycle. In this study we construct an ecosystem model that serves as a mechanistic link between euphotic processes and mesopelagic and bathypelagic processes. We then use this prognostic model to further our understanding of the unparalleled time-series of deep-water sediment traps (21+ years) at the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) and the euphotic zone measurements (10+ years) at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Site (BATS). At the core of this mechanistic ecosystem model of the mesopelagic zone is a model that consists of an active feeding habit zooplankton, a passive feeding habit zooplankton, large detritus (sinks), small detritus (non-sinking), and a nutrient pool. As the detritus, the primary source of food, moves through the water column it is fed upon by the active/passive zooplankton pair and undergoes bacterially mediated remineralization into nutrients. The large detritus pool at depth gains material from the formation of fecal pellets from the passive and active zooplankton. Sloppy feeding habits of the active zooplankton contribute to the small detrital pool. Zooplankton mortality (both classes) also contribute directly to the large detritus pool. Aggregation and disaggregation transform detrital particles from one pool to the other and back again. The nutrients at each depth will gain from detrital remineralization and zooplankton excretion. The equations that model the active zooplankton, passive zooplankton, large detritus, small detritus, and nutrients will be reviewed, results shown and future model modifications discussed.

  11. Overview of the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS): a decade-scale look at ocean biology and biogeochemistry

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    Steinberg, Deborah K.; Carlson, Craig A.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Johnson, Rodney J.; Michaels, Anthony F.; Knap, Anthony H.

    The Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) commenced monthly sampling in October 1988 as part of the US Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) program. The goals of the US JGOFS time-series research are to better understand the basic processes that control ocean biogeochemistry on seasonal to decadal time-scales, determine the role of the oceans in the global carbon budget, and ultimately improve our ability to predict the effects of climate change on ecosystems. The BATS program samples the ocean on a biweekly to monthly basis, a strategy that resolves major seasonal patterns and interannual variability. The core cruises last 4-5 d during which hydrography, nutrients, particle flux, pigments and primary production, bacterioplankton abundance and production, and often complementary ancillary measurements are made. This overview focuses on patterns in ocean biology and biogeochemistry over a decade at the BATS site, concentrating on seasonal and interannual changes in community structure, and the physical forcing and other factors controlling the temporal dynamics. Significant seasonal and interannual variability in phytoplankton and bacterioplankton production, biomass, and community structure exists at BATS. No strong relationship exists between primary production and particle flux during the 10 yr record, with the relationship slightly improved by applying an artificial lag of 1 week between production and flux. The prokaryotic picoplankton regularly dominate the phytoplankton community; diatom blooms are rare but occur periodically in the BATS time series. The increase in Chl a concentrations during bloom periods is due to increases by most of the taxa present, rather than by any single group, and there is seasonal succession of phytoplankton. The bacterioplankton often dominate the living biomass, indicating the potential to consume large amounts of carbon and play a major ecological role within the microbial food web. Bacterial biomass, production, and

  12. Seasonal and interannual variability in deep ocean particle fluxes at the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP)/Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) site in the western Sargasso Sea near Bermuda

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    Conte, Maureen H.; Ralph, Nate; Ross, Edith H.

    Since 1978, the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) time-series sediment traps have measured particle fluxes in the deep Sargasso Sea near Bermuda. There is currently a 20+yr flux record at 3200-m depth, a 12+yr flux at 1500-m depth, and a 9+yr record at 500-m depth. Strong seasonality is observed in mass flux at all depths, with a flux maximum in February-March and a smaller maximum in December-January. There is also significant interannual variability in the flux, especially with respect to the presence/absence of the December-January flux maximum and in the duration of the high flux period in the spring. The flux records at the three depths are surprisingly coherent, with no statistically significant temporal lag between 500 and 3200-m fluxes at our biweekly sample resolution. Bulk compositional data indicate an extremely rapid decrease in the flux of organic constituents with depth between 500 and 1500-m, and a smaller decrease with depth between 1500 and 3200-m depth. In contrast, carbonate flux is uniform or increases slightly between 500 and 1500-m, possibly reflecting deep secondary calcification by foraminifera. The lithogenic flux increases by over 50% between 500 and 3200-m depth, indicating strong deep water scavenging/repackaging of suspended lithogenic material. Concurrent with the rapid changes in flux composition, there is a marked reduction in the heterogeneity of the sinking particle pool with depth, especially within the mesopelagic zone. By 3200-m depth, the bulk composition of the sinking particle pool is strikingly uniform, both seasonally and over variations in mass flux of more than an order of magnitude. These OFP results provide strong indirect evidence for the intensity of reprocessing of the particle pool by resident zooplankton within mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters. The rapid loss of organic components, the marked reduction in the heterogeneity of the bulk composition of the flux, and the increase in terrigenous fluxes with depth are most

  13. Oceanographic profile temperature, oxygen, nitrate+nitrite and other measurements collected using bottle from various platforms in the North Atlantic ocean from 1988 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0000990)

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profile data collected as part of the Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series Study (BATS) from Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS; formerly BBSR)

  14. Oceanographic temperature, salinity, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, primary productivity, pigments, pCO2 and other measurements collected using bottle and CTD from multiple platforms in the North Atlantic during 1988 to 2006 (NODC Accession 0032053)

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, biological, and physical profile data collected as part of the Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series Study (BATS) for the period 1988-December 2006 at Bermuda...

  15. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

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    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  16. Bermuda Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bermuda Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  17. Bermuda 3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  18. Bermuda 1 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  19. Timing of migratory baleen whales at the Azores in relation to the North Atlantic spring bloom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, F.; Hartman, K.L.; Pierce, G.J.; Valavanis, V.D.; Huisman, J.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, a phytoplankton spring bloom starts just north of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, and then expands northwards across the entire North Atlantic. Here, we investigate whether the timing of the spring migration of baleen whales is related to the timing of the phytoplankton spring bloom,

  20. Origin of Bermuda's clay-rich Quaternary paleosols and their paleoclimatic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwitz, S.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Mahan, S.; Vaughn, B.

    1996-01-01

    Red clayey paleosols that are chiefly the product of aerosolic dust deposition are interbedded in the Quaternary carbonate formations of the Bermuda oceanic island system. These paleosols provide a basis for reconstructing Quaternary atmospheric circulation patterns in the northwestern Atlantic. Geochemical analyses were performed on representative paleosol samples to identify their parent dust source. Fine-grained fractions were analyzed by energy-dispersive X ray fluorescence to determine trace element (Zr, Y, La, Ti, and Nb) concentrations and to derive geochemical signatures based on immobile element ratios. These ratios were compared with geochemical signatures determined for three possible sources of airborne dust: (1) Great Plains loess, (2) Mississippi River Valley loess, and (3) Saharan dust. The Zr/Y and Zr/La ratios provided the clearest distinction between the hypothesized dust sources. The low ratios in the paleosol B horizons most closely resemble Saharan dust in the the two North American loessial source areas could not be clearly detected. Thus Bermuda paleosols have a predominantly Saharan aerosolic dust signature. Saharan dust deposition on Bermuda during successive Quaternary glacial periods is consistent with patterns of general circulation models, which indicate that during glacial maxima the northeast summer trade winds were stronger than at present and reached latitudes higher than 30 ?? N despite lower-than-present sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic.

  1. Bermuda as an evolutionary life raft for an ancient lineage of endangered lizards.

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    Matthew C Brandley

    Full Text Available Oceanic islands are well known for harboring diverse species assemblages and are frequently the basis of research on adaptive radiation and neoendemism. However, a commonly overlooked role of some islands is their function in preserving ancient lineages that have become extinct everywhere else (paleoendemism. The island archipelago of Bermuda is home to a single species of extant terrestrial vertebrate, the endemic skink Plestiodon (formerly Eumeces longirostris. The presence of this species is surprising because Bermuda is an isolated, relatively young oceanic island approximately 1000 km from the eastern United States. Here, we apply Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using a relaxed molecular clock to demonstrate that the island of Bermuda, although no older than two million years, is home to the only extant representative of one of the earliest mainland North American Plestiodon lineages, which diverged from its closest living relatives 11.5 to 19.8 million years ago. This implies that, within a short geological time frame, mainland North American ancestors of P. longirostris colonized the recently emergent Bermuda and the entire lineage subsequently vanished from the mainland. Thus, our analyses reveal that Bermuda is an example of a "life raft" preserving millions of years of unique evolutionary history, now at the brink of extinction. Threats such as habitat destruction, littering, and non-native species have severely reduced the population size of this highly endangered lizard.

  2. A molecular evaluation of the Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in Bermuda including Liagora nesophila sp. nov. and Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov.

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    Popolizio, Thea R; Schneider, Craig W; Lane, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive, molecular-assisted alpha-taxonomic examination of the rhodophyte family Liagoraceae sensu lato, a group that has not previously been targeted for molecular studies in the western Atlantic. Sequence data from three molecular markers indicate that in Bermuda alone there are 10 species in nine different genera. These include the addition of three genera to the flora - Hommersandiophycus, Trichogloeopsis, and Yamadaella. Liagora pectinata, a species with a type locality in Bermuda, is phylogenetically allied with Indo-Pacific species of Hommersandiophycus, and the species historically reported as L. ceranoides for the islands is morphologically and genetically distinct from that taxon, and is herein described as L. nesophila sp. nov. Molecular sequence data have also uncovered the Indo-Pacific L. mannarensis in Bermuda, a long-distance new western Atlantic record. DNA sequences of Trichogloeopsis pedicellata from the type locality (Bahamas) match with local specimens demonstrating its presence in Bermuda. We described Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov. from Bermuda, a species phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from the generitype, Y. caenomyce of the Indo-Pacific. Our data also indicated a single species each of Ganonema, Gloiocallis, Helminthocladia, Titanophycus, and Trichogloea in the flora. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Genetic ancestry and indigenous heritage in a Native American descendant community in Bermuda.

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    Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Vilar, Miguel G; Dulik, Matthew C; Gaieski, David F; Gittelman, Rachel M; Lindo, John; Gau, Lydia; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-11-01

    Discovered in the early 16th century by European colonists, Bermuda is an isolated set of islands located in the mid-Atlantic. Shortly after its discovery, Bermuda became the first English colony to forcibly import its labor by trafficking in enslaved Africans, white ethnic minorities, and indigenous Americans. Oral traditions circulating today among contemporary tribes from the northeastern United States recount these same events, while, in Bermuda, St. David's Islanders consider their histories to be linked to a complex Native American, European, and African past. To investigate the influence of historical events on biological ancestry and native cultural identity, we analyzed genetic variation in 111 members of Bermuda's self-proclaimed St. David's Island Native Community. Our results reveal that the majority of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplotypes are of African and West Eurasian origin. However, unlike other English-speaking New World colonies, most African mtDNA haplotypes appear to derive from central and southeast Africa, reflecting the extent of maritime activities in the region. In light of genealogical and oral historical data from the St. David's community, the low frequency of Native American mtDNA and NRY lineages may reflect the influence of genetic drift, the demographic impact of European colonization, and historical admixture with persons of non-native backgrounds, which began with the settlement of the islands. By comparing the genetic data with genealogical and historical information, we are able to reconstruct the complex history of this Bermudian community, which is unique among New World populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Vernon Bermuda Workshop: A Course in Sub-tropical Island Ecology

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    Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    More than 30 years ago, educators in central Connecticut developed the Vernon Bermuda Workshop as a means of introducing middle- and high-school students to subtropical island ecology. Each year, after months of classroom preparation, approximately 20 top students spend one week at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (St. George's, Bermuda) studying the local flora and fauna in both the field and laboratory. The curriculum includes an additional array of activities, ranging from historical and ecological tours to spelunking, and culminates in a series of field-observation-related presentations. I am responsible for the meteorological and oceanographic components of the curriculum. In the field, my students collect time-series of biophysical variables over the course of a day, which they use to interpret diurnal patterns and interactions amongst the variables. I also add remote-sensing and phytoplankton biology components to the curriculum - in previous years, my students have studied time-series of Sea WIFS imagery collected at Bermuda during our trip. I have been an Instructor for this Workshop since 2003. The Workshop provides an outreach activity for GSFC Code 616.

  5. Naise võim Bermudas : kubjas kukutati / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Suurbritanniale kuuluva Bermuda saare parlamendivalimised vallandasid sündmuste ahela, mis võivad muuta asumaa poliitikat. Ametist tagandati peaminister Jennifer Meredith Smith ja uueks peaministriks sai senine tööminister William Alexander Scott

  6. Bidecadal North Atlantic ocean circulation variability controlled by timing of volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingedouw, Didier; Ortega, Pablo; Mignot, Juliette; Guilyardi, Eric; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Butler, Paul G; Khodri, Myriam; Séférian, Roland

    2015-03-30

    While bidecadal climate variability has been evidenced in several North Atlantic paleoclimate records, its drivers remain poorly understood. Here we show that the subset of CMIP5 historical climate simulations that produce such bidecadal variability exhibits a robust synchronization, with a maximum in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) 15 years after the 1963 Agung eruption. The mechanisms at play involve salinity advection from the Arctic and explain the timing of Great Salinity Anomalies observed in the 1970s and the 1990s. Simulations, as well as Greenland and Iceland paleoclimate records, indicate that coherent bidecadal cycles were excited following five Agung-like volcanic eruptions of the last millennium. Climate simulations and a conceptual model reveal that destructive interference caused by the Pinatubo 1991 eruption may have damped the observed decreasing trend of the AMOC in the 2000s. Our results imply a long-lasting climatic impact and predictability following the next Agung-like eruption.

  7. Geochemistry of Slow-Growing Corals: Reconstructing Sea Surface Temperature, Salinity and the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Number 8, October 1989) The island of Bermuda (64°W, 32°N) (Fig. 1.3) located in the western sub- tropical Atlantic is an excellent location for examining...lobata at Clipperton Atoll, Coral Reefv, 18, 13-27, 1999. Lough, J. M., A strategy to improve the contribution of coral data to high-resolution...to evaluate winter Sr/Ca. The island of Bermuda (64°W, 32°N) is located in the Sargasso Sea in the sub-tropical North Atlantic. This site is

  8. Evaluation of a public health intervention to lower mercury exposure from fish consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dewailly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of a public health intervention to reduce blood mercury (Hg concentration levels in pregnant Bermudian women. METHODS: In 2003, we conducted a study entitled "Prenatal exposure of the Bermudian Population to Environmental Contaminants" which provided Bermuda's first baseline data on prenatal exposure to several environmental contaminants, including Hg. The mean Hg concentration from 42 healthy newborns measured in umbilical cord blood was 41.3 nmol/L, ranging from 5-160 nmol/L. This concentration was much higher than expected, being approximately 8 times the general levels found in Canada and the U.S. Furthermore, we estimated that 85% of total Hg measured was in the form of methylmercury (MeHg, indicating that seafood consumption was the primary source of Hg exposure during pregnancy in Bermuda. Locally sourced seafood was identified as the most significant possible contributory source of Hg exposure. In 2005 the authors began a complementary research programme to study the levels of Hg in local commercial fish species. Coming out of this research were specific local fish consumption guidelines issued by the Department of Health advising pregnant women to avoid those local fish species found to be high in Hg while still encouraging consumption of fish species having lower Hg levels. RESULTS: In 2010, under another research initiative, we returned to Bermuda to carry out another evaluation of Hg in human blood. Hg was measured in the blood of 49 pregnant women. The arithmetic mean Hg blood concentration was 6.6 nmol/L and the geometric mean 4.2 nmol/L. The maximum concentration found was 24 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: Hg exposure of Bermudian pregnant women has dropped significantly by a factor of around 5 since the foetal cord blood study in 2003.

  9. Time dependency of the prediction skill for the North Atlantic subpolar gyre in initialized decadal hindcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sebastian; Düsterhus, André; Pohlmann, Holger; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Baehr, Johanna

    2017-11-01

    We analyze the time dependency of decadal hindcast skill in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre within the time period 1961-2013. We compare anomaly correlation coefficients and temporal interquartile ranges of total upper ocean heat content and sea surface temperature for three differently initialized sets of hindcast simulations with the global coupled model MPI-ESM. All initializations use weakly coupled assimilation with the same full value nudging in the atmospheric component and different assimilation techniques for oceanic temperature and salinity: (1) ensemble Kalman filter assimilating EN4 observations and HadISST data, (2) nudging of anomalies to ORAS4 reanalysis, (3) nudging of full values to ORAS4 reanalysis. We find that hindcast skill depends strongly on the evaluation time period, with higher hindcast skill during strong multiyear trends, especially during the warming in the 1990s and lower hindcast skill in the absence of such trends. Differences between the prediction systems are more pronounced when investigating any 20-year subperiod within the entire hindcast period. In the ensemble Kalman filter initialized hindcasts, we find significant correlation skill for up to 5-8 lead years, albeit along with an overestimation of the temporal interquartile range. In the hindcasts initialized by anomaly nudging, significant correlation skill for lead years greater than two is only found in the 1980s and 1990s. In the hindcasts initialized by full value nudging, correlation skill is consistently lower than in the hindcasts initialized by anomaly nudging in the first lead years with re-emerging skill thereafter. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation reacts on the density changes introduced by oceanic nudging, this limits the predictability in the subpolar gyre in the first lead years. Overall, we find that a model-consistent assimilation technique can improve hindcast skill. Further, the evaluation of 20 year subperiods within the full hindcast period

  10. The air-sea equilibrium and time trend of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Atlantic Ocean between the Arctic and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakaschus, Sonke; Weber, Kurt; Wania, Frank; Bruhn, Regina; Schrems, Otto

    2002-01-15

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined simultaneously in air and seawater during two cruises across the Atlantic Ocean between the Arctic Ocean (Ny-Alesund/ Svalbard, 79 degrees N; 12 degrees E) and the Antarctic Continent (Neumayer Station/ Ekstroem Ice Shelf, 70 degrees S; 8.2 degrees W) in 1999/ 2000. The concentrations of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH in air and surface waters of the Arctic exceeded those in Antarctica by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The gaseous concentrations of gamma-HCH were highest above the North Sea and between 20 degrees N and 30 degrees S. Fugacity fractions were used to estimate the direction of the air-sea gas exchange. These showed for alpha-HCH thatthe measured concentrations in both phases were close to equilibrium in the North Atlantic (78 degrees N-40 degrees N), slightly undersaturated between 30 degrees N and 10 degrees S and again close to equilibrium between 20 degrees S and 50 degrees S. Y-HCH has reached phase equilibrium in the North Atlantic as alpha-HCH, but the surface waters of the tropical and southern Atlantic were strongly undersaturated with y-HCH, especially between 30 degrees N and 20 degrees S. These findings are significantly different from two earlier estimates around 1990 as a result of global emission changes within the past decade. Therefore, we investigated the time trend of the HCHs in the surface waters of the Atlantic between 50 degrees N and 60 degrees S on the basis of archived samples taken in 1987-1997 and those from 1999. A decrease of alpha-HCH by a factor of approximately 4 is observed at all sampling locations. No decrease of gamma-HCH occurred between 30 degrees N and 30 degrees S, but there was a decrease in the North Atlantic, North Sea, and in the South Atlantic south of 40 degrees S. The constant level of gamma-HCH in the tropical Atlantic confirms the conclusion that the tropical Atlantic acts as a sink for y-HCH at present time. The measured alpha-HCH seawater concentrations were compared

  11. North atlantic multidecadal climate variability: An investigation of dominant time scales and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829838; von der Heydt, A.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/245567526; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467

    2010-01-01

    The issue of multidecadal variability in the North Atlantic has been an important topic of late. It is clear that there are multidecadal variations in several climate variables in the North Atlantic, such as sea surface temperature and sea level height. The details of this variability, in particular

  12. A continuous time delay-difference type model (CTDDM) applied to stock assessment of the southern Atlantic albacore Thunnus alalunga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Baochao; LIU Qun; ZHANG Kui; Abdul BASET; Aamir Mahmood MEMON; Khadim Hussain MEMON; HAN Yanan

    2016-01-01

    A continuous time delay-difference model (CTDDM) has been established that considers continuous time delays of biological processes.The southern Atlantic albacore (Thunnus alalunga) stock is the one of the commercially important tuna population in the marine world.The age structured production model (ASPM) and the surplus production model (SPM) have already been used to assess the albacore stock.However,the ASPM requires detailed biological information and the SPM lacks the biological realism.In this study,we focus on applying a CTDDM to the southern Atlantic albacore (T.alalunga) species,which provides an alternative method to assess this fishery.It is the first time that CTDDM has been provided for assessing the Atlantic albacore (T.alalunga) fishery.CTDDM obtained the 80% confidence interval of MSY (maximum sustainable yield) of(21510 t,23118 t).The catch in 2011 (24100 t) is higher than the MSY values and the relative fishing mortality ratio (F2011/FMSY) is higher than 1.0.The results of CTDDM were analyzed to verify the proposed methodology and provide reference information for the sustainable management of the southern Atlantic albacore stock.The CTDDM treats the recruitment,the growth,and the mortality rates as all varying continuously over time and fills gaps between ASPM and SPM in this stock assessment.

  13. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species' flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge.

  14. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  15. The Teleconnection of the Tropical Atlantic to Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures on Inter-Annual to Centennial Time Scales: A Review of Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kucharski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the teleconnections from the tropical Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific region from inter-annual to centennial time scales will be reviewed. Identified teleconnections and hypotheses on mechanisms at work are reviewed and further explored in a century-long pacemaker coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation ensemble. There is a substantial impact of the tropical Atlantic on the Pacific region at inter-annual time scales. An Atlantic Niño (Niña event leads to rising (sinking motion in the Atlantic region, which is compensated by sinking (rising motion in the central-western Pacific. The sinking (rising motion in the central-western Pacific induces easterly (westerly surface wind anomalies just to the west, which alter the thermocline. These perturbations propagate eastward as upwelling (downwelling Kelvin-waves, where they increase the probability for a La Niña (El Niño event. Moreover, tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies are also able to lead La Niña/El Niño development. At multidecadal time scales, a positive (negative Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation leads to a cooling (warming of the eastern Pacific and a warming (cooling of the western Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The physical mechanism for this impact is similar to that at inter-annual time scales. At centennial time scales, the Atlantic warming induces a substantial reduction of the eastern Pacific warming even under CO2 increase and to a strong subsurface cooling.

  16. Time matters: post-surgical recovery of gastric evacuation rate in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Gräns, Albin; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    GER was affected after surgically introducing dummies of a blood-flow biotelemetry system into the abdominal cavity of Atlantic cod. Two days post surgery the cod with implants were, together with a control group, force-fed a standardized meal and the stomach contents recovered 24h later...

  17. Output fields from the NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) for 2006-05-31 to 2017-03-21

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Atlantic Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) dataset comprises output fields from the daily operational RTOFS model runs conducted at the National...

  18. Northern tropical Atlantic climate since late Medieval times from Northern Caribbean coral geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, K. H.; Xu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions of different global climate modes over the last 1000 years provide the basis for testing the relative roles of forced and unforced variability climate system, which can help us improve projections of future climate change. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) has been characterized by a combination of persistent La Niña-like conditions, a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (+NAO), and increased Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The northern tropical Atlantic is sensitive to each of these climate patterns, but not all of them have the same regional fingerprint in the modern northern tropical Atlantic. The relative influence of different processes related to these climate patterns can help us better understand regional responses to climate change. The regional response of the northern tropical Atlantic is important because the tropical Atlantic Ocean is a large source of heat and moisture to the global climate system that can feedback onto global climate patterns. This study presents new coral Sr/Ca and δ18O data from the northern tropical Atlantic (Anegada, British Virgin Islands). Comparison of the sub-fossil corals that grew during the 13th and 14th Centuries with modern coral geochemical data from this site indicates relatively cooler mean conditions with a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the water consistent with lower salinities. Similar average annual cycles between modern and sub-fossil Sr/Ca indicate no change in seasonal temperature range, but a difference in the relative phasing of the δ18O seasonal cycles indicates that the fresher mean conditions may be due to a more northerly position of the regional salinity front. This localized response is consistent with some, but not all of the expected regional responses to a La Niña-like state, a +NAO state, and increased AMOC. Understanding these differences can provide insight into the relative importance of advection versus surface fluxes for

  19. BERMUDA-1DG: a one-dimensional photon transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tomoo; Hasegawa, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kunio.

    1984-10-01

    A one-dimensional photon transport code BERMUDA-1DG has been developed for spherical and infinite slab geometries. The purpose of development is to equip the function of gamma rays calculation for the BERMUDA code system, which was developed by 1983 only for neutron transport calculation as a preliminary version. A group constants library has been prepared for 30 nuclides, and it now consists of the 36-group total cross sections and secondary gamma ray yields by the 120-group neutron flux. For the Compton scattering, group-angle transfer matrices are accurately obtained by integrating the Klein-Nishina formula taking into account the energy and scattering angle correlation. The pair production cross sections are now calculated in the code from atomic number and midenergy of each group. To obtain angular flux distribution, the transport equation is solved in the same way as in case of neutron, using the direct integration method in a multigroup model. Both of an independent gamma ray source problem and a neutron-gamma source problem are possible to be solved. This report is written as a user's manual with a brief description of the calculational method. (author)

  20. It is the time for oceanic seabirds: Tracking year-round distribution of gadfly petrels across the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raul; Carlile, Nicholas; Madeiros, Jeremy; Ramirez, Ivan; Paiva, Vitor H.; Dinis, Herculano A.; Zino, Francis; Biscoito, Manuel; Leal, Gustavo R.; Bugoni, Leandro; Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Ryan, Peter G.; Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    AimAnthropogenic activities alter and constrain the structure of marine ecosystems with implications for wide-ranging marine vertebrates. In spite of the environmental importance of vast oceanic ecosystems, most conservation efforts mainly focus on neritic areas. To identify relevant oceanic areas for conservation, we assessed the year-round spatial distribution and spatio-temporal overlap of eight truly oceanic seabird species of gadfly petrels (Pterodroma spp.) inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean.LocationAtlantic Ocean.MethodsUsing tracking data (mostly from geolocators), we examined year-round distributions, the timing of life-cycle events, and marine habitat overlap of eight gadfly petrel species that breed in the Atlantic Ocean.ResultsWe compiled 125 year-round tracks. Movement strategies ranged from non-migratory to long-distance migrant species and from species sharing a common non-breeding area to species dispersing among multiple non-breeding sites. Gadfly petrels occurred throughout the Atlantic Ocean but tended to concentrate in subtropical regions. During the boreal summer, up to three species overlapped spatio-temporally over a large area around the Azores archipelago. During the austral summer, up to four species coincided in a core area in subtropical waters around Cape Verde, and three species shared habitat over two distinct areas off Brazil. The petrels used many national Exclusive Economic Zones, although they also exploited offshore international waters.Main conclusionsTracking movements of highly mobile vertebrates such as gadfly petrels can provide a powerful tool to evaluate and assess the potential need for and location of protected oceanic areas. As more multispecies, year-round data sets are collected from wide-ranging vertebrates, researchers and managers will have greater insight into the location of biodiversity hotspots. These can subsequently inform and guide marine spatial planning efforts that account for both conservation and

  1. Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery between 20110607 and 20110627

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the three week NOAA Ocean Exploration project, Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery, our four member deep team, aided by numerous assistants,...

  2. Integrative, Interdisciplinary Learning in Bermuda Through Video Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. J.; Connaughton, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding an ecosystem and how humans impact it requires a multidisciplinary perspective and immersive, experiential learning is an exceptional way to achieve understanding. In summer 2017 we took 18 students to the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS) as part of a Washington College two-week, four-credit summer field course. We took a multi-disciplinary approach in choosing the curriculum. We focused on the ecology of the islands and surrounding coral reefs as well as the environmental impacts humans are having on the islands. Additionally, we included geology and both local and natural history. Our teaching was supplemented by the BIOS staff and local tour guides. The student learning was integrated and reinforced through student-led video projects. Groups of three students were tasked with creating a 5-7 minute video appropriate for a public audience. We selected video topics based upon locations we would visit in the first week and topics were randomly assigned. The project intention was for the students to critically analyze and evaluate an area of Bermuda that is a worthwhile tourist destination. Students presented why a tourist should visit a locale, the area's ecological distinctiveness and complexity, the impact humans are having, and ways tourists can foster stewardship of that locale. These projects required students to learn how to make and edit videos, collaborate with peers, communicate a narrative to the public, integrate multi-disciplinary topics for a clear, whole-system perspective, observe the environment from a critical viewpoint, and interview local experts. The students produced the videos within the two-week period, and we viewed the videos as a group on the last day. The students worked hard, were proud of their final products, and produced excellent videos. They enjoyed the process, which provided them opportunities to collaborate, show individual strengths, be creative, and work independently of the instructors.

  3. Drivers and potential predictability of summer time North Atlantic polar front jet variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J.; Jones, Julie M.; Hanna, Edward; Scaife, Adam A.; Erdélyi, Róbert

    2017-06-01

    The variability of the North Atlantic polar front jet stream is crucial in determining summer weather around the North Atlantic basin. Recent extreme summers in western Europe and North America have highlighted the need for greater understanding of this variability, in order to aid seasonal forecasting and mitigate societal, environmental and economic impacts. Here we find that simple linear regression and composite models based on a few predictable factors are able to explain up to 35 % of summertime jet stream speed and latitude variability from 1955 onwards. Sea surface temperature forcings impact predominantly on jet speed, whereas solar and cryospheric forcings appear to influence jet latitude. The cryospheric associations come from the previous autumn, suggesting the survival of an ice-induced signal through the winter season, whereas solar influences lead jet variability by a few years. Regression models covering the earlier part of the twentieth century are much less effective, presumably due to decreased availability of data, and increased uncertainty in observational reanalyses. Wavelet coherence analysis identifies that associations fluctuate over the study period but it is not clear whether this is just internal variability or genuine non-stationarity. Finally we identify areas for future research.

  4. Transfer factors of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po from NORM-contaminated oil field soil to some Atriplex species, Alfalfa and Bermuda grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masria, M.S.; Mukalallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transfer factors of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po from soil contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil fields to some grazing plants were determined using pot experiments. Contaminated soil was collected from a dry surface evaporation pit from a Syrian oil field in the Der Ezzor area. Five types of plants (Atriplex halimus L., Atriplex canescens, Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, Alfalfa and Bermuda grass) were grown and harvested three times over two years. The results show that the mean transfer factors of 226 Ra from the contaminated soil to the studied plant species were 1.6 x 10 -3 for Atriplex halimus L., 2.1 x 10 -3 for Atriplex canescens, 2.5 x 10 -3 for Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, 8.2 x 10 -3 for Bermuda grass, and the highest value was 1.7 x 10 -2 for Alfalfa. Transfer factors of 210 Pb and 210 Po were higher than 226 Ra TFs by one order of magnitude and reached 7 x 10 -3 , 1.1 x 10 -2 , 1.2 x 10 -2 , 3.2 x 10 -2 and 2.5 x 10 -2 for Atriplex halimus, Atriplex canescens, Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, Bermuda grass and Alfalfa, respectively. The results can be considered as base values for transfer factors of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in semiarid regions. (authors)

  5. Seasonal variation in the copepod gut microbiome in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Katyanne M; Moisander, Pia H

    2017-08-01

    Characterisation of marine copepod gut microbiome composition and its variability provides information on function of marine food webs, biogeochemical cycles and copepod health. Copepod gut microbiomes were investigated quarterly over two years at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, while assessing seasonal shifts in stable and transient communities. Microbial communities were analysed using amplicon sequencing targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA V3-V4 region and the cyanobacterial ntcA gene. Persistent bacterial groups belonging to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were present in the copepod guts throughout the year, and showed synchronous changes, suggesting a link to variability in copepod nutritional content. The gut communities were separate from those in the seawater, suggesting the copepod gut hosts long-term, specialized communities. Major temporal variations in the gut communities during the early winter and spring, specifically a high relative abundance of Synechococcus (up to 65%), were attributed to bacterioplankton shifts in the water column, and copepod grazing on these picoplanktonic cyanobacteria. The presence of obligate and facultative anaerobes, including Clostridiales year round, suggests that anaerobic bacterial processes are common in these dynamic microhabitats in the oligotrophic open ocean. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Investigating Bermuda's pollution history through stable isotope analyses of modern and museum-held gorgonian corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, David M.; Murdoch, Thaddeus J.T.; Conti-Jerpe, Inga; Fogel, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, Bermuda has been challenged with wastewater management for the protection of human and environmental health. By quantifying the δ 15 N of the common sea fan Gorgonia ventalina sampled from 30 sites throughout Bermuda we show that sewage-derived nitrogen is detectable on nearshore coral reefs and declines across the lagoon to the outer rim. We also sampled gorgonians from two museum collections representing a 50y time-series (1958–2008). These samples revealed an increase in δ 15 N of > 4.0‰ until the mid-1970s, after which δ 15 N values slowly declined by ~ 2.0‰. A δ 15 N chronology from a gorgonian skeleton exhibited a similar decline over the last 30–40 years of approximately 0.6‰. We conclude that policies have been effective in reducing sewage impacts to Bermudian reefs. However, significant sources of sewage pollution persist and are likely have a strong impact on harbor and nearshore coral communities and human health.

  7. Transfer factor of Radium -226, lead-210 and Polonium-210 from Norm contaminated soil to Atriplex, Afelfa and Bermuda grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mukhallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.

    2011-10-01

    transfer factors of Radium -226, lead-210 and Polonium-210 from contaminated soil with oil coproduced water to grazing plants in the north eastern region of Syria have been determined. contaminated soil was collected from one of the AL-Furat Petroleum Oil company oil fields;soil was distributed into several pots where the studied plants were planted in order to study the transfer factors of radioisotopes to them. Results have shown that the mean transfer factors of radium to green parts have reached has reached 0.0016 in Atriplex halimus L.,0.0021 in Atriplex canescens Nutt, 0.0025 in Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss,0.0082 in Bermuda grass and 0.0167 in Medicago Sativ L,which was the highest,while the transfer factors of polonium and lead were ten times higher than those for radium and reacted 0.012 in Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, 0.011 in Atriplex canescens Nutt, 0.007 in Atriplex halimus L.0.32 in bermuda grass and 0.025 in Afelfa.(author)

  8. Lionfish (Pterois spp.) invade the upper-bathyal zone in the western Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, Erika; Andradi-Brown, Dominic A; Woodall, Lucy; Schofield, Pamela J; Stanley, Karl; Rogers, Alex D

    2017-01-01

    Non-native lionfish have been recorded throughout the western Atlantic on both shallow and mesophotic reefs, where they have been linked to declines in reef health. In this study we report the first lionfish observations from the deep sea (>200 m) in Bermuda and Roatan, Honduras, with lionfish observed to a maximum depth of 304 m off the Bermuda platform, and 250 m off West End, Roatan. Placed in the context of other deeper lionfish observations and records, our results imply that lionfish may be present in the 200-300 m depth range of the upper-bathyal zone across many locations in the western Atlantic, but currently are under-sampled compared to shallow habitats. We highlight the need for considering deep-sea lionfish populations in future invasive lionfish management.

  9. Lionfish (Pterois spp. invade the upper-bathyal zone in the western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Gress

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-native lionfish have been recorded throughout the western Atlantic on both shallow and mesophotic reefs, where they have been linked to declines in reef health. In this study we report the first lionfish observations from the deep sea (>200 m in Bermuda and Roatan, Honduras, with lionfish observed to a maximum depth of 304 m off the Bermuda platform, and 250 m off West End, Roatan. Placed in the context of other deeper lionfish observations and records, our results imply that lionfish may be present in the 200–300 m depth range of the upper-bathyal zone across many locations in the western Atlantic, but currently are under-sampled compared to shallow habitats. We highlight the need for considering deep-sea lionfish populations in future invasive lionfish management.

  10. Are the North Atlantic oscillation and the southern oscillation related in any time-scale?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Ribera, P.; Hernandez, E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas; Gimenoo, L. [Fac. Ciencias, Univ. Vigo, Ourense (Spain)

    2000-02-01

    The north Atlantic oscillation (NAO) and the southern oscillation (SO) are compared from the standpoint of a possible common temporal scale of oscillation. To do this a cross-spectrum of the temporal series of NAO and SO indices was determined, finding a significant common oscillation of 6-8 years. To assure this finding, both series were decomposed in their main oscillations using singular spectrum analysis (SSA). Resulting reconstructed series of 6-8 years' oscillation were then cross-correlated without and with pre-whitened, the latter being significant. The main conclusion is a possible relationship between a common oscillation of 6-8 years that represents about 20% of the SO variance and about 25% of the NAO variance. (orig.)

  11. Atlantic forests to the all Americas: Biogeographical history and divergence times of Neotropical Ficus (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Anderson Ferreira Pinto; Rønsted, Nina; Bruun-Lund, Sam; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo; Paganucci de Queiroz, Luciano

    2018-05-01

    Ficus (Moraceae) is well diversified in the Neotropics with two lineages inhabiting the wet forests of this region. The hemiepiphytes of section Americanae are the most diversified with c. 120 species, whereas section Pharmacosycea includes about 20 species mostly with a terrestrial habit. To reconstruct the biogeographical history and diversification of Ficus in the Americas, we produced a dated Bayesian phylogenetic hypothesis of Neotropical Ficus including two thirds of the species sequenced for five nuclear regions (At103, ETS, G3pdh, ITS/5.8S and Tpi). Ancestral range was estimated using all models available in Biogeobears and Binary State Speciation and Extinction analysis was used to evaluate the role of the initial habit and propagule size in diversification. The phylogenetic analyses resolved both Neotropical sections as monophyletic but the internal relationships between species in section Americanae remain unclear. Ficus started their diversification in the Neotropics between the Oligocene and Miocene. The genus experienced two bursts of diversification: in the middle Miocene and the Pliocene. Colonization events from the Amazon to adjacent areas coincide with the end of the Pebas system (10 Mya) and the connection of landmasses. Divergence of endemic species in the Atlantic forest is inferred to have happened after its isolation and the opening and consolidation of the Cerrado. Our results suggest a complex diversification in the Atlantic forest differing between postulated refuges and more instable areas in the South distribution of the forest. Finally the selection for initial hemiepiphytic habit and small to medium propagule size influenced the diversification and current distribution of the species at Neotropical forests marked by the historical instability and long-distance dispersal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hatching time and alevin growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding in farmed, wild and hybrid Norwegian Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Favnebøe Solberg

    Full Text Available The onset of exogenous feeding, when juveniles emerge from the gravel, is a critical event for salmonids where early emergence and large size provide a competitive advantage in the wild. Studying 131 farmed, hybrid and wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon families, originating from four wild populations and two commercial strains, we investigated whether approximately 10 generations of selection for faster growth has also resulted in increased somatic growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding. In addition, we tested whether relaxed selection in farms has allowed for alterations in hatching time between farmed and wild salmon. Across three cohorts, wild salmon families hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, while hybrid families displayed intermediate hatching times. While the observed differences were small, i.e., 1-15 degree-days (0-3 days, as water temperatures were c. 5-6°C, these data suggest additive genetic variation for hatching time. Alevin length prior to exogenous feeding was positively related to egg size. After removal of egg size effects, no systematic differences in alevin length were observed between the wild and farmed salmon families. While these results indicate additive genetic variation for egg development timing, and wild salmon families consistently hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, these differences were so small they are unlikely to significantly influence early life history competition of farmed and wild salmon in the natural environment. This is especially the case given that the timing of spawning among females can vary by several weeks in some rivers. The general lack of difference in size between farmed and wild alevins, strongly suggest that the documented differences in somatic growth rate between wild and farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon under hatchery conditions are first detectable after the onset of exogenous feeding.

  13. Timing and Duration of Volcanism in the North Atlantic Igneous Province: Implications for Geodynamics and Links to the Iceland Hotspot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, M.; Duncan, R. A.; Tegner, Christian

    2007-01-01

    estimates of erupted magmas and their cumulates to calculate melt production rates for the early Tertiary flood basalts of East Greenland and the Faeroes Islands. The lavas lie at opposite ends of the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroes Ridge, the postulated Iceland hotspot track, and record volcanic activity leading...... of plate separation. The upper part of this crust comprises seismically imaged, seaward-dipping, subaerially erupted lavas. By  50 Ma, eruption rates had diminished drastically and volcanic activity had narrowed to a much restricted portion of the East Greenland margin, at the western end of the Greenland......We combine new and published 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from incremental heating experiments on whole rocks and mineral separates to assess the timing, duration and distribution of volcanic activity during construction of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. We use these ages together with volume...

  14. Microevolution in time and space: SNP analysis of historical DNA reveals dynamic signatures of selection in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Als, Thomas Damm

    2013-01-01

    of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) studied over an 80-year period. Screening of >1000 gene-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified 77 loci that showed highly elevated levels of differentiation, likely as an effect of directional selection, in either time, space or both. Exploratory analysis......Little is known about how quickly natural populations adapt to changes in their environment and how temporal and spatial variation in selection pressures interact to shape patterns of genetic diversity. We here address these issues with a series of genome scans in four overfished populations...... and spatially varying selection. These findings have important implications for our understanding of local adaptation and evolutionary potential in high gene flow organisms and underscore the need to carefully consider all dimensions of biocomplexity for evolutionarily sustainable management...

  15. Mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated turf and forage Bermuda grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Hanna, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Tifgreen, Tifway and Tifdwarf, sterile triploid (2n = 27)F 1 hybrids between Cynodon dactylon and C. transvaalensis, are widely used turf grasses bred at Tifton, Georgia. They cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Attempts to improve them by treating short dormant rhizome sections with EMS failed but exposing them to 7-9 kR of gamma radiation produced 158 mutants. These have been evaluated at Tifton, and Beltsville, Maryland, and nine that appear to be better than the parents in one or more characteristics were planted in 8 x 10 m plots in triplicate in 1977. Test results to date suggest that one or more of these will be good enough to warrant a name and release to the public. Coastcross-1 is an outstanding sterile F 1 hybrid Bermuda grass that gives 35% more beef per acre but lacks winter hardiness. Since 1971, several million sprigs of Coastcross-1 have been exposed to 7 kR and have been planted and screened for winter survival at the Georgia Mountain Experiment Station. Chlorophyll-deficient mutants have appeared and one mutant slightly, but significantly, more winter hardy than Coastcross-1 has been obtained. Sprigs of this mutant named Coastcross 1-M3 are being irradiated and screened in an attempt to increase its winter hardiness. (author)

  16. The influence of the North Atlantic Ocean variability on the atmosphere in the cold season at seasonal to multidecadal time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankignoul, C.

    2017-12-01

    Observational evidence of an atmospheric response to the North Atlantic horseshoe SST anomalies has been accumulating since the late 90's, suggesting that it drives a negative NAO response during late fall/early winter. The North Atlantic horseshoe SST anomaly is in part stochastically driven by the atmosphere, but at low frequency it is correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Correspondingly, an atmospheric response to the AMO has been detected at low frequency in winter, with a positive AMO phase leading a negative NAO-like pattern, consistent with sensitivity studies with atmospheric general circulation models. Both the subpolar and tropical components of the AMO seem to contribute to its influence on the atmosphere. As North Atlantic SST changes reflects internally-generated SST fluctuations as well the response to anthropogenic and other external forcing, the AMO is sensitive to the way the forced SST signal is removed; estimates of the natural variability of the AMO vary by as much as a factor of two between estimation methods, leading to possible biases in its alleged impacts. Since an intensification of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) leads the AMO and drives a negative NAO in many climate models, albeit with different lead times, the relation between AMO and AMOC will be discussed, as well as possible links with the North Pacific and sea ice variability.

  17. Dietary Changes over Time in a Caiçara Community from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila L. MacCord

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Because they are occurring at an accelerated pace, changes in the livelihoods of local coastal communities, including nutritional aspects, have been a subject of interest in human ecology. The aim of this study is to explore the dietary changes, particularly in the consumption of animal protein, that have taken place in Puruba Beach, a rural community of caiçaras on the São Paulo Coast, Brazil, over the 10-yr period from 1992-1993 to 2002-2003. Data were collected during six months in 1992-1993 and during the same months in 2002-2003 using the 24-hr recall method. We found an increasing dependence on external products in the most recent period, along with a reduction in fish consumption and in the number of fish species eaten. These changes, possibly associated with other nonmeasured factors such as overfishing and unplanned tourism, may cause food delocalization and a reduction in the use of natural resources. Although the consequences for conservation efforts in the Atlantic Forest and the survival of the caiçaras must still be evaluated, these local inhabitants may be finding a way to reconcile both the old and the new dietary patterns by keeping their houses in the community while looking for sources of income other than natural resources. The prospect shown here may reveal facets that can influence the maintenance of this and other communities undergoing similar processes by, for example, shedding some light on the ecological and economical processes that may occur within their environment and in turn affect the conservation of the resources upon which the local inhabitants depend.

  18. How Robust Are the Surface Temperature Fingerprints of the Atlantic Overturning Meridional Circulation on Monthly Time Scales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Turner, R.; Ortega, P.; Robson, J. I.

    2018-04-01

    It has been suggested that changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) can drive sea surface temperature (SST) on monthly time scales (Duchez et al., 2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GB005667). However, with only 11 years of continuous observations, the validity of this result over longer, or different, time periods is uncertain. In this study, we use a 120 yearlong control simulation from a high-resolution climate model to test the robustness of the AMOC fingerprints. The model reproduces the observed AMOC seasonal cycle and its variability, and the observed 5-month lagged AMOC-SST fingerprints derived from 11 years of data. However, the AMOC-SST fingerprints are very sensitive to the particular time period considered. In particular, both the Florida current and the upper mid-ocean transport produce highly inconsistent fingerprints when using time periods shorter than 30 years. Therefore, several decades of RAPID observations will be necessary to determine the real impact of the AMOC on SSTs at monthly time scales.

  19. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  20. Multi-scale approach to Euro-Atlantic climatic cycles based on phenological time series, air temperatures and circulation indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi; Zavatti, Franco

    2017-09-01

    The spectral periods in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were analyzed and has been verified how they imprint a time series of European temperature anomalies (ETA), two European temperature time series and some phenological series (dates of cherry flowering and grapevine harvest). Such work had as reference scenario the linear causal chain MCTP (Macroscale Circulation→Temperature→Phenology of crops) that links oceanic and atmospheric circulation to surface air temperature which in its turn determines the earliness of appearance of phenological phases of plants. Results show that in the three segments of the MCTP causal chain are present cycles with the following central period in years (the % of the 12 analyzed time series interested by these cycles are in brackets): 65 (58%), 24 (58%), 20.5 (58%), 13.5 (50%), 11.5 (58%), 7.7 (75%), 5.5 (58%), 4.1 (58%), 3 (50%), 2.4 (67%). A comparison with short term spectral peaks of the four El Niño regions (nino1+2, nino3, nino3.4 and nino4) show that 10 of the 12 series are imprinted by periods around 2.3-2.4yr while 50-58% of the series are imprinted by El Niño periods of 4-4.2, 3.8-3.9, 3-3.1years. The analysis highlights the links among physical and biological variables of the climate system at scales that range from macro to microscale whose knowledge is crucial to reach a suitable understanding of the ecosystem behavior. The spectral analysis was also applied to a time series of spring - summer precipitation in order to evaluate the presence of peaks common with other 12 selected series with result substantially negative which brings us to rule out the existence of a linear causal chain MCPP (Macroscale Circulation→Precipitation→Phenology). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fish Species in a Changing World: The Route and Timing of Species Migration between Tropical and Temperate Ecosystems in Eastern Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awaluddin Halirin Kaimuddin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of tropical species has been reported in Atlantic-European waters with increasing frequency in recent years. Unfortunately, the history of their migrations is not well understood. In this study, we examined the routes and timing of fish migrations in several ecosystems of the East Atlantic Ocean, combining several publicly available and unpublicized datasets on species occurrences. The species studied were those noted as exotic or rare outside their previous known area of distribution. We used sea surface temperature (SST data obtained from 30 years of satellite observation to define three distinct time periods. Within these periods, temperature trends were studied in six ecosystems: the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, the South European Atlantic Waters, the Mediterranean Sea, the Canary Current and the Guinea Current. We also incorporated bathymetry data to describe the distribution of species. Measurement across a relatively large spatial extent was made possible by incorporating the capabilities of GIS.While SST increased consistently over time in all of the ecosystems observed, the change in number of species differed among ecosystems. The number of species in the middle regions, such as the South European Atlantic Shelf and the Western Mediterranean Sea, tended to increase over time. These regions received numbers of species from the lower or the upper latitudes according to season. Of all of the species observed in the recent period, 7 species from the Canary Current tended to be found in the Western Mediterranean Sea, and 6 species from these two regions extended their distributions to the South European Atlantic Shelf. Twelve species from the Canary Current moved seasonally to the Guinea Current. In the northern regions, 13 species moved seasonally in the North Sea and the Celtic Seas, and 12 of these species reached the South European Atlantic Shelf.This study presents a picture of routes and timing of species migration at the

  2. The Oceanic Flux Program: A three decade time-series of particle flux in the deep Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. C.; Conte, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Oceanic Flux Program (OFP), 75 km SE of Bermuda, is the longest running time-series of its kind. Initiated in 1978, the OFP has produced an unsurpassed, nearly continuous record of temporal variability in deep ocean fluxes, with a >90% temporal coverage at 3200m depth. The OFP, in conjunction with the co-located Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) time-series, has provided key observations enabling detailed assessment of how seasonal and non-seasonal variability in the deep ocean is linked with the overlying physical and biogeochemical environment. This talk will focus on the short-term flux variability that overlies the seasonal flux pattern in the Sargasso Sea, emphasizing episodic extreme flux events. Extreme flux events are responsible for much of the year-to-year variability in mean annual flux and are most often observed during early winter and late spring when surface stratification is weak or transient. In addition to biological phenomena (e.g. salp blooms), passage of productive meso-scale features such as eddies, which alter surface water mixing characteristics and surface export fluxes, may initiate some extreme flux events. Yet other productive eddies show a minimal influence on the deep flux, underscoring the importance of upper ocean ecosystem structure and midwater processes on the coupling between the surface ocean environment and deep fluxes. Using key organic and inorganic tracers, causative processes that influence deep flux generation and the strength of the coupling with the surface ocean environment can be identified.

  3. Landscape controls on the timing of spring, autumn, and growing season length in mid-Atlantic forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, A.J.; Guinn, S.M.; Minsley, B.J.; Richardson, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    The timing of spring leaf development, trajectories of summer leaf area, and the timing of autumn senescence have profound impacts to the water, carbon, and energy balance of ecosystems, and are likely influenced by global climate change. Limited field-based and remote-sensing observations have suggested complex spatial patterns related to geographic features that influence climate. However, much of this variability occurs at spatial scales that inhibit a detailed understanding of even the dominant drivers. Recognizing these limitations, we used nonlinear inverse modeling of medium-resolution remote sensing data, organized by day of year, to explore the influence of climate-related landscape factors on the timing of spring and autumn leaf-area trajectories in mid-Atlantic, USA forests. We also examined the extent to which declining summer greenness (greendown) degrades the precision and accuracy of observations of autumn offset of greenness. Of the dominant drivers of landscape phenology, elevation was the strongest, explaining up to 70% of the spatial variation in the onset of greenness. Urban land cover was second in importance, influencing spring onset and autumn offset to a distance of 32 km from large cities. Distance to tidal water also influenced phenological timing, but only within ~5 km of shorelines. Additionally, we observed that (i) growing season length unexpectedly increases with increasing elevation at elevations below 275 m; (ii) along gradients in urban land cover, timing of autumn offset has a stronger effect on growing season length than does timing of spring onset; and (iii) summer greendown introduces bias and uncertainty into observations of the autumn offset of greenness. These results demonstrate the power of medium grain analyses of landscape-scale phenology for understanding environmental controls on growing season length, and predicting how these might be affected by climate change.

  4. Bermuda's balancing act: The economic dependence of cruise and air tourism on healthy coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beukering, P.J.H.; Sarkis, S.; van der Putten, L.; Papyrakis, E.

    2015-01-01

    Although Bermuda has to date managed to achieve equilibrium between tourism and coral reef conservation, this delicate balance may be threatened by the growth and changing face of the tourism industry. This may result in negative impacts on the coral reefs and services provided by this valuable

  5. Ergot fungus Claviceps cynodontis found on Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) in the Americas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Odvody, G.; Frederickson, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2005), s. 1-6 ISSN 0706-0661 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : claviceps cynodon tis * ergot * bermuda grass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.066, year: 2005

  6. Paleomagnetism of volcanic rocks from the Northeast of Brazil and the time of the opening of the South Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, S.D.C.

    1983-01-01

    In the first part of this paper palaeomagnetic and rock magnetism investigations were developed in volcanic samples from the Northeast of Brazil. The age of the samples spans the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. To accomplish this task four areas were studied and a total of 495 samples from 58 sites were analysed. A portable drilling machine with 2.5 em core diameter was used to collect the samples. The orientation of the samples were obtained by means of a magnetic compass, and a clinometer. The analysis of the magnetic minerals of these samples was done by thermomagnetic curves and by X-ray diffraction. In most cases the magnetic phase in the rocks is mainly titanomagnetite with poor titanium content. Maghemite and sometimes hematite, usually a product of weathering, did not obscure the initial thermoremanent magnetization of these rocks. The second part of this paper deals with the determination of the time of the opening of the South Atlantic ocean by means of palaeomagnetic data. In this paper, however, instead of using the polar wandering paths of the continents (the usual method) statistical tests were applied that give the probability that a certain configuration for the two continents be consistent or not with the palaeomagnetic data for a chosen period. (author)

  7. Survey of polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the atmosphere over the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Vlahos, Penny; Harner, Tom; Peters, Andrew; Graustein, Margaret; Narayan, Julie

    2010-08-01

    High volume air sampling in Bermuda, Sable Island (Nova Scotia) and along a cruise track from the Gulf of Mexico to northeast coast of the USA, was carried out to assess air concentrations, particle-gas partitioning and transport of polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in this region. Samples were collected in the summer of 2007. Targeted compounds included the neutral PFCs: fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FOSEs). Among the FTOHs, 8:2 FTOH was dominant in all samples. Sum of the concentration of FTOHs (gas+particle phase) were higher in Bermuda (mean, 34 pg m -3) compared to Sable Island (mean, 16 pg m -3). In cruise samples, sum of FTOHs were highly variable (mean, 81 pg m -3) reflecting contributions from land-based sources in the northeast USA with concentrations reaching as high as 156 pg m -3. Among the FOSAs and FOSEs, MeFOSE was dominant in all samples. In Bermuda, levels of MeFOSE were exceptionally high (mean, 62 pg m -3), exceeding the FTOHs. Sable Island samples also exhibited the dominance of MeFOSE but at a lower concentration (mean, 15 pg m -3). MeFOSE air concentrations (pg m -3) in cruise samples ranged from 1.6 to 73 and were not linked to land-based sources. In fact high concentrations of MeFOSE observed in Bermuda were associated with air masses that originated over the Atlantic Ocean. The partitioning to particles for 8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH, MeFOSE and EtFOSE ranged from as high as 15 to 42% for cruise samples to 0.9 to 14% in Bermuda. This study provides key information for validating and developing partitioning and transport models for the PFCs.

  8. Evaluation of molecular basis of cross reactivity between rye and Bermuda grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ruby; Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2009-12-01

    Allergenic cross reactivity between the members of the Pooids (Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis) and Chloridoids (Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum notatum) is well established. Studies using crude extracts in the past have demonstrated limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and the Chloridoids suggesting separate diagnosis and therapy. However, little is known regarding the molecular basis for the limited cross reactivity observed between the 2 groups of grasses. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular basis of cross allergenicity between the major allergens from rye and Bermuda grass pollens. Immunoblot inhibition tests were carried out to determine the specificity of the proteins involved in cross reactivity. Crude pollen extract and bacterially expressed and purified recombinant Lol p 1and Lol p 5 from rye grass were subjected to cross inhibition experiments with crude and purified recombinant Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass using sera from patients allergic to rye grass pollen. The immunoblot inhibition studies revealed a high degree of cross inhibition between the group 1 allergens. In contrast, a complete lack of inhibition was observed between Bermuda grass group 1 allergen rCyn d 1, and rye grass group 5 allergen rLol p 5. Crude rye grass extract strongly inhibited IgE reactivity to Bermuda grass, whereas crude Bermuda grass pollen extract showed a weaker inhibition. Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  9. A model of Fe speciation and biogeochemistry at the Tropical Eastern North Atlantic Time-Series Observatory site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Völker, C.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.

    2009-10-01

    A one-dimensional model of Fe speciation and biogeochemistry, coupled with the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and a NPZD-type ecosystem model, is applied for the Tropical Eastern North Atlantic Time-Series Observatory (TENATSO) site. Among diverse processes affecting Fe speciation, this study is focusing on investigating the role of dust particles in removing dissolved iron (DFe) by a more complex description of particle aggregation and sinking, and explaining the abundance of organic Fe-binding ligands by modelling their origin and fate. The vertical distribution of different particle classes in the model shows high sensitivity to changing aggregation rates. Using the aggregation rates from the sensitivity study in this work, modelled particle fluxes are close to observations, with dust particles dominating near the surface and aggregates deeper in the water column. POC export at 1000 m is a little higher than regional sediment trap measurements, suggesting further improvement of modelling particle aggregation, sinking or remineralisation. Modelled strong ligands have a high abundance near the surface and decline rapidly below the deep chlorophyll maximum, showing qualitative similarity to observations. Without production of strong ligands, phytoplankton concentration falls to 0 within the first 2 years in the model integration, caused by strong Fe-limitation. A nudging of total weak ligands towards a constant value is required for reproducing the observed nutrient-like profiles, assuming a decay time of 7 years for weak ligands. This indicates that weak ligands have a longer decay time and therefore cannot be modelled adequately in a one-dimensional model. The modelled DFe profile is strongly influenced by particle concentration and vertical distribution, because the most important removal of DFe in deeper waters is colloid formation and aggregation. Redissolution of particulate iron is required to reproduce an observed DFe profile at TENATSO site

  10. Time dependency of the prediction skill for the North Atlantic subpolar gyre in initialized decadal hindcasts with MPI-ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sebastian; Düsterhus, Andre; Pohlmann, Holger; Müller, Wolfgang; Baehr, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the time dependency of decadal hindcast skill in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre within the time period 1961-2013. We compare anomaly correlation coefficients and interquartile ranges of total upper ocean heat content and sea surface temperature for three differently initialized sets of hindcast simulations with the global coupled model MPI-ESM. All initializations use weakly coupled assimilation with the same full-field nudging in the atmospheric component and different assimilation techniques for oceanic temperature and salinity: (1) ensemble Kalman filter assimilating EN4 and HadISST observations, (2) nudging of anomalies to ORAS4 reanalysis, (3) nudging of full values to ORAS4 reanalysis. We find that hindcast skill depends strongly on the evaluation time period, with higher hindcast skill during strong multiyear trends and lower hindcast skill in the absence of such trends. While there may only be small differences between the prediction systems in the analysis focusing on the entire hindcast period, these differences between the hindcast systems are much more pronounced when investigating any 20-year subperiod within the entire hindcast period. For the ensemble Kalman filter high skill in the assimilation experiment is generally linked to high skill in the initialized hindcasts. Such direct link does not seem to exist in the hindcasts initialized by either nudged system. In the ensemble Kalman filter initialized hindcasts, we find significant hindcast skill for up to 5 to 8 lead years, except for the 1970s. In the nudged system initialized hindcasts, hindcast skill is consistently diminished in lead years 2 and 3 with lowest skill in the 1970s as well. Overall, we find that a model-consistent assimilation technique can improve hindcast skill. Further, the evaluation of 20 year subperiods within the full hindcast period provides essential insights to judge the success of both the assimilation and the subsequent hindcast skill.

  11. Origin, Composition and Relative Timing of Seaward Dipping Reflectors on the Pelotas Rifted Margin, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, C. J.; Kusznir, N.; Roberts, A.; Manatschal, G.; McDermott, K.

    2017-12-01

    Deep-seismic reflection data from the Pelotas Basin, offshore Brazil displays a large package of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) with an approximate width of 200 km and a varying thickness of 10km to 17km. These have previously been interpreted as volcanic SDRs, a common feature of magma-rich rifted margins. Detailed observations show a change in seismic character within the SDR package possibly indicating a change depositional environments as the package evolved. Using gravity anomaly inversion, we examine the SDRs to investigate whether they are likely to be composed predominantly of massive basaltic flows or sedimentary-volcaniclastic material through the use of gravity inversion. By matching the Moho in depth and two-way travel time from gravity and seismic data, we test the likely proportion of sediments to basalt (the basalt fraction). The results are used to determine the lateral variation in basalt fraction within the SDRs. In addition, we use 2D flexural-backstripping and reverse thermal-subsidence modelling for palaeobathymetric analysis, investigating whether each sub-package was deposited in a sub-aerial or marine environment. Our analysis suggests that the overall SDR basalt fraction and bulk density decrease oceanwards, possibly due to increasing sediment content or perhaps resulting from a change in basalt flows to hyaloclastites as water depth increases. Additionally, we find that the SDRs can be split into two major sub-packages. The inner SDR package consists of lava flows from syn-tectonic eruptions in a sub-aerial environment, associated with the onshore Paraná Large Igneous Province, flowing eastwards into an extensional basin. The outer SDR package has reflectors that appear to progressively offlap oceanwards in a similar fashion to those described previously, inferring extrusion within a marine environment sourced from an eastwards migrating ocean ridge. We are able to determine that two separate and independently-sourced SDR packages

  12. A model of Fe speciation and biogeochemistry at the Tropical Eastern North Atlantic Time-Series Observatory site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ye

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model of Fe speciation and biogeochemistry, coupled with the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM and a NPZD-type ecosystem model, is applied for the Tropical Eastern North Atlantic Time-Series Observatory (TENATSO site. Among diverse processes affecting Fe speciation, this study is focusing on investigating the role of dust particles in removing dissolved iron (DFe by a more complex description of particle aggregation and sinking, and explaining the abundance of organic Fe-binding ligands by modelling their origin and fate.

    The vertical distribution of different particle classes in the model shows high sensitivity to changing aggregation rates. Using the aggregation rates from the sensitivity study in this work, modelled particle fluxes are close to observations, with dust particles dominating near the surface and aggregates deeper in the water column. POC export at 1000 m is a little higher than regional sediment trap measurements, suggesting further improvement of modelling particle aggregation, sinking or remineralisation.

    Modelled strong ligands have a high abundance near the surface and decline rapidly below the deep chlorophyll maximum, showing qualitative similarity to observations. Without production of strong ligands, phytoplankton concentration falls to 0 within the first 2 years in the model integration, caused by strong Fe-limitation. A nudging of total weak ligands towards a constant value is required for reproducing the observed nutrient-like profiles, assuming a decay time of 7 years for weak ligands. This indicates that weak ligands have a longer decay time and therefore cannot be modelled adequately in a one-dimensional model.

    The modelled DFe profile is strongly influenced by particle concentration and vertical distribution, because the most important removal of DFe in deeper waters is colloid formation and aggregation. Redissolution of particulate iron is required to reproduce an

  13. The Santander Atlantic Time-Series Station (SATS): A Time Series combination of a monthly hydrographic Station and The Biscay AGL Oceanic Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Alicia; Somavilla, Raquel; Cano, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carmen; Gonzalez-Pola, Cesar; Viloria, Amaia; Tel, Elena; Ruiz-Villareal, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Long-Term Time Series Stations have been developed in order to document seasonal to decadal scale variations in key physical and biogeochemical parameters. Long-term time series measurements are crucial for determining the physical and biological mechanisms controlling the system. The Science and Technology Ministers of the G7 in their Tsukuba Communiqué have stated that 'many parts of the ocean interior are not sufficiently observed' and that 'it is crucial to develop far stronger scientific knowledge necessary to assess the ongoing changes in the ocean and their impact on economies.' Time series has been classically obtained by oceanographic ships that regularly cover standard sections and stations. From 1991, shelf and slope waters of the Southern Bay of Biscay are regularly sampled in a monthly hydrographic line north of Santander to a depth of 1000 m in early stages and for the whole water column down to 2580 m in recent times. Nearby, in June 2007, the IEO deployed an oceanic-meteorological buoy (AGL Buoy, 43° 50.67'N; 3° 46.20'W, and 40 km offshore, www.boya-agl.st.ieo.es). The Santander Atlantic Time Series Station is integrated in the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing Sistem (IEOOS). The long-term hydrographic monitoring has allowed to define the seasonality of the main oceanographic facts as the upwelling, the Iberian Poleward Current, low salinity incursions, trends and interannual variability at mixing layer, and at the main water masses North Atlantic Central Water and Mediterranean Water. The relation of these changes with the high frequency surface conditions recorded by the Biscay AGL has been examined using also satellite and reanalysis data. During the FIXO3 Project (Fixed-point Open Ocean Observatories), and using this combined sources, some products and quality controled series of high interest and utility for scientific purposes has been developed. Hourly products as Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity anomalies, wave significant

  14. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS AND COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS PRETREATED USING DIFFERENT CHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiele Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of biomass feedstock and pretreatment method on the enzyme requirement during hydrolysis, swichgrass and coastal Bermuda grass pretreated using H2SO4, NaOH, and Ca(OH2 at the optimal conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using two enzyme combinations: NS 50013 + NS 50010 and Cellic CTec + Cellic HTec. The enzyme loadings were optimized, and correlations between feedstock property, pretreatment strategy, and enzyme usage were evaluated. The results show that pretreatment methods resulting in greater lignin contents in the pretreated biomass were generally associated with higher enzyme requirements. More sugars could be recovered from alkaline-pretreated biomass during enzymatic hydrolysis due to the better carbohydrate preservation achieved at mild pretreatment temperatures. The cellulase enzyme, Cellic CTec, was more efficient in catalyzing the hydrolysis of coastal Bermuda grass, a feedstock more digestible than the pretreated swichgrass, following pretreatment with NaOH or Ca(OH2.

  15. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Eberechi Akpaka

    Full Text Available Molecular characteristics of vancomycin resistant enterococci isolates from Bermuda Island is currently unknown. This study was conducted to investigate phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE isolates from Bermuda Island using the chromogenic agar, E-tests, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Eighteen E. faecium isolates were completely analyzed and were all resistant to vancomycin, susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin, positive for vanA and esp genes. The MLST analysis confirmed most isolates were of the sequence types linked to clonal complex 17 (CC17 that is widely associated with outbreaks in hospitals. Infection control measures, antibiotic stewardship, and surveillance activities will continue to be a priority in hospital on the Island.

  16. Elevated temperatures and bleaching on a high latitude coral reef: the 1988 Bermuda event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Clayton B.; Logan, Alan; Ward, Jack; Luckhurst, Brian; Berg, Carl J.

    1990-03-01

    Sea temperatures were normal in Bermuda during 1987, when Bermuda escaped the episodes of coral bleaching which were prevalent throughout the Caribbean region. Survey transecs in 1988 on 4 6 m reefs located on the rim margin and on a lagoonal patch reef revealed bleaching only of zoanthids between May and July. Transect and tow surveys in August and September revealed bleaching of several coral species; Millepora alcicornis on rim reefs was the most extensively affected. The frequency of bleaching in this species, Montastrea annularis and perhaps Diploria labyrinthiformis was significantly higher on outer reefs than on inshore reefs. This bleaching period coincided with the longest period of elevated sea temperatures in Bermuda in 38 years (28.9 30.9°C inshore, >28° offshore). By December, when temperatures had returned to normal, bleaching of seleractinians continued, but bleaching of M. alcicornis on the outer reefs was greatly reduced. Our observations suggest that corals which normally experience wide temperature ranges are less sensitive to thermal stress, and that high-latitude reef corals are sensitive to elevated temperatures which are within the normal thermal range of corals at lower latitudes.

  17. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation Recorded in Ice Core Major Ion Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzeniak, T. L.; Wake, C. P.; Fischer, H.; Fisher, D. A.; Schwikowski, M.

    2006-05-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation represents a significant mode of atmospheric variability for the Arctic and sub- Artic climate system. Developing a longer-term record of the spatial and temporal variability of the NAO could improve our understanding of natural climate variability in the region. Previous work has shown a significant relationship between Greenland ice core records and the NAO. Here, we have compared sea-salt and dust records from nine ice cores around the Arctic region to sea level pressure and NAO indices to evaluate the extent to which these ice cores can be used to reconstruct the NAO.

  18. Testing three common stocking methods: Differences in smolt size, migration rate and timing of two strains of stocked Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin Hage; Thomassen, Søren T.

    2018-01-01

    The influence of three common stocking practices for two strains (Ätran and Burrishoole) of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, on smolt size, migration probability and migration timing were investigated in situ. Using a common garden experiment, fish from these populations were release...... to inherited factors, and emphasize the importance of considering age of fish and time spent in the hatchery when stocking populations in the wild to maximize smolt output......The influence of three common stocking practices for two strains (Ätran and Burrishoole) of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, on smolt size, migration probability and migration timing were investigated in situ. Using a common garden experiment, fish from these populations were released...... as fry, half-year olds and oneyear olds. Our results indicate that fish released at the fry and half-year stage produce smaller smolts, and migrate later in the year than their counterparts released at one-year of age, for both the Ätran and the Burrishoole populations. While fry had the lowest...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from TIME_SERIES_BATS_1994_1996 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1994-01-01 to 1996-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157610)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157610 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from TIME_SERIES_BATS_1994_1996 in the North Atlantic Ocean from...

  20. Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of Atlantic salmon: Consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Hage; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Winberg, Svante

    2015-01-01

    -reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural...... suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess...... characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had...

  1. Silicate:nitrate ratios of upwelled waters control the phytoplankton community sustained by mesoscale eddies in sub-tropical North Atlantic and Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Bibby

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale eddies in sub-tropical gyres physically perturb the water column and can introduce macronutrients to the euphotic zone, stimulating a biological response in which phytoplankton communities can become dominated by large phytoplankton. Mesoscale eddies may therefore be important in driving export in oligotrophic regions of the modern ocean. However, the character and magnitude of the biological response sustained by eddies is variable. Here we present data from mesoscale eddies in the Sargasso Sea (Atlantic and the waters off Hawai'i (Pacific, alongside mesoscale events that affected the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS over the past decade. From this analysis, we suggest that the phytoplankton community structure sustained by mesoscale eddies is predetermined by the relative abundance of silicate over nitrate (Si* in the upwelled waters. We present data that demonstrate that mode-water eddies (MWE in the Sargasso Sea upwell locally formed waters with relatively high Si* to the euphotic zone, and that cyclonic eddies in the Sargasso Sea introduce waters with relatively low Si*, a signature that originated in the iron-limited Southern Ocean. We propose that this phenomenon can explain the observed dominance of the phytoplankton community by large-diatom species in MWE and by small prokaryotic phytoplankton in cyclonic features. In contrast to the Atlantic, North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW with high Si* may influence the cyclonic eddies in waters off Hawai'i, which also appear capable of sustaining diatom populations. These observations suggest that the structure of phytoplankton communities sustained by eddies may be related to the chemical composition of the upwelled waters in addition to the physical nature of the eddy.

  2. Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of Atlantic salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Larsen

    Full Text Available Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival and

  3. Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of Atlantic salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Martin H; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D M; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life

  4. Bermuda Triangle: a subsystem of the 168/E interfacing scheme used by Group B at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Levinson, L.J.; Trang, Q.H.

    1979-12-01

    The Bermuda Triangle system is a method of interfacing several 168/E microprocessors to a central system for control of the processors and overlaying their memories. The system is a three-way interface with I/O ports to a large buffer memory, a PDP11 Unibus and a bus to the 168/E processors. Data may be transferred bidirectionally between any two ports. Two Bermuda Triangles are used, one for the program memory and one for the data memory. The program buffer memory stores the overlay programs for the 168/E, and the data buffer memory, the incoming raw data, the data portion of the overlays, and the outgoing processed events. This buffering is necessary since the memories of 168/E microprocessors are small compared to the main program and the amount of data being processed. The link to the computer facility is via a Unibus to IBM channel interface. A PDP11/04 controls the data flow. 7 figures, 4 tables

  5. Population Structure of Montastraea cavernosa on Shallow versus Mesophotic Reefs in Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen; Marchini, Chiara; Chequer, Alex D.; Goffredo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Mesophotic coral reef ecosystems remain largely unexplored with only limited information available on taxonomic composition, abundance and distribution. Yet, mesophotic reefs may serve as potential refugia for shallow-water species and thus understanding biodiversity, ecology and connectivity of deep reef communities is integral for resource management and conservation. The Caribbean coral, Montastraea cavernosa, is considered a depth generalist and is commonly found at mesophotic depths. We surveyed abundance and size-frequency of M. cavernosa populations at six shallow (10m) and six upper mesophotic (45m) sites in Bermuda and found population structure was depth dependent. The mean surface area of colonies at mesophotic sites was significantly smaller than at shallow sites, suggesting that growth rates and maximum colony surface area are limited on mesophotic reefs. Colony density was significantly higher at mesophotic sites, however, resulting in equal contributions to overall percent cover. Size-frequency distributions between shallow and mesophotic sites were also significantly different with populations at mesophotic reefs skewed towards smaller individuals. Overall, the results of this study provide valuable baseline data on population structure, which indicate that the mesophotic reefs of Bermuda support an established population of M. cavernosa. PMID:26544963

  6. Timing of last deglaciation in the Cantabrian Mountains (Iberian Peninsula; North Atlantic Region) based on in situ-produced 10Be exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Domínguez-Cuesta, María José; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimon; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier L.; Keddadouche, Karim; Aster Team

    2017-09-01

    The Last Glacial Termination led to major changes in ice sheet coverage that disrupted global patterns of atmosphere and ocean circulation. Paleoclimate records from Iberia suggest that westerly episodes played a key role in driving heterogeneous climate in the North Atlantic Region. We used 10Be Cosmic Ray Exposure (CRE) dating to explore the glacier response of small mountain glaciers (ca. 5 km2) that developed on the northern slope of the Cantabrian Mountains (Iberian Peninsula), an area directly under the influence of the Atlantic westerly winds. We analyzed twenty boulders from three moraines and one rock glacier arranged as a recessional sequence preserved between 1150 and 1540 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the Monasterio valley (Redes Natural Park). Results complement previous chronologic data based on radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence from the Monasterio valley, which suggest a local Glacial Maximum (local GM) prior to 33 ka BP and a long-standing glacier advance at 24 ka coeval to the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Resultant 10Be CRE ages suggest a progressive retreat and thinning of the Monasterio glacier over the time interval 18.1-16.7 ka. This response is coeval with the Heinrich Stadial 1, an extremely cold and dry climate episode initiated by a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Glacier recession continued through the Bølling/Allerød period as indicate the minimum exposure ages obtained from a cirque moraine and a rock glacier nested within this moraine, which yielded ages of 14.0 and 13.0 ka, respectively. Together, they suggest that the Monasterio glacier experienced a gradual transition from glacier to rock glacier activity as the AMOC started to strengthen again. Glacial evidence ascribable to the Younger Dryas cooling was not dated in the Monasterio valley, but might have occurred at higher elevations than evidence dated in this work. The evolution of former glaciers documented in the

  7. Observations of volatile organic compounds over the North Atlantic Ocean: relationships to dominant cyanobacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, R.; Rossell, R.; Sive, B. C.; Zhou, Y.; Reddy, C. M.; Valentine, D. L.; Cox, D.

    2017-12-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are abundant primary producers that can have a major influence on the oceanic biogeochemical cycles. In particular, the prominent cyanobacterial genera Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and Trichodesmium can impact the air-sea flux of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including reactive compounds, such as isoprene, that control the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and climate-relevant compounds, such as dimethyl sulfide. These groups of cyanobacteria have been estimated to increase in abundance by up to 29% by the end of the century as a result of rising sea surface temperatures and dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations. Given their current and predicted future abundance, understanding the role of different cyanobacterial populations on VOC emissions from the ocean is critical in understanding the future oxidative capacity of the remote atmosphere and climate feedback cycles. During the May 2017 Phosphorus, Hydrocarbons, and Transcriptomics cruise aboard the R/V Neil Armstrong, 160 whole air canister samples were collected along a transect through the North Atlantic from Woods Hole, MA to Bermuda and back with 24-hour stops at nine stations encompassing different nutrient regimes and cyanobacterial populations. At each station, a diurnal time series of samples was collected and higher frequency sampling was conducted during transits of the north wall. Canister samples were analyzed on a five-detector gas chromatography system for over 80 individual VOCs including biogenics, aromatics, chlorinated and brominated compounds, and sulfur containing compounds. Trends in reactive and climate-relevant VOCs will be discussed as a function of the predominant cyanobacterial populations at each sample location. These data provide increased information on the spatial and diurnal variability of trace gases associated with these globally important photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

  8. Nutrient-enhanced growth of Cladophora prolifera in harrington sound, bermuda: Eutrophication of a confined, phosphorus-limited marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Brian E.; O'Connell, Julie

    1989-04-01

    The green alga Cladophora prolifera (Chlorophyta, Cladophorales) has formed widespread blooms in Bermuda's inshore waters during the past 20 years, but, to date, no conclusive evidence links these blooms to nutrient enrichment. This study assessed the nutrient-dependance of productivity of Cladophora collected from Harrington Sound, a confined P-limited marine system where Cladophora first became abundant. Both N- and P-enrichment decreased the doubling time of Cladophora, which ranged from 14 days (with N and P enrichment) to 100 days (without enrichment). Nutrient enrichment also enhanced the light-saturated photosynthetic capacity (i.e. P max) of Cladophora, which ranged from 0·50 mg C g dry wt -1 h -1 (without enrichment) to 1·0 mg C g dry wt -1 h -1 (with enrichment). Tissue C:N, C:P and N:P ratios of unenriched Cladophora were elevated—25, 942, and 49, respectively—levels that suggest limitation by both N and P but primary limitation by P. Pore-waters under Cladophora mats had reduced salinities, elevated concentrations of NH 4, and high N:P ratios (N:P of 85), suggesting that N-rich groundwater seepage enriches Cladophora mats. The alkaline phosphatase capacity of Cladophora was high compared to other macroalgae in Harrington Sound, and its capacity was enhanced by N-enrichment and suppressed by P-enrichment. Because the productivity of Cladophora is nutrient-limited in shallow waters of Harrington Sound, enhanced growth and increased biomass of Cladophora result from cumulative seepage of N-rich groundwaters coupled with efficient utilization and recycling of dissolved organo-phosphorus compounds.

  9. Depth, temperature, oxygen and salinity profile data from repetitive occupation of a hydrographic station off St. George's, Bermuda from 1954 through 1984 (NODC Accession 0000650)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the PANULIRUS and other platforms from repetitive occupations of a hydrographic station off St. George's, Bermuda....

  10. Geotechnical properties of sediments from North Pacific and Northern Bermuda Rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.J.; Laine, E.P.; Lipkin, J.; Heath, G.R.; Akers, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of geotechnical properties for the Sub-seabed Disposal Program have been oriented toward sediment characterization related to effectiveness as a containment media and determination of detailed engineering behavior. Consolidation tests of the deeper samples in the North Pacific clays indicate that the sediment column is normally consolidated. The in-situ coefficient of permeability (k) within the cored depth of 25 meters is relatively constant at 10 -7 cm/sec. Consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests indicate stress-strain properties characteristic of saturated clays with effective angles of friction of 35 0 for smectite and 31 0 for illite. These results are being used in computer modeling efforts. Some general geotechnical property data from the Bermuda Rise are also discussed

  11. Ruminal production of methane ''in vitro'' with Coast Cross No. 1 bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerken, C M; Funes, F; Gonzalez, R

    1980-11-01

    1. Samples of Coast Cross No. 1 bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days of cut, irrigated and fertilized at a rate of 400 kg N/ha/year, were used to determine their bromatological composition, digestibility and methane production ''in vitro''. 2. Crude protein concentration of the pasture fell sharply from 20 to 4% and crude fibre increased from 26 to 34% as the pasture grew older. DM digestibility decreased from 58 to 44% from the 6th to the 15th week of cut. Methane production ''in vitro'' was significantly lower (P is less than 0,01), at 3 and 6 weeks, than that obtained at older ages. The differences were more marked when calculated per unit of digested DM. 3. These results could be of interest in the search of a better utilization of dietary energy for grazing animals. (Refs. 16).

  12. Depleted Uranium Toxicity, Accumulation, and Uptake in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda) and Aristida purpurea (Purple Threeawn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Afrachanna D; Wynter, Michelle; Medina, Victor F; Bednar, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) in western Arizona is a testing range where Depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been historically fired. A portion of the fired DU penetrators are being managed under controlled conditions by leaving them in place. The widespread use of DU in armor-penetrating weapons has raised environmental and human health concerns. The present study is focused on the onsite management approach and on the potential interactions with plants local to YPG. A 30 day study was conducted to assess the toxicity of DU corrosion products (e.g., schoepite and meta-schoepite) in two grass species that are native to YPG, Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea). In addition, the ability for plants to uptake DU was studied. The results of this study show a much lower threshold for biomass toxicity and higher plant concentrations, particularly in the roots than shoots, compared to previous studies.

  13. Sharing Data to Build a Medical Information Commons: From Bermuda to the Global Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; Ankeny, Rachel A; Maxson Jones, Kathryn

    2017-08-31

    The Human Genome Project modeled its open science ethos on nematode biology, most famously through daily release of DNA sequence data based on the 1996 Bermuda Principles. That open science philosophy persists, but daily, unfettered release of data has had to adapt to constraints occasioned by the use of data from individual people, broader use of data not only by scientists but also by clinicians and individuals, the global reach of genomic applications and diverse national privacy and research ethics laws, and the rising prominence of a diverse commercial genomics sector. The Global Alliance for Genomics and Health was established to enable the data sharing that is essential for making meaning of genomic variation. Data-sharing policies and practices will continue to evolve as researchers, health professionals, and individuals strive to construct a global medical and scientific information commons.

  14. Chemostratigraphy at DSDP Sites 386 (Bermuda Rise) and 144 (Demerara Rise), Implications for Euxinic Conditions During OAE-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, P. A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Sinninghe-Damsté, J. S.; Sandler, A.

    2008-05-01

    Chemostratigraphic studies of DSDP Site 386 on the Bermuda Rise and Site 144 on the Demerara Rise indicate that euxinic conditions developed at these deep-water sites during the time interval that corresponds to Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2). The data show a large increase in Fe/Al ratios, and dispersed pyrite aggregates (Site 386 Core 43, Section 3). Such findings at these deep oceanic sites are compatible with earlier studies showing that sediments in euxinic settings display increases in Fe/Al ratios due to the scavenging of dissolved Fe, and is also in agreement with previous Pr/Ph ratio of cyanobacteria showing low thermal stress, supporting in situ derivation. Elemental analyses at Site 386 also show that relatively high Sr/CaO ratios are present before and after OAE 2, indicating an increased contribution of biogenic carbonates, but not during the C/T boundary event. When Cr is plotted against Al2O3 in conjunction with a solid line representing the Cr/Al2O3 ratio in average shale, half of the samples fall above and half fall below this line. The values that plot above this line are all from Cores 47, 44, 43, and 42, which contain higher TOC. Their strong Cr enrichment with respect to the average shale can be indicative of an algal source of the OM, as this biota preferentially concentrates Cr. Competitive exclusion due to dominance of opportunistic prokaryotic blooms in combination with oxygen depletion can be invoked to explain the conditions that developed and were unfavorable to most other organisms throughout the water column during OAE 2. Sediments from DSDP Site 144 also reveal increased molecular fossils indicative of green sulfur bacteria, which are further characteristic of euxinic conditions (Kuypers et al., 2002; Forster et al., 2004). These results are in agreement with earlier works that showed lipids at DSDP Site 144 are predominantly of an autochthonous origin with primary production as the dominant source (Simoneit and Stuermer, 1982

  15. Examining the Impact of a Public Health Message on Fish Consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McLean Pirkle

    Full Text Available In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish, substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies. Recent evidence indicates mercury concentrations in Bermuda's pregnant women have fallen five- fold.Assess whether changes in women's fish eating patterns during pregnancy are consistent with the public health messaging. Determine who is making changes to their diet during pregnancy and why.Mixed methods study with a cross-sectional survey of 121 pregnant women, including 13 opened-ended interviews. Health system, social vulnerability, public health messaging, and socio-demographic variables were characterized and related to changes in fish consumption during pregnancy. Qualitative data were coded according to nutritional advice messages, comprehension of communication strategies, and sources of information.95% of women surveyed encountered recommendations about fish consumption during pregnancy. 75% reported modifying fish eating behaviors because of recommendations. Principal sources of information about fish consumption in pregnancy were health care providers and the Internet. 71% of women reported reducing consumption of large fish species with greater mercury levels, but 60% reported reduced consumption of smaller, low mercury fish. No participant mentioned hearing about the benefits of fish consumption. More frequent exposure to public health messages during pregnancy was associated with lower reported consumption. Bermudian born women were less likely to reduce consumption of large fish species during pregnancy.In Bermuda, public health messages advocating reduced consumption of larger

  16. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms ( P>0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm ( P0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  17. Variations in Atlantic surface ocean paleoceanography, 50°-80° N: A time-slice record of the last 30,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnthein, Michael; Jansen, Eystein; Weinelt, Mara; Arnold, Maurice; Duplessy, Jean Claude; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; FlatøY, Astrid; Johannessen, Gro; Johannessen, Truls; Jung, Simon; Koc, Nalan; Labeyrie, Laurent; Maslin, Mark; Pflaumann, Uwe; Schulz, Hartmut

    1995-12-01

    Eight time slices of surface-water paleoceanography were reconstructed from stable isotope and paleotemperature data to evaluate late Quaternary changes in density, current directions, and sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and NE Atlantic. We used isotopic records from 110 deep-sea cores, 20 of which are accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)-14C dated and 30 of which have high (>8 cm /kyr) sedimentation rates, enabling a resolution of about 120 years. Paleotemperature estimates are based on species counts of planktonic foraminifera in 18 cores. The δ18O and δ13C distributions depict three main modes of surface circulation: (1) The Holocene-style interglacial mode which largely persisted over the last 12.8 14C ka, and probably during large parts of stage 3. (2) The peak glacial mode showing a cyclonic gyre in the, at least, seasonally ice-free Nordic Seas and a meltwater lens west of Ireland. Based on geostrophic forcing, it possibly turned clockwise, blocked the S-N flow across the eastern Iceland-Shetland ridge, and enhanced the Irminger current around west Iceland. It remains unclear whether surface-water density was sufficient for deepwater formation west of Norway. (3) A meltwater regime culminating during early glacial Termination I, when a great meltwater lens off northern Norway probably induced a clockwise circulation reaching south up to Faeroe, the northward inflow of Irminger Current water dominated the Icelandic Sea, and deepwater convection was stopped. In contrast to circulation modes two and three, the Holocene-style circulation mode appears most stable, even unaffected by major meltwater pools originating from the Scandinavian ice sheet, such as during δ18O event 3.1 and the Bölling. Meltwater phases markedly influenced the European continental climate by suppressing the "heat pump" of the Atlantic salinity conveyor belt. During the peak glacial, melting icebergs blocked the eastward advection of warm surface water toward Great Britain, thus

  18. Joint inversion of shear wave travel time residuals and geoid and depth anomalies for long-wavelength variations in upper mantle temperature and composition along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Anne F.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements were carried out for SS-S differential travel time residuals for nearly 500 paths crossing the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, assuming that the residuals are dominated by contributions from the upper mantle near the surface bounce point of the reflected phase SS. Results indicate that the SS-S travel time residuals decrease linearly with square root of age, to an age of 80-100 Ma, in general agreement with the plate cooling model. A joint inversion was formulated of travel time residuals and geoid and bathymetric anomalies for lateral variation in the upper mantle temperature and composition. The preferred inversion solutions were found to have variations in upper mantle temperature along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge of about 100 K. It was calculated that, for a constant bulk composition, such a temperature variation would produce about a 7-km variation in crustal thickness, larger than is generally observed.

  19. Effect of two phyto hormone producer rhizobacteria on the bermuda grass growth response and tolerance to phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Rojas-Contreras, A.; Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria that have the ability to relieve environmental stress in plants, increasing the plant growth potential. Of importance to phytoremediation, PGPR stimulate plant root development and enhance root growth.This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to phenanthrene of Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon inoculated with two phytohormone producer rhizobacteria: strains II and III, isolated from a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. (Author)

  20. Effect of two phyto hormone producer rhizobacteria on the bermuda grass growth response and tolerance to phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Rojas-Contreras, A.; Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-07-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria that have the ability to relieve environmental stress in plants, increasing the plant growth potential. Of importance to phytoremediation, PGPR stimulate plant root development and enhance root growth.This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to phenanthrene of Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon inoculated with two phytohormone producer rhizobacteria: strains II and III, isolated from a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. (Author)

  1. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  2. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  3. Evaluating the impact of abrupt changes in forest policy and management practices on landscape dynamics: analysis of a Landsat image time series in the Atlantic Northern Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaard, Kasey R; Sader, Steven A; Simons-Legaard, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable forest management is based on functional relationships between management actions, landscape conditions, and forest values. Changes in management practices make it fundamentally more difficult to study these relationships because the impacts of current practices are difficult to disentangle from the persistent influences of past practices. Within the Atlantic Northern Forest of Maine, U.S.A., forest policy and management practices changed abruptly in the early 1990s. During the 1970s-1980s, a severe insect outbreak stimulated salvage clearcutting of large contiguous tracts of spruce-fir forest. Following clearcut regulation in 1991, management practices shifted abruptly to near complete dependence on partial harvesting. Using a time series of Landsat satellite imagery (1973-2010) we assessed cumulative landscape change caused by these very different management regimes. We modeled predominant temporal patterns of harvesting and segmented a large study area into groups of landscape units with similar harvest histories. Time series of landscape composition and configuration metrics averaged within groups revealed differences in landscape dynamics caused by differences in management history. In some groups (24% of landscape units), salvage caused rapid loss and subdivision of intact mature forest. Persistent landscape change was created by large salvage clearcuts (often averaging > 100 ha) and conversion of spruce-fir to deciduous and mixed forest. In groups that were little affected by salvage (56% of landscape units), contemporary partial harvesting caused loss and subdivision of intact mature forest at even greater rates. Patch shape complexity and edge density reached high levels even where cumulative harvest area was relatively low. Contemporary practices introduced more numerous and much smaller patches of stand-replacing disturbance (typically averaging forest ecology.

  4. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  5. A numerical analysis of shipboard and coastal zone color scanner time series of new production within Gulf Stream cyclonic eddies in the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribble, J. Raymond; Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-01-01

    Eddy-induced upwelling occurs along the western edge of the Gulf Stream between Cape Canaveral, Florida, and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). Coastal zone color scanner images of 1-km resolution spanning the period April 13-21, 1979, were processed to examine these eddy features in relation to concurrent shipboard and current/temperature measurements at moored arrays. A quasi-one-dimensional (z), time dependent biological model, using only nitrate as a nutrient source, has been combined with a three-dimensional physical model in an attempt to replicate the observed phytoplankton field at the northward edge of an eddy. The model is applicable only to the SAB south of the Charleston Bump, at approximately 31.5 deg N, since no feature analogous to the bump exists in the model bathymetry. The modeled chlorophyll, nitrate, and primary production fields of the euphotic zone are very similar to those obtained from the satellite and shipboard data at the leading edges of the observed eddies south of the Charleston Bump. The horizontal and vertical simulated fluxes of nitrate and chlorophyll show that only approximately 10% of the upwelled nitrate is utilized by the phytoplankton of the modeled grid box on the northern edge of the cyclone, while approximately 75% is lost horizontally, with the remainder still in the euphotic zone after the 10-day period of the model. Loss of chlorophyll due to sinking is very small in this strong upwelling region of the cyclone. The model is relatively insensitive to variations in the sinking parameterization and the external nitrate and chlorophyll fields but is very sensitive to a reduction of the maximum potential growth rate to half that measured. Given the success of this model in simulating the new production of the selcted upwelling region, other upwelling regions for which measurements or successful models of physical and biological quantities and rates exist could be modeled similarly.

  6. Environmental assessment of metal exposure to corals living in Castle Harbour, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Goodkin, N.F.; Jones, R.; Lamborg, C.H.; Storlazzi, C.D.; Hughen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination in Castle Harbour, Bermuda, has been linked to the dissolution and leaching of contaminants from the adjacent marine landfill. This study expands the evidence for environmental impact of leachate from the landfill by quantitatively demonstrating elevated metal uptake over the last 30 years in corals growing in Castle Harbour. Coral Pb/Ca, Zn/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios and total Hg concentrations are elevated relative to an adjacent control site in John Smith's Bay. The temporal variability in the Castle Harbour coral records suggests that while the landfill has increased in size over the last 35 years, the dominant input of metals is through periodic leaching of contaminants from the municipal landfill and surrounding sediment. Elevated contaminants in the surrounding sediment suggest that resuspension is an important transport medium for transferring heavy metals to corals. Increased winds, particularly during the 1990s, were accompanied by higher coral metal composition at Castle Harbour. Coupled with wind-induced resuspension, interannual changes in sea level within the Harbour can lead to increased bioavailability of sediment-bound metals and subsequent coral metal assimilation. At John Smith's Bay, large scale convective mixing may be driving interannual metal variability in the coral record rather than impacts from land-based activities. Results from this study provide important insights into the coupling of natural variability and anthropogenic input of contaminants to the nearshore environment.

  7. The role of Atlantic-Arctic exchange in North Atlantic multidecadal climate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankcombe, L.M.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that multidecadal variability in North Atlantic sea surface temperature occurs with two dominant periods. In this paper we investigate the origin of these two time scales in a 500 year control run of the GFDL CM2.1 model. We focus on the exchange between the Atlantic

  8. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from time series profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the Al Amir Moulay Abdellah in the North Atlantic Ocean and Strait of Gibraltar from 2005-05-04 to 2007-05-08 (NODC Accession 0112928)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112928 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and time series profile data collected from Al Amir Moulay Abdellah in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING_HOG_REEF_64W_32N in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-12-05 to 2015-01-07 (NODC Accession 0117060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117060 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING_HOG_REEF_64W_32N in the North Atlantic Ocean from...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING_NH_70W_43N in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2006-07-13 to 2014-07-19 (NODC Accession 0115402)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115402 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING_NH_70W_43N in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2006-07-13...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-10-22 to 2007-10-01 (NODC Accession 0100065)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100065 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-10-22 to 2007-10-01. These data...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING PIRATA6S10W in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-06-08 to 2013-10-25 (NODC Accession 0100217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100217 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING PIRATA6S10W in the South Atlantic Ocean from...

  13. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-11-26

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888.

  14. Secular Changes in the Solar Semidiurnal Tide of the Western North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of twentieth century tide gauge records reveals that the solar semidiurnal tide S, has been decreasing in amplitude along the eastern coast of North America and at the mid-ocean site Bermuda. In relative terms the observed rates are unusually large, of order 10% per century. Periods of greatest change, however, are inconsistent among the stations, and roughly half the stations show increasing amplitude since the late 1990s. Excepting the Gulf of Maine, lunar tides are either static or slightly increasing in amplitude; a few stations show decreases. Large changes in solar, but not lunar, tides suggest causes related to variable radiational forcing, but the hypothesis is at present unproven. Citation: Ray, R. D. (2009), Secular changes in the solar semidiurnal tide of the western North Atlantic Ocean

  15. Organic geochemistry and pore water chemistry of sediments from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Neumann, A.C.; Thorstenson, D.C.; Gerchakov, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Mangrove Lake, Bermuda, is a small coastal, brackish-water lake that has accumulated 14 m of banded, gelatinous, sapropelic sediments in less than 104 yr. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that Mangrove Lake's sedimentary environment has undergone three major depositional changes (peat, freshwater gel, brackish-water gel) as a result of sea level changes. The deposits were examined geochemically in an effort to delineate sedimentological and diagenetic changes. Gas and pore water studies include measurements of sulfides, ammonia, methane, nitrogen gas, calcium, magnesium, chloride, alkalinity, and pH. Results indicate that sulfate reduction is complete, and some evidence is presented for bacterial denitrification and metal sulfide precipitation. The organic-rich sapropel is predominantly algal in origin, composed mostly of carbohydrates and insoluble macromolecular organic matter called humin with minor amounts of proteins, lipids, and humic acids. Carbohydrates and proteins undergo hydrolysis with depth in the marine sapropel but tend to be preserved in the freshwater sapropel. The humin, which has a predominantly aliphatic structure, increases linearly with depth and composes the greatest fraction of the organic matter. Humic acids are minor components and are more like polysaccharides than typical marine humic acids. Fatty acid distributions reveal that the lipids are of an algal and/or terrestrial plant source. Normal alkanes with a total concentration of 75 ppm exhibit two distribution maxima. One is centered about n-C22 with no odd/even predominance, suggestive of a degraded algal source. The other is centered at n-C31 with a distinct odd/even predominance indicative of a vascular plant origin. Stratigraphic changes in the sediment correlate to observed changes in the gas and pore water chemistry and the organic geochemistry. ?? 1982.

  16. METHODS OF TAXATION IN THE TAX HAVENS. EXAMPLES OF TAXATION IN THE BAHAMAS, BERMUDA AND THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We should never trust appearances: "the drum, with all the noise it makes is not only filled with wind"[1]. This old oriental proverb perfectly illustrates our proposal regarding the "true false" tax havens. Only at the beginning of this century, learned before firms to exercise their activity in the national territory, returned to international trade. The continuous search for new outlets to escape the growing production, export them first and then they were implanted overseas sales platforms and then installing production. Zero Haven sites or havens with zero tax consisting essentially of small economies, the British colonies (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, dependent territories of the Commonwealth (Bermuda or territories became independent (Antigua, Bahamas 1963 or Vanuatu 1980. Our study will analyze tax havens most common: Bahamas, Bermuda or the Cayman Islands, where we find all models of reception that can be viewed in other areas zero-haven: International Business Companies (Antigua, the Virgin Islands, Nevis exemption schemes to insurance companies or banks (Barbados, Vanuatu. The subject of tax evasion subject of much debate, targeting both the domestic economic space and the world. Unlike their concerns globally, domestic concerns to reduce tax evasion resumes, especially on taxation of small businesses, avoiding knowingly scope of tax havens.

  17. Predation as the primary selective force in recurrent evolution of gigantism in Poecilozonites land snails in Quaternary Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Storrs L.; Hearty, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    During the last half million years, pulses of gigantism in the anagenetic lineage of land snails of the subgenus Poecilozonites on Bermuda were correlated with glacial periods when lower sea level resulted in an island nearly an order of magnitude larger than at present. During those periods, the island was colonized by large vertebrate predators that created selection pressure for large size and rapid growth in the snails. Extreme reduction in land area from rising seas, along with changes in ecological conditions at the onset of interglacial episodes, marked extinction events for large predators, after which snails reverted to much smaller size. The giant snails were identical in morphology during the last two glacials when the predators included a large flightless rail Rallus recessus (marine isotope stages (MIS) 4-2) and a crane Grus latipes and a duck Anas pachysceles (MIS 6). In a preceding glacial period (MIS 10), when the fauna also included the tortoise Hesperotestudo bermudae, the snails were not only large, but the shells were much thicker, presumably to prevent crushing by tortoises. Evolution of Poecilozonites provides an outstanding example of dramatic morphological change in response to environmental pressures in the absence of cladogenesis. PMID:20554560

  18. Collaborative Research: Atlantic Ocean Tropical/Subtropical Processes from Seasonal to Decadal Time Scales: Model/Data, Model/Model Comparison and Model/Data Synthesis Through Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malannotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2003-01-01

    The effort of this first year of research has been focused on the assimilation of TOPEX/Poseidon altimetric data into a primitive equation model of the Atlantic tropical/subtropical circulation. A reduced-rank, stationary Kalman filter has been constructed to assimilate the altimetric sea surface height anomaly (SHA) into the model. The goal is to assess how the inter-hemispheric transports between the Atlantic subtropics and tropics are affected by the assimilation and how the subsurface thermocline structure , and its variability ,is dynamically constrained by the SHA. The model is a reduced-gravity primitive equation GCM of the upper Atlantic Ocean between 30 S and 30 N. The assimilation scheme is an approximation to the extended Kalman filter in which the error covariances of the state estimates are calculated only in a reduced- dimension subspace. The subspace is defined by the leading empirical orthogonal functions calculated from an unconstrained model calculation. Both an identical twin experiment using simulated SHA observations and assimilation of the real TOPEX data were performed. Results from the twin experiments demonstrate the ability of the method to constrain the ocean circulation and the subsurface temperature structure. The impact on the subsurface temperature structure of TOPEX assimilation was assessed using data from expandable bathythermographs. This showed a substantial improvement in the estimated temperature variability only within 13 degrees in latitude around the equator. The impact of TOPEX SHA assimilation on zonally integrated meridional transport across different latitudes was also estimated. Again within 13 degrees from the equator both the mean amplitude and interannual variability of the surface and subsurface transports were significantly enhanced, while the transports were insensitive to the assimilation in the subtropics.

  19. The Multilateral Disarmament Process. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (16th, Warwick, Bermuda, June 21-26, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    This is a report of a conference held in Bermuda in 1981 to discuss a multilateral approach to disarmament. The conference was an informal, off-the-record exchange of ideas and opinions among 24 diplomats and scholars from 18 countries and two international agencies. Participants considered current disarmament concepts, assessed UN disarmament…

  20. Indole-diterpenes and ergot alkaloids in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) infected with Claviceps cynodontis from an outbreak of tremors in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Silvio; Botha, Christo J; Vrålstad, Trude; Rolén, Elin; Miles, Christopher O

    2009-12-09

    Tremorgenic syndromes in mammals are commonly associated with indole-diterpenoid alkaloids of fungal origin. Cattle are sometimes affected by tremors (also called "staggers") when they graze on toxic grass pastures, and Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon , kweek) has been known to be associated with tremors for several decades. This study reports the identification of paspalitrems and paspaline-like indole-diterpenes in the seedheads of Claviceps cynodontis -infected Bermuda grass collected from a pasture that had caused a staggers syndrome in cattle in South Africa and thereby links the condition to specific mycotoxins. The highest concentration (about 150 mg/kg) was found for paspalitrem B. Ergonovine and ergine (lysergic acid amide), together with their C-8 epimers, were found to co-occur with the indole-diterpenes at concentrations of about 10 microg/kg. The indole-diterpene profile of the extract from the ergotized Bermuda grass was similar to that of Claviceps paspali sclerotia. However, the C. paspali sclerotia contained in addition agroclavine and elymoclavine. This is the first study linking tremors associated with grazing of Bermuda grass to specific tremorgenic indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins.

  1. Atlantic impasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.; Walker, W.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear trade relations between the United States and The European Union are in danger of falling apart. The U.S. - Euratom Cooperation agreements, under which trade in nuclear materials and technology has been conducted since the 1950s, lapse at the end of 1996. Negotiations to renew the agreement, under way since mind-1992, are in trouble. Failure to agree on a new accord will have serious consequences for all nuclear trade. The issue of 'prior consent' is the principal striking point. American negotiators insist that, in the future, Europeans must obtain permission of the U.S. government before they can separate, use, or transfer plutonium from fuel that originated in the U.S. European negotiators do not want to accept greater U.S. control over their nuclear activities at a time when the mood in Washington is so firmly against reprocessing. European attitudes are also colored by commercial considerations. The European nuclear industry has supported the European Union's tough line. The spetacle of allies and supporters of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) squabbling over each others' rights to control civil nuclear activities would send the wrong signal to the NPT Extension Conference. This disput has the potential for boiling up into a highly damaging standoff in which there will only be losers

  2. Fast northward energy transfer in the Atlantic due to Agulhas Rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sebille, Erik; van Leeuwen, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The adiabatic transit time of wave energy radiated by an Agulhas ring released in the South Atlantic Ocean to the North Atlantic Ocean is investigated in a two-layer ocean model. Of particular interest is the arrival time of baroclinic energy in the northern part of the Atlantic, because it is

  3. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  4. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  5. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  6. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkus Kristen A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis.

  7. The roles of temperature and light in black band disease (BBD) progression on corals of the genus Diploria in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Kristin; Jones, Ross; Gibbs, David; Richardson, Laurie

    2011-03-01

    On Bermuda reefs the brain coral Diploria labyrinthiformis is rarely documented with black band disease (BBD), while BBD-affected colonies of Diploria strigosa are common. D. labyrinthiformis on these reefs may be more resistant to BBD or less affected by prevailing environmental conditions that potentially diminish host defenses. To determine whether light and/or temperature influence BBD differently on these two species, infection experiments were conducted under the following experimental treatments: (1) 26 °C, ambient light; (2) 30 °C, ambient light; (3) 30 °C, low light; and (4) 30 °C, high light. A digital photograph of the affected area of each coral was taken each day for 7 days and analyzed with ImageJ image processing software. The final affected area was not significantly different between species in any of the four treatments. BBD lesions were smaller on both species infected under ambient light at 26 °C versus 30 °C. Low light at 30 °C significantly reduced the lesion size on both species when compared to colonies infected at the same temperature under ambient light. Under high light at 30 °C, BBD lesions were larger on colonies of D. strigosa and smaller on colonies of D. labyrinthiformis when compared to colonies infected under ambient light at the same temperature. The responses of both species suggests that BBD progression on both D. strigosa and D. labyrinthiformis is similarly influenced by a combination of light and temperature and that other factors present before infections become established likely contribute to the difference in BBD prevalence in Bermuda. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative study of the growth and carbon sequestration potential of Bermuda grass in industrial and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global phenomenon occurring throughout the world. Greenhouse gases (GHGs especially carbon dioxide (CO2 considered to be the major culprit to bring these changes. So, carbon (C sequestration by any mean could be useful to reduce the CO2 level in atmosphere. Turf grasses have the ability to sequester C and minimize the effects of GHGs on the environment. In order to study that how turf grasses can help in C sequestration, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon was grown both at industrial and urban location and its effect on C storage were assessed by soil and plant analysis. Dry deposition of ammonium and nitrate was maximum at both locations through the year. However wet deposition was highest during the months of high rainfall. It was examined through soil analysis that soil organic matter, soil C and nitrogen in both locations increased after second mowing of grass. However, soil pH 6.68 in urban and 7.00 in industrial area and EC 1.86 dS/m in urban and 1.90 dS/m in industrial area decreased as the grass growth continue. Soil fresh weight (27.6 g in urban and (27.28 g industrial area also decreased after first and second mowing of grass. The C levels in plant dry biomass also increased which showed improved ability of plant to uptake C from the soil and store it. Similarly, chlorophyll contents were more in industrial area compared to urban area indicates the positive impact of high C concentration. Whereas stomatal conductance was reduced in high C environment to slow down respiration process. Hence, from present study it can be concluded that the Bermuda grass could be grown in areas with high C concentration in atmosphere for sequestrating C in soil.

  9. Atmospheric and precipitation chemistry over the North Atlantic Ocean: Shipboard results, April-May 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, T. M.; Tramontano, J. M.; Whelpdale, D. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Galloway, J. N.; Keene, W. C.; Knap, A. H.; Tokos, J.

    1991-10-01

    During a North Atlantic cruise from Dakar, Senegal, to Woods Hole, Massachusetts (April 14-May 11, 1984), crossing the area of 14°-48°N; 17°-70°W, we collected atmospheric aerosols (C, N, S species), gases (SO4, HNO3, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), synthetic organic chemicals), and precipitation (major inorganic/organic ions, trace metals). Air masses that had not contacted land for over 5 days had a composition close to that from the remote marine atmosphere. Oxidation of biogenic DMS to SO4= aerosol accounted for most nss-SO4= in these air masses. Air masses that had transected densely populated North America (in the westerlies) or the Mediterranean/North Africa ( in the easterlies) within 2-5 days of being sampled over the North Atlantic were enriched in acid precursor compounds and synthetic hydrocarbons relative to air that had spent longer over the North Atlantic. Strong acids and trace metals were also elevated in precipitation. Air masses that had transected regions of strong emissions within the preceding 2 days had concentrations of atmospheric pollutants approaching those typically found in continental air masses. More frequent storm tracks between the Icelandic low and the Bermuda high favored transport of North American emissions northeasterly, toward Europe. Trajectory analyses suggested that air masses sampled off the northwest African coast had passed over the Mediterranean. Composition of the aerosol and precipitation of these air masses was also indicative of continental emissions, including biomass and petroleum burning. Transport and deposition of continental emissions to the North Atlantic were significantly influencing surface atmospheric and oceanic chemistry of this region.

  10. Ecological regime shift drives declining growth rates of sea turtles throughout the West Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani; Saba, Vincent S.; Bellini, Cláudio; Marcovaldi, Maria A.G.; Santos, Armando J.B.; Bortolon, Luis Felipe Wurdig; Meylan, Anne B.; Meylan, Peter A.; Gray, Jennifer; Hardy, Robert; Brost, Beth; Bresette, Michael; Gorham, Jonathan C.; Connett, Stephen; Crouchley, Barbara Van Sciver; Dawson, Mike; Hayes, Deborah; Diez, Carlos E.; van Dam, Robert P.; Willis, Sue; Nava, Mabel; Hart, Kristen M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Crowder, Andrew; Pollock, Clayton; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Muñoz Tenería, Fernando A.; Herrera-Pavón, Roberto; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Lorences, Armando; Negrete-Philippe, Ana; Lamont, Margaret M.; Foley, Allen M.; Bailey, Rhonda; Carthy, Raymond R.; Scarpino, Russell; McMichael, Erin; Provancha, Jane A.; Brooks, Annabelle; Jardim, Adriana; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; González-Paredes, Daniel; Estrades, Andrés; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Martínez-Souza, Gustavo; Vélez-Rubio, Gabriela M.; Boulon, Ralf H.; Collazo, Jaime; Wershoven, Robert; Hernández, Vicente Guzmán; Stringell, Thomas B.; Sanghera, Amdeep; Richardson, Peter B.; Broderick, Annette C.; Phillips, Quinton; Calosso, Marta C.; Claydon, John A.B.; Metz, Tasha L.; Gordon, Amanda L.; Landry, Andre M.; Shaver, Donna J.; Blumenthal, Janice; Collyer, Lucy; Godley, Brendan J.; McGowan, Andrew; Witt, Matthew J.; Campbell, Cathi L.; Lagueux, Cynthia J.; Bethel, Thomas L.; Kenyon, Lory

    2017-01-01

    Somatic growth is an integrated, individual-based response to environmental conditions, especially in ectotherms. Growth dynamics of large, mobile animals are particularly useful as bio-indicators of environmental change at regional scales. We assembled growth rate data from throughout the West Atlantic for green turtles, Chelonia mydas, which are long-lived, highly migratory, primarily herbivorous mega-consumers that may migrate over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Our dataset, the largest ever compiled for sea turtles, has 9690 growth increments from 30 sites from Bermuda to Uruguay from 1973 to 2015. Using generalized additive mixed models, we evaluated covariates that could affect growth rates; body size, diet, and year have significant effects on growth. Growth increases in early years until 1999, then declines by 26% to 2015. The temporal (year) effect is of particular interest because two carnivorous species of sea turtles – hawksbills, Eretmochelys imbricata, and loggerheads, Caretta caretta – exhibited similar significant declines in growth rates starting in 1997 in the West Atlantic, based on previous studies. These synchronous declines in productivity among three sea turtle species across a trophic spectrum provide strong evidence that an ecological regime shift (ERS) in the Atlantic is driving growth dynamics. The ERS resulted from a synergy of the 1997/1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) – the strongest on record – combined with an unprecedented warming rate over the last two to three decades. Further support is provided by the strong correlations between annualized mean growth rates of green turtles and both sea surface temperatures (SST) in the West Atlantic for years of declining growth rates (r = -0.94) and the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) for all years (r = 0.74). Granger-causality analysis also supports the latter finding. We discuss multiple stressors that could reinforce and prolong the effect of the ERS. This study

  11. Ecological regime shift drives declining growth rates of sea turtles throughout the West Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorndal, Karen A; Bolten, Alan B; Chaloupka, Milani; Saba, Vincent S; Bellini, Cláudio; Marcovaldi, Maria A G; Santos, Armando J B; Bortolon, Luis Felipe Wurdig; Meylan, Anne B; Meylan, Peter A; Gray, Jennifer; Hardy, Robert; Brost, Beth; Bresette, Michael; Gorham, Jonathan C; Connett, Stephen; Crouchley, Barbara Van Sciver; Dawson, Mike; Hayes, Deborah; Diez, Carlos E; van Dam, Robert P; Willis, Sue; Nava, Mabel; Hart, Kristen M; Cherkiss, Michael S; Crowder, Andrew G; Pollock, Clayton; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Muñoz Tenería, Fernando A; Herrera-Pavón, Roberto; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Lorences, Armando; Negrete-Philippe, Ana; Lamont, Margaret M; Foley, Allen M; Bailey, Rhonda; Carthy, Raymond R; Scarpino, Russell; McMichael, Erin; Provancha, Jane A; Brooks, Annabelle; Jardim, Adriana; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; González-Paredes, Daniel; Estrades, Andrés; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Martínez-Souza, Gustavo; Vélez-Rubio, Gabriela M; Boulon, Ralf H; Collazo, Jaime A; Wershoven, Robert; Guzmán Hernández, Vicente; Stringell, Thomas B; Sanghera, Amdeep; Richardson, Peter B; Broderick, Annette C; Phillips, Quinton; Calosso, Marta; Claydon, John A B; Metz, Tasha L; Gordon, Amanda L; Landry, Andre M; Shaver, Donna J; Blumenthal, Janice; Collyer, Lucy; Godley, Brendan J; McGowan, Andrew; Witt, Matthew J; Campbell, Cathi L; Lagueux, Cynthia J; Bethel, Thomas L; Kenyon, Lory

    2017-11-01

    Somatic growth is an integrated, individual-based response to environmental conditions, especially in ectotherms. Growth dynamics of large, mobile animals are particularly useful as bio-indicators of environmental change at regional scales. We assembled growth rate data from throughout the West Atlantic for green turtles, Chelonia mydas, which are long-lived, highly migratory, primarily herbivorous mega-consumers that may migrate over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Our dataset, the largest ever compiled for sea turtles, has 9690 growth increments from 30 sites from Bermuda to Uruguay from 1973 to 2015. Using generalized additive mixed models, we evaluated covariates that could affect growth rates; body size, diet, and year have significant effects on growth. Growth increases in early years until 1999, then declines by 26% to 2015. The temporal (year) effect is of particular interest because two carnivorous species of sea turtles-hawksbills, Eretmochelys imbricata, and loggerheads, Caretta caretta-exhibited similar significant declines in growth rates starting in 1997 in the West Atlantic, based on previous studies. These synchronous declines in productivity among three sea turtle species across a trophic spectrum provide strong evidence that an ecological regime shift (ERS) in the Atlantic is driving growth dynamics. The ERS resulted from a synergy of the 1997/1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-the strongest on record-combined with an unprecedented warming rate over the last two to three decades. Further support is provided by the strong correlations between annualized mean growth rates of green turtles and both sea surface temperatures (SST) in the West Atlantic for years of declining growth rates (r = -.94) and the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) for all years (r = .74). Granger-causality analysis also supports the latter finding. We discuss multiple stressors that could reinforce and prolong the effect of the ERS. This study demonstrates the

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway and time series observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from GULF CHALLENGER in the North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 2004-05-10 to 2016-12-07 (NODC Accession 0073808)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0073808 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from GULF CHALLENGER in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  13. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  14. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  15. Effect of lime, N, P, and K amendments to surface-mined coal spoils on yield and chemical composition of common Bermuda grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebelhar, M W; Barnhisel, R I; Akin, G W; Powell, J L

    1982-12-01

    Common Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, L. Pers.) was used as an alternative to cool-season grasses such as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) on acid sandstone surface-mine spoils in western Kentucky. Lime, N, P, and K fertilizer amendments were evaluated as to their effects in promoting Bermuda grass growth and development. The applied lime was effective in raising the pH from 3.4 to 4.6, 5.7, and 6.3 for the 18, 36 and 72 metric ton/ha treatments, respectively, over a 17-month period. Nitrogen was found to affect Bermuda grass production significantly and severe deficiency symptoms were observed where N was not applied. Dry matter yields increased significantly with each additional increment of N applied. Although the application of P and K increased the concentration of these ions in the plant tissues, the main influence of P and K was to increase the plants' resistance to winter killing; little effect on total dry matter production was observed. 19 references.

  16. Contrasting patterns of connectivity among endemic and widespread fire coral species ( Millepora spp.) in the tropical Southwestern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Júlia N.; Nunes, Flávia L. D.; Zilberberg, Carla; Sanchez, Juan A.; Migotto, Alvaro E.; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Serrano, Xaymara M.; Baker, Andrew C.; Lindner, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Fire corals are the only branching corals in the South Atlantic and provide an important ecological role as habitat-builders in the region. With three endemic species ( Millepora brazilensis, M. nitida and M. laboreli) and one amphi-Atlantic species ( M. alcicornis), fire coral diversity in the Brazilian Province rivals that of the Caribbean Province. Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of population genetic structure and diversity were investigated in all four fire coral species occurring in the Brazilian Province to understand patterns of speciation and biogeography in the genus. A total of 273 colonies from the four species were collected from 17 locations spanning their geographic ranges. Sequences from the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used to evaluate phylogenetic relationships. Patterns in genetic diversity and connectivity were inferred by measures of molecular diversity, analyses of molecular variance, pairwise differentiation, and by spatial analyses of molecular variance. Morphometrics of the endemic species M. braziliensis and M. nitida were evaluated by discriminant function analysis; macro-morphological characters were not sufficient to distinguish the two species. Genetic analyses showed that, although they are closely related, each species forms a well-supported clade. Furthermore, the endemic species characterized a distinct biogeographic barrier: M. braziliensis is restricted to the north of the São Francisco River, whereas M. nitida occurs only to the south. Millepora laboreli is restricted to a single location and has low genetic diversity. In contrast, the amphi-Atlantic species M. alcicornis shows high genetic connectivity within the Brazilian Province, and within the Caribbean Province (including Bermuda), despite low levels of gene flow between these populations and across the tropical Atlantic. These patterns reflect the importance of the Amazon-Orinoco Plume and the Mid-Atlantic Barrier as biogeographic barriers, and suggest that

  17. The acceleration of dissolved cobalt's ecological stoichiometry due to biological uptake, remineralization, and scavenging in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mak A.; Noble, Abigail E.; Hawco, Nicholas; Twining, Benjamin S.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; John, Seth G.; Lam, Phoebe; Conway, Tim M.; Johnson, Rod; Moran, Dawn; McIlvin, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    The stoichiometry of biological components and their influence on dissolved distributions have long been of interest in the study of the oceans. Cobalt has the smallest oceanic inventory of inorganic micronutrients and hence is particularly vulnerable to influence by internal oceanic processes including euphotic zone uptake, remineralization, and scavenging. Here we observe not only large variations in dCo : P stoichiometry but also the acceleration of those dCo : P ratios in the upper water column in response to several environmental processes. The ecological stoichiometry of total dissolved cobalt (dCo) was examined using data from a US North Atlantic GEOTRACES transect and from a zonal South Atlantic GEOTRACES-compliant transect (GA03/3e and GAc01) by Redfieldian analysis of its statistical relationships with the macronutrient phosphate. Trends in the dissolved cobalt to phosphate (dCo : P) stoichiometric relationships were evident in the basin-scale vertical structure of cobalt, with positive dCo : P slopes in the euphotic zone and negative slopes found in the ocean interior and in coastal environments. The euphotic positive slopes were often found to accelerate towards the surface and this was interpreted as being due to the combined influence of depleted phosphate, phosphorus-sparing (conserving) mechanisms, increased alkaline phosphatase metalloenzyme production (a zinc or perhaps cobalt enzyme), and biochemical substitution of Co for depleted Zn. Consistent with this, dissolved Zn (dZn) was found to be drawn down to only 2-fold more than dCo, despite being more than 18-fold more abundant in the ocean interior. Particulate cobalt concentrations increased in abundance from the base of the euphotic zone to become ˜ 10 % of the overall cobalt inventory in the upper euphotic zone with high stoichiometric values of ˜ 400 µmol Co mol-1 P. Metaproteomic results from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) station found cyanobacterial isoforms of the

  18. On-site hydrolytic enzymes production from fungal co-cultivation of Bermuda grass and corn cob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Gracida, Jorge; Huizache-Peña, Nelson; Elizondo-García, Norberto; Salazar-Martínez, José; García Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) is used to produce industrial enzymes. The objective of this study was to use a co-culture of Aspergillus niger GS1 and Trichoderma reesei, grown on a mixture of Bermuda grass and corn cob to obtain fermented forage (FF) rich in hydrolytic enzymes, as a value added ingredient for animal feed. FPase, amylase and xylanase productivities (dry matter, DM) were 8.8, 181.4, and 42.1Ug(-1)h(-1), respectively (1U=reducing sugars released min(-1)), after 12-16h of SSF with C/N=60. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased 1.6-, 2.7- and 1.9-fold (DM), respectively. In vitro ruminal and true digestibility of DM was improved 2.4- and 1.4-fold. Ruminal digestion of FF reduced 1.32-fold the acetate:propionate ratio, which may reduce the environmental impact of ruminants feeding. On-site hydrolytic enzymes productivity using SSF without enzymes extraction could be of economic potential for digestibility improvement in animal feed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean on 2016-08-26 (NCEI Accession 0162238)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162238 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  20. Tsunami Forecasting in the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.; Sterling, K.; Hale, D. A.; Bahng, B.

    2012-12-01

    The mission of the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) is to provide advance tsunami warning and guidance to coastal communities within its Area-of-Responsibility (AOR). Predictive tsunami models, based on the shallow water wave equations, are an important part of the Center's guidance support. An Atlantic-based counterpart to the long-standing forecasting ability in the Pacific known as the Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM) is now developed. The Atlantic forecasting method is based on ATFM version 2 which contains advanced capabilities over the original model; including better handling of the dynamic interactions between grids, inundation over dry land, new forecast model products, an optional non-hydrostatic approach, and the ability to pre-compute larger and more finely gridded regions using parallel computational techniques. The wide and nearly continuous Atlantic shelf region presents a challenge for forecast models. Our solution to this problem has been to develop a single unbroken high resolution sub-mesh (currently 30 arc-seconds), trimmed to the shelf break. This allows for edge wave propagation and for kilometer scale bathymetric feature resolution. Terminating the fine mesh at the 2000m isobath keeps the number of grid points manageable while allowing for a coarse (4 minute) mesh to adequately resolve deep water tsunami dynamics. Higher resolution sub-meshes are then included around coastal forecast points of interest. The WCATWC Atlantic AOR includes eastern U.S. and Canada, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are in very close proximity to well-known tsunami sources. Because travel times are under an hour and response must be immediate, our focus is on pre-computing many tsunami source "scenarios" and compiling those results into a database accessible and calibrated with observations during an event. Seismic source evaluation determines the order of model pre

  1. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  2. The subpolar North Atlantic - Response to North Atlantic oscillation like forcing and Influence on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Katja; Drange, Helge; Jungclaus, Johann

    2010-05-01

    The extent and strength of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) changed rapidly in the mid-1990s, going from large and strong in 1995 to substantially weakened in the following years. The abrupt change in the intensity of the SPG is commonly linked to the reversal of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, changing from strong positive to negative values, in the winter 1995/96. In this study we investigate the impact of the initial SPG state on its subsequent behavior by means of an ocean general circulation model driven by NCEP-NCAR reanalysis fields. Our sensitivity integrations suggest that the weakening of the SPG cannot be explained by the change in the atmospheric forcing alone. Rather, for the time period around 1995, the SPG was about to weaken, irrespective of the actual atmospheric forcing, due to the ocean state governed by the persistently strong positive NAO during the preceding seven years (1989 to 1995). Our analysis indicates that it was this preconditioning of the ocean, in combination with the sudden drop in the NAO in 1995/96, that lead to the strong and rapid weakening of the SPG in the second half of the 1990s. In the second part, the sensitivity of the low-frequency variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to changes in the subpolar North Atlantic is investigated using a 2000 year long control integration as well as sensitivity experiments with the MPI-M Earth System Model. Two 1000 year long sensitivity experiments will be performed, in which the low-frequency variability in the overflow transports from the Nordic Seas and in the subpolar deep water formation rates is suppressed respectively. This is achieved by nudging temperature and salinity in the GIN Sea or in the subpolar North Atlantic (up to about 1500m depth) towards a monthly climatology obtained from the last 1000 years of the control integration.

  3. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  4. Quantitative extraction of nucleotides from frozen muscle samples of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) and rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) : Effects of time taken to sample and extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, P.M.; Bremner, Allan; Pankhurst, N.W.

    2000-01-01

    time taken to sample, method 2 resulted in higher adenylate and lower IMP concentration than method I. These results indicate that method 2 is most effective in obtaining realistic nucleotide concentrations from fish muscle because it maintains the tissue temperature below the critical freeze zone, (-0...

  5. An international marine-atmospheric 222Rn measurement intercomparison in Bermuda. Part 2: Results for the participating laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colle, R.; Unterweger, M.P.; Hutchinson, J.M.R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of an international measurement intercomparison of instruments used to measure atmospheric 222 Rn, four participating laboratories made nearly simultaneous measurements of 222 Rn activity concentration in commonly sampled, ambient air over approximately a 2 week period, and three of these four laboratories participated in the measurement comparison of 14 introduced samples with known, but undisclosed (blind) 222 Rn activity concentration. The exercise was conducted in Bermuda in October 1991. The 222 Rn activity concentrations in ambient Bermudian air over the course of the intercomparison ranged from a few hundredths of a Bq · m -3 to about 2 Bq · m -3 , while the standardized sample additions covered a range from approximately 2.5 Bq · m -3 to 35 Bq · m -3 . The overall uncertainty in the latter concentrations was in the general range of 10%, approximating a 3 standard deviation uncertainty interval. The results of the intercomparison indicated that two of the laboratories were within very good agreement with the standard additions, and almost within expected statistical variations. These same two laboratories, however, at lower ambient concentrations, exhibited a systematic difference with an averaged offset of roughly 0.3 Bq · m -3 . The third laboratory participating in the measurement of standardized sample additions was systematically low by about 65% to 70%, with respect to the standard addition which was also confirmed in their ambient air concentration measurements. The fourth laboratory, participating in only the ambient measurement part of the intercomparison, was also systematically low by at least 40% with respect to the first two laboratories

  6. Monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to quantify the major allergen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen, Cyn d 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffort, O; Calabozo, B; González, R; Carpizo, J A; Barber, D; Polo, F

    2004-12-01

    Pollen of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is an important cause of pollinosis in many areas of the world. Most patients show sensitivity to the major allergen Cyn d 1, a glycoprotein composed of a number of isoforms with a molecular mass of 31-32 kDa. The aim of this work was to develop a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based ELISA to quantify Cyn d 1, and to assess the correlation of the allergen content with the biological activity of C. dactylon pollen extracts. After fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from a BALB/c mouse immunized with C. dactylon pollen extract, Cyn d 1-specific mAbs secreting hybridomas were selected, and the antibodies characterized. One of them (4.4.1) was used as the capture antibody in an ELISA method for Cyn d 1 quantitation. An anti-Cyn d 1 rabbit serum was used as the second antibody. Cyn d 1 was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with mAb 4.4.1, characterized, and used as the standard in the assay. The identity, purity and isoallergen composition of affinity-purified Cyn d 1 was confirmed by N-terminal amino acid sequencing, SDS-PAGE, Western blot and 2D electrophoresis. The Cyn d 1 ELISA is highly specific and sensitive, with a detection limit of 0.24 ng/ml and a linear range of 1.1-9.2 ng/ml. An excellent correlation was found when the content of Cyn d 1, measured in 16 different extracts, was compared with the allergenic activity of the same extracts determined by RAST inhibition. The results prove the usefulness of the Cyn d 1 ELISA for the standardization of C. dactylon-allergen products on the basis of major allergen content. 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Estimating the potential impacts of large mesopredators on benthic resources: integrative assessment of spotted eagle ray foraging ecology in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ajemian

    Full Text Available Declines of large sharks and subsequent release of elasmobranch mesopredators (smaller sharks and rays may pose problems for marine fisheries management as some mesopredators consume exploitable shellfish species. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari is the most abundant inshore elasmobranch in subtropical Bermuda, but its predatory role remains unexamined despite suspected abundance increases and its hypothesized specialization for mollusks. We utilized a combination of acoustic telemetry, benthic invertebrate sampling, gut content analysis and manipulative experiments to assess the impact of spotted eagle rays on Bermudian shellfish resources. Residency and distribution of adult spotted eagle rays was monitored over two consecutive summers in Harrington Sound (HS, an enclosed inshore lagoon that has historically supported multiple recreational and commercial shellfish species. Telemetered rays exhibited variable fidelity (depending on sex to HS, though generally selected regions that supported relatively high densities of potential mollusk prey. Gut content analysis from rays collected in HS revealed a diet of mainly bivalves and a few gastropods, with calico clam (Macrocallista maculata representing the most important prey item. Manipulative field and mesocosm experiments with calico clams suggested that rays selected prey patches based on density, though there was no evidence of rays depleting clam patches to extirpation. Overall, spotted eagle rays had modest impacts on local shellfish populations at current population levels, suggesting a reduced role in transmitting cascading effects from apex predator loss. However, due to the strong degree of coupling between rays and multiple protected mollusks in HS, ecosystem-based management that accounts for ray predation should be adopted.

  8. An experimental model of allergic asthma in cats sensitized to house dust mite or bermuda grass allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris Reinero, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Berghaus, Roy D; Williams, Kurt J; Leutenegger, Christian M; Walby, William F; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2004-10-01

    Animal models are used to mimic human asthma, however, not all models replicate the major characteristics of the human disease. Spontaneous development of asthma with hallmark features similar to humans has been documented to occur with relative frequency in only one animal species, the cat. We hypothesized that we could develop an experimental model of feline asthma using clinically relevant aeroallergens identified from cases of naturally developing feline asthma, and characterize immunologic, physiologic, and pathologic changes over 1 year. House dust mite (HDMA) and Bermuda grass (BGA) allergen were selected by screening 10 privately owned pet cats with spontaneous asthma using a serum allergen-specific IgE ELISA. Parenteral sensitization and aerosol challenges were used to replicate the naturally developing disease in research cats. The asthmatic phenotype was characterized using intradermal skin testing, serum allergen-specific IgE ELISA, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgG and IgA ELISAs, airway hyperresponsiveness testing, BALF cytology, cytokine profiles using TaqMan PCR, and histopathologic evaluation. Sensitization with HDMA or BGA in cats led to allergen-specific IgE production, allergen-specific serum and BALF IgG and IgA production, airway hyperreactivity, airway eosinophilia, an acute T helper 2 cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and BALF cells, and histologic evidence of airway remodeling. Using clinically relevant aeroallergens to sensitize and challenge the cat provides an additional animal model to study the immunopathophysiologic mechanisms of allergic asthma. Chronic exposure to allergen in the cat leads to a variety of immunologic, physiologic, and pathologic changes that mimic the features seen in human asthma.

  9. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  10. Identification of Extreme Events Under Climate Change Conditions Over Europe and The Northwest-atlantic Region: Spatial Patterns and Time Series Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, G.; Ulbrich, U.; Speth, P.

    In the context of climate change and the resulting possible impacts on socio-economic conditions for human activities it seems that due to a changed occurrence of extreme events more severe consequences have to be expected than from changes in the mean climate. These extreme events like floods, excessive heats and droughts or windstorms possess impacts on human social and economic life in different categories such as forestry, agriculture, energy use, tourism and the reinsurance business. Reinsurances are affected by nearly 70% of all insured damages over Europe in the case of wind- storms. Especially the December 1999 French windstorms caused damages about 10 billion. A new EU-founded project (MICE = Modelling the Impact of Climate Ex- tremes) will focus on these impacts caused by changed occurrences of extreme events over Europe. Based upon the output of general circulation models as well as regional climate models, investigations are carried out with regard to time series characteristics as well as the spatial patterns of extremes under climate changed conditions. After the definition of specific thresholds for climate extremes, in this talk we will focus on the results of the analysis for the different data sets (HadCM3 and CGCMII GCM's and RCM's, re-analyses, observations) with regard to windstorm events. At first the results of model outputs are validated against re-analyses and observations. Especially a comparison of the stormtrack (2.5 to 8 day bandpass filtered 500 hPa geopotential height), cyclone track, cyclone frequency and intensity is presented. Highly relevant to damages is the extreme wind near the ground level, so the 10 m wind speed will be investigated additionally. of special interest to possible impacts is the changed spatial occurrence of windspeed maxima under 2xCO2-induced climate change.

  11. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  12. Comparative physiological and proteomic analyses reveal the actions of melatonin in the reduction of oxidative stress in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wang, Xin; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-08-01

    The fact of melatonin as an important antioxidant in animals led plant researchers to speculate that melatonin also acts in the similar manner in plants. Although melatonin has significant effects on alleviating stress-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS), the involvement of melatonin in direct oxidative stress and the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear in plants. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin significantly alleviated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-modulated plant growth, cell damage, and ROS accumulation in Bermuda grass. Additionally, 76 proteins significantly influenced by melatonin during mock or H2O2 treatment were identified by gel-free proteomics using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation). Metabolic pathway analysis showed that several pathways were markedly enhanced by melatonin and H2O2 treatments, including polyamine metabolism, ribosome pathway, major carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, redox, and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study provides more comprehensive insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of melatonin in Bermuda grass responses to direct oxidative stress. This may relate to the activation of antioxidants, modulation of metabolic pathways, and extensive proteome reprograming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Giant boulders and Last Interglacial storm intensity in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Harris, Daniel L.; Lorscheid, Thomas; Nandasena, Napayalage A. K.; Dyer, Blake; Sandstrom, Michael R.; Stocchi, Paolo; D'Andrea, William J.; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2017-11-01

    As global climate warms and sea level rises, coastal areas will be subject to more frequent extreme flooding and hurricanes. Geologic evidence for extreme coastal storms during past warm periods has the potential to provide fundamental insights into their future intensity. Recent studies argue that during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, ˜128–116 ka) tropical and extratropical North Atlantic cyclones may have been more intense than at present, and may have produced waves larger than those observed historically. Such strong swells are inferred to have created a number of geologic features that can be observed today along the coastlines of Bermuda and the Bahamas. In this paper, we investigate the most iconic among these features: massive boulders atop a cliff in North Eleuthera, Bahamas. We combine geologic field surveys, wave models, and boulder transport equations to test the hypothesis that such boulders must have been emplaced by storms of greater-than-historical intensity. By contrast, our results suggest that with the higher relative sea level (RSL) estimated for the Bahamas during MIS 5e, boulders of this size could have been transported by waves generated by storms of historical intensity. Thus, while the megaboulders of Eleuthera cannot be used as geologic proof for past “superstorms,” they do show that with rising sea levels, cliffs and coastal barriers will be subject to significantly greater erosional energy, even without changes in storm intensity.

  14. Giant boulders and Last Interglacial storm intensity in the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Harris, Daniel L; Lorscheid, Thomas; Nandasena, Napayalage A K; Dyer, Blake; Sandstrom, Michael R; Stocchi, Paolo; D'Andrea, William J; Raymo, Maureen E

    2017-11-14

    As global climate warms and sea level rises, coastal areas will be subject to more frequent extreme flooding and hurricanes. Geologic evidence for extreme coastal storms during past warm periods has the potential to provide fundamental insights into their future intensity. Recent studies argue that during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, ∼128-116 ka) tropical and extratropical North Atlantic cyclones may have been more intense than at present, and may have produced waves larger than those observed historically. Such strong swells are inferred to have created a number of geologic features that can be observed today along the coastlines of Bermuda and the Bahamas. In this paper, we investigate the most iconic among these features: massive boulders atop a cliff in North Eleuthera, Bahamas. We combine geologic field surveys, wave models, and boulder transport equations to test the hypothesis that such boulders must have been emplaced by storms of greater-than-historical intensity. By contrast, our results suggest that with the higher relative sea level (RSL) estimated for the Bahamas during MIS 5e, boulders of this size could have been transported by waves generated by storms of historical intensity. Thus, while the megaboulders of Eleuthera cannot be used as geologic proof for past "superstorms," they do show that with rising sea levels, cliffs and coastal barriers will be subject to significantly greater erosional energy, even without changes in storm intensity.

  15. Isotopic composition of skeleton-bound organic nitrogen in reef-building symbiotic corals: A new method and proxy evaluation at Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. T.; Sigman, D. M.; Cohen, A. L.; Sinclair, D. J.; Sherrell, R. M.; Weigand, M. A.; Erler, D. V.; Ren, H.

    2015-01-01

    The skeleton-bound organic nitrogen in reef-building symbiotic corals may be a high-resolution archive of ocean nitrogen cycle dynamics and a tool for understanding coral biogeochemistry and physiological processes. However, the existing methods for measuring the isotopic composition of coral skeleton-bound organic nitrogen (hereafter, CS-δ15N) either require too much skeleton material or have low precision, limiting the applications of this relatively new proxy. In addition, the controlling factors on CS-δ15N remain poorly understood: the δ15N of source nitrogen and the internal nitrogen cycle of the coral/zooxanthellae symbiosis may both be important. Here, we describe a new ("persulfate/denitrifier"-based) method for measuring CS-δ15N, requiring only 5 mg of skeleton material and yielding a long-term precision better than 0.2‰ (1σ). Using this new method, we investigate CS-δ15N at Bermuda. Ten modern Diploria labyrinthiformis coral cores/colonies from 4 sampling sites were measured for CS-δ15N. Nitrogen concentrations (nitrate + nitrite, ammonium, and dissolved organic nitrogen) and δ15N of plankton were also measured at these coral sites. Among the 4 sampling sites, CS-δ15N shows an increase with proximity to the island, from ∼3.8‰ to ∼6.8‰ vs. atmospheric N2, with the northern offshore site having a CS-δ15N 1-2‰ higher than the δ15N of thermocline nitrate in the surrounding Sargasso Sea. Two annually resolved CS-δ15N time series suggest that the offshore-inshore CS-δ15N gradient has persisted since at least the 1970s. Plankton δ15N among these 4 sites also has an inshore increase, but of only ∼1‰. Coral physiological change must explain the remaining (∼2‰) inshore increase in CS-δ15N, and previous work points to the coral/zooxanthellae N cycle as a control on host tissue (and thus carbonate skeletal) δ15N. The CS-δ15N gradient is hypothesized to result mainly from varying efficiency in the internal nitrogen recycling of the

  16. Variability of the Tropical Ocean Surface Temperatures at Decadal-Multidecadal Timescales. Part I: The Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vikram M.

    1998-09-01

    Gridded time series from the Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas were analyzed with a variety of techniques to identify spatial structures and oscillation periods of the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) variations at decadal timescales, and to develop physical interpretations of statistical patterns of decadal SST variations. Each time series was 110 yr (1882-1991) long. The tropical Atlantic SST variations were compared with decadal variations in a 74-yr-long (1912-85) north Nordeste Brazil rainfall time series and a 106-yr-long (1886-1991) tropical Atlantic cyclone activity index time series. The tropical Atlantic SST variations were also compared with decadal variations in the extratropical Atlantic SST.Multiyear to multidecadal variations in the cross-equatorial dipole pattern identified as a dominant empirical pattern of the tropical Atlantic SST variations in earlier and present studies are shown to be variations in the approximately north-south gradient of SST anomalies. It is also shown that there was no dynamical-thermodynamical, dipole mode of SST variations during the analysis period. There was a distinct decadal timescale (12-13 yr) of SST variations in the tropical South Atlantic, whereas no distinct decadal timescale was found in the tropical North Atlantic SST variations. Approximately 80% of the coherent decadal variance in the cross-equatorial SST gradient was `explained' by coherent decadal oscillations in the tropical South Atlantic SSTs. There were three, possibly physical, modes of decadal variations in the tropical Atlantic SSTs during the analysis period. In the more energetic mode of the North Atlantic decadal SST variations, anomalies traveled into the tropical North Atlantic from the extratropical North Atlantic along the eastern boundary of the basin. The anomalies strengthened and resided in the tropical North Atlantic for several years, then frequently traveled northward into the mid-high-latitude North Atlantic along

  17. A millennium of north-east Atlantic cod juvenile growth trajectories inferred from archaeological otoliths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Ásta Ólafsdóttir

    Full Text Available Archaeological excavations of historical fishing sites across the North Atlantic have recovered high quantities of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua bones. In the current study we use Atlantic cod otoliths from archaeological excavations of a historical fishing sites in north-west Iceland, dated to AD 970 -AD 1910 to examine historical growth trajectories of cod. No large scale growth variations or shifts in growth patterns were observed in the current chronologies, supporting the stability of historical Atlantic cod growth trajectories. The most significant variation in growth patterns was consistent with those that have been observed in recent times, for example, reduced early juvenile growth during periods of colder ocean temperature. The current results represent a high resolution chronological record of north-east Atlantic cod growth, greatly increasing the prior temporal range of such data, thereby providing a valuable baseline for a broad range of studies on Atlantic cod growth.

  18. Rethinking Atlantic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Walvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Shaping the Stuart World 1603-1714: The Atlantic Connection. Allan I. Macinnes & Arthur H. Williamson (eds.. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2006. xiv + 389 pp. (Cloth US$ 135.00 Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America. Kenneth Morgan. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. x + 221 pp. (Paper US$ 32.00 Although an important debate continues about the concept itself, the use of “the Atlantic” has embedded itself in scholarly vernacular. The scholarly output directly spawned by an engagement with the concept continues apace. That ocean, and the peoples who lived and traded along its edges, and who finally moved across it, have provided an important geographical focus for some major reconsiderations of modern history. Prompted by the Macinnes/Williamson volume, I returned to my own undergraduate and graduate notes and essays from courses on Stuart Britain: the Atlantic was totally absent – not even present as a distant speck on our intellectual map. We studied, and debated, the formal histories of migrations to the Americas (i.e. European migrations but there was no mention of Africa or Africans. And no sense was conveyed that the European engagement with the Americas (in their totality – as opposed to North America was a two-way, mutual force: that the European world was influenced, indeed shaped in many critical regards, by the Americas: by the land, the products, the peoples, and by the markets of that hemisphere. At its most obvious in the ebb and flow of peoples, even that eluded the historians I encountered as a student. It was as if we were talking about a different cosmos; few moved beyond the conventions of European migrations westwards and little attention was paid to that most dominant of migrations – the enforced African migrations to the Americas.

  19. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  20. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  1. Marine ecosystem response to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Edwards

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of warming of the Northern Hemisphere it has recently been acknowledged that North Atlantic temperature changes undergo considerable variability over multidecadal periods. The leading component of natural low-frequency temperature variability has been termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO. Presently, correlative studies on the biological impact of the AMO on marine ecosystems over the duration of a whole AMO cycle (∼60 years is largely unknown due to the rarity of continuously sustained biological observations at the same time period. To test whether there is multidecadal cyclic behaviour in biological time-series in the North Atlantic we used one of the world's longest continuously sustained marine biological time-series in oceanic waters, long-term fisheries data and historical records over the last century and beyond. Our findings suggest that the AMO is far from a trivial presence against the backdrop of continued temperature warming in the North Atlantic and accounts for the second most important macro-trend in North Atlantic plankton records; responsible for habitat switching (abrupt ecosystem/regime shifts over multidecadal scales and influences the fortunes of various fisheries over many centuries.

  2. Winter- and summertime continental influences on tropospheric O3 and CO observed by TES over the western North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talbot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of tropospheric ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO, and the synoptic factors regulating these distributions over the western North Atlantic Ocean during winter and summer were investigated using profile retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES for 2004–2006. Seasonal composites of TES retrievals, reprocessed to remove the influence of the a priori on geographical and seasonal structure, exhibited strong seasonal differences. At the 681 hPa level during winter months of December, January and February (DJF the composite O3 mixing ratios were uniformly low (~45 ppbv, but continental export was evident in a channel of enhanced CO (100–110 ppbv flowing eastward from the US coast. In summer months June, July, and August (JJA O3 mixing ratios were variable (45–65 ppbv and generally higher due to increased photochemical production. The summer distribution also featured a channel of enhanced CO (95–105 ppbv flowing northeastward around an anticyclone and exiting the continent over the Canadian Maritimes around 50° N. Offshore O3-CO slopes were generally 0.15–0.20 mol mol−1 in JJA, indicative of photochemical O3 production. Composites for 4 predominant synoptic patterns or map types in DJF suggested that export to the lower free troposphere (681 hPa level was enhanced by the warm conveyor belt airstream of mid-latitude cyclones while stratospheric intrusions increased TES O3 levels at 316 hPa. A major finding in the DJF data was that offshore 681 hPa CO mixing ratios behind cold fronts could be enhanced up to >150 ppbv likely by lofting from the surface via shallow convection resulting from rapid destabilization of cold air flowing over much warmer ocean waters. In JJA composites for 3 map types showed that the general export pattern of the seasonal composites was associated with a synoptic pattern featuring the Bermuda High. However, weak cyclones and frontal troughs could enhance offshore 681 hPa CO

  3. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    decisively shaped the history and culture of the American South from colonial times to the modern era. The essays in this interdisciplinary volume examine a wide range of topics, including race, migration, religion, law, slavery, emancipation, literature, memoir, popular culture, and ethnography. At a time...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...

  4. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    released by the renown non governmental organization on environmental pollution the Netherlands based Climate Justice Programme under the aegis of friends of the Earth indicated that the coastal region of Nigeria along accounts for 16 percent of the world's total flare in view of the above coupled with the increasing oil spillages in the African Gulf of Guinea region resulted in the rapid decline in fish, plankton, shrimps and other sea lives along the Coast of Africa facing the Atlantic Ocean. ii. In the more recent time the revering dwellers living around the Coast of Gulf of Guinea region and Somalia's Coast have been complaining of increasing cases of child respiratory illness, land degradation, well pollution, infertility and premature death. iii. Geological strata of the Atlantic Ocean are adversely destroyed by the seismographic activities going on around the Gulf of Guinea region and Angola in particular. iv. The general means of livelihood of the revering dwellers are often threaten by the pollution. POSITION OF THE GOVERNMENTS OF AFRICA Apart from the governments of the federal republic of Nigeria, South Africa, Ghana, Senegal and Tanzania that have either established institutes of Oceanography or Environmental Protection Agencies, the majority of the African governments have shown no signs of checking the menace. POSITION OF THE NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION The Netherlands based Climate Justice and the Nigeria Environmental Rights Action are the only non-governmental organizations out of very many that have shown signs of fighting this incessant increase in ocean pollution in Africa. RECOMMENDATION In view of the above situation I came up with the under-listed suggestions/recommendations: i. International organizations who's work that are related to Ocean and Pollution should send their teams of researchers to come and investigate the trend of this menace and proffer a possible lasting solution. ii. The United Nations should use its capacity to educate and

  5. North Atlantic Energy Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Derradji, A. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Inst. for Ocean Technology

    2005-07-01

    North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc. is in the process of designing a tidal fence for a site near the Straits of Belle Isle. This presentation provided details of both the design and the location in which the wave energy plant will be installed. Design constraints included a short seasonal work window, and a harsh but pristine environment. Design specifications of the paddlewheels and caissons were presented. The paddlewheel is iceberg and slab ice resistant, and has portals below the wheel axis, a water-free upper chamber, and bi-directional power generation. The planned installation sequence was presented, as well as details of a hydrodynamic simulation examining torque on the turbines in the tidal energy chamber. Results of the study indicated that 20 paddlewheels per caisson provided the equivalent of 12 MW of energy. A tidal fence of 70 to 80 caissons provided the equivalent of 1.2 GW of energy. A slab ice simulation study was outlined, and details of the pumping station, inlet and hydro-generation station were provided. A map of the proposed siting of the tidal fence was presented. It was concluded that financing for the pilot project has been granted. However, further financing for research and development is required. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Dispersion in North Atlantic Deep Water transfer between the northern source region and the South Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Oliver; Roether, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Bremen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) represents the Atlantic part of the deep, southward return arm of the oceanic 'conveyor belt', which moderates Europe's climate and effects most of the water transfer from the ocean surface into the deep waters globally. The transfer starts from the NADW formation regions, which in the case of upper NADW (approx. 1500-2000 m depth) is the Labrador Sea (far NW Atlantic). NADW is found concentrated toward the continental slope of the Americas, but subject to meandering, and to recirculation into, and mixing with, the waters of the interior Atlantic. Individual water parcels thus follow a complex ensemble of trajectories. We have obtained characteristics of that ensemble by fitting the free parameters of a suitable function using extensive observations of the transient tracers CFC-11, CFC-12, CCl{sub 4}, and tritium. A tracer transfer function of ocean-surface concentrations to those in newly formed NADW was derived as a precursory step. In the upper NADW we obtain RMS transfer-time dispersions on the way from the Labrador Sea of 31 years at 6 N rising to 53 years at 20 S, compared to mean transfer times ranging 46 to 79 years ({+-}20 %); furthermore, approximately 10 % to 40 % of the water is old, tracer-free water admixed on the way. Similar results have been obtained for lower NADW (approx. 2500-4000 m). The combination of tritium and CFC observations is particularly suited to constrain the dispersion, since it acts on the concentrations of these tracers in an opposite way. The tracer-adjusted transfer functions allow quantification of the NADW transport of pollutants and other compounds delivered to the NADW formation region. The results can furthermore check mean transfer times and large-scale dispersion of the NADW part of dynamic ocean circulation models.

  7. ProAtlantic - The Atlantic Checkpoint - Data Availability and Adequacy in the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, F.

    2017-12-01

    DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint is a basin scale wide monitoring system assessment activity based upon targeted end-user applications. It is designed to be a benchmark for the assessment of hydrographic, geological, habitat, climate and fisheries data existence and availability in the Atlantic basin. DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint service will be delivered by the ProAtlantic project. The objective of this project is to investigate, through appropriate methodologies in the framework of 11 key marine challenges, how current international and national data providers - e.g. EMODNet, Copernicus - meet the requirements of the stakeholders and deliver fit for purpose data. By so doing, the main thematic and geographic gaps will be readily identified in the Atlantic basin for future consideration by DG MARE. For each challenge, specific web products in the form of maps, metadata, spreadsheets and reports will be delivered. These products are not an end by themselves but rather a means of showing whether data were available, let alone accessible. For example, the Fisheries Impact Challenge outputs include data grids (VMS/Seabed) and data adequacy reports. Production of gridded data layers in order to show the extent of fisheries impact on the seafloor involved the identification, acquisition and collation of data sources for the required data types (VMS/Seabed/Habitats Data) in the Atlantic basin. The resulting spatial coverage of these grids indicates the relatively low level of data availability and adequacy across the Atlantic basin. Aside from the data delivered by programmes such as EMODNet and Copernicus, there are a lot of initiatives by regional bodies such as OSPAR and ICES that consist of assembling and disseminating data to address specific issues. Several international projects have delivered research, data collection, and networking around several of the Atlantic Checkpoint challenge topics, namely MPAs, renewable energy assessment, seabed mapping, oil spill

  8. 75 FR 30483 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... and 635 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3; Final Rule... and 635 [Docket No. 080519678-0217-02] RIN 0648-AW65 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark... available to rebuild blacknose sharks and end overfishing of blacknose and shortfin mako sharks, consistent...

  9. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    .... 120706221-2481-01] RIN 0648-XC106 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2013 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... the 2011 and 2012 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. We propose to keep the porbeagle shark...

  10. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... closing the commercial management groups for aggregated LCS and hammerhead sharks in the Atlantic region...

  11. 76 FR 72383 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine... plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark fisheries. The comment... potential catch shares programs in the Atlantic shark fisheries. Additionally, NMFS is extending the comment...

  12. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    .... 110831548-3536-02] RIN 0648-XC836 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries...) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal shark (SCS) quota from the Atlantic region to the Gulf... Atlantic shark permitted vessels. DATES: The quota transfer is effective from September 2, 2013 until...

  13. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    .... 110913585-1625-01] RIN 0648-BB36 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2012 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS proposes season openings based on...

  14. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  15. Marine proxy evidence linking decadal North Pacific and Atlantic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzinger, S. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Halfar, J. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mecking, J.V.; Keenlyside, N.S. [Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Kronz, A. [University of Goettingen, Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Goettingen (Germany); Steneck, R.S. [University of Maine, Darling Marine Center, Walpole, ME (United States); Adey, W.H. [Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, Washington, DC (United States); Lebednik, P.A. [ARCADIS U.S. Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Decadal- to multidecadal variability in the extra-tropical North Pacific is evident in 20th century instrumental records and has significant impacts on Northern Hemisphere climate and marine ecosystems. Several studies have discussed a potential linkage between North Pacific and Atlantic climate on various time scales. On decadal time scales no relationship could be confirmed, potentially due to sparse instrumental observations before 1950. Proxy data are limited and no multi-centennial high-resolution marine geochemical proxy records are available from the subarctic North Pacific. Here we present an annually-resolved record (1818-1967) of Mg/Ca variations from a North Pacific/Bering Sea coralline alga that extends our knowledge in this region beyond available data. It shows for the first time a statistically significant link between decadal fluctuations in sea-level pressure in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The record is a lagged proxy for decadal-scale variations of the Aleutian Low. It is significantly related to regional sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in late boreal winter on these time scales. Our data show that on decadal time scales a weaker Aleutian Low precedes a negative NAO by several years. This atmospheric link can explain the coherence of decadal North Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, as suggested by earlier studies using climate models and limited instrumental data. (orig.)

  16. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  17. The Recent Atlantic Cold Anomaly: Causes, Consequences, and Related Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josey, Simon A.; Hirschi, Joel J.-M.; Sinha, Bablu; Duchez, Aurélie; Grist, Jeremy P.; Marsh, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cold ocean temperature anomalies have been observed in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic on interannual to centennial timescales. Most notably, a large region of persistently low surface temperatures accompanied by a sharp reduction in ocean heat content was evident in the subpolar gyre from the winter of 2013-2014 to 2016, and the presence of this feature at a time of pervasive warming elsewhere has stimulated considerable debate. Here, we review the role of air-sea interaction and ocean processes in generating this cold anomaly and place it in a longer-term context. We also discuss the potential impacts of surface temperature anomalies for the atmosphere, including the North Atlantic Oscillation and European heat waves; contrast the behavior of the Atlantic with the extreme warm surface event that occurred in the North Pacific over a similar timescale; and consider the possibility that these events represent a response to a change in atmospheric planetary wave forcing.

  18. Atlantic CFC data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steinfeldt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC. The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.

  19. North Atlantic-Fennoscandian Holocene climate trends and mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sejrup, H.P.; Seppä, H.; McKay, N.; Kaufman, D.S.; Geirsdottir, A.; de Vernal, A.; Renssen, H.; Husum, K.; Jennings, A.; Andrews, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms behind Holocene regional climate trends from north of 58°N in the North Atlantic-Fennoscandian region Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed and a temperature anomaly stack produced from 81 proxy derived summer temperature time series from 74 sites. The PC

  20. Silvical characteristics of Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar ((Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.) has been a highly prized species since Colonial times because of the durability and high quality of its wood. The wood has been used for many purposes: boat boards, shingles and lath, framing, house and boat finish, pails and tanks, cabin logs, posts, and poles. Good white-cedar has always...

  1. A neural network-based estimate of the seasonal to inter-annual variability of the Atlantic Ocean carbon sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landschützer, P.; Gruber, N.; Bakker, D.C.E.

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean is one of the most important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), but this sink is known to vary substantially in time. Here we use surface ocean CO2 observations to estimate this sink and the temporal variability from 1998 to 2007 in the Atlantic Ocean. We benefit from ......, leading to a substantial trend toward a stronger CO2 sink for the entire South Atlantic (–0.14 Pg C yr–1 decade–1). The Atlantic carbon sink varies relatively little on inter-annual time-scales (±0.04 Pg C yr–1; 1σ)......The Atlantic Ocean is one of the most important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), but this sink is known to vary substantially in time. Here we use surface ocean CO2 observations to estimate this sink and the temporal variability from 1998 to 2007 in the Atlantic Ocean. We benefit from (i...... poleward of 40° N, but many other parts of the North Atlantic increased more slowly, resulting in a barely changing Atlantic carbon sink north of the equator (–0.007 Pg C yr–1 decade–1). Surface ocean pCO2 was also increasing less than that of the atmosphere over most of the Atlantic south of the equator...

  2. Evolution of Interhemispheric Sea-Surface Temperature Contrast in the Tropical Atlantic During Termination I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.

    2001-12-01

    Meteorological and oceanographic studies show that interannual and decadal variability in tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST) strongly influences the climates over northeast Brazil, sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the Central American and Caribbean regions. In this context, it is worthwhile to reconstruct spatial temperature patterns for the longer-term tropical Atlantic SST history. In this study, a high-resolution alkenone-derived SST record from the subtropical eastern South Atlantic (core GeoB 1023-5) is compared with one from the tropical western North Atlantic (core M35003-4). This comparison reveals synchronous SST variations between both near equatorial Atlantic regions during the Heinrich Event 1 (H1) (18-15.5 cal kyr B.P.), but dipole-like SST variations during the Younger Dryas (YD) (13-11.5 cal kyr B.P.). To assess the relationship of SST variations between both regions, we calculated SST differences between cores GeoB 1023-5 and M35003-4, and compared it with the coccolithophorid Florisphaera profunda abundance record from the equatorial eastern Atlantic (core RC24-08) as an indicator of variations in intensity of south-easterly trade winds [McIntyre and Molfino, 1996]. This comparison suggests that synchronous warming in both regions during the H1 can be attributed to a reduced northward heat transport from the warm equatorial Atlantic to the cold high-latitude North Atlantic linked to the slowdown of thermohaline circulation overturning during cold events under full glacial conditions. However, dipole-like SST variations during the YD is probably more associated with strengthened south-easterly trade winds, which led to a strong upwelling-related cooling in the eastern South Atlantic region and concurrently enhanced advection of warm subtropical South Atlantic waters to the tropical western Atlantic during that time. Accordingly, a coupled oceanic-atmospheric process created a warm pool in the tropical western Atlantic and thus a dipole

  3. Larval developmental rate, metabolic rate and future growth performance in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Jonathan Vaz; Åberg, Madelene; Gjoen, Hans Magnus

    2009-01-01

    , quantified as time to first feeding, and growth in later stages was demonstrated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The observed relationship between future growth and larval developmental rate suggests that sorting larvae by time to first feeding can be a potential tool to optimize feeding strategies...... and growth in commercial rearing of Atlantic salmon. Furthermore, the link between larval standard metabolic rate and developmental rate and future growth is discussed in the present study....

  4. 76 FR 13583 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... address concerns raised in a recent decision by a NOAA Administrative Law Judge (see Atlantic Tunas Transfer at Sea section for case reference). NMFS has prepared a draft Environmental Assessment (EA... subtraction of these allocations directly from the TAC, the recommendation allocates the remainder to the UK...

  5. Crescimento de folhas do capim-bermuda tifton 85 submetido à adubação nitrogenada após o corte Leaf growth of tifton 85 bermudagrass submitted to nitrogen fertilization after cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Monica Premazzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de doses e épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio após o corte no fator de correção de área foliar, na taxa de alongamento de folhas e no comprimento e área da lâmina foliar do capim-bermuda tifton 85 (Cynodon spp foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. Ambos os experimentos foram estabelecidos em vasos com capacidade para 7 kg de terra, com solo classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico típico, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, para avaliação de quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 80, 160 e 240 mg kg-1 de solo e duas épocas de aplicação (imediatamente após o corte e sete dias após o corte das plantas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Com o fornecimento de nitrogênio, observou-se diminuição no fator de correção de área foliar. O nitrogênio proporciona variação positiva no comprimento foliar, na área da lâmina foliar e na taxa de alongamento da folha, variações que ocorreram em maior grandeza entre a não-aplicação de nitrogênio e a dose de 80 mg kg-1 de solo.With the objective of evaluating the influence of nitrogen rates and application time after cutting on correction factor for leaf area, on leaf elongation rate and on blade leaf length and area of tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse. Both experiments were established in pots with capacity for 7 kg of soil classified as Entisol, in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme, for evaluation of four nitrogen rates (0, 80, 160 and 240 mg kg-1 of soil and two application times (immediately after cutting and seven days after cutting of the plants. It was used a complete randomized block design, with four replications. As nitrogen was supplied, it was observed a decrease in the correction factor for leaf area. There is a predominance of positive effects of nitrogen on leaf length, on leaf blade area and on leaf elongation rate

  6. A Latitudinal Metabolome of the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.; Kido Soule, M. C.; Longnecker, K.; Kujawinski, E. B.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial consortia function via the exchange and transformation of small organic molecules or metabolites. These metabolites make up a pool of rapidly cycling organic matter in the ocean that is challenging to characterize due to its low concentrations. We seek to determine the distribution of these molecules and the factors that shape their abundance and flux. Through measurements of the abundance of a core set of metabolites, including nucleic acids, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and signaling molecules, we gain a real-time snapshot of microbial activity. We used a targeted metabolomics technique to profile metabolite abundance in particulate and dissolved organic matter extracts collected from a 14,000 km transect running from 38˚S to 55˚N in the Western Atlantic Ocean. This extensive dataset is the first of its kind in the Atlantic Ocean and allows us to explore connections among metabolites as well as latitudinal trends in metabolite abundance. We found changes in the intracellular abundance of certain metabolites between low and high nutrient regions and a wide distribution of certain dissolved vitamins in the surface ocean. These measurements give us baseline data on the distribution of these metabolites and allow us to extend our understanding of microbial community activity in different regions of the ocean.

  7. Harvesting Atlantic Cod under Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature links the growth of a fishery to climate variability. This study uses an age-structured bioeconomic model to compare optimal harvest in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod fishery under a variable climate versus a static climate. The optimal harvest path depends on the relationship between fishery growth and the interest rate, with higher interest rates dictating greater harvests now at the cost of long-term stock sustainability. Given the time horizon of a single generation of fishermen under assumptions of a static climate, the model finds that the economically optimal management strategy is to harvest the entire stock in the short term and allow the fishery to collapse. However, if the biological growth of the fishery is assumed to vary with climate conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, there will always be pulses of high growth in the stock. During some of these high-growth years, the growth of the stock and its economic yield can exceed the growth rate of the economy even under high interest rates. This implies that it is not economically optimal to exhaust the New England cod fishery if NAO is included in the biological growth function. This finding may have theoretical implications for the management of other renewable yet exhaustible resources whose growth rates are subject to climate variability.

  8. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the southern Amazon during June-November. The relationship between North Atlantic tropical cyclones and southern Amazon fires (r = 0.61, p forests.

  9. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toften, H.; Jobling, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment

  10. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toften, H.; Jobling, M. [Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, N-9005 Tromsoe (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment.

  11. 75 FR 33531 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XW79 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine..., recent Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate that charter/headboat BFT landings constitute...

  12. Solar wind: A possible factor driving the interannual sea surface temperature tripolar mode over North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Li, Delin

    2016-06-01

    The effect of solar wind (SW) on the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in boreal winter is examined through an analysis of observational data during 1964-2013. The North Atlantic SSTs show a pronounced meridional tripolar pattern in response to solar wind speed (SWS) variations. This pattern is broadly similar to the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of interannual variations in the wintertime SSTs over North Atlantic. The time series of this leading EOF mode of SST shows a significant interannual period, which is the same as that of wintertime SWS. This response also appears as a compact north-south seesaw of sea level pressure and a vertical tripolar structure of zonal wind, which simultaneously resembles the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the overlying atmosphere. As compared with the typical low SWS winters, during the typical high SWS winters, the stratospheric polar night jet (PNJ) is evidently enhanced and extends from the stratosphere to the troposphere, even down to the North Atlantic Ocean surface. Notably, the North Atlantic Ocean is an exclusive region in which the SW signal spreads downward from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Thus, it seems that the SW is a possible factor for this North Atlantic SST tripolar mode. The dynamical process of stratosphere-troposphere coupling, together with the global atmospheric electric circuit-cloud microphysical process, probably accounts for the particular downward propagation of the SW signal.

  13. Bayesian hierarchical modelling of North Atlantic windiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanem, E.; Breivik, O. N.

    2013-03-01

    Extreme weather conditions represent serious natural hazards to ship operations and may be the direct cause or contributing factor to maritime accidents. Such severe environmental conditions can be taken into account in ship design and operational windows can be defined that limits hazardous operations to less extreme conditions. Nevertheless, possible changes in the statistics of extreme weather conditions, possibly due to anthropogenic climate change, represent an additional hazard to ship operations that is less straightforward to account for in a consistent way. Obviously, there are large uncertainties as to how future climate change will affect the extreme weather conditions at sea and there is a need for stochastic models that can describe the variability in both space and time at various scales of the environmental conditions. Previously, Bayesian hierarchical space-time models have been developed to describe the variability and complex dependence structures of significant wave height in space and time. These models were found to perform reasonably well and provided some interesting results, in particular, pertaining to long-term trends in the wave climate. In this paper, a similar framework is applied to oceanic windiness and the spatial and temporal variability of the 10-m wind speed over an area in the North Atlantic ocean is investigated. When the results from the model for North Atlantic windiness is compared to the results for significant wave height over the same area, it is interesting to observe that whereas an increasing trend in significant wave height was identified, no statistically significant long-term trend was estimated in windiness. This may indicate that the increase in significant wave height is not due to an increase in locally generated wind waves, but rather to increased swell. This observation is also consistent with studies that have suggested a poleward shift of the main storm tracks.

  14. Bayesian hierarchical modelling of North Atlantic windiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vanem

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions represent serious natural hazards to ship operations and may be the direct cause or contributing factor to maritime accidents. Such severe environmental conditions can be taken into account in ship design and operational windows can be defined that limits hazardous operations to less extreme conditions. Nevertheless, possible changes in the statistics of extreme weather conditions, possibly due to anthropogenic climate change, represent an additional hazard to ship operations that is less straightforward to account for in a consistent way. Obviously, there are large uncertainties as to how future climate change will affect the extreme weather conditions at sea and there is a need for stochastic models that can describe the variability in both space and time at various scales of the environmental conditions. Previously, Bayesian hierarchical space-time models have been developed to describe the variability and complex dependence structures of significant wave height in space and time. These models were found to perform reasonably well and provided some interesting results, in particular, pertaining to long-term trends in the wave climate. In this paper, a similar framework is applied to oceanic windiness and the spatial and temporal variability of the 10-m wind speed over an area in the North Atlantic ocean is investigated. When the results from the model for North Atlantic windiness is compared to the results for significant wave height over the same area, it is interesting to observe that whereas an increasing trend in significant wave height was identified, no statistically significant long-term trend was estimated in windiness. This may indicate that the increase in significant wave height is not due to an increase in locally generated wind waves, but rather to increased swell. This observation is also consistent with studies that have suggested a poleward shift of the main storm tracks.

  15. 77 FR 25144 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... The Council will consider input from the workgroup and workshops during its June meeting in Orlando... Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... public meeting and public workshop. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will...

  16. 78 FR 52487 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    .... 130402317-3707-01] RIN 0648-XC611 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2014 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... management measures to provide, to the extent practicable, fishing opportunities for commercial shark...

  17. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the... Fisheries Commission's (Commission) Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Coastal...

  18. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    .... 100825390-0431-01] RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures... on potential adjustments to the regulations governing the U.S. Atlantic shark fishery to address several specific issues currently affecting management of the shark fishery and to identify specific goals...

  19. 75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic... are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; the..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  20. 78 FR 65974 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Management Councils, the 18 states in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, both the U.S. Virgin Islands and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC935 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment...

  1. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    .... Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, and each of the constituent interstate commissions: the Atlantic States... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA776 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment...

  2. 78 FR 26523 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013 and 2014 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    .... 130104009-3416-02] RIN 0648-XC432 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013 and 2014 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... final specifications for the 2013 and 2014 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including annual catch limits...

  3. 77 FR 25100 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XA904 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... specifications for the 2012 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including an annual catch limit, total allowable landings...

  4. 77 FR 8776 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    .... 120201086-2085-01] RIN 0648-XA904 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes specifications for the 2012 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including an annual...

  5. 78 FR 11809 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... 130104009-3099-01] RIN 0648-XC432 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes specifications for the 2013 and 2014 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including...

  6. 76 FR 14378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... the Coastal Migratory Pelagics Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico... AP will also review Amendment 19 to the Coastal Migratory Pelagics FMP regarding alternatives for bag...

  7. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y; Randerson, JT; Morton, DC

    2015-01-01

    ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the south...

  8. Variations of Sea Surface Temperature, Wind Stress, and Rainfall over the Tropical Atlantic and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Paulo; Srukla, J.

    1996-10-01

    Empirical orthogonal functions (E0Fs) and composite analyses are used to investigate the development of sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly patterns over the tropical Atlantic. The evolution of large-scale rainfall anomaly patterns over the equatorial Atlantic and South America are also investigated. 71e EOF analyses revealed that a pattern of anomalous SST and wind stress asymmetric relative to the equator is the dominant mode of interannual and longer variability over the tropical Atlantic. The most important findings of this study are as follows.Atmospheric circulation anomalies precede the development of basinwide anomalous SST patterns over the tropical Atlantic. Anomalous SST originate off the African coast simultaneously with atmospheric circulation anomalies and expand westward afterward. The time lag between wind stress relaxation (strengthening) and maximum SST warming (cooling) is about two months.Anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns over northern tropical Atlantic are phase locked to the seasonal cycle. Composite fields of SLP and wind stress over northern tropical Atlantic can be distinguished from random only within a few months preceding the March-May (MAM) season. Observational evidence is presented to show that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the Pacific influences atmospheric circulation and SST anomalies over northern tropical Atlantic through atmospheric teleconnection patterns into higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.The well-known droughts over northeastern Brazil (Nordeste) are a local manifestation of a much larger-scale rainfall anomaly pattern encompassing the whole equatorial Atlantic and Amazon region. Negative rainfall anomalies to the south of the equator during MAM, which is the rainy season for the Nordeste region, are related to an early withdrawal of the intertropical convergence zone toward the warm SST anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic. Also, it is shown that precipitation anomalies

  9. Stalling Tropical Cyclones over the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.; Emanuel, K.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey produced massive amounts of rain over southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana. Average storm total rainfall amounts over a 10,000 square mile (26,000 square km) area exceeded 30 inches (750 mm). An important aspect of the storm that contributed to the large rainfall totals was its unusual motion. The storm stalled shortly after making landfall, then moved back offshore before once again making landfall five days later. This storm motion permitted heavy rainfall to occur in the same general area for an extended period of time. The unusual nature of this event motivates an investigation into the characteristics and potential climate change influences on stalled tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin using the HURDAT 2 storm track database for 1866-2016 and downscaled tropical cyclones driven by simulations of present and future climate. The motion of cyclones is quantified as the size of a circle circumscribing all storm locations during a given length of time. For a three-day period, Harvey remained inside a circle with a radius of 123 km. This ranks within the top 0.6% of slowest-moving historical storm instances. Among the 2% of slowest-moving storm instances prior to Harvey, only 13 involved storms that stalled near the continental United States coast, where they may have produced substantial rainfall onshore while tapping into marine moisture. Only two such storms stalled in the month of September, in contrast to 20 September stalls out of the 36 storms that stalled over the nearby open Atlantic. Just four of the stalled coastal storms were hurricanes, implying a return frequency for such storms of much less than once per decade. The synoptic setting of these storms is examined for common features, and historical and projected trends in occurrences of stalled storms near the coast and farther offshore are investigated.

  10. Atlantic continental margin of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, John A.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Palmer, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this Decade of North American Geology (D-NAG) volume will be to focus on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin, including the onshore coastal plain, related onshore Triassic-Jurassic rift grabens, and the offshore basins and platforms. Following multiple compressional tectonic episodes between Africa and North America during the Paleozoic Era that formed the Appalachian Mountains, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras were dominated by tensional tectonic processes that separated Africa and North America. Extensional rifting during Triassic and Early Jurassic times resulted in numerous tensional grabens both onshore and offshore, which filled with nonmarine continental red beds, lacustrine deposits, and volcanic flows and debris. The final stage of this breakup between Africa and North America occurred beneath the present outer continental shelf and continental slope during Early or Middle Jurassic time when sea-floor spreading began to form new oceanic crust and lithosophere between the two continents as they drifted apart. Postrift subsidence of the marginal basins continued in response to cooling of the lithosphere and sedimentary loading.Geophysical surveys and oil-exploration drilling along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin during the past 5 years are beginning to answer many questions concerning its deep structure and stratigraphy and how it evolved during the rifting and early sea-floor-spreading stages of the separation of this region from Africa. Earlier geophysical studies of the U.S. continental margin used marine refraction and submarine gravity measurements. Single-channel seismic-reflection, marine magnetic, aeromagnetic, and continuous gravity measurements became available during the 1960s.

  11. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity response to environmentally relevant complex metal mixture (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd) accumulated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Part I: importance of exposure time and tissue dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevičiūtė, Milda; Sauliutė, Gintarė; Svecevičius, Gintaras; Kazlauskienė, Nijolė; Baršienė, Janina

    2017-10-01

    Health impact of metal mixture at environment realistic concentrations are difficult to predict especially for long-term effects where cause-and-effect relationships may not be directly obvious. This study was aimed to evaluate metal mixture (Zn-0.1, Cu-0.01, Ni-0.01, Cr-0.01, Pb-0.005 and Cd-0.005 mg/L, respectively for 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days at concentrations accepted for the inland waters in EU) genotoxicity (micronuclei, nuclear buds, nuclear buds on filament), cytotoxicity (8-shaped nuclei, fragmented-apoptotic erythrocytes), bioaccumulation, steady-state and the reference level of geno-cytotoxicity in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon tissues. Metals accumulated mostly in gills and kidneys, to the lesser extent in the muscle. Uptake of metals from an entire mixture in the fish for 14 days is sufficient to reach steady-state Cr, Pb concentrations in all tissues; Zn, Cu-in kidneys and muscle, Ni-in liver, kidneys, muscle and Cd-in muscle. Treatment with metal mixture significantly increased summed genotoxicity levels at 7 days of exposure in peripheral blood and liver erythrocytes, at 14 days of exposure in gills and kidney erythrocytes. Significant elevation of cytotoxicity was detected after 2 and 14 days of exposure in gills erythrocytes and after 28 days-in peripheral blood erythrocytes. The amount of Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd accumulated in tissues was dependent upon duration of exposure; nuclear buds, 8-shaped nuclei frequencies also were dependent upon duration of exposure. This study indicates that metals at low levels when existing in mixture causes significant geno-cytotoxicity responses and metals bioaccumulation in salmon.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin (Convenia) in white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeil, James C; Schumacher, Juergen; George, Robert H; Bulman, Frank; Baine, Katherine; Cox, Sherry

    2014-06-01

    Cefovecin was administered to six healthy adult white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and six healthy adult Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) to determine its pharmacokinetics in these species. A single dose of cefovecin at 8 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously in the epaxial region of the bamboo sharks and in the proximal articulation of the lateral leg of the horseshoe crabs. Blood and hemolymph samples were collected at various time points from bamboo sharks and Atlantic horseshoe crabs. High performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine plasma levels of cefovecin. The terminal halflife of cefovecin in Atlantic horseshoe crabs was 37.70 +/- 9.04 hr and in white bamboo sharks was 2.02 +/- 4.62 hr. Cefovecin concentrations were detected for 4 days in white bamboo sharks and for 14 days in Atlantic horseshoe crabs. No adverse effects associated with cefovecin administration were seen in either species.

  13. The Red Atlantic: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jace

    2011-01-01

    The development of David Armitage's "white Atlantic" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black Atlantic" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…

  14. Chemical residues in Dolphins from the US Atlantic coast including atlantic bottlenose obtained during the 1987/88 mass mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, D.W.; Haebler, R.; Potter, C.

    1991-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) collected during the 1987/88 mass mortality event along the Atlantic coast of the United States have been analyzed for anthropogenic chemical contaminants. Average contaminant concentrations in adult males were higher than the average concentrations measured in adult females. Females could be divided into two groups by contaminant concentrations, one with low concentrations, and another with concentrations 4.4 times (PCBs) to 8.9 times (p,p'-DDE) greater. Contaminant concentrations in bottlenose were generally greater than the concentrations measured in either common (Delphinus delphis) or white-sided (Lagernorhynchus acutus) dolphins from the western North Atlantic Ocean. A subset of animals screened for unusual chemical contaminants showed that numerous polybrominated chemicals were present, including polybrominated biphenyls and diphenyl ethers not previously found in marine mammals from U.S. coastal waters.

  15. A Review of ENSO Influence on the North Atlantic. A Non-Stationary Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Rodríguez-Fonseca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric seasonal cycle of the North Atlantic region is dominated by meridional movements of the circulation systems: from the tropics, where the West African Monsoon and extreme tropical weather events take place, to the extratropics, where the circulation is dominated by seasonal changes in the jetstream and extratropical cyclones. Climate variability over the North Atlantic is controlled by various mechanisms. Atmospheric internal variability plays a crucial role in the mid-latitudes. However, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO is still the main source of predictability in this region situated far away from the Pacific. Although the ENSO influence over tropical and extra-tropical areas is related to different physical mechanisms, in both regions this teleconnection seems to be non-stationary in time and modulated by multidecadal changes of the mean flow. Nowadays, long observational records (greater than 100 years and modeling projects (e.g., CMIP permit detecting non-stationarities in the influence of ENSO over the Atlantic basin, and further analyzing its potential mechanisms. The present article reviews the ENSO influence over the Atlantic region, paying special attention to the stability of this teleconnection over time and the possible modulators. Evidence is given that the ENSO–Atlantic teleconnection is weak over the North Atlantic. In this regard, the multidecadal ocean variability seems to modulate the presence of teleconnections, which can lead to important impacts of ENSO and to open windows of opportunity for seasonal predictability.

  16. Temperature, salinity and and pigment data from CTD and bottle samples from the Bermuda Time Series (BATS/JGOFS) study area, Oct 1988 - Sep 1990 (NODC Accession 9200088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) is an international and multi- disciplinary study with a primary objective of understanding global oceanic carbon and...

  17. Radium 226 in the deep north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhein, M.

    1986-01-01

    With reference to the distribution of radium-226 in the western equatorial and north-eastern deep Atlantic Ocean it was possible to establish structures in the correlations of radium-226 to its chemical homologue Ba and dissolved SiO 2 . An 11-box model of the deep Atlantic Ocean was used to obtain information on the size of the radium-226 and Ba sources. The soil source derives mainly from the dissolution of barite. For the first time, an evaluation of the radium-226 flow resulting from the dissolution of particulate matter is presented. The box model and the radium-226 concentrations measured put down the value as 23-46·10 -21 mol/m 2 s. (DG) [de

  18. Changing statistics of storms in the North Atlantic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, H. von; Guddal, J.; Iden, K.A.; Jonsson, T.; Perlwitz, J.; Reistad, M.; Ronde, J. de; Schmidt, H.; Zorita, E.

    1993-01-01

    Problems in the present discussion about increasing storminess in the North Atlantic area are discusesd. Observational data so far available do not indicate a change in the storm statistics. Output from climate models points to an itensified storm track in the North Atlantic, but because of the limited skill of present-day climate models in simulating high-frequency variability and regional details any such 'forecast' has to be considered with caution. A downscaling procedure which relates large-scale time-mean aspects of the state of the atmosphere and ocean to the local statistics of storms is proposed to reconstruct past variations of high-frequency variability in the atmosphere (storminess) and in the sea state (wave statistics). First results are presented. (orig.)

  19. Status report on geochemical field results from Atlantic study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.S.; Thomson, J.; Hydes, D.J.; Colley, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarises the results of preliminary geochemical investigations at three North Atlantic study areas. The two eastern sites, on the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV2) and east of Great Meteor Seamount (GME) were visited during 1982. The results presented are preliminary. Studies in the western Atlantic, close to the Nares Abyssal Plain study site are more detailed and are presented in a separate paper. The report shows for the first time the relative redox status of the three sites. The differences are unexpectedly large, the most reduced cores being recovered at GME and the most oxidised at CV2. The sporadic nature of Recent sediment accumulation at these sites is also emphasised. In order to place these preliminary results in context their relevance to the production of mathematical system models is discussed in a closing section. The necessity for such models to rest on sound foundations of geochemical understanding is noted. Suggestions on future research priorities are offered for discussion. (author)

  20. Invasive lionfish drive Atlantic coral reef fish declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Green

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Island, Bahamas. We assessed lionfish diet through stomach contents analysis, and quantified changes in fish biomass through visual surveys of lionfish and native fishes at the sites over time. Lionfish abundance increased rapidly between 2004 and 2010, by which time lionfish comprised nearly 40% of the total predator biomass in the system. The increase in lionfish abundance coincided with a 65% decline in the biomass of the lionfish's 42 Atlantic prey fishes in just two years. Without prompt action to control increasing lionfish populations, similar effects across the region may have long-term negative implications for the structure of Atlantic marine communities, as well as the societies and economies that depend on them.

  1. Invasive lionfish drive Atlantic coral reef fish declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephanie J; Akins, John L; Maljković, Aleksandra; Côté, Isabelle M

    2012-01-01

    Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Island, Bahamas. We assessed lionfish diet through stomach contents analysis, and quantified changes in fish biomass through visual surveys of lionfish and native fishes at the sites over time. Lionfish abundance increased rapidly between 2004 and 2010, by which time lionfish comprised nearly 40% of the total predator biomass in the system. The increase in lionfish abundance coincided with a 65% decline in the biomass of the lionfish's 42 Atlantic prey fishes in just two years. Without prompt action to control increasing lionfish populations, similar effects across the region may have long-term negative implications for the structure of Atlantic marine communities, as well as the societies and economies that depend on them.

  2. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  3. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  4. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG037 during Bermuda / Hydrostation S / BATS 23 August 2015 in the NW Atlantic deployed from 2015-08-28 to 2016-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0162332)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  5. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG035 during Bermuda / Hydrostation S / BATS 30 January 2015 in the NW Atlantic deployed from 2015-01-30 to 2015-11-05 (NCEI Accession 0162319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  6. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG035 during Bermuda / Hydrostation S / BATS 20 March 2014 in the NW Atlantic deployed from 2014-03-20 to 2014-06-17 (NCEI Accession 0162366)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  7. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG038 during Bermuda / Hydrostation S / BATS 3 July 2015 in the NW Atlantic deployed from 2015-07-03 to 2015-11-13 (NCEI Accession 0162343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  8. Physical data collected from Seaglider SG036 during Bermuda / Hydrostation S / BATS 3 July 2015 in the NW Atlantic deployed from 2015-07-03 to 2015-10-09 (NCEI Accession 0162331)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seaglider is a buoyancy driven autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington's School of Oceanography and...

  9. Impacts of SST anomalies on the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation: a case study for the northern winter 1995/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, T.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departmento de Geofisica y Meteorologia, Madrid (Spain); Mechoso, C.R.; Ma, H.Y. [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The present paper selects the northern winter of December 1995-February 1996 for a case study on the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic and Western Europe. In the Atlantic, the selected winter was characterized by positive SST anomalies over the northern subtropics and east of Newfoundland, and negative anomalies along the US coast. A weak La Nina event developed in the Pacific. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was low, precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa was anomalously high, and precipitation over northern Europe was anomalously low. The method of study consists of assessing the sensitivity of ensemble simulations by the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model (UCLA AGCM) to SST anomalies from the observation, which are prescribed either in the World Oceans, the Atlantic Ocean only, or the subtropical North Atlantic only. The results obtained are compared with a control run that uses global, time-varying climatological SST. The ensemble simulations with global and Atlantic-only SST anomalies both produce results that resemble the observations over the North Atlantic and Western Europe. It is suggested that the anomalous behavior of the atmosphere in the selected winter over those regions, therefore, was primarily determined by conditions within the Atlantic basin. The simulated fields in the tropical North Atlantic show anomalous upward motion and lower (upper) level convergence (divergence) in the atmosphere overlying the positive SST anomalies. Consistently, the subtropical jet intensifies and its core moves equatorward, and precipitation increases over northern Africa and southern Europe. The results also suggest that the SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic only do not suffice to produce the atmospheric anomalies observed in the basin during the selected winter. The extratropical SST anomalies would provide a key contribution through increased

  10. Reconstruction of the North Atlantic end-member of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation over glacial-interglacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Seguí, M. J.; Knudson, K. P.; Yehudai, M.; Goldstein, S. L.; Pena, L. D.; Basak, C.; Ferretti, P.

    2017-12-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) represents the major water mass that drives the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC), which undergoes substantial reorganization with changing climate. In order to understand its impact on ocean circulation and climate through time, it is necessary to constrain its composition. We report Nd isotope ratios of Fe-Mn oxide encrusted foraminifera and fish debris from DSDP Site 607 (41.00N 32.96W, 3427m), in the present-day core of NADW, and ODP 1063 (33.68N 57.62W, 4585m), on the deep abyssal plain at the interface between NADW and Antarctic Bottom Water. We provide a new North Atlantic paleocirculation record covering 2 Ma. At Site 607 interglacial ɛNd-values are consistently similar to present-day NADW (ɛNd -13.5), with median ɛNd-values of -14.3 in the Early Pleistocene and -13.8 in the Late Pleistocene. Glacial ɛNd-values are higher by 1 ɛNd-unit in the Early Pleistocene, and 1.5-2 ɛNd-units in the Late Pleistocene. Site 1063 shows much greater variability, with ɛNd ranging from -10 to -26. We interpret the North Atlantic AMOC source as represented by the Site 607 interglacial ɛNd-values, which has remained nearly stable throughout the entire period. The higher glacial ɛNd-values reflect incursions of some southern-sourced waters to Site 607, which is supported by coeval shifts to lower benthic foraminiferal d13C. In contrast, the Site 1063 ɛNd-values do not appear to reflect the AMOC end-member, and likely reflects local effects from a bottom source. A period of greatly disrupted ocean circulation marks 950-850 Ma, which may have been triggered by enhanced ice growth in the Northern Hemisphere that began around 1.2 Ma, as suggested by possible input events of Nd from the surrounding cratons into the North Atlantic observed in Site 607. Interglacial AMOC only recovers to the previously observed vigor over 200 ka following the disruption, whereas further intensified SSW incursion into the deep North Atlantic come to

  11. Towards an integrated observing system for ocean carbon and biogeochemistry at a time of change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gruber, N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available . The longest time-series for inorganic carbon started in the early 1980s (Keeling, 1993, Gruber et al., 2001; Bates, 1997) near Bermuda and in 1988 was joined by a second time-series near Hawaii (Sabine et al., 1995; Dore et al., 2003; Keeling et al., 2004... century primarily as a result of the burning of fossil fuels (Sarmiento and Gruber, 2002). In response, atmospheric CO2 has GRUBER ET AL: AN INTEGRATED BIOGEOCHEMICAL OBSERVING SYSTEM 2 increased by more than 100 ppm (30%), with today’s concentration...

  12. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouteux, B. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Muir, D.C.G. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)], E-mail: Derek.Muir@ec.gc.ca; Backus, S. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Born, E.W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Dietz, R. [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Haug, T. [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 6404, N-9294 Tromso (Norway); Metcalfe, T.; Metcalfe, C. [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Oien, N. [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2008-05-15

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and {sigma}CHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170 {+-} 110 and 41 {+-} 39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800 {+-} 4100 and 1100 {+-} 780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters. - High levels of toxaphene were found in different sub-populations of minke whales from North Atlantic waters.

  13. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouteux, B.; Muir, D.C.G.; Backus, S.; Born, E.W.; Dietz, R.; Haug, T.; Metcalfe, T.; Metcalfe, C.; Oien, N.

    2008-01-01

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and ΣCHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170 ± 110 and 41 ± 39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800 ± 4100 and 1100 ± 780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters. - High levels of toxaphene were found in different sub-populations of minke whales from North Atlantic waters

  14. Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation footprint on global high cloud cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaideanu, Petru; Dima, Mihai; Voiculescu, Mirela

    2017-12-01

    Due to the complexity of the physical processes responsible for cloud formation and to the relatively short satellite database of continuous data records, cloud behavior in a warming climate remains uncertain. Identifying physical links between climate modes and clouds would contribute not only to a better understanding of the physical processes governing their formation and dynamics, but also to an improved representation of the clouds in climate models. Here, we identify the global footprint of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on high cloud cover, with focus on the tropical and North Atlantic, tropical Pacific and on the circum-Antarctic sector. In the tropical band, the sea surface temperature (SST) and high cloud cover (HCC) anomalies are positively correlated, indicating a dominant role played by convection in mediating the influence of the AMO-related SST anomalies on the HCC field. The negative SST-HCC correlation observed in North Atlantic could be explained by the reduced meridional temperature gradient induced by the AMO positive phase, which would be reflected in less storms and negative HCC anomalies. A similar negative SST-HCC correlation is observed around Antarctica. The corresponding negative correlation around Antarctica could be generated dynamically, as a response to the intensified upward motion in the Ferrel cell. Despite the inherent imperfection of the observed and reanalysis data sets, the AMO footprint on HCC is found to be robust to the choice of dataset, statistical method, and specific time period considered.

  15. IgE profiles of Bermuda grass pollen sensitised patients evaluated by Phleum pratense allergens Phl P 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 , 7, 11, 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Renato E; Monasterolo, Giorgio; Prina, Paolo; Coco, Giuseppe; Operti, Daniela; Rossi, Lucilla

    2008-06-01

    Despite the difference in geographical dominance of certain grasses, a high degree of allergenic similarity or cross-reactivity between Bermuda grass pollen (BGP) and timothy grass pollen (TGP) has been previously demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the sensitisation to TGP in 411 patients known for their reactivity to BGP extracts by analysing their reactivity to crude timothy pollen extract and timothy pollen purified allergens, establishing their specific IgE-profiles. Using the immunoenzymatic CAP method we evaluated IgE-specific antibodies for BGP- and TGP- extracts and the timothy recombinant (r) and natural (n) allergens rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, nPhl p 4, rPhl p 5, rPhl p 6, rPhl p 7, rPhl p 11, and rPhl p 12. BGP-IgE positive patients (median = 8.0 kUA/l, 2.8-22.2 kUA/l 25th-75th percentile) simultaneously had IgE positive results for TGP (100% of subjects)(median = 48.9 kUA/l, 19.8- > 100 kUA/l 25th-75th percentile) and high prevalence of sensitization to 6/8 Phleum pratense allergens (Phl p 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, markers of genuine sensitisation to TGP) other than profilin and calcium binding protein. More than 72% of BGP allergic patients were co-sensitised to rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, nPhl p 4, rPhl p 5, rPhl p 6. A decrease of total and specific IgE with patients' age was observed. Our data show that all BGP-allergic patients simultaneously exhibit higher IgE antibody levels to recombinant and natural P. pratense allergens as well as to crude TGP extract. This suggests that when choosing an immunotherapeutic regimen for BGP-sensitised patients (after establishing their IgE profile via purified TGP-allergens), subcutaneous or sublingual TGP-extract vaccines in appropriate doses, in order to influence T epitope specificity, might be beneficial. Though extremely uncommon, in cases where a patient is exclusively BGP allergen-sensitised, BGP-extract therapy is the appropriate therapeutic response.

  16. Isotope analysis reveals foraging area dichotomy for atlantic leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI. Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively. Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by

  17. The imprint of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on Atlantic bluefin tuna otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, Igaratza; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Kölling, Martin; Santos, Miguel Neves; Macías, David; Addis, Piero; Dettman, David L.; Karakulak, Saadet; Deguara, Simeon; Rooker, Jay R.

    2016-06-01

    Otoliths of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) collected from the Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean were analyzed to evaluate changes in the seawater isotopic composition over time. We report an annual otolith δ13C record that documents the magnitude of the δ13C depletion in the Mediterranean Sea between 1989 and 2010. Atlantic bluefin tuna in our sample (n = 632) ranged from 1 to 22 years, and otolith material corresponding to the first year of life (back-calculated birth year) was used to reconstruct seawater isotopic composition. Otolith δ18O remained relatively stable between 1989 and 2010, whereas a statistically significant decrease in δ13C was detected across the time interval investigated, with a rate of decline of 0.05‰ yr- 1 (- 0.94‰ depletion throughout the recorded period). The depletion in otolith δ13C over time was associated with the oceanic uptake of anthropogenically derived CO2.

  18. Building the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, T. [Atlantica Centre for Energy, Saint John, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: tim.curry@atlanticaenergy.org

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada. The energy development is poised to help transform the economy of New Brunswick. Planning for energy projects and supporting infrastructure are under way and regional opportunities are emerging.

  19. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark Reproductive Biology Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Atlantic sharpnose sharks were collected from specimens captured throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico on various research vessels. Data...

  20. Building the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada. The energy development is poised to help transform the economy of New Brunswick. Planning for energy projects and supporting infrastructure are under way and regional opportunities are emerging

  1. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  2. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  3. Atlantic energy and the strategic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Isbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweeping changes are beginning to transform energy scenarios around the world. The gas revolution, a renaissance in petroleum technology and exploration, and a chaotic but powerful movement toward the goal of low-carbon economies are three of the principal energy trends currently interacting with structural changes in the geo-economics of the Atlantic world to present new perspectives and opportunitiesfor the diverse actors in the ‘Atlantic Basin’. This article explores how changes in the energy landscape are contributing to a reassessment of the strategic horizon. The potential impacts of the shale revolution, deep-offshore oil, biofuels and other modern renewable energies on the geopolitics of the Atlantic Basin will be assessed, and the hypothesis that an Atlantic Basin energy system is now taking shape will be evaluated, along with an analysis of anticipated impacts.

  4. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  5. Temperature fluctuations in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjoello, Solfrid Saetre

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the temperature fluctuations in connection with drought in Africa, the climate in North America, the European heat waves and the frequent tropical hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. Problems with climate modelling and some pollution aspects are mentioned

  6. Pigment species, depth, and pressure data from bottle and CTD casts in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study / Time Series Site "BATS" (JGOFS/BATS) project, from 1993-10-01 to 1996-12-31 (NODC Accession 9800186)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pigment species, depth, and pressure data were collected using bottle and CTD casts from the R/V WEATHERBIRD in the North Atlantic Ocean from October 1, 1993 to...

  7. Monitoring the South Atlantic Anomaly Using ATSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Stefano; Arino, Olivier; Serpe, Danilo

    2010-12-01

    Space mission planning needs to quantify the risks arising from exposure to high doses of radiation, as to both the effects on human health and the impact on instrumental efficiency. Constant monitoring of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is therefore required as it is a major cause of radiation flux increase. In order to address this need, the time evolution of the particle induced noise of the SWIR channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) instrument series is analysed in the 1991-2009 time window. The data considered in this work are the night-time SWIR hot spots generated by energetic particles hitting the ATSR detectors when satellites pass through the SAA region. To avoid misinterpretation of results, hot spots due to wildfires (individuated from the ATSR World Fire Atlas products) have been removed. The location and area of the SAA are inferred by fitting a two-dimensional, elliptical Gaussian equation to the SWIR (1.6 μm) night- time hot spots detected over the SAA region. The location of the SAA is found to drift westwards with an average drift rate of about 0.35 deg/yr and northward with an average drift rate of about 0.12 deg/yr. These results are in very good agreement with latest works. Irregularities are found where the speed of the drift changes and the SAA moves eastward and southward, especially in the late 1991 and 2002-2003 time windows. These drift anomalies are attributed to geomagnetic jerks. Results indicate that, as expected, the strength and the area of the SAA are anti-correlated with the sun-spot numbers (SSN) and the 11.7 cm Solar Flux (SF).

  8. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-08 to 2014-02-10 (NODC Accession 0123613)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123613 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  9. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-01 to 2013-07-12 (NODC Accession 0117838)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117838 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  10. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-05-06 to 2016-06-05 (NCEI Accession 0153543)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0153543 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  11. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-04-05 to 2013-06-07 (NODC Accession 0117812)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117812 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  12. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-05-12 to 2015-06-10 (NCEI Accession 0129440)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129440 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  13. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the Bay of Fundy and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-09-06 to 2013-11-19 (NCEI Accession 0115901)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115901 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  14. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-05-19 to 2014-05-20 (NODC Accession 0118685)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118685 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  15. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-10-18 to 2016-10-20 (NCEI Accession 0164092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164092 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  16. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-09-21 to 2016-09-29 (NCEI Accession 0164083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164083 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  17. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-11-12 to 2016-11-18 (NCEI Accession 0164093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164093 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  18. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-07-03 to 2016-08-03 (NCEI Accession 0155990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155990 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  19. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-10-12 to 2015-11-24 (NCEI Accession 0138341)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0138341 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  20. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-10-04 to 2016-10-13 (NCEI Accession 0164086)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164086 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  1. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-04-11 to 2017-06-17 (NCEI Accession 0164341)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164341 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  2. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-06-20 to 2017-07-06 (NCEI Accession 0165349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0165349 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  3. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-07-08 to 2017-07-26 (NCEI Accession 0165226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0165226 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  4. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-04-10 to 2016-04-20 (NCEI Accession 0165360)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0165360 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  5. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the North Atlantic Ocean, Rio de la Plata and others from 2017-02-11 to 2017-03-15 (NCEI Accession 0164157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164157 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  6. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-08-07 to 2012-08-24 (NODC Accession 0125711)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125711 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  7. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-01 to 2013-08-18 (NODC Accession 0115902)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115902 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  8. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-03-13 to 2015-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0128346)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0128346 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  9. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-07-02 to 2017-07-18 (NCEI Accession 0165352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0165352 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  10. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-08-12 to 2015-08-21 (NCEI Accession 0131861)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0131861 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  11. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-04-04 to 2014-11-18 (NODC Accession 0122407)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0122407 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  12. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-02-09 to 2015-02-13 (NODC Accession 0125757)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125757 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  13. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-05-04 to 2014-05-31 (NODC Accession 0118842)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118842 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  14. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-05-05 to 2014-05-09 (NCEI Accession 0149716)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0149716 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  15. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-04-14 to 2015-06-13 (NCEI Accession 0128347)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0128347 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  16. Underway meteorological, time series, navigational, physical and optical data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-24 to 2014-03-18 (NCEI Accession 0123616)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123616 contains raw underway meteorological, time series, navigational, physical and optical data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  17. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-06-10 to 2017-06-23 (NCEI Accession 0164441)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164441 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  18. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-05-21 to 2016-06-04 (NCEI Accession 0155169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155169 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  19. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-07-04 to 2014-07-31 (NODC Accession 0120740)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0120740 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  20. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-06-15 to 2015-06-28 (NCEI Accession 0129875)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129875 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  1. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-08-09 to 2014-10-07 (NODC Accession 0125346)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125346 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  2. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-06-18 to 2015-07-01 (NCEI Accession 0129541)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129541 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  3. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-09-24 to 2013-11-04 (NODC Accession 0123614)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123614 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  4. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-07-25 to 2015-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0132051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0132051 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  5. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-12 to 2013-07-21 (NODC Accession 0113448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113448 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  6. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-06-30 to 2016-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0165361)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0165361 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  7. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-05-19 to 2015-06-03 (NCEI Accession 0129421)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129421 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  8. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-07-26 to 2014-09-29 (NODC Accession 0122397)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0122397 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  9. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-03-31 to 2014-05-23 (NODC Accession 0119096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0119096 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  10. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-07-11 to 2017-07-22 (NCEI Accession 0164798)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164798 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  11. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-07-22 to 2017-07-26 (NCEI Accession 0164960)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164960 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  12. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-07-26 to 2017-08-10 (NCEI Accession 0164961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164961 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  13. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-09-01 to 2015-11-06 (NCEI Accession 0132052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0132052 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  14. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-07-24 to 2014-07-30 (NODC Accession 0125266)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125266 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  15. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-08-31 to 2013-09-07 (NODC Accession 0113487)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113487 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  16. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-07-06 to 2014-08-02 (NODC Accession 0121197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0121197 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  17. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-07-10 to 2015-08-04 (NCEI Accession 0130690)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0130690 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  18. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-05-31 to 2012-06-14 (NODC Accession 0125709)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125709 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  19. Carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected via time series monitoring from METEOR, POSEIDON and others in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1995-10-02 to 2009-11-25 (NODC Accession 0100064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100064 includes chemical, physical, time series and underway - surface data collected from METEOR, POSEIDON, TALIARTE and VICTOR HENSEN in the North...

  20. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-04-20 to 2014-04-30 (NODC Accession 0118187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118187 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  1. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-09-07 to 2016-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0164080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164080 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  2. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-07-06 to 2017-07-19 (NCEI Accession 0164783)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164783 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  3. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-02-27 to 2012-05-04 (NODC Accession 0125710)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125710 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  4. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-07-27 to 2015-08-07 (NCEI Accession 0130538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0130538 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  5. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-08-05 to 2014-08-16 (NODC Accession 0125265)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125265 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  6. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-09-01 to 2014-09-14 (NODC Accession 0123337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123337 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  7. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-06-08 to 2017-06-22 (NCEI Accession 0164795)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164795 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  8. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the Bay of Fundy and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-09-07 to 2014-11-13 (NODC Accession 0123520)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123520 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  9. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-11-12 to 2015-11-17 (NCEI Accession 0138157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0138157 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  10. Underway navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-06-17 to 2013-10-02 (NODC Accession 0123055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123055 contains raw underway navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA Ship Thomas...

  11. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-05-19 to 2015-06-03 (NCEI Accession 0134847)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0134847 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  12. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-06-18 to 2014-07-01 (NODC Accession 0125584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125584 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  13. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-06-10 to 2013-06-24 (NODC Accession 0115702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115702 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  14. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-06-18 to 2012-06-28 (NODC Accession 0125666)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125666 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  15. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-03-11 to 2013-03-13 (NODC Accession 0123054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123054 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  16. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-07-04 to 2012-07-18 (NODC Accession 0125758)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125758 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  17. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-09-04 to 2012-11-11 (NODC Accession 0125919)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125919 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  18. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-07-18 to 2016-08-25 (NCEI Accession 0162239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162239 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  19. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-03-14 to 2013-05-09 (NODC Accession 0115052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115052 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  20. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-06-10 to 2015-07-02 (NCEI Accession 0129527)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129527 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  1. Underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2017-03-28 to 2017-04-27 (NCEI Accession 0164797)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164797 contains raw underway biological, meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  2. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-06-24 to 2015-07-03 (NCEI Accession 0142627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0142627 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  3. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2016-06-08 to 2016-06-25 (NCEI Accession 0155294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155294 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  4. Underway composition & location, meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the Bay of Fundy and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-06-18 to 2015-07-24 (NCEI Accession 0130005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0130005 contains raw underway composition & location, meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the...

  5. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-11-12 to 2014-11-21 (NODC Accession 0125582)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125582 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  6. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-08-07 to 2015-09-28 (NCEI Accession 0131988)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0131988 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  7. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-09-10 to 2013-09-20 (NODC Accession 0113488)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113488 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  8. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-05-07 to 2014-05-22 (NODC Accession 0125618)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125618 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  9. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile, time series and trawl data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-03-11 to 2014-04-28 (NODC Accession 0118186)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0118186 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile, time series and trawl data logged by the Scientific Computer...

  10. Streamflow characteristics of a naturally drained forested watershed in southeast Atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin

    2010-01-01

    Information about streamflow characteristics e.g. runoff-rainfall (R/O) ratio, rate and timing of flow, surface and subsurface drainage (SSD), and response time to rainfall events is necessary to accurately simulate fluxes and for designing best management practices (BMPs). Unfortunately, those data are scarce in the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, a highly...

  11. The Relationships between Tropical Pacific and Atlantic SST and Northeast Brazil Monthly Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Repelli, Carlos A.; Zebiak, Stephen E.; Kushnir, Yochanan

    1998-04-01

    The monthly patterns of northeast Brazil (NEB) precipitation are analyzed in relation to sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, using singular value decomposition. It is found that the relationships between precipitation and SST in both basins vary considerably throughout the rainy season (February-May). In January, equatorial Pacific SST is weakly correlated with precipitation in small areas of southern NEB, but Atlantic SST shows no significant correlation with regional precipitation. In February, Pacific SST is not well related to precipitation, but south equatorial Atlantic SST is positively correlated with precipitation over the northern Nordeste, the latter most likely reflecting an anomalously early (or late) southward migration of the ITCZ precipitation zone. During March, equatorial Pacific SST is negatively correlated with Nordeste precipitation, but no consistent relationship between precipitation and Atlantic SST is found. Atlantic SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are the strongest found among all months or either ocean. Precipitation in the Nordeste is positively correlated with SST in the south tropical Atlantic and negatively correlated with SST in the north tropical Atlantic. These relationships are strong enough to determine the structure of the seasonal mean SST-precipitation correlations, even though the corresponding patterns for the earlier months of the season are quite different. Pacific SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are similar to those for March. Extreme wet (dry) years for the Nordeste occur when both Pacific and Atlantic SST patterns for April and May occur simultaneously. A separate analysis reinforces previous findings in showing that SST in the tropical Pacific and the northern tropical Atlantic are positively correlated and that tropical Pacific-south Atlantic correlations are negligible.Time-lagged analyses show the potential for forecasting either seasonal mean

  12. Interannual-to-decadal air-sea interactions in the tropical Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo

    2001-09-01

    The present research identifies modes of atmosphere-ocean interaction in the tropical Atlantic region and the mechanisms by which air-sea interactions influence the regional climate. Novelties of the present work are (1)the use of relevant ocean and atmosphere variables important to identity coupled variability in the system. (2)The use of new data sets, including realistic diabatic heating. (3)The study of interactions between ocean and atmosphere relevant at interannual-to-decadal time scales. Two tropical modes of variability are identified during the period 1958-1993, the Atlantic Niño mode and the Interhemispheric mode. Those modes have defined structures in both ocean and atmosphere. Anomalous sea surface temperatures and winds are associated to anomalous placement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). They develop maximum amplitude during boreal summer and spring, respectively. The anomalous positioning of the ITCZ produces anomalous precipitation in some places like Nordeste, Brazil and the Caribbean region. Through the use of a diagnostic primitive equation model, it is found that the most important terms controlling local anomalous surface winds over the ocean are boundary layer temperature gradients and diabatic heating anomalies at low levels (below 780 mb). The latter is of particular importance in the deep tropics in producing the anomalous meridional response to the surface circulation. Simulated latent heat anomalies indicate that a thermodynamic feedback establishes positive feedbacks at both sides of the equator and west of 20°W in the deep tropics and a negative feedback in front of the north west coast of Africa for the Interhemispheric mode. This thermodynamic feedback only establishes negative feedbacks for the Atlantic Niño mode. Transients establish some connection between the tropical Atlantic and other basins. Interhemispheric gradients of surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic influence winds in the midlatitude North

  13. Variations in Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange across the late Pliocene climate transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallardo, Ángela; Grunert, Patrick; Piller, Werner E.

    2018-03-01

    Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar plays a significant role in the global ocean-climate dynamics in two ways. On one side, the injection of the saline and warm Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) contributes to North Atlantic deep-water formation. In return, the Atlantic inflow is considered a sink of less saline water for the North Atlantic Ocean. However, while the history of MOW is the focus of numerous studies, the Pliocene Atlantic inflow has received little attention so far. The present study provides an assessment of the Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange with a focus on the Atlantic inflow strength and its response to regional and global climate from 3.33 to 2.60 Ma. This time interval comprises the mid-Pliocene warm period (MPWP; 3.29-2.97 Ma) and the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG). For this purpose, gradients in surface δ18O records of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber between the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1389E (Gulf of Cádiz) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 978A (Alboran Sea) have been evaluated. Interglacial stages and warm glacials of the MPWP revealed steep and reversed (relative to the present) W-E δ18O gradients suggesting a weakening of Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange likely caused by high levels of relative humidity in the Mediterranean region. In contrast, periods of stronger inflow are indicated by flat δ18O gradients due to more intense arid conditions during the severe glacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2 and the initiation of NHG (MIS G22, G14, G6-104). Intensified Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange in cold periods is linked to the occurrence of ice-rafted debris (IRD) at low latitudes and a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Our results thus suggest the development of a negative feedback between AMOC and exchange rates at the Strait of Gibraltar in the latest Pliocene as it has been proposed for the late Quaternary.

  14. Decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and southeast Australia surface air temperature in austral summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaqing; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Sen; Mao, Jiangyu; Dong, Di; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Austral summer (December-February) surface air temperature over southeast Australia (SEA) is found to be remotely influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Atlantic at decadal time scales. In austral summer, warm SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic induce concurrent above-normal surface air temperature over SEA. This decadal-scale teleconnection occurs through the eastward propagating South Atlantic-Australia (SAA) wave train triggered by SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic. The excitation of the SAA wave train is verified by forcing experiments based on both linear barotropic and baroclinic models, propagation pathway and spatial scale of the observed SAA wave train are further explained by the Rossby wave ray tracing analysis in non-uniform basic flow. The SAA wave train forced by southwest South Atlantic warming is characterized by an anomalous anticyclone off the eastern coast of the Australia. Temperature diagnostic analyses based on the thermodynamic equation suggest anomalous northerly flows on western flank of this anticyclone can induce low-level warm advection anomaly over SEA, which thus lead to the warming of surface air temperature there. Finally, SST-forced atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments also demonstrate that SST forcing in the South Atlantic is associated with the SAA teleconnection wave train in austral summer, this wave train then modulate surface air temperature over SEA on decadal timescales. Hence, observations combined with numerical simulations consistently demonstrate the decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and summertime surface air temperature over SEA.

  15. 76 FR 37788 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... meeting of its Law Enforcement AP in Orlando, FL. DATES: The meeting will take place July 20, 2011. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Marriott Renaissance Orlando Hotel, 5445... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine...

  16. 76 FR 23935 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    .... 110120049-1144-01] RIN 0648-BA69 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures... retention, transshipping, landing, storing, or selling of hammerhead sharks in the family Sphyrnidae (except for Sphyrna tiburo) and oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) caught in association with...

  17. 75 FR 50715 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... [Docket No. 080519678-0313-03] RIN 0648-AW65 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management... for adjusting annual shark quotas based on over- and underharvests. This correction makes a change to...), instruction 12a revised 50 CFR 635.27 (b)(1)(i) through (v), relating to, among other things, pelagic shark...

  18. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date... commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform... large coastal shark fishery will open on July 15, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karyl Brewster...

  19. 77 FR 21015 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XB116 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... to their ability to attract customers. In addition, 2011 Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate...

  20. 78 FR 20258 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 120306154-2241-02] RIN 0648-XC593 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... retention limit is vital to their ability to attract customers. In addition, 2012 Large Pelagics Survey...

  1. 76 FR 18416 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 100317152-0176-01] RIN 0648-XA327 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... ability to attract customers. In addition, recent Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate that charter...

  2. Weathering During Glacial-Interglacial Cycles Based on Pb Isotopes at Orphan Knoll, NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, S. N.; Martin, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Seawater Pb isotopes extracted from FeMn oxyhydroxide coatings on deep sea sediments preserve a record of regional variations in continental weathering intensity. Crocket et al. (2012) documented a distinct increase in seawater Pb isotopes across Termination I (TI) at IODP Sites U1302/03 on Orphan Knoll in the NW Atlantic which they attributed to an increase in weathering intensity associated with ice sheet retreat. Deglaciation during Termination II (TII) was more rapid than TI due to higher insolation forcing and elevated CO2 levels. This rapid warming followed Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11) cooling and circulation changes, but was not interrupted by a Younger Dryas-type reversal in warming. In this study, Pb isotopic data from leachates of the Sites U1302/03 are used to test whether changes in weathering are a feature of terminations and whether differences in the character of the termination translate to differences in the weathering response. We analyzed the clay/silt fraction to minimize preformed FeMn oxyhydroxides associated with IRD. All three Pb isotopic systems display similar patterns. Seawater 206Pb/204Pb values are 19.5 during MIS 6, reach a minimum of 18.7 during HS11, increase in < 1 ky to 20.6 in MIS 5e, and then vary between 19.9 - 20.5 across MIS 5e-d. In comparison to the TI study (Crocket et al., 2009), the TII HS is defined by a minimum in Pb isotopes that suggests suppressed chemical weathering during cooling and ice sheet advance. The increase in 206Pb/204Pb during TII indicates a rapid increase in weathering at high latitudes following glacial retreat. This result is consistent with a negative shift in ɛNd values during TII observed farther south on Bermuda Rise and interpreted as increased weathering of old continental material (Deaney et al. 2017). Future research on TII at Orphan Knoll includes analyses of detrital Pb isotopes to isolate the impact of changes in source material versus weathering intensity on seawater Pb isotopes, and

  3. A Tropical View of Atlantic Multidecadal SST Variability over the Last Two Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, J. B.; Black, D. E.; Thunell, R.; Peterson, L. C.; Tappa, E. J.; Rahman, S.

    2011-12-01

    Instrumental and proxy-reconstructions show the existence of a 60-80 year periodicity in Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST), known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The AMO is correlated with circum-tropical Atlantic climate phenomena such as Sahel and Nordeste rainfall, as well as Atlantic hurricane patterns. Though it has been suggested that the AMO is controlled by thermohaline circulation, much debate exists as to whether the SST fluctuations are a result of anthropogenic forcing or natural climate variability. Our ability to address this issue has been limited by instrumental SST records that rarely extend back more than 50-100 years and proxy reconstructions that are largely terrestrial-based. Here we present a high-resolution marine sediment-derived reconstruction of seasonal tropical Atlantic SSTs from the Cariaco Basin spanning the past two millennia that is correlated with instrumental SSTs and the AMO for the period of overlap. The full record demonstrates that seasonality is largely controlled by variations in winter/spring SST. Wavelet analysis of the proxy data suggest that variability in the 60-80 year band evolved 250 years ago, while 40-60 year periodicities dominate earlier parts of the record. At least over the last millennia, multidecadal- and centennial- scale SST variability in the tropical Atlantic appears related to Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) fluctuations and its associated northward heat transport that in turn may be driven by solar variability. An inverse correlation between the tropical proxy annual average SST record and Δ14C indicates that the tropics experienced positive SST anomalies during times of reduced solar activity, possibly as a result of decreased AMOC strength (Figure 1).

  4. Habitat selection and overlap of Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass juveniles in nursery streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, G.; Coghlan, S.M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Trial, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduced smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have invaded much of the historic freshwater habitat of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in North America, yet little is known about the ecological interactions between the two species. We investigated the possibility of competition for habitat between age-0 Atlantic salmon and age-0 and age-1 smallmouth bass by means of in situ observations and a mesocosm experiment. We used snorkel observation to identify the degree and timing of overlap in habitat use in our in situ observations and to describe habitat shifts by Atlantic salmon in the presence of smallmouth bass in our mesocosm experiments. In late July 2008, we observed substantial overlap in the depths and mean water column velocities used by both species in sympatric in situ conditions and an apparent shift by age-0 Atlantic salmon to shallower water that coincided with the period of high overlap. In the mesocosm experiments, we detected no overlap or habitat shifts by age-0 Atlantic salmon in the presence age-1 smallmouth bass and low overlap and no habitat shifts of Atlantic salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in fall 2009. In 2009, summer floods with sustained high flows and low temperatures resulted in the nearly complete reproductive failure of the smallmouth bass in our study streams, and we did not observe a midsummer habitat shift by Atlantic salmon similar to that seen in 2008. Although this prevented us from replicating our 2008 experiments under similar conditions, the virtual year-class failure of smallmouth bass itself is enlightening. We suggest that future studies incorporate the effects of varying temperature and discharge to determine how abiotic factors affect the interactions between these species and thus mediate the outcomes of potential competition.

  5. The wood industry in Atlantic Canada: A focus on value-added

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This report prepared by the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency in consultation with the four Atlantic provinces focuses on the value-added aspects of the wood products industry in Atlantic Canada. It also examines the state of the resource, the state of the industry, productivity and economic benefits, products and markets, trade and regulations, and needs, challenges and targets. The analysis was undertaken to determine the possibility of further utilization of forest resources in the region for value-added products, and to assess the possibilities for the wood products industry of Atlantic Canada exploring world markets for its products. The inventory of resources found 1.4 billion cubic meter of wood-growing productive forest land in the region, with softwoods accounting for 76 per cent of the forests. Concern was expressed about forest stands at regeneration levels. Total Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) for the Atlantic Provinces in 1995 was almost 20 million cubic meter, approximately 10 per cent of the national total. Although total harvests are below the AAC for the region, softwood harvesting in 1994 and in 1995 was well above the AAC. The analysis concluded that given the current level of harvesting, sustained growth in Atlantic Canada's wood industries will have to rely on access to external fibre sources and better use of the existing fibre source. At the same time, since many value-added manufacturers in the region rely on imported wood resources, the health of the value-added wood industry does not appear to be completely dependent on the sustainability of forest resources in the Atlantic region. Part Two of the report provides an economic profile of the industry, including brief reviews on employment, wages and salaries, exports and imports, transportation, education and training, research and technology and marketing. refs., tabs

  6. Middle Atlantic neutron therapy trail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.

    1975-01-01

    A consortium of therapeutic radiologists in the Middle Atlantic States and physicists at the Naval Research Laboratory has been established to investigate the use of fast neutron beams in the control of some tumors. Many radiobiology experiments have indicated that neutron beams may have an advantage in the control of local tumors over that of conventional forms of radiotherapy. In preparation for clinical radiotherapy trials, extensive measurements have quantified the various physical characteristics of the NRL cyclotron-produced neutron beam. Techniques have been developed for the absolute determination of delivered dose at depth in tissue for this beam, accounting for the relatively small component of dose delivered by gamma rays, as well as that by the neutrons. A collimator system has been designed to allow the precise field definition necessary for optimum therapy treatment planning. A dose control and monitor unit has been engineered and has demonstrated a reproducibility of 0.2 percent. The relative biological effectiveness of this neutron bean has been studied with several biological systems to aid in determining proper radiotherapeutic dose levels. The objective of these studies is a full-scale clinical radiotherapy trial to test neutron effectiveness as compared to that of conventional radiotherapy, after a pilot study in man

  7. Management of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus in the arctic Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Wiig

    2014-12-01

    of protection afforded to walrus habitat in many areas depends entirely on the rigor with which the Environmental Impact Assessments are conducted. Basic information on walrus such as numbers and stock discreteness is often lacking and sufficient lead-time is required to collect baseline data. Moreover, although most environmental protection legislation considers ‘cumulative impacts’, practical application remains problematic. The effectiveness of environmental protection regulations depends on industry compliance and the management authorities’ ability to enforce compliance. Because walrus are found in remote locations, enforcement remains a challenge. Increased human activity allowed by the current change in distribution and quality of arctic sea ice poses new threats to walrus if not well regulated. International agreements have varying importance for management within and among member states. Regulations governing international trade serve to identify illegally obtained products and to encourage range states to have a sustainable quota system. International cooperation in information sharing has had clear benefits for management of walruses in the past. The maintenance and expansion of these international efforts will improve the management of Atlantic walruses in the future.

  8. Changes in the Winter-Time Storminess over the North Atlantic, Associated with the 1.5°C and 2°C Levels of Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcikowska, M. J.; Weaver, S. J.; Feser, F.; Schenk, F.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the changes in extreme winter-time weather conditions over the NH midlatitudes. These conditions are to a large degree caused by extratropical storms, often associated with very intense and hazardous precipitation and wind. Although the skill of CMIP5 models in capturing these extremes is improved when compared to the previous generations, the spatial and temporal resolution of the models still remains a primary reason for the deficiencies. Therefore, many features of the storms projected for the future remain inconsistent. Here we are using the high-res horizontal (0.25° lat x lon) and temporal (3hr) output of the HAPPI experiment. This output facilitates not only an implicit extraction of storm tracks but also an analysis of the storm intensity, in terms of their maximum wind and rainfall, at subdaily time-scales. The analysis of simulated present climate shows an improved spatial pattern of large-scale circulation over North America and Europe, as compared to the CMIP5-generation models, and consequently a reduced zonal bias in storm tracks pattern. The information provided at subdaily time scale provides much more realistic representation of the magnitude of the extremes. These advances significantly contribute to our understanding of differential climate impacts between 1.5°C and 2°C levels of global warming. The spatial pattern of the north-eastward shift of storm tracks, derived from the recent CMIP5 future projections, is remarkably refined here. For example, increasing storminess expands towards Scandinavia, and not towards the north-central Europe. Derived spatial features of the storm intensity, e.g. increase in wind and precipitation on the west coasts of both the British Isles and Scandinavia underlines the relevancy of the results for the local communities and potential climate change adaptation initiatives.

  9. Numbers for the Innumerate: Everyday Arithmetic and Atlantic Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Caitlin

    In nineteenth-century America and the Atlantic world, the "rule of three" was usually regarded as the endpoint of a basic mathematics education. This essay considers the importance of the rule as a technology that enabled broader access to the calculations necessary to participate in the increasingly global market economy. Used by workmen, women, and even the enslaved, the rule and related tools translated basic literacy into practical numeracy. By doing so, it offered a diverse range of people the ability to negotiate more effectively. At the same time, however, the rule's spread helped to legitimate particular types of exchange and commensuration, and with them the emerging capitalist economy.

  10. 76 FR 30921 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council will hold a joint meeting of its Executive/Finance... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., Assessment and Review (SEDAR) Committee; Law Enforcement [[Page 30922

  11. Interdecadal North-Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability in EC-EARTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, Bert; Drijfhout, Sybren; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2012-12-15

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) in a 600 years pre-industrial run of the newly developed EC-EARTH model features marked interdecadal variability with a dominant time-scale of 50-60 years. An oscillation of approximately 2 Sverdrup (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) is identified, which manifests itself as a monopole causing the overturning to simultaneously strengthen (/weaken) and deepen (/shallow) as a whole. Eight years before the AMOC peaks, density in the Labrador-Irminger Sea region reaches a maximum, triggering deep water formation. This density change is caused by a counterclockwise advection of temperature and salinity anomalies at lower latitudes, which we relate to the north-south excursions of the subpolar-subtropical gyre boundary and variations in strength and position of the subpolar gyre and the North Atlantic Current. The AMOC fluctuations are not directly forced by the atmosphere, but occur in a delayed response of the ocean to forcing by the North Atlantic Oscillation, which initiates ''intergyre''-gyre fluctuations. Associated with the AMOC is a 60-year sea surface temperature variability in the Atlantic, with a pattern and timescale showing similarities with the real-world Atlantic Multidecadal Variability. This good agreement with observations lends a certain degree of credibility that the mechanism that is described in this article could be seen as representative of the real climate system. (orig.)

  12. Forcing of the wintertime atmospheric circulation by the multidecadal fluctuations of the North Atlantic ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peings, Yannick; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    The North Atlantic sea surface temperature exhibits fluctuations on the multidecadal time scale, a phenomenon known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). This letter demonstrates that the multidecadal fluctuations of the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are tied to the AMO, with an opposite-signed relationship between the polarities of the AMO and the NAO. Our statistical analyses suggest that the AMO signal precedes the NAO by 10–15 years with an interesting predictability window for decadal forecasting. The AMO footprint is also detected in the multidecadal variability of the intraseasonal weather regimes of the North Atlantic sector. This observational evidence is robust over the entire 20th century and it is supported by numerical experiments with an atmospheric global climate model. The simulations suggest that the AMO-related SST anomalies induce the atmospheric anomalies by shifting the atmospheric baroclinic zone over the North Atlantic basin. As in observations, the positive phase of the AMO results in more frequent negative NAO—and blocking episodes in winter that promote the occurrence of cold extreme temperatures over the eastern United States and Europe. Thus, it is plausible that the AMO plays a role in the recent resurgence of severe winter weather in these regions and that wintertime cold extremes will be promoted as long as the AMO remains positive. (paper)

  13. Influence of Atlantic SST anomalies on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kestenare

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of observational data suggest that Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector in early winter and in spring. After reviewing this work and showing that the spring signal is part of a global air-sea interaction, we analyze for comparison an ensemble of simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model in T42 resolution forced by the observed distribution of SST and sea ice, and a simulation with the ECHAM4/OPA8 coupled model in T30 resolution. In the two cases, a significant influence of the Atlantic on the atmosphere is detected in the Atlantic-European sector. In the forced mode, ECHAM4 responds to SST anomalies from early spring to late summer, and also in early winter. The forcing involves SST anomalies not only in the tropical Atlantic, but also in the whole tropical band, suggesting a strong ENSO influence. The modeled signal resembles that seen in the observations in spring, but not in early winter. In the coupled mode, the Atlantic SST only has a significant influence on the atmosphere in summer. Although the SST anomaly is confined to the Atlantic, the summer signal shows some similarity with that seen in the forced simulations. However, there is no counterpart in the observations.

  14. Genetic differences in physiology, growth hormone levels and migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Holdensgaard, Gert; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2001-01-01

    Out of five strains of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar of 1 + years released upstream of a fyke net in the River Gudenaa in 1996 three Lagan Atran and Corrib migrated immediately 50% of the recaptured fish reaching the net in 3-6 days. Burrishoole and Conon fish migrated with a 15-19 day delay. Smolt......+.K+-ATPase and seawater tolerance development. The study gives evidence of genetic influence on the timing and intensity of smolting and subsequent migration in Atlantic salmon....

  15. Conservation and care: material politics and Atlantic salmon on Newfoundland’s Gander River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Daniels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to contribute to an emerging and vibrant body of post-structural scholarship situated within science technology and society (STS on practices and their role in world making. Our focus is Atlantic salmon conservation in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. We examine the different material and social orders that have over time connected human and salmon bodies. These different socio-material orders do not exist in harmony. On the contrary, they are in tension and reflect different visions/versions of how to conserve and care for Atlantic salmon. Our contribution is to interfere with the dominant narrative of Atlantic salmon conservation by drawing on the concept of care, and by introducing a new salmon that we call the willful salmon.

  16. Decadal summer drought frequency in China: the increasing influence of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Chengcheng; Yu, Jin-Yi; Chen, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Decadal variations in summer drought events during 1956–2005 are examined over Eastern China to identify their leading variability modes and their linkages to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), and global warming. The PDO influence is found to dominate China drought frequency from the 1960s to early 1990s via modulating the Western Pacific Subtropical High and the Mongolian High. The four-pole drought pattern produced by the PDO diminished after the early 1990s, being replaced by a dipolar drought pattern that is produced by the AMO via a Eurasian wave train emanating from North Atlantic to China. The increasing influence of the AMO on China drought since the early 1990s is further shown to be a consequence of global warming. This study indicates that the early 1990s is a time when the Atlantic began to exert a stronger influence on climate over China and even larger part of Asia. (letter)

  17. Population structure of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) occurs on both sides of the north Atlantic and has traditionally been grouped into 5 spawning components, some of which were thought to be isolated natal homing stocks. Previous studies have provided no evidence for cross Atlantic migration and no or weak...... between the North Sea and Celtic Sea, which indicates that the two spawning components may be connected by straying individuals. This finding is based on unique larvae samples collected before the collapse of North Sea component, thus showing that the exchange is not a recent phenomenon due...... to the collapse. The analyses of old as well as more recent age distributions show that strong year classes spread into other areas where they spawn as adults (“twinning”). Our findings are in accordance with the lack of solid evidence for stock separation from previous analyses of tagging data, genetics...

  18. Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

    1998-06-01

    Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

  19. Linking Seasonal Variations in the Spectral Slope of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) with Apparent Oxygen Utilization and Excess Nitrogen (DINxs) in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, N.; Barnes, R.; Nelson, N. B.

    2016-02-01

    The optically active or chromophoric fraction of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a topic of much interest to researchers due to its role in many biogeochemical processes in the global oceans. As CDOM effectively regulates the underwater light field, its influences on photosynthesis and primary productivity are significant. Despite recognition of its importance in biogeochemical cycles in natural waters, its chemical composition remains nebulous, due to photochemical processes, as well as spatial and temporal variations in composition. Understanding of CDOM composition and links to ocean processes is especially complex in pelagic, oligotrophic waters such as the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. In this region, minimum CDOM concentrations have been observed and it is decoupled from both dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and from net primary production (NPP). As CDOM absorbance has been shown to influence estimates of NPP from remote sensing models in the subtropical gyres, and as it has the potential to serve as an invaluable tracer of ocean DOM cycling, a better understanding of links between the optical properties of CDOM and biogeochemical processes in the subtropical gyres is crucial. In this study, monthly depth profiles of CDOM absorbance (between 1m and 3000m) were measured for a period of five years at the Bermuda Atlantic Timeseries Site (BATS) in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre to investigate seasonal variations and periodicity in CDOM optical properties. From this data, the spectral slope ratio (Sr) was calculated according to Helms et. al, 2008. Sr can be a useful tool in eliciting information about molecular weight, diagenetic state and microbial processes affecting CDOM composition, especially when coupled with other diagnostic parameters. In this study multivariate analysis techniques were utilized to examine links between Sr and ancillary parameters including apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and excess nitrogen (DINxs) both of which can be a

  20. 75 FR 74004 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Atlantic Regional Fishery Management Councils, each of the 18 constituent states, both the U.S. Virgin... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA059 Atlantic... nominations for the Advisory Panel (AP) for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Southeast Data, Assessment...

  1. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review...

  2. South Atlantic Humanities Center Seminars -- Spring 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The South Atlantic Humanities Center (SAHC) at Virginia Tech is sponsoring several seminars this spring.•À_•À_ SAHC is a partnership of the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, Virginia Tech, and the University of Virginia.•À_•À_ SAHC focuses on the U.S. South Atlantic from a regional and transatlantic perspective. It explores and preserves the rich heritage of a region stretching from Virginia to the Virgin Islands.•À_•À_ It engages artists and performers, writers and filmmakers, teachers...

  3. 75 FR 54598 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... workshop for September 9, 2010, to be held at the same time and location, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Comfort Inn (UNC Wilmington), 151 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403. DATES: The Atlantic Shark... CONTACT: Richard A. Pearson of the Highly Migratory Species Management Division at (727) 824-5399...

  4. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanamaker, A.D.; Butler, P.G.; Scourse, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning...

  5. 77 FR 32036 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Porbeagle Shark Fishery Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ...-XC044 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Porbeagle Shark Fishery Closure AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; fishery closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is closing the commercial fishery for porbeagle sharks. This... available quota. DATES: The commercial porbeagle shark fishery is closed effective 11:30 p.m. local time May...

  6. 76 FR 53343 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Porbeagle Shark Fishery Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ...-XA658 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Porbeagle Shark Fishery Closure AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; fishery closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is closing the commercial fishery for porbeagle sharks. This... available quota. DATES: The commercial porbeagle shark fishery is closed effective 11:30 p.m. local time...

  7. 78 FR 42021 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Gulf of Mexico Aggregated Large Coastal Shark and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... system by the dealer and received by NMFS no later than midnight, local time, of the first Tuesday... the Gulf of Mexico region that were harvested, off-loaded, and sold, traded, or bartered, prior to the..., or bartered from a vessel that fishes only in state waters and that has not been issued an Atlantic...

  8. Quantifying the influence of geography and environment on the northeast Atlantic mackerel spawning distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunel, Thomas; Damme, Van Cindy J.G.; Samson, Melvin; Dickey-Collas, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the northeast Atlantic have shown changes in distribution at certain times of the year, which have impacted their exploitation and management. In this study, mackerel spawning habitat over 21 recent years was characterised using generalised additive modelling, based on

  9. Haplosclerida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the coast of Maranhao State, Brazil, Southwestern Atlantic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, M.; Mothes, B.; Eckert, R.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work deals with haplosclerid sponges off the coast of Maranhão State, northeastern coast of Brazilian shelf (southwestern Atlantic). A new species is described, Haliclona (Halichoclona) lernerae. Four species are recorded for the first time for the Brazilian coast: Amphimedon caribica

  10. Atlantic white-cedar being eliminated by excessive animal damage in south Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; H. A. Somes

    1965-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar, which grows in the swamps of the New Jersey Pine Region, is a prized timber species. Most areas now growing white-cedar have been clearcut 4 or 5 times since 1700. In contrast, the associated swamp hardwoods-red maple, blackgum, and sweetbay-rarely produce wood that is valuable enough to harvest.

  11. 76 FR 23794 - Stock Status Determination for Atlantic Highly Migratory Scalloped Hammerhead Shark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ...) published in the North American Journal of Fisheries Management a stock assessment of the Atlantic... conservation and management measures to rebuild overfished stocks within 2 years of making this determination... to rebuilding the fishery within the shortest time possible in accordance with 16 U.S.C. 1854(e)(4...

  12. Potential effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianne V. Moore; Michael L. Pace; John R. Mather; [and others; [Editor’s note: Patricia A. Flebbe is the SRS co-author for this publication.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous freshwater ecosystems, dense concentrations of humans along the eastern seaboard, extensive forests, and a history of intensive land use distinguish the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region. Human population densities are forecast to increase in portions of the region at the same time that climate is expected to be changing. Consequently, the effects of humans and...

  13. The marine radiocarbon bomb pulse across the temperate North Atlantic: a compilation of Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scourse, J.D.; Wanamaker jr., A.D.; Weidman, C.; Heinemeier, J.; Reimer, P.J.; Butler, P.G.; Witbaard, R.; Richardson, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Marine radiocarbon bomb-pulse time histories of annually resolved archives from temperate regions have been underexploited. We present here series of Delta C-14 excess from known-age annual increments of the long-lived bivalve mollusk Arctica islandica from 4 sites across the coastal North Atlantic

  14. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    .... 100513223-0289-02] RIN 0648-AY88 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In- season Adjustment AGENCY: National Marine...-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery that were implemented in May 2010...

  15. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    .... 100105009-0053-01] RIN 0648-AY51 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes 2010 specifications for the Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including...

  16. 77 FR 15721 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC... Biological Catch (ABC) values for managed stocks including the effect of revised recreational catch estimates...

  17. Initializing decadal climate predictions over the North Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Daniela Mihaela; Pohlmann, Holger; Jungclaus, Johann; Müller, Wolfgang; Haak, Helmuth; Marotzke, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    Decadal climate prediction aims to predict the internally-generated decadal climate variability in addition to externally-forced climate change signal. In order to achieve this it is necessary to start the predictions from the current climate state. In this study we investigate the forecast skill of the North Atlantic decadal climate predictions using two different ocean initialization strategies. First we apply an assimilation of ocean synthesis data provided by the GECCO project (Köhl and Stammer, 2008) as initial conditions for the coupled model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Hindcast experiments are then performed over the period 1952-2001. An alternative approach is one in which the subsurface ocean temperature and salinity are diagnosed from an ensemble of ocean model runs forced by the NCEP-NCAR atmospheric reanalyzes for the period 1948-2007, then nudge into the coupled model to produce initial conditions for the hindcast experiments. An anomaly coupling scheme is used in both approaches to avoid the hindcast drift and the associated initial shock. Differences between the two assimilation approaches are discussed by comparing them with the observational data in key regions and processes. We asses the skill of the initialized decadal hindcast experiments against the prediction skill of the non-initialized hindcasts simulation. We obtain an overview of the regions with the highest predictability from the regional distribution of the anomaly correlation coefficients and RMSE for the SAT. For the first year the hindcast skill is increased over almost all ocean regions in the NCEP-forced approach. This increase in the hindcast skill for the 1 year lead time is somewhat reduced in the GECCO approach. At lead time 5yr and 10yr, the skill enhancement is still found over the North Atlantic and North Pacific regions. We also consider the potential predictability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and Nordic Seas Overflow by comparing the predicted values to

  18. 76 FR 2640 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2011 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Assistant Administrator has determined that this proposed rule is consistent with the Atlantic Bluefish FMP... D. Rauch III, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Regulatory Programs, National Marine Fisheries... mortality; stock status; recent estimates of recruitment; virtual population analysis results; levels of...

  19. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... these shark stocks and end overfishing, as necessary. The notice provided an incorrect date for a...' intent to undertake rulemaking to rebuild and/or end overfishing of these Atlantic shark stocks and to...

  20. 76 FR 47563 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries Science Center..., biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's...

  1. 76 FR 56120 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... recreational fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... http://www.iccat.int/en/ . One swordfish measure adopted at the 2010 meeting, and one swordfish measure...

  2. Refining the timing of the MIS 5e signal, West Caicos, Bristish West Indies:implications for paleoclimatic interpretation of the stratigraphic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerans, C.; Zahm, C.; Bachtel, S.; Hearty, P.; Cheng, H.

    2017-12-01

    The progressive refinement of the Last Interglacial (LIG) tropical carbonate record has focused attention on the dramatically abrupt and episodic nature of this critical approximate 12 ka time window. From initial carbonate platform flooding at 133 ka to rapid sea level fall and exposure at 118 ka, the majority of present-day Bahamian and Caribbean strata were produced in a remarkably similar pattern extending from Bermuda and the Bahamas through the Cayman Islands, Yucatan, and south to the Dominican Republic. The position of coral reefs and oolitic sands of the LIG to a first order fit the global insolation-driven climate warming signal. Less well accepted/resolved is the existence of two distinct SL peaks with an intervening sea level fall implying a non-orbitally forced climate shift during this broader highstand. West Caicos, a 10 x 5 km leeward island on the Caicos Platform is an excellent example of LIG carbonate stratigraphic complexity. We collected sub-meter-resolution whole-island airborn LIDAR and decimeter-resolution UAV-constructed DEM's of the western and southern coastal outcrops to serve as a base for decimeter-scale mapping of the MIS 11, 7?, 5e, and Holocene units of the island, with particular focus on the continuous 8.4 km west coast outcrop of the MIS 5e. Seventy-five AAR relative age assignments from ooid separates, pinned by 16 U/Th dates from corals coming from MIS stage 11, lower MIS 5e, and upper MIS 5e reefs helped establish the age model for the Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphy. The lower MIS 5e reef system averages 128 ka with an onset age of 133 ka. Upper MIS 5e corals ranges from 123 ka to 116 ka, bracketing the intra-MIS 5e sea-level fall between to approximately 125 ka. The intra-MIS 5e fall is a distinct erosional unconformity across 5 km of continuous outcrop, truncating the upper 2.5 m of lower 5e reef. The complexity of MIS 5e record on West Caicos and in the Northern Atlantic and Caribbean platforms regionally provides

  3. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    with each other. In general, the living coccolithophores in the surface and subsurface waters show considerable variation in cell numbers and distribution patterns. Cell densities reached a maximum of up to 300 x 10 coccospheres/l in the upwelling area of the equatorial Atlantic. Here, Emiliania huxleyi...

  4. Turbidity distribution in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eittreim, S.; Thorndike, E.M.; Sullivan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The regional coverage of Lamont nephelometer data in the North and South Atlantic can be used to map seawater turbidity at all depths. At the level of the clearest water, in the mid-depth regions, the turbidity distribution primarily reflects the pattern of productivity in the surface waters. This suggests that the 'background' turbidity level in the oceans is largely a function of biogenic fallout. The bottom waters of the western Atlantic generally exhibit large increases in turbidity. The most intense benthic nepheloid layers are in the southwestern Argentine basin and northern North American basin; the lowest bottom water turbidity in the western Atlantic is in the equatorial regions. Both the Argentine and North American basin bottom waters appear to derive their high turbidity largely from local resuspension of terrigenous input in these basins. In contrast to the west, the eastern Atlantic basins show very low turbidities with the exception of three regions: the Mediterranean outflow area, the Cape basin, and the West European basin. ?? 1976.

  5. Climate Prediction Center - Atlantic Hurricane Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News ; Seasonal Climate Summary Archive The 2018 Atlantic hurricane season outlook is an official product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center (CPC). The outlook is

  6. Ocean array alters view of Atlantic conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornei, Katherine

    2018-02-01

    Oceanographers have put a stethoscope on the coursing circulatory system of the Atlantic Ocean, and they have found a skittish pulse that's surprisingly strong in the waters east of Greenland—discoveries that should improve climate models. The powerful currents known as the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) are an engine in Earth's climate. The AMOC's shallower limbs—which include the Gulf Stream—move warm water from the tropics northward, warming Western Europe. In the north, the waters cool and sink, forming deeper limbs that transport the cold water back south—and sequester anthropogenic carbon in the process. Last week, at the American Geophysical Union's Ocean Sciences meeting, scientists presented the first data from an array of instruments moored in the subpolar North Atlantic, a $35 million, seven-nation project known as the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP). Since 2004, researchers have gathered data from another array, at 26°N, stretching from Florida to Africa. But OSNAP is the first to monitor the circulation farther north, where a critical aspect of the overturning occurs. The observations reveal unexpected eddies and strong variability in the AMOC currents. They also show that the currents east of Greenland contribute the most to the total AMOC flow. Climate models, on the other hand, have emphasized the currents west of Greenland in the Labrador Sea.

  7. Mechanisms of northeastern Brazil rainfall anomalies due to Southern Tropical Atlantic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J.; Su, H.

    2004-05-01

    Observational studies have shown that the rainfall anomalies in eastern equatorial South America, including Nordeste Brazil, have a positive correlation with tropical southern Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Such relationships are reproduced in model simulations with the quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model (QTCM), which includes a simple land model. A suite of model ensemble experiments is analysed using observed SST over the tropical oceans, the tropical Atlantic and the tropical southern Atlantic (30S-0), respectively (with climatological SST in the remainder of the oceans). Warm tropical south Atlantic SST anomalies yield positive precipitation anomalies over the Nordeste and the southern edge of the Atlantic marine intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Mechanisms associated with moisture variations are responsible for the land precipitation changes. Increases in moisture over the Atlantic cause positive anomalies in moisture advection, spreading increased moisture downwind. Where the basic state is far from the convective stability threshold, moisture changes have little effect, but the margins of the climatological convection zone are affected. The increased moisture supply due to advection is enhanced by increases in low-level convergence required by moist static energy balances. The moisture convergence term is several times larger, but experiments altering the moisture advection confirm that the feedback is initiated by wind acting on moisture gradient. This mechanism has several features in common with the recently published "upped-ante" mechanism for El Nino impacts on this region. In that case, the moisture gradient is initiated by warm free tropospheric temperature anomalies increasing the typical value of low-level moisture required to sustain convection in the convection zones. Both mechanisms suggest the usefulness of coordinating ocean and land in situ observations of boundary layer moisture.

  8. An Atlantic streamer in stratospheric ozone observations and SD-WACCM simulation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocke, Klemens; Schranz, Franziska; Maillard Barras, Eliane; Moreira, Lorena; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2017-03-01

    Observation and simulation of individual ozone streamers are important for the description and understanding of non-linear transport processes in the middle atmosphere. A sudden increase in mid-stratospheric ozone occurred above central Europe on 4 December 2015. The GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer (GROMOS) and the Stratospheric Ozone MOnitoring RAdiometer (SOMORA) in Switzerland measured an ozone enhancement of about 30 % at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from 1 to 4 December. A similar ozone increase is simulated by the Specified Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate (SD-WACCM) model. Further, the global ozone fields at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from SD-WACCM and the satellite experiment Aura/MLS show a remarkable agreement for the location and timing of an ozone streamer (large-scale tongue-like structure) extending from the subtropics in northern America over the Atlantic to central Europe. This agreement indicates that SD-WACCM can inform us about the wind inside the Atlantic ozone streamer. SD-WACCM shows an eastward wind of about 100 m s-1 inside the Atlantic streamer in the mid-stratosphere. SD-WACCM shows that the Atlantic streamer flows along the edge of the polar vortex. The Atlantic streamer turns southward at an erosion region of the polar vortex located above the Caspian Sea. The spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour indicates a filament outgoing from this erosion region. The Atlantic streamer, the polar vortex erosion region and the water vapour filament belong to the process of planetary wave breaking in the so-called surf zone of the northern midlatitude winter stratosphere.

  9. NODC Standard Format Coastal Ocean Wave and Current (F181) Data from the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE) (1980) (NODC Accession 0014202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series coastal ocean wave and current data collected during the Atlantic Remote Sensing Land/Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE). ARSLOE was...

  10. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USS THOMAS S. GATES in the NW Atlantic from 1995-02-01 to 1995-02-24 (NCEI Accession 9500037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from USS THOMAS S. GATES between February 1, 1995 and February 24, 1995. The real time data of...

  11. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  12. Properties and pathways of Mediterranean water eddies in the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashmachnikov, I.; Neves, F.; Calheiros, T.; Carton, X.

    2015-09-01

    Data from ship vertical casts (NODC data-set), ARGO profiling floats (Coriolis data-set) and RAFOS-type neutral density floats (WOCE data-set) are used to study characteristics of meddies in the Northeast Atlantic. In total 241 Mediterranean water eddies (meddies) and 236 parts of float trajectories within meddies are selected for detailed analysis. The results suggest that the meddy generation rate at the southern and southwestern Iberian Peninsula (Portimao Canyon, cap St. Vincent, Estremadura Promontory, Gorringe Bank) is 3 times that at the northwestern Iberian Peninsula (Porto-Aveiro Canyons, Cape Finisterre and Galicia Bank). Meddies generated south of Estremadura Promontory (the southern meddies), as compared to those generated north of it (the northern meddies), have smaller radii, smaller vertical extension, higher aspect ratio, higher Rossby number and higher stability (stronger potential vorticity anomaly). These latter properties result from the southern meddies higher relative vorticity and stronger buoyancy frequency anomaly. Away from the generation regions, meddy drift concentrates along four main paths: three quasi-zonal paths (Northern, Central, Southern) and a path following the African coast (Coastal). The quasi-zonal paths are aligned to the isolines of the ambient potential vorticity field. Several cross-path exchanges, identified in this work, are aligned to topographic rises. Northward translation of the northern meddies within the North Atlantic Current to the subpolar gyre is detected. Within the first 600 km from the coast, meddy merger is proved to be a common event. This explains the observed difference in radii between the newly generated meddies and those away from the Iberian margin. The decay of the southern meddies proceeds mainly via the loss of their skirts and does not affect meddy cores until the latest stages. The decay of the northern meddies goes in parallel with the decay of their cores. In average meddy decay is achieved

  13. Linking The Atlantic Gyres: Warm, Saline Intrusions From Subtropical Atlantic to the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa M.; Rhines, P. B.

    2010-01-01

    Ocean state estimates from SODA assimilation are analyzed to understand how major shifts in the North Atlantic Current path relate to AMOC, and how these shifts are related to large scale ocean circulation and surface forcing. These complement surface-drifter and altimetry data showing the same events. SODA data indicate that the warm water limb of AMOC, reaching to at least 600m depth, expanded in density/salinity space greatly after 1995, and that Similar events occurred in the late 1960s and around 1980. While there were large changes in the upper limb, there was no immediate response in the dense return flow, at least not in SODA, however one would expect a delayed response of increasing AMOC due to the positive feedback from increased salt transport. These upper limb changes are winddriven, involving changes in the eastern subpolar gyre, visible in the subduction of low potential vorticity waters. The subtropical gyre has been weak during the times of the northward intrusions of the highly saline subtropical waters, while the NAO index has been neutral or in a negative phase. The image of subtropical/subpolar gyre exchange through teleconnections within the AMOC overturning cell will be described.

  14. Intraspecific variation in vertical habitat use by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in the western North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudo, Jeremy J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Harvey, Guy; Nemeth, Richard S; Aming, Choy; Burnie, Neil; Howey-Jordan, Lucy A; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2014-05-01

    Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are a wide ranging, potentially keystone predator species that display a variety of horizontal movement patterns, making use of coastal and pelagic waters. Far less, however, is known about their vertical movements and use of the water column. We used pop-up satellite archival tags with two data sampling rates (high rate and standard rate tags) to investigate the vertical habitat use and diving behavior of tiger sharks tagged on the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands platform and off Bermuda between 2008 and 2009. Useable data were received from nine of 14 sharks tagged, tracked over a total of 529 days. Sharks spent the majority of their time making yo-yo dives within the upper 50 m of the water column and considerable time within the upper 5 m of the water column. As a result, sharks typically occupied a narrow daily temperature range (∼2°C). Dives to greater than 200 m were common, and all sharks made dives to at least 250 m, with one shark reaching a depth of 828 m. Despite some similarities among individuals, a great deal of intraspecific variability in vertical habit use was observed. Four distinct depth distributions that were not related to tagging location, horizontal movements, sex, or size were detected. In addition, similar depth distributions did not necessitate similar dive patterns among sharks. Recognition of intraspecific variability in habitat use of top predators can be crucial for effective management of these species and for understanding their influence on ecosystem dynamics.

  15. Intraspecific variation in vertical habitat use by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudo, Jeremy J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Harvey, Guy; Nemeth, Richard S; Aming, Choy; Burnie, Neil; Howey-Jordan, Lucy A; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2014-01-01

    Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are a wide ranging, potentially keystone predator species that display a variety of horizontal movement patterns, making use of coastal and pelagic waters. Far less, however, is known about their vertical movements and use of the water column. We used pop-up satellite archival tags with two data sampling rates (high rate and standard rate tags) to investigate the vertical habitat use and diving behavior of tiger sharks tagged on the Puerto Rico–Virgin Islands platform and off Bermuda between 2008 and 2009. Useable data were received from nine of 14 sharks tagged, tracked over a total of 529 days. Sharks spent the majority of their time making yo-yo dives within the upper 50 m of the water column and considerable time within the upper 5 m of the water column. As a result, sharks typically occupied a narrow daily temperature range (∼2°C). Dives to greater than 200 m were common, and all sharks made dives to at least 250 m, with one shark reaching a depth of 828 m. Despite some similarities among individuals, a great deal of intraspecific variability in vertical habit use was observed. Four distinct depth distributions that were not related to tagging location, horizontal movements, sex, or size were detected. In addition, similar depth distributions did not necessitate similar dive patterns among sharks. Recognition of intraspecific variability in habitat use of top predators can be crucial for effective management of these species and for understanding their influence on ecosystem dynamics. PMID:24963376

  16. Climatic controls on water vapor deuterium excess in the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic based on 500 days of in situ, continuous measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Steen-Larsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous, in situ measurements of water vapor isotopic composition have been conducted in the North Atlantic, at the Bermuda Islands (32.26° N, 64.88° W, between November 2011 and June 2013, using a cavity ring-down spectrometer water vapor isotope analyzer and an autonomous self-designed calibration system. Meticulous calibration allows us to reach an accuracy and precision on 10 min average of δ18O, δ D, and d-excess of, 0.14, 0.85, and 1.1‰, verified using two parallel instruments with independent calibration. As a result of more than 500 days with 6-hourly data the relationships between deuterium excess, relative humidity (RH, sea surface temperature (SST, wind speed, and wind direction are assessed. From the whole data set, 84 % of d-excess variance is explained by a strong linear relationship with relative humidity. The slope of this relationship (−42.6 ± 0.4‰ % (RH is similar to the theoretical prediction of Merlivat and Jouzel (1979 for SST between 20 and 30 °C. However, in contrast with theory, no effect of wind speed could be detected on the relationship between d-excess and relative humidity. Separating the data set into winter, spring, summer, and autumn seasons reveals different linear relationships between d-excess and humidity. Changes in wind directions are observed to affect the relationships between d-excess and humidity. The observed seasonal variability in the relationship between d-excess and relative humidity underlines the importance of long-term monitoring to make accurate conclusions.

  17. The contributions of W.D. Stevenson to the development of neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhida, K; Mendez, I

    1999-08-01

    The establishment of a neurosurgical department in Halifax in January 1948 marked the beginnings of the first dedicated neurosurgical service in Atlantic Canada. The development of neurosurgery in Halifax occurred in a receptive place and time. The Victoria General Hospital, the region's largest tertiary care centre, and the Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine were in a period of growth associated with medical specialization and departmentalization, changes inspired in part by the Flexner Report of 1910. Atlantic Canadians during this period were increasingly looking to specialists for their medical care. Although this social environment encouraged the establishment of surgical specialty services, the development of neurosurgery in Halifax, as in other parts of Canada, was closely associated with the efforts of individual neurosurgeons, such as William D. Stevenson. After training with Kenneth G. McKenzie in Toronto, Stevenson was recruited to Halifax and established the first neurosurgical department in Atlantic Canada. From the outset and over his twenty-six years as Department Head at the Victoria General Hospital and Dalhousie University, Stevenson worked to maintain the department's commitment to clinical practice, medical education, and research. Although Stevenson single-handedly ran the service for several years after its inception, by the time of his retirement in 1974 the neurosurgery department had grown to include five attending staff surgeons who performed over two thousand procedures each year. This paper highlights the importance of Stevenson's contributions to the development of neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada within the context of the social and medical environment of the region.

  18. Isotope paleoclimatology and Atlantic deep water history since 15 million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.L.

    1981-12-01

    18 O/ 16 O and 13 C/ 12 C ratios measurements in foraminiferal calcite are applied to the paleoclimatology of the North Atlantic and to the reconstruction of deep water exchanges between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, from middle miocene time (15 m.y. ago) to the present, on samples from 2 DSDP wells. Chapters 1 to 4 describe the structural frame and hydrological setting of these sites, and the stratigraphy of the deposits. A .4 m.y. lag between the initiation of the first boreal ice-caps and their extension to northern Europe is explained by the persistency of the North-Atlantic Drift. In chapters 5 to 8, the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of dissolved mineral carbon is used as a tracer of the residence time of the deep waters, the indications of which are preserved in benthonic foraminiferal calcite. It is shown that present-day type thermo-haline circulation was initiated 13.2 m.y. ago in the northern Atlantic, when the volcanic Scotland-Iceland-Greenland ridge subsided; that the closure of the Mediterranean sea during the Messinian (6.2 to 5 m.y. ago) caused this circulation to stop, and that the present circulation started again when the Mediterranean re-opened, at the beginning of the Pliocene [fr

  19. The North Atlantic Ocean as habitat for Calanus finmarchicus: Environmental factors and life history traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melle, Webjørn; Runge, Jeffrey; Head, Erica; Plourde, Stéphane; Castellani, Claudia; Licandro, Priscilla; Pierson, James; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Johnson, Catherine; Broms, Cecilie; Debes, Høgni; Falkenhaug, Tone; Gaard, Eilif; Gislason, Astthor; Heath, Michael; Niehoff, Barbara; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Pepin, Pierre; Stenevik, Erling Kaare; Chust, Guillem

    2014-12-01

    Here we present a new, pan-Atlantic compilation and analysis of data on Calanus finmarchicus abundance, demography, dormancy, egg production and mortality in relation to basin-scale patterns of temperature, phytoplankton biomass, circulation and other environmental characteristics in the context of understanding factors determining the distribution and abundance of C. finmarchicus across its North Atlantic habitat. A number of themes emerge: (1) the south-to-north transport of plankton in the northeast Atlantic contrasts with north-to-south transport in the western North Atlantic, which has implications for understanding population responses of C. finmarchicus to climate forcing, (2) recruitment to the youngest copepodite stages occurs during or just after the phytoplankton bloom in the east whereas it occurs after the bloom at many western sites, with up to 3.5 months difference in recruitment timing, (3) the deep basin and gyre of the southern Norwegian Sea is the centre of production and overwintering of C. finmarchicus, upon which the surrounding waters depend, whereas, in the Labrador/Irminger Seas production mainly occurs along the margins, such that the deep basins serve as collection areas and refugia for the overwintering populations, rather than as centres of production, (4) the western North Atlantic marginal seas have an important role in sustaining high C. finmarchicus abundance on the nearby coastal shelves, (5) differences in mean temperature and chlorophyll concentration between the western and eastern North Atlantic are reflected in regional differences in female body size and egg production, (6) regional differences in functional responses of egg production rate may reflect genetic differences between western and eastern populations, (7) dormancy duration is generally shorter in the deep waters adjacent to the lower latitude western North Atlantic shelves than in the east, (8) there are differences in stage-specific daily mortality rates between

  20. Rare earth elements in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baar, H.J.W. de; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.; Bruland, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The first profiles of Pr, Tb, Ho, Tm and Lu in the Pacific Ocean, as well as profiles of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Yb are reported. Concentrations of REE (except Ce) in the deep water are two to three times higher than those observed in the deep Atlantic Ocean. Surface water concentrations are typically lower than in the Atlantic Ocean, especially for the heavier elements Ho,Tm,Yb and Lu. Cerium is strongly depleted in the Pacific water column, but less so in the oxygen minimum zone. The distribution of the REE group is consistent with two simultaneous processes: (1) cycling similar to that of opal and calcium carbonate, and (2) adsorptive scavenging by settling particles and possibly by uptake at ocean boundaries. However, the first process can probably not be sustained by the low REE contents of shells, unless additional adsorption on surfaces is invoked. The second process, adsorptive scavenging, largely controls the oceanic distribution and typical seawater pattern of the rare earths. (author)

  1. Atlantic salmon brood stock management and breeding handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Harold L.; Stanley, Jon G.

    1989-01-01

    Anadromus runs of Atlantic salmon have been restored to the Connecticut, Merrimack, Pawcatuck, Penobscot, and St. Croix rivers in New England by the stocking of more than 8 million smolts since 1948. Fish-breeding methods have been developed that minimize inbreeding and domestication and enhance natural selection. Methods are available to advance the maturation of brood stock, control the sex of production lots and store gametes. Current hatchery practices emphasize the use of sea-run brood stock trapped upon return to the rivers and a limited number of captive brood stock and rejuvenated kelts. Fish are allowed to mature naturally, after which they are spawned and incubated artificially. Generally, 1-year smolts are produced, and excess fish are stocked as fry in headwater streams. Smolts are stocked during periods of rising water in spring. Self-release pools are planned that enable smolts to choose the emigration time. Culturists keep good records that permit evaluation of the performance of strains and the effects of breeding practices. As Atlantic salmon populations expand, culturists must use sound breeding methods that enhance biotic potential while maintaining genetic diversity and protecting unique gene pools.

  2. Improving geomagnetic observatory data in the South Atlantic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Morschhauser, Achim; Brando Soares, Gabriel; Pinheiro, Katia

    2016-04-01

    The Swarm mission clearly proofs the benefit of coordinated geomagnetic measurements from a well-tailored constellation in order to recover as good as possible the contributions of the various geomagnetic field sources. A similar truth applies to geomagnetic observatories. Their scientific value can be maximised by properly arranging the position of individual observatories with respect to the geometry of the external current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, with respect to regions of particular interest for secular variation, and with respect to regions of anomalous electric conductivity in the ground. Here, we report on our plans and recent efforts to upgrade geomagnetic observatories and to recover unpublished data from geomagnetic observatories at low latitudes in the South Atlantic Anomaly. In particular, we target the magnetic equator with the equatorial electrojet and low latitudes to characterise the Sq- and ring current. The observatory network that we present allows also to study the longitudinal structure of these external current systems. The South Atlantic Anomaly region is very interesting due to its secular variation. We will show newly recovered data and comparisons with existing data sets. On the technical side, we introduce low-power data loggers. In addition, we use mobile phone data transfer, which is rapidly evolving in the region and allows timely data access and quality control at remote sites that previously were not connected to the internet.

  3. Differential response of continental stock complexes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Kevin D.; Shank, Burton V.; Todd, Christopher D.; McGinnity, Philip; Nye, Janet A.

    2014-05-01

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the North Atlantic are managed as a set of population complexes distributed in North America and Europe. In recent years, these complexes have experienced reduced marine survival and many populations within the complexes are at risk, especially those at the southern ends of the species amphi-Atlantic range. Atlantic salmon is an anadromous fish dividing its life history between residence in freshwater and the marine environment. The freshwater portion of the life history includes spawning and the rearing of juveniles where in-river production has tended to be relatively stable, whereas the first year at sea, termed the post-smolt year, is characterized by more variable rates of mortality. Although their habitats are widely separated geographically along the North Atlantic seaboards, strong recruitment coherence exists between North American and European stock complexes. This recruitment coherence is correlated with ocean temperature variation associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) appears to be relatively unimportant as a driver of salmon abundance. The mechanism determining the link between AMO-related thermal variation and abundance appears to differ fundamentally for the two continental stock groupings. Whereas ocean climate variability during the first springtime months of juvenile salmon migration to sea appears to be important to the survival of North American stocks, summer climate variation appears to be central to adult recruitment variation for European stocks. This contrast in seasonal effects appears to be related to the varying roles of predation pressure and size-related mortality on the continental stock complexes. The anticipated warming due to global climate change will impose thermal conditions on salmon populations outside historical context and challenge the ability of many populations to persist.

  4. Glacial climate sensitivity to different states of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: results from the IPSL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kageyama

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Paleorecords from distant locations on the globe show rapid and large amplitude climate variations during the last glacial period. Here we study the global climatic response to different states of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC as a potential explanation for these climate variations and their possible connections. We analyse three glacial simulations obtained with an atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model and characterised by different AMOC strengths (18, 15 and 2 Sv resulting from successive ~0.1 Sv freshwater perturbations in the North Atlantic. These AMOC states suggest the existence of a freshwater threshold for which the AMOC collapses. A weak (18 to 15 Sv AMOC decrease results in a North Atlantic and European cooling. This cooling is not homogeneous, with even a slight warming over the Norwegian Sea. Convection in this area is active in both experiments, but surprisingly stronger in the 15 Sv simulation, which appears to be related to interactions with the atmospheric circulation and sea-ice cover. Far from the North Atlantic, the climatic response is not significant. The climate differences for an AMOC collapse (15 to 2 Sv are much larger and of global extent. The timing of the climate response to this AMOC collapse suggests teleconnection mechanisms. Our analyses focus on the North Atlantic and surrounding regions, the tropical Atlantic and the Indian monsoon region. The North Atlantic cooling associated with the AMOC collapse induces a cyclonic atmospheric circulation anomaly centred over this region, which modulates the eastward advection of cold air over the Eurasian continent. This can explain why the cooling is not as strong over western Europe as over the North Atlantic. In the Tropics, the southward shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone appears to be strongest over the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific and results from an adjustment of the atmospheric and oceanic heat transports. Finally, the

  5. Sulfur and trace metal relationships in nonurban and marine aerosols studied using proton induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    As an example of the application of the PIXE analysis technique to the study of sulfur and related trace metals in aerosol samples from nonurban locations, results obtained from a remote continental station in the Southern Hemisphere, Chacaltaya Mountain near La Paz, Bolivia, and a mid-ocean station in the Atlantic of the Northern Hemisphere, at Bermuda, are compared. In Bolivian filter samples, the proportions of Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Rb, and Sr are within the ranges expected from the subaerial erosion of major rock types of the earth's crust. However, the proportions, relative to Fe, of S, Cu, Zn, As, and Pb are enriched 10-100 times in comparison with the compositions of major rock types. In Bermuda cascade impactor samples summed over all particle sizes, the ratio S/Zn and the relative proportions of K, Ca, and Fe resemble those observed in Bolivia. Total Fe concentrations in Bermuda average about 60 ng/m 3 , similar to concentrations observed in Bolivia. However, the ratios S/Fe and Zn/Fe are 10 times greater in Bermuda than in Bolivia, and these ratios are greatest for smallest particles and decrease sharply with increasing particle size. The higher S and Zn concentrations in Bermuda may result from the combined effect of natural processes which control the atmospheric enrichment of chalcophile elements of long range transport from pollution sources in urban and industrial centers. (Auth.)

  6. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James; Harish, Srinivasan; Saifuddin, Asif

    2005-01-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  7. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  8. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  9. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  10. Disposal of radioactive waste in the Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    An operation to dispose of low-level radioactive waste in the North Atlantic deeps is undertaken each year. This leaflet seeks to answer questions which are sometimes asked about the operation. It deals with origin, composition, quantity, reason for sea- rather than land-disposal, packaging, transport (rail, road), route of transport, safety precautions, radiation protection, personnel, contamination, site of dump, international regulations, neutral observers, safety standards of containers and control of level of radioactivity of wastes. (U.K.)

  11. North Atlantic observations sharpen meridional overturning projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R.; An, S.-I.; Fan, Y.; Evans, J. P.; Caesar, L.

    2018-06-01

    Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) projections are uncertain due to both model errors, as well as internal climate variability. An AMOC slowdown projected by many climate models is likely to have considerable effects on many aspects of global and North Atlantic climate. Previous studies to make probabilistic AMOC projections have broken new ground. However, they do not drift-correct or cross-validate the projections, and do not fully account for internal variability. Furthermore, they consider a limited subset of models, and ignore the skill of models at representing the temporal North Atlantic dynamics. We improve on previous work by applying Bayesian Model Averaging to weight 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 models by their skill at modeling the AMOC strength, and its temporal dynamics, as approximated by the northern North-Atlantic temperature-based AMOC Index. We make drift-corrected projections accounting for structural model errors, and for the internal variability. Cross-validation experiments give approximately correct empirical coverage probabilities, which validates our method. Our results present more evidence that AMOC likely already started slowing down. While weighting considerably moderates and sharpens our projections, our results are at low end of previously published estimates. We project mean AMOC changes between periods 1960-1999 and 2060-2099 of -4.0 Sv and -6.8 Sv for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emissions scenarios respectively. The corresponding average 90% credible intervals for our weighted experiments are [-7.2, -1.2] and [-10.5, -3.7] Sv respectively for the two scenarios.

  12. Meridional overturning circulation conveys fast acidification to the deep Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Fiz F.; Fontela, Marcos; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Mercier, Herlé; Velo, Anton; Lherminier, Pascale; Zunino, Patricia; de La Paz, Mercedes; Alonso-Pérez, Fernando; Guallart, Elisa F.; Padin, Xose A.

    2018-02-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the North Atlantic Ocean has been accumulating anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and experiencing ocean acidification, that is, an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (a reduction in pH) and a reduction in the concentration of carbonate ions. The latter causes the ‘aragonite saturation horizon’—below which waters are undersaturated with respect to a particular calcium carbonate, aragonite—to move to shallower depths (to shoal), exposing corals to corrosive waters. Here we use a database analysis to show that the present rate of supply of acidified waters to the deep Atlantic could cause the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by 1,000-1,700 metres in the subpolar North Atlantic within the next three decades. We find that, during 1991-2016, a decrease in the concentration of carbonate ions in the Irminger Sea caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by about 10-15 metres per year, and the volume of aragonite-saturated waters to reduce concomitantly. Our determination of the transport of the excess of carbonate over aragonite saturation (xc[CO32-])—an indicator of the availability of aragonite to organisms—by the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shows that the present-day transport of carbonate ions towards the deep ocean is about 44 per cent lower than it was in preindustrial times. We infer that a doubling of atmospheric anthropogenic CO2 levels—which could occur within three decades according to a ‘business-as-usual scenario’ for climate change—could reduce the transport of xc[CO32-] by 64-79 per cent of that in preindustrial times, which could severely endanger cold-water coral habitats. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation would also export this acidified deep water southwards, spreading corrosive waters to the world ocean.

  13. Phylogeography and population dynamics of the white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) in the North Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Banguera-Hinestroza, E.; Evans, P. G H; Mirimin, L.; Reid, R. J.; Mikkelsen, B.; Couperus, A. S.; Deaville, R.; Rogan, E.; Hoelzel, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Highly mobile species in the marine environment may be expected to show little differentiation at the population level, but this is often not the case. Instead cryptic population structure is common, and effective conservation will require an understanding of how these patterns evolve. Here we present an assessment from both sides of the North Atlantic of differentiation among populations of a dolphin species that inhabits mainly pelagic waters, the Atlantic white-sided dolphin. We compare eleven putative populations in the western and eastern North Atlantic at mtDNA and microsatellite DNA loci and find reduced nucleotide diversity and signals for historical bottlenecks and post-bottleneck expansions in all regions. We calculate expansion times to have occurred during the early Holocene, following the last glacial maximum (LGM). We find evidence for connectivity among populations from either side of the North Atlantic, and differentiation between putative populations in the far northeast compared with all other areas sampled. Some data suggest the possibility of separate refugia during the LGM explaining this pattern, although ongoing ecological processes may also be a factor. We discuss the implications for developing effective programs of conservation and management in the context of ongoing anthropogenic impact. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  14. Mechanisms for decadal scale variability in a simulated Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medhaug, I.; Eldevik, T.; Furevik, T. [University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Langehaug, H.R. [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Bentsen, M. [Uni Bjerknes Centre, Uni Research, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Variability in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) has been analysed using a 600-year pre-industrial control simulation with the Bergen Climate Model. The typical AMOC variability has amplitudes of 1 Sverdrup (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) and time scales of 40-70 years. The model is reproducing the observed dense water formation regions and has very realistic ocean transports and water mass distributions. The dense water produced in the Labrador Sea (1/3) and in the Nordic Seas, including the water entrained into the dense overflows across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR; 2/3), are the sources of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) forming the lower limb of the AMOC's northern overturning. The variability in the Labrador Sea and the Nordic Seas convection is driven by decadal scale air-sea fluxes in the convective region that can be related to opposite phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The Labrador Sea convection is directly linked to the variability in AMOC. Linkages between convection and water mass transformation in the Nordic Seas are more indirect. The Scandinavian Pattern, the third mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic, is a driver of the ocean's poleward heat transport (PHT), the overall constraint on northern water mass transformation. Increased PHT is both associated with an increased water mass exchange across the GSR, and a stronger AMOC. (orig.)

  15. Synoptic-scale analysis of mechanisms driving surface chlorophyll dynamics in the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. A. Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several hypotheses have been proposed for the onset of the spring phytoplankton bloom in the North Atlantic. Our main objective is to examine which bottom-up processes can best predict the annual increase in surface phytoplankton concentration in the North Atlantic by applying novel phenology algorithms to ocean colour data. We construct indicator fields and time series which, in various combinations, provide models consistent with the principle dynamics previously proposed. Using a multimodel inference approach, we investigate the evidence supporting these models and how it varies in space. We show that, in terms of bottom-up processes alone, there is a dominant physical mechanism, namely mixed-layer shoaling, that best predicts the interannual variation in the initial increase in surface chlorophyll across large sectors of the North Atlantic. We further show that different regions are governed by different physical phenomena and that wind-driven mixing is a common component, with either heat flux or light as triggers. We believe these findings to be relevant to the ongoing discussion on North Atlantic bloom onset.

  16. Western Tropical Atlantic Hydrologic change during the last 130,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, S. M.; Lavoie, N.; Oppo, D.

    2016-12-01

    Abrupt climate changes in the North Atlantic during the last 130,000 years are associated with hydrologic changes in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies on marine sediment cores from between 4°S and the equator have documented pulses of terrigenous sediment recording increased precipitation and weathering on the Brazilian Nordeste associated with Heinrich events. We worked on cores KNR197-3-11CDH (7°40'N, 53°49'W, water depth 550 m) and KNR 197-3-46CDH (7°50.1621'N, 53°39.8051'W, 947m water depth) located farther north along the South American continental slope, where sediment derives from the Amazon river basin and is transported by the North Brazilian Current. Preliminary stratigraphy based on magnetic susceptibility shows a possible correlation with the Greenland ice core δ18O stratigraphy. We use sediment elemental composition, determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to evaluate variations in terrigenous sediment runoff and δ18O of the planktonic foraminifers Globierinoides ruber to evaluate variations in western tropical North Atlantic surface hydrography across North Atlantic abrupt climate events. Similarities and differences among our records and the records from the more southerly cores will help understand the mechanisms of hydrologic changes in the regions on abrupt climate time scales.

  17. Navigating the storm: report and recommendations from the Atlantic Storm exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley T; Inglesby, Thomas V; Brimmer, Esther; Borio, Luciana; Franco, Crystal; Gronvall, Gigi Kwik; Kramer, Bradley; Maldin, Beth; Nuzzo, Jennifer B; Schuler, Ari; Stern, Scott; Henderson, Donald A; Larsen, Randall J; Hamilton, Daniel S; O'Toole, Tara

    2005-01-01

    Atlantic Storm was a tabletop exercise simulating a series of bioterrorism attacks on the transatlantic community. The exercise occurred on January 14, 2005, in Washington, DC, and was organized and convened by the Center for Biosecurity of UPMC, the Center for Transatlantic Relations of Johns Hopkins University, and the Transatlantic Biosecurity Network. Atlantic Storm portrayed a summit meeting of presidents, prime ministers, and other international leaders from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean in which they responded to a campaign of bioterrorist attacks in several countries. The summit principals, who were all current or former senior government leaders, were challenged to address issues such as attaining situational awareness in the wake of a bioattack, coping with scarcity of critical medical resources such as vaccine, deciding how to manage the movement of people across borders, and communicating with their publics. Atlantic Storm illustrated that much might be done in advance to minimize the illness and death, as well as the social, economic, and political disruption, that could be caused by an international epidemic, be it natural or the result of a bioterrorist attack. These lessons are especially timely given the growing concerns over the possibility of an avian influenza pandemic that would require an international response. However, international leaders cannot create the necessary response systems in the midst of a crisis. Medical, public health, and diplomatic response systems and critical medical resources (e.g., medicines and vaccines) must be in place before a bioattack occurs or a pandemic emerges.

  18. Efficiency of protected areas in Amazon and Atlantic Forest conservation: A spatio-temporal view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral-Souza, Thadeu; Vancine, Maurício Humberto; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S.

    2018-02-01

    The Amazon and Atlantic Forest are considered the world's most biodiverse biomes. Human and climate change impacts are the principal drivers of species loss in both biomes, more severely in the Atlantic Forest. In response to species loss, the main conservation action is the creation of protected areas (PAs). Current knowledge and research on the PA network's conservation efficiency is scarce, and existing studies have mainly considered a past temporal view. In this study, we tested the efficiency of the current PA network to maintain climatically stable areas (CSAs) across the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. To this, we used an ecological niche modeling approach to biome and paleoclimatic simulations. We propose three categories of conservation priority areas for both biomes, considering CSAs, PAs and intact forest remnants. The biomes vary in their respective PA networks' protection efficiency. Regarding protect CSAs, the Amazon PA network is four times more efficient than the Atlantic Forest PA network. New conservation efforts in these two forest biomes require different approaches. We discussed the conservation actions that should be taken in each biome to increase the efficiency of the PA network, considering both the creation and expansion of PAs as well as restoration programs.

  19. Identification of Holocene millennial-scale forcing in the North Atlantic area: Ocean/atmosphere contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debret, M.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Christophe, C.; de Vernal, A.; Massei, N.; Eynaud, F.; Nicolle, M.; Frank, N.; Mary, Y.; Magny, M.

    2017-12-01

    Millennial (1500-year) cycles were evidenced decades ago from the advance and retreat of glaciers but many subsequent studies failed to demonstrate the unequivocal character of such oscillation from paleoclimate time series. Hence, the identification of a persistent 1500 year periodicity remains controversial both for the last glacial episode and the Holocene. Applying wavelet analysis to Holocene climate records, we have identified synchronous millennial-scale oscillations which permit to establish a North Atlantic millennial variability index (NAV-Index), maximum at 5330 ± 245, 3560 ± 190, 1810 ± 160 cal years BP and minimum at 4430 ± 250, 2640 ± 225 and 970 ± 200 years before present. This NAV-index was compared with the millennial variability of cosmogenic 10Be isotope, a proxy of solar activity. Differences between the two sets of records suggest that an internal mechanism (Ocean/atmosphere) must be at the origin of the North Atlantic millennial scale variability. Our data document an increased coherence and magnitude of the North Atlantic millennial variability since 6000 cal. years BP, with a frequency of 1780 ± 240 years. During the early Holocene, deglacial meltwater fluxes had strong regional impact and the coupling between subpolar gyre migration and Atlantic meridional oceanic circulation observed since afterward seems to be related to the end of the Laurentide and Inuitian ice sheet meltwater discharge. Hence, we may conclude that the evolution of this millennial oscillation in the future will depend upon the Greenland stability or melting.

  20. Phylogeography and population dynamics of the white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) in the North Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Banguera-Hinestroza, E.

    2014-02-27

    Highly mobile species in the marine environment may be expected to show little differentiation at the population level, but this is often not the case. Instead cryptic population structure is common, and effective conservation will require an understanding of how these patterns evolve. Here we present an assessment from both sides of the North Atlantic of differentiation among populations of a dolphin species that inhabits mainly pelagic waters, the Atlantic white-sided dolphin. We compare eleven putative populations in the western and eastern North Atlantic at mtDNA and microsatellite DNA loci and find reduced nucleotide diversity and signals for historical bottlenecks and post-bottleneck expansions in all regions. We calculate expansion times to have occurred during the early Holocene, following the last glacial maximum (LGM). We find evidence for connectivity among populations from either side of the North Atlantic, and differentiation between putative populations in the far northeast compared with all other areas sampled. Some data suggest the possibility of separate refugia during the LGM explaining this pattern, although ongoing ecological processes may also be a factor. We discuss the implications for developing effective programs of conservation and management in the context of ongoing anthropogenic impact. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  1. Biosystematics, genetics and upper temperature tolerance of Gigartina teedii (Rhodophyta) from the Atlantic and Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiry, M. D.; Tripodi, G.; Lüning, K.

    1987-09-01

    Plants of Gigartina teedii from the mediterranean isolated into laboratory culture showed Polysiphonia-type life histories with consistent formation of dioecious gametangial plants, as previously reported for Atlantic isolates. Male and female plants from the Atlantic and Mediterranean were almost completely compatible in terms of cystocarp formation on female plants, and carpospores from positive crosses always formed plants that released viable tetraspores. Sex-linked inheritance of branching pattern was found in all strains, but showed varying degrees of expression. Female plants were more branched than male plants and it is suggested that this may be an adaptation for spermatial capture. G. teedii plants showed differences in morphology in culture that are considered to be genetically-based. Preliminary studies of tip elongation showed that Mediterranean strains may have up to three times the elongation rates of Atlantic strains at 15°C,bar 8. Such genetic variation in fully-interbreeding strains suggests that populations of this species in the Atlantic and Mediterranean are genecodemic. All strains showed an upper temperature tolerance of 31°C when tested at 1°C intervals from 29—34°C. An upper temperature tolerance of 31 32°C was found for the related species G. intermedia from Korea and Japan, but G. johnstonii from the Gulf of California showed an upper tolerance of 32 33°C.

  2. Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs: Suitable metal scouts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Paulo; Tristão da Cunha, Regina; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals are a hazard to marine fauna and human health. In this study we assess stable isotopes and metal content in Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus and analyse these results within and among other species and across regions and geographical areas. Also, we evaluate their suitability, together with Raja clavata and Galeorhinus galeus, as Mid-Atlantic bioindicators. Prionace glauca and I. oxyrinchus shared the same trophic level in a pelagic food web and did not present significant differences between genders or metals, except for As. Arsenic and Hg accumulated while Cd and Pb were not detected. One I. oxyrinchus presented Hg values above regulatory limits. A high Hg exposure was associated with I. oxyrinchus since its maximum weekly intake was exceeded. Elasmobranchs can be used as metal sentinels, each presenting different key features which defines a good marine bioindicator, allowing long-term monitoring at different temporal and spatial scales. - Highlights: • We analysed P. glauca and I. oxyrinchus muscle from Mid-Atlantic. • We determined stable isotopes, trophic ecology and heavy metal content. • Results reflect bioaccumulation for As and Hg. • Oxyrinchus already presented Hg values above regulatory limits. • Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs appear to be effective metal bioindicators.

  3. Uranium-thorium disequilibrium in north-east Atlantic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Leon Vintro, L.; Mitchell, P.I.; Bally de Bois, P.; Boust, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report and compare the concentrations of 234 Th and 238 U measured in surface and subsurface waters collected in the course of a sampling campaign in the north east Atlantic in June-July 1998. Dissolved 234 Th concentrations in surface waters ranged from 5 to 20 Bq m -3 , showing a large deficiency relative to 238 U concentrations (typically 42 Bq m -3 ). This disequilibrium is indicative of active 234 Th scavenging from surface waters. Observed 234 Th/ 238 U activity ratios, together with corresponding 234 Th particulate concentrations, were used to calculate mean residence times for 234 Th with respect to scavenging onto particles (τ diss ) and subsequent removal from surface waters (τ part ). Residence times in the range 5-30 days were determined for τ diss and 4-18 days for τ part (n=14). In addition, ultrafiltration experiments at six stations in the course of the same expedition revealed that in north-east Atlantic surface waters a significant fraction (46±17%; n=6) of the thorium in the (operationally-defined) dissolved phase ( 234 Th is rapidly absorbed by colloidal particles, which then aggregate, albeit at a slower rate, into larger filterable particles. In essence, colloids act as intermediaries in the transition from the fully dissolved to the filter-retained (>0.45 μm) phase. Thus, the time (τ c ) for fully dissolved 234 Th to appear in the filter-retained fraction is dependent on the rate of colloidal aggregation. Here, we determined τ c values in the range 3-17 days

  4. Scales of North Atlantic wind stress curl determined from the comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Laura L.; O'Brien, James J.

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen years of wind data over the North Atlantic are used to calculate a field of wind stress curl. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is performed on this field, resulting in spatial patterns of wind stress curl and associated time series. A Monte Carlo technique is used to establish the statistical significance of each spatial pattern, and the associated time series are spectrally analyzed. The first four statistically significant EOF modes represent more than 50 percent of the curl variance, and the spatial patterns of curl associated with these modes exhibit the major elements of North Atlantic climatology. Most of the time series spectral variance is contained in annual and semiannual frequencies. The features observed include the individual annual variation of the subtropical high and the subpolar low, the annual oscillation of intensity between pressure centers, the influence of localized strong SST gradients and associated cyclogenesis regions, and the constant nature of the trades.

  5. Revised estimate for the radiocarbon age of North Atlantic deep water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    The extent to which the admixture of water of Antarctic origin influences the 14 C/C ratio in North Atlantic deep water (NADW) has been heretofore underestimated. When this correction is properly made, a ventilation time for the deep western Atlantic is reduced to only about 100 years. The production rate of the northern component of NADW entering the western basin must be of the order of 30 Sv. If this northern component water is assumed to be the major supplier of new 14 C to the deep sea, the carbon isotope ventilation time of the world deep ocean must be of the order of 900 years. However, since the new deep waters formed around the perimeter of the Antarctic are thought to enter the deep sea at a rate of about 20 Sv, the water ventilation time for the deep sea is of the order of 550 years

  6. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9810, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  7. NEFSC 2011 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1108, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  8. NEFSC 2002 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0208, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  9. NEFSC 2006 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0615, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  10. NEFSC 1999 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9909, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  11. NEFSC 2008 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  12. NEFSC 2003 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0308, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  13. NEFSC 2004 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0413, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  14. NEFSC 2010 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE1010, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  15. NEFSC 2000 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0008, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  16. NEFSC 2001 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0109, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  17. NEFSC 2005 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0512, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  18. NEFSC 2007 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0710, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  19. NEFSC 2012 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (PC1206, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  20. NEFSC 1998 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE9809, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  1. NEFSC 2009 Atlantic Herring Acoustic/Midwater Trawl Survey (DE0910, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Atlantic herring acoustic survey is a fisheries independent survey that provides scientific data for Atlantic herring assessments in the U.S. mid-Atlantic...

  2. Evaluation of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Impact on Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation in the Atlantic Region in Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. A.; Cherenkova, E. A.

    2018-02-01

    The influence of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on large-scale atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic region in summer for the period of 1950-2015 is investigated. It is shown that the intensification of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with significant changes in sea level pressure anomalies in the main centers of action (over Greenland and the British Isles) occurred while the North Atlantic was cooler. Sea surface temperature anomalies, which are linked to the AMO in the summer season, affect both the NAO index and fluctuations of the Eastern Atlantic/Western Russia (EAWR) centers of action. The positive (negative) phase of the AMO is characterized by a combination of negative (positive) values of the NAO and EAWR indices. The dominance of the opposite phases of the teleconnection indices in summer during the warm North Atlantic and in its colder period resulted in differences in the regional climate in Europe.

  3. The role of local sea surface temperature pattern changes in shaping climate change in the North Atlantic sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Ralf; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Bader, Jürgen; Greatbatch, Richard J.

    2018-03-01

    Beside its global effects, climate change is manifested in many regionally pronounced features mainly resulting from changes in the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. Here we investigate the influence of the North Atlantic SST on shaping the winter-time response to global warming. Our results are based on a long-term climate projection with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) to investigate the influence of North Atlantic sea surface temperature pattern changes on shaping the atmospheric climate change signal. In sensitivity experiments with the model's atmospheric component we decompose the response into components controlled by the local SST structure and components controlled by global/remote changes. MPI-ESM simulates a global warming response in SST similar to other climate models: there is a warming minimum—or "warming hole"—in the subpolar North Atlantic, and the sharp SST gradients associated with the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Current shift northward by a few a degrees. Over the warming hole, global warming causes a relatively weak increase in rainfall. Beyond this, our experiments show more localized effects, likely resulting from future SST gradient changes in the North Atlantic. This includes a significant precipitation decrease to the south of the Gulf Stream despite increased underlying SSTs. Since this region is characterised by a strong band of precipitation in the current climate, this is contrary to the usual case that wet regions become wetter and dry regions become drier in a warmer climate. A moisture budget analysis identifies a complex interplay of various processes in the region of modified SST gradients: reduced surface winds cause a decrease in evaporation; and thermodynamic, modified atmospheric eddy transports, and coastal processes cause a change in the moisture convergence. The changes in the the North Atlantic storm track are mainly controlled by the non-regional changes in the forcing. The impact of

  4. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. The wave climate of the Northeast Atlantic over the period 1955-1994: the WASA wave hindcast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Rosenthal, W.; Stawarz, M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik; Carretero, J.C.; Gomez, M.; Lozano, I.; Serrano, O. [Programa de Clima Maritimo (Puertos del Estado), Madrid (Spain); Reistad, M. [Det Norske Meteorologiske Inst., Bergen (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The European project ``waves and storms in the North Atlantic`` (WASA) has been set up to prove, or to disprove, hypotheses of a worsening storm and wave climate in the Northeast Atlantic and adjacent seas in the present century. A major obstacle for assessing changes in storm and wave conditions are inhomogeneities in the observational records, both in the local observations and in the analysed products, which usually produce an artificial increase of extreme winds and waves. Therefore, changes in the wave climate were assessed with a state-of-the-art wave model using wind analyses. Within the scope of the WASA project, a 40 year reconstruction (1955-1994) of the wave climate in the North Atlantic was completed using the WAM wave model. The input wind fields were assumed to be reasonably homogeneous with time in the area south of 70 N and east of 20 W, and it was expected that the hindcast wave data would reliably describe the space-time evolution of wave conditions in this area. The results of the hindcast experiment are presented in this article. The main conclusion was that the wave climate in most of the Northeast Atlantic and in the North Sea has undergone significant variations on time scales of decades. Part of variability was found to be related to the North Atlantic oscillation. As a general result we noted an increase of the maximum annual significant wave height over the last 40 years of about 5 to 10 cm/year for large parts of the Northeast Atlantic, north of the North Sea. There was also a slight increase of probabilities of high waves derived from conventional extreme value statistics in northwest approaches to the North Sea. Similar trends of the extreme waves were found in a scenario of future wave climate at a time of doubled C0{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere. (orig.) 28 refs.

  6. Functional responses of North Atlantic fish eggs to increasing temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    -days and survival of fish eggs from 32 populations of 17 species in the North Atlantic to different temperatures in order to determine potential consequences of global warming for these species. The response of development time exhibited a similar decreasing trend with respect to temperature across species....... There was an overall decrease, across species, in an index of thermal requirement (cumulative degree-days) for egg development with increasing temperature. Within an empirically derived optimal thermal range for egg survival, the thermal requirement was more variable in species adapted to cold waters compared...... to species adapted to warmer waters. Moreover, the sensitivity of survival of eggs from different species to increases in temperature differed, reflecting a pattern of sensitivity along a stenotherm-eurytherm gradient of vulnerability to temperature among species. The results quantify physiological effects...

  7. Improving the implementation of marine monitoring in the northeast Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, W R

    2018-03-01

    Marine monitoring in the northeast Atlantic is delivered within identifiable monitoring themes, established through time and defined by the geographical area and policy drivers they serve, the sampling methodologies they use, their assessment methodologies, their funding and governance structures and the people or organisations involved in their implementation. Within a monitoring theme, essential components for effective monitoring are governance, strategy and work plan, sampling protocols, quality assurance, and data and assessment structures. This simple framework is used to analyse two monitoring theme case studies; national ecosystem health monitoring, and regional fish stock monitoring. Such essential component analyses, within marine monitoring themes, can help improve monitoring implementation by identifying gaps and overlaps. Once monitoring themes are recognised, explicitly defined and streamlined, travel towards integrated monitoring may be made easier as the current lack of clarity in thematic marine monitoring implementation is one barrier to integration at both national and regional scales. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying Important Atlantic Areas for the conservation of Balearic shearwaters: Spatial overlap with conservation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Roda, Amparo; Delord, Karine; Boué, Amélie; Arcos, José Manuel; García, David; Micol, Thierry; Weimerskirch, Henri; Pinaud, David; Louzao, Maite

    2017-07-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered one of the main tools in both fisheries and conservation management to protect threatened species and their habitats around the globe. However, MPAs are underrepresented in marine environments compared to terrestrial environments. Within this context, we studied the Atlantic non-breeding distribution of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus) breeding in Eivissa during the 2011-2012 period based on global location sensing (GLS) devices. Our objectives were (1) to identify overall Important Atlantic Areas (IAAs) from a southern population, (2) to describe spatio-temporal patterns of oceanographic habitat use, and (3) to assess whether existing conservation areas (Natura 2000 sites and marine Important Bird Areas (IBAs)) cover the main IAAs of Balearic shearwaters. Our results highlighted that the Atlantic staging (from June to October in 2011) dynamic of the southern population was driven by individual segregation at both spatial and temporal scales. Individuals ranged in the North-East Atlantic over four main IAAs (Bay of Biscay: BoB, Western Iberian shelf: WIS, Gulf of Cadiz: GoC, West of Morocco: WoM). While most individuals spent more time on the WIS or in the GoC, a small number of birds visited IAAs at the extremes of their Atlantic distribution range (i.e., BoB and WoM). The chronology of the arrivals to the IAAs showed a latitudinal gradient with northern areas reached earlier during the Atlantic staging. The IAAs coincided with the most productive areas (higher chlorophyll a values) in the NE Atlantic between July and October. The spatial overlap between IAAs and conservation areas was higher for Natura 2000 sites than marine IBAs (areas with and without legal protection, respectively). Concerning the use of these areas, a slightly higher proportion of estimated positions fell within marine IBAs compared to designated Natura 2000 sites, with Spanish and Portuguese conservation

  9. Mechanisms of meridional transport processes in the tropical Atlantic; Mechanismen meridionaler Transportprozesse im tropischen Atlantik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, J.

    2001-07-01

    Meridional transport processes of water masses and tracers in the subtropical and tropical Atlantic are investigated using a regional eddy resolving model of the wind driven and thermohaline circulation. Analytical emphasis is on float simulations in the model which, complementary to Eulerian means, represent the Lagrangian view and give further insight into the spreading and pathways of characteristic water masses in this area. In the tropics and subtropics shallow 3-dimensional circulation cells are superimposed on the northward warm water transfer within the deep reaching thermohaline overturning cell (MOC) as part of the global ''Conveyor Belt''. Under present-day climate conditions the model shows that the equatorial thermocline is exclusively ventilated by subsurface flow within the tropical-subtropical cell (STC) of the South Atlantic. Only with a prescribed ''Conveyor-off''-Mode the STC of the North Atlantic contributes to this ventilation process with equal amounts. Throughout the year the interhemispheric transport of surface and central water masses of South Atlantic origin into the Caribbean Sea is dominated by zonal detours to the east as a consequence of the interplay of several retroflection events occuring in the North Atlantic. The eulerian mean flow field in the deep layer postulates the interhemispheric mass transport into the South Atlantic to be confined entirely to the western boundary, whereas Lagrangian means indicate intermittent eastward excursions along the equator, related to seasonally alternating zonal currents due to long Rossby waves. It was suggested that the observed characteristic eastward maximum of tracer concentrations along the equator is a consequence of rectifying effects of single or interacting equatorial waves. The model does not validate this hypothesis. The response to transport anomalies of subpolar origin and long periodicity is subject to different time-scales in both

  10. Contrasting spatial structures of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation between observations and slab ocean model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Kucharski, Fred; Xue, Jiaqing; Li, Xiang

    2018-04-01

    The spatial structure of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) is analyzed and compared between the observations and simulations from slab ocean models (SOMs) and fully coupled models. The observed sea surface temperature (SST) pattern of AMO is characterized by a basin-wide monopole structure, and there is a significantly high degree of spatial coherence of decadal SST variations across the entire North Atlantic basin. The observed SST anomalies share a common decadal-scale signal, corresponding to the basin-wide average (i. e., the AMO). In contrast, the simulated AMO in SOMs (AMOs) exhibits a tripole-like structure, with the mid-latitude North Atlantic SST showing an inverse relationship with other parts of the basin, and the SOMs fail to reproduce the observed strong spatial coherence of decadal SST variations associated with the AMO. The observed spatial coherence of AMO SST anomalies is identified as a key feature that can be used to distinguish the AMO mechanism. The tripole-like SST pattern of AMOs in SOMs can be largely explained by the atmosphere-forced thermodynamics mechanism due to the surface heat flux changes associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The thermodynamic forcing of AMOs by the NAO gives rise to a simultaneous inverse NAO-AMOs relationship at both interannual and decadal timescales and a seasonal phase locking of the AMOs variability to the cold season. However, the NAO-forced thermodynamics mechanism cannot explain the observed NAO-AMO relationship and the seasonal phase locking of observed AMO variability to the warm season. At decadal timescales, a strong lagged relationship between NAO and AMO is observed, with the NAO leading by up to two decades, while the simultaneous correlation of NAO with AMO is weak. This lagged relationship and the spatial coherence of AMO can be well understood from the view point of ocean dynamics. A time-integrated NAO index, which reflects the variations in Atlantic meridional overturning

  11. Implications of climate change on flow regime affecting Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The UKCIP02 climate change scenarios (2070–2100 suggest that the UK climate will become warmer (an overall increase of 2.5–3°C, with temperature increases being greater in the summer and autumn than in the spring and winter seasons. In terms of precipitation, winters are expected to become wetter and summers drier throughout the UK. The effect of changes in the future climate on flow regimes are investigated for the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in a case study in an upland UK river. Using a hydraulic modelling approach, flows simulated across the catchment are assessed in terms of hydraulic characteristics (discharge per metre width, flow depths, flow velocities and Froude number. These, compared with suitable characteristics published in the literature for various life stages of Atlantic salmon, enable assessment of habitat suitability. Climate change factors have been applied to meteorological observations in the Eden catchment (north-west England and effects on the flow regime have been investigated using the SHETRAN hydrological modelling system. High flows are predicted to increase by up to 1.5%; yet, a greater impact is predicted from decreasing low flows (e.g. a Q95 at the outlet of the study catchment may decrease to a Q85 flow. Reliability, Resilience and Vulnerability (RRV analysis provides a statistical indication of the extent and effect of such changes on flows. Results show that future climate will decrease the percentage time the ideal minimum physical habitat requirements will be met. In the case of suitable flow depth for spawning activity at the outlet of the catchment, the percentage time may decrease from 100% under current conditions to 94% in the future. Such changes will have implications for the species under the Habitats Directive and for catchment ecological flow management strategies.

  12. Are Calanus spp. shifting poleward in the North Atlantic? A habitat modelling approach

    KAUST Repository

    Chust, Guillem

    2013-09-16

    In the last decade, the analysis based on Continuous Plankton Recorder survey in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean detected one of the most striking examples of marine poleward migration related to sea warming. The main objective of this study is to verify the poleward shift of zooplankton species (Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis, C. helgolandicus, C. hyperboreus) for which distributional changes have been recorded in the North Atlantic Ocean and to assess how much of this shift was triggered by sea warming, using Generalized Additive Models. To this end, the population gravity centre of observed data was compared with that of a series of simulation experiments: (i) a model using only climate factors (i.e. niche-based model) to simulate species habitat suitability, (ii) a model using only temporal and spatial terms to reconstruct the population distribution, and (iii) a model using both factors combined, using a subset of observations as independent dataset for validation. Our findings show that only C. finmarchicus had a consistent poleward shift, triggered by sea warming, estimated in 8.1 km per decade in the North Atlantic (16.5 per decade for the northeast), which is substantially lower than previous works at the assemblage level and restricted to the Northeast Atlantic. On the contrary, C. helgolandicus is expanding in all directions, although its northern distribution limit in the North Sea has shifted northward. Calanus glacialis and C. hyperboreus, which have the geographic centres of populations mainly in the NW Atlantic, showed a slight southward shift, probably responding to cool water penetrating southward in the Labrador Current. Our approach, supported by high model accuracy, shows its power in detecting species latitudinal shifts and identifying its causes, since the trend of occurrence observed data is influenced by the sampling frequency, which has progressively concentrated to lower latitudes with time. © 2013 © 2013 International Council for

  13. Use of variability modes to evaluate AR4 climate models over the Euro-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado, M.J.; Pastor, M.A. [Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    This paper analyzes the ability of the multi-model simulations from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to simulate the main leading modes of variability over the Euro-Atlantic region in winter: the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Scandinavian mode (SCAND), the East/Atlantic Oscillation (EA) and the East Atlantic/Western Russia mode (EA/WR). These modes of variability have been evaluated both spatially, by analyzing the intensity and location of their anomaly centres, as well as temporally, by focusing on the probability density functions and e-folding time scales. The choice of variability modes as a tool for climate model assessment can be justified by the fact that modes of variability determine local climatic conditions and their likely change may have important implications for future climate changes. It is found that all the models considered are able to simulate reasonably well these four variability modes, the SCAND being the mode which is best spatially simulated. From a temporal point of view the NAO and SCAND modes are the best simulated. UKMO-HadGEM1 and CGCM3.1(T63) are the models best at reproducing spatial characteristics, whereas CCSM3 and CGCM3.1(T63) are the best ones with regard to the temporal features. GISS-AOM is the model showing the worst performance, in terms of both spatial and temporal features. These results may bring new insight into the selection and use of specific models to simulate Euro-Atlantic climate, with some models being clearly more successful in simulating patterns of temporal and spatial variability than others. (orig.)

  14. On which timescales do gas transfer velocities control North Atlantic CO2 flux variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldrey, Matthew P.; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Yool, Andrew; Halloran, Paul R.; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    The North Atlantic is an important basin for the global ocean's uptake of anthropogenic and natural carbon dioxide (CO2), but the mechanisms controlling this carbon flux are not fully understood. The air-sea flux of CO2, F, is the product of a gas transfer velocity, k, the air-sea CO2 concentration gradient, ΔpCO2, and the temperature- and salinity-dependent solubility coefficient, α. k is difficult to constrain, representing the dominant uncertainty in F on short (instantaneous to interannual) timescales. Previous work shows that in the North Atlantic, ΔpCO2 and k both contribute significantly to interannual F variability but that k is unimportant for multidecadal variability. On some timescale between interannual and multidecadal, gas transfer velocity variability and its associated uncertainty become negligible. Here we quantify this critical timescale for the first time. Using an ocean model, we determine the importance of k, ΔpCO2, and α on a range of timescales. On interannual and shorter timescales, both ΔpCO2 and k are important controls on F. In contrast, pentadal to multidecadal North Atlantic flux variability is driven almost entirely by ΔpCO2; k contributes less than 25%. Finally, we explore how accurately one can estimate North Atlantic F without a knowledge of nonseasonal k variability, finding it possible for interannual and longer timescales. These findings suggest that continued efforts to better constrain gas transfer velocities are necessary to quantify interannual variability in the North Atlantic carbon sink. However, uncertainty in k variability is unlikely to limit the accuracy of estimates of longer-term flux variability.

  15. Coccolithophore ecology in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean: New perspectives from the Atlantic meridional transect (AMT) programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alex J.; Holligan, Patrick M.; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia; Adey, Tim R.

    2017-11-01

    Coccolithophore species composition was determined in 199 samples collected from the upper 300 m of the Atlantic Ocean, spanning temperate, tropical and subtropical waters in both hemispheres during four Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) cruises over the period 2003-2005. Of the 171 taxa observed, 140 consistently represented 10% surface irradiance); the lower euphotic zone (LEZ, 10-1% surface irradiance); and the sub-euphotic zone (SEZ, Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa ericsonii which were also abundant at higher latitudes. It is suggested that this pattern reflects similarities in the light (and inorganic nutrient) conditions between the LEZ and temperate waters. The SEZ is below the depth where light is thought to be sufficient to support photosynthesis, suggesting that deep-dwelling species such as Florisphaera profunda and Gladiolithus spp. may be mixotrophic or phagotrophic, although conclusive proof will need to be gained experimentally. Mixotrophy could also be an important nutritional strategy for species abundant (Umbellosphaera spp., holococcolithophores) in the UEZ where inorganic nutrient concentrations are depleted and limiting to growth, although other nutritional strategies, such as the use of organic nutrients, are also possible. Statistical differences were also found in the species composition between the different cruises, with high levels of similarity for similar timed cruises (May or September-October). Few individual taxa showed significant variability in abundance over the time-span of sampling, except species such as E. huxleyi and G. ericsonii at higher latitudes. In subtropical and equatorial waters, high levels of species richness and low levels of species dominance remained throughout the sampling period indicating that seasonal fluctuations reflected differences in the whole coccolithophore community rather than in just one or a few species. Multivariate analyses of the taxa classified as rare also indicated some level of temporal

  16. 75 FR 10450 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... recreational landings for the 2010 fishing year by using simple linear regression of the recent (2001-2008... specifications document, including the Environmental Assessment and Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (EA...-Atlantic RSA Program was published on January 2, 2009 (74 FR 72). For analysis of impacts for each TAL...

  17. 77 FR 75896 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... the non-sandbar large coastal shark quotas and retention limits in 2013 and asked for the reasoning... geographical distribution of non-sandbar large coastal shark landings in the Atlantic throughout the season... the 2006 Consolidated HMS FMP on EFH, we reviewed the geographical range of all HMS and analyzed the...

  18. 77 FR 19175 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file... active member of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), the United States implements binding ICCAT recommendations to comply with this international treaty. ATCA authorizes...

  19. 75 FR 42378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... public. Those interested in participating should contact Kari Fenske at SEDAR. See FOR FURTHER... CONTACT: Kari Fenske, SEDAR Coordinator, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; (843) 571- 4366; kari.fenske@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic...

  20. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... species of sharks, including basking, great hammerhead, scalloped hammerhead, white, dusky, tiger, sand... Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce are necessary for the conservation of the shark resource. This determination is consistent with...

  1. 75 FR 1753 - Fisheries of the Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Atlantic croaker and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; international... Conservation and Management Act, provided the public has been notified of the Council's intent to take final...

  2. 76 FR 70064 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Update to Information on the Effective Date of Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... provisions, and only after ESA Section 7 consultation is completed. Notice of the effective date will be.... 110912579-1627-01] RIN 0648-BB43 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Update to Information on the Effective.... SUMMARY: NMFS is updating the anticipated effective date of smoothhound shark management measures...

  3. 78 FR 62587 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Essential Fish Habitat Policy Statements and receive training on the use of the Regional Habitat and... meeting of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Habitat and Environmental Protection (Habitat... of its Habitat AP in St. Petersburg, FL. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The meeting will...

  4. 78 FR 23224 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Agenda, Tuesday, May 7, 2013, 8:30 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. 1. Review draft Essential Fish Habitat (EFH... of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Habitat & Environmental Protection Advisory Panel (AP); Coral AP; Joint Meeting of the Habitat & Environmental Protection AP and Coral AP; and Deepwater...

  5. 75 FR 65298 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... five-year Essential Fish Habitat review, the Governor's South Atlantic Alliance Action Plan, a status... its Habitat and Environmental Protection (Habitat) Advisory Panel in North Charleston, SC. DATES: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Habitat Advisory Panel will meet from 9 a.m.-5 p.m...

  6. Atlantic mackerel and Horse mackerel egg survey 2016: Dutch participation on board FV Atlantic Lady: May

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    From 10 till 25 May 2016 IMARES carried out a mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey on board the FV Atlantic Lady. This survey was part of the international mackerel and horse mackerel egg survey coordinated by ICES. The Redersvereniging voor de Zeevisserij (RVZ) asked IMARES to carry out this

  7. Freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic Ocean in 2005–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Wenjun; Shi, Jiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Basin-scaled freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is reported to have dominated South Atlantic Ocean during period from 2005 to 2014, as shown by the gridded monthly means Argo (Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography) data. The relevant investigation was also revealed by two transatlantic occupations of repeated section along 30° S, from World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. Freshening of the AAIW was compensated by the opposing salinity increase o...

  8. Freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic Ocean in 2005–2014

    OpenAIRE

    W. Yao; J. Shi; X. Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Basin-scale freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is reported to have occurred in the South Atlantic Ocean during the period from 2005 to 2014, as shown by the gridded monthly means of the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) data. This phenomenon was also revealed by two repeated transects along a section at 30° S, performed during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. Freshening of the AAIW was compensated for by a salinity...

  9. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  10. Atlantic Coastal Experiment VI: R/V KNORR cruise, 23 August--11 September 1980, data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, W.; von Bock, K. (eds)

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of estuaries on the ecosystem of the Mid-Atlantic Bight was undertaken. Data were collected from excursions into the Hudson, Delaware and Chesapeake estuaries, three across-shelf and one along-shelf transects, and two time series stations. In all, 139 stations were occupied and 164 XBT soundings were taken. In addition to standard hydrographic measurements, nutrient , chlorophyll, particulate carbon and nitrogen, 14C, 15N, DNA, particle size, FTD, phytoplankton and zooplankton analyses were made.

  11. Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the Northeastern Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, J.D.; Hirose, M.; Wirtz, P.

    2010-01-01

    The marine invertebrate fauna of the Cape Verde Islands contains many endemic species due to their isolated location in the eastern Atlantic, yet research has not been conducted on most taxa here. One such group are the zoanthids or mat anemones, an order of benthic cnidarians (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) common in many marine environments. In this study, the diversity of zoanthids in the Cape Verde Islands is specifically examined for the first time. Field images and sampling are combined with...

  12. Geophysical and geodynamic studies of the North Atlantic Realm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The geology of the North Atlantic Realm (NAR), including the North Atlantic, Greenland, the Arctic, Iceland, Scandinavia, Northern Europe and Northeast America has been studied for more than a century and inspired some of the most fundamental theories in geoscience, such as plate tectonics, the s...

  13. Are North Atlantic Multidecadal SST Anomalies Westward Propagating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qingyi; Dijkstra, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The westward propagation of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies is one of the main characteristics of one of the theories of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Here we use techniques from complex network modeling to investigate the existence of the westward propagation in the North Atlantic

  14. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation During the Last Glacial Maximum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Adkins, J.F.; Curry, W.B.; Dokken, T.; Hall, I.R.; Herguera, J.C.; Hirschi, J.J.-M.; Ivanova, E.V.; Kissel, C.; Marchal, O.; Marchitto, T.M.; McCave, I.N.; McManus, J.F.; Mulitza, S.; Ninnemann, U.; Peeters, F.J.C.; Yu, E.-F.; Zahn, R.

    2007-01-01

    The circulation of the deep Atlantic Ocean during the height of the last ice age appears to have been quite different from today. We review observations implying that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum was neither extremely sluggish nor an enhanced version of

  15. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  16. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  17. North Atlantic octocorals: Distribution, Ecology and Phylogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Kirsty Janet

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of deep-sea benthic fauna have concentrated on soft sediments with little sampling in rocky areas and even less on non-vent mid-ocean ridges and within submarine canyons, mainly as a result of difficulty accessing them. To assess the distribution and abundance of cold-water corals along an Axial Volcanic Ridges along the Mid-Atlantic ridge at 45oN 27oW, and within the Whittard Canyon along the Irish Margin video footage from the ROV Isis taken during a three scientific cruises wa...

  18. The Energy Cascade Associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, J. M.; Marques, C. A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation or Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO), in a more hemispheric expression, is the dominant mode of variability of the extratropical atmospheric circulation. In the literature which analyses the association of low frequency variability of the NAO/AO with other climate variables, it is very common to find the idea of circulation and climate impacts of the NAO/AO. It is usually suggested that the NAO influences the position of North Atlantic storm tracks and the related transport of heat and moisture. However, in spite of the long time since the NAO variability mode was uncovered (Walker and Bliss, 1932), its underlying dynamical mechanisms are not well understood yet. In fact, it is not yet consensual that the NAO influences the position of the storm tracks, being possible that the relationship is in the opposite way with the storm track activity influencing de NAO. In this communication we will present an analysis of anomalies of the energy cascade associated with the NAO. A detailed version of the Lorenz energy cycle, which decomposes the energy flows into baroclinic and barotropic terms and into zonal mean and eddy components, was applied to the 6-hourly ERA-I reanalysis for the period of 1979 to 2016. The obtained results show that the positive NAO phase is preceded by an significant increase of synoptic baroclinic eddy activity. The eddy available potential energy is converted into kinetic energy and transferred to barotropic synoptic eddies. Then, the kinetic energy is transferred upscale into the barotropic planetary waves, which reproduce the NAO pattern. Therefore, we conclude that the synoptic baroclinic eddy activity forces the NAO variability. No clear signal was found for a modulating role of the NAO in the baroclinic eddy activity.

  19. South Atlantic Anomaly evolution by means of Swarm data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavon-Carrasco, F. Javier; Qamili, Enkelejda; De Santis, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The study of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is an important challenge nowadays not only for the geomagnetic and paleomagnetic community, but also for other areas focused on the Earth Observation. This large magnetic anomaly is characterized by values of geomagnetic field intensity around 30% lower than expected for those latitudes and covers a large area in the South Atlantic Ocean between Southwest Brazil and South Africa. This great depression of the geomagnetic field strength at the Earth's surface has an internal deep origin: it is caused by a prominent patch of reversed polarity flux in the outer core. Since the Earth's magnetic field has an important protective role for the all geosphere because it deflects a large part of the solar radiation that would otherwise reach the Earth's surface, a large increase of the SAA could have dramatic consequences for human health and technologies. In the last three decades, an almost constant monitoring of the SAA has been carried out using satellite data showing a clear picture of the behaviour and evolution of the SAA, which area is growing alarmingly during the most recent years at the Earth's surface and at the core mantle boundary. In this context, the ESA Swarm mission (constituted by a constellation of three satellites in near-polar low orbits at two different altitudes) is providing detailed measurements of the intensity and directional elements of the geomagnetic field with high-precision and resolution never reached in the former space missions. This work aims to analyse in detail in space and time the SAA from the Earth's surface up to the satellite altitude. In order to carry out this study, comprehensive geomagnetic models at regional and global scale will be performed using the dataset provided by the Swarm satellites and all the available ground data. This kind of study is crucial to understand the evolution of the Earth's magnetic field in this area, and to possibly predict its future behaviour.

  20. A phylogeographic investigation of the kelp genus Laminaria (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae), with emphasis on the South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Mark D; Mattio, Lydiane; Anderson, Robert J; Bolton, John J

    2017-08-01

    The genus Laminaria has a wide distribution range compared with other kelp genera because it is found in both the North and the South Atlantic, on both sides of the North Pacific, as well as in the Mediterranean. Hypotheses behind this biogeographical pattern have been discussed by several authors but have not yet been fully evaluated with time-calibrated phylogenies. Based on the analysis of four molecular markers (ITS2, rbcL, atp8 and trnWI), our goal was to reassess the Laminaria species diversity in South Africa, assess its relationship with the other species distributed in the South Atlantic and reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus. Our results confirm the occurrence of a single species, L. pallida, in southern Africa, and its sister relationship with the North Atlantic L. ochroleuca. Both species belonged to a clade containing the other South Atlantic species: L. abyssalis from Brazil, and the Mediterranean L. rodriguezii. Our time-calibrated phylogenies suggest that Laminaria originated in the northern Pacific around 25 mya, followed by at least two migration events through the Bering Strait after its opening (~5.32 mya). Today, the first is represented by L. solidungula in the Arctic, while the second gave rise to the rest of the Atlantic species. The colonization of the North Atlantic was followed by a gradual colonization southward along the west coast of Europe, into the Mediterranean (~2.07 mya) and two recent, but disconnected, migrations (~1.34 and 0.87 mya) across the equator, giving rise to L. abyssalis in Brazil and L. pallida in southern Africa, respectively. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  1. 75 FR 35435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    .... 100513223-0254-01] RIN 0648-AY88 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In- season Adjustment AGENCY: National Marine... deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea...

  2. Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on European tropospheric composition: an observational and modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, R.; Chipperfield, M.

    2017-12-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has a strong influence on winter-time North Atlantic and European circulation patterns. Under the positive phase of the NAO (NAO+), intensification of the climatological Icelandic low and Azores high pressure systems results in strong westerly flow across the Atlantic into Europe. Under the NAO negative phase (NAO-), there is a weakening of this meridional pressure gradient resulting in a southerly shift in the westerlies flow towards the sub-tropical Atlantic. Therefore, NAO+ and NAO- introduce unstable stormy and drier stable conditions into Europe, respectively. Under NAO+ conditions, the strong westerlies tend to enhance transport of European pollution (e.g. nitrogen oxides) away from anthropogenic source regions. While during NAO-, the more stable conditions lead to a build up of pollutants. However, secondary pollutants (i.e. tropospheric ozone) show the opposite signal where NAO+, while transporting primary pollutants away, introduces Atlantic ozone enriched air into Europe. Here ozone can form downwind of pollution from continental North America and be transported into Europe via the westerly flow. Under NAO-, this westerly ozone transport is reduced yielding lower European ozone concentrations also depleted further by ozone loss through the reaction with NOx, which has accumulated over the continent. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), observed in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) by satellite, peaks over Iceland/Southern Greenland in NAO-, between 200-100 hPa, consistent with trapping by an anticyclone at this altitude. During NAO+, PAN is enhanced over the sub-tropical Atlantic and Arctic. Model simulations show that enhanced PAN over Iceland/Southern Greenland in NAO- is associated with vertical transport from the troposphere into the UTLS, while peak Arctic PAN in NAO+ is its accumulation given the strong northerly meridional transport in the UTLS. UTLS ozone spatial anomalies, relative to the winter-time

  3. Otolaryngology in Atlantic Canada: practitioners' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelausa, E O

    1999-02-01

    A survey was conducted to assess practice conditions in Atlantic Canada for 1996. Otolaryngologists in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland/Labrador with at least 1 year of practice experience in the area were canvassed regarding general work concerns, office and OR waiting lists, income, support services, job satisfaction, future plans and personal recommendations for improvement. Nineteen of 40 surveyed responded (47.5%). The results revealed that Atlantic Canadians had to wait considerably longer than average Canadians for ENT services. This was particularly true for Nova Scotians who had to wait often more than double the national average. Forty-seven and a half percent of practitioners were dissatisfied with the practice climate, with many merely trying to maintain status quo. Increasing government constraints and budget cuts have led to practice protectionism and the loss of collegiality. There is little optimism for the future, with 42% predicting continued deterioration in the next 5 years. As a result, up to 58% are considering relocating elsewhere. Despite diminishing returns, these specialists continue to provide the best possible care for their patient patients--hoping for a better tomorrow.

  4. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  5. An Anatomy of the 1960s Atlantic Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Dan; Robson, Jon; Sutton, Rowan

    2014-05-01

    North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) exhibited pronounced multidecadal variability during the 20th Century. In particular, the North Atlantic SSTs exhibited a rapid warming between 1920 and 1940 followed by a rapid cooling between 1960 and 1980. SSTs outside the North Atlantic display a much smaller level of decadal variability over the 20th Century. This pattern of North Atlantic warming and cooling has been linked to subsequent changes in rainfall over the Sahel and Nordeste Brazil, Summertime North American Climate and Atlantic Hurricane Genesis. Several hypotheses for the rapid 1960s Atlantic cooling have been proposed, including a reduction in northward ocean heat transport due to a reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the significant rise in anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions during the latter half of the 20th century. Here we examine the observed 1960s Atlantic cooling in more detail. We describe the evolution of the rapid cooling by constructing a detailed multivariate anatomy of the cooling period in order to illuminate the possible explanations and mechanisms involved. We show that the observed 1960s cooling began around 1964-68 in the Greenland-Iceland-Norway (GIN) seas, later spreading to the Atlantic Sub Polar Gyre and much of the subtropical Atlantic. This initial cooling of the Sub Polar Gyre is associated with a marked reduction in salinity (the Great Salinity Anomaly). The cooling peaked between 1972-76, extending into the Tropical North Atlantic. This period also saw the development of a significant Winter North-South Dipole Mean Sea Level Pressure dipole pattern reminiscent of a positive NAO (High over the Azores, Low over Iceland). The cooling then retreated back to higher latitudes during 1976:80. Our analysis demonstrates that the cooling of the North Atlantic during the 1960s cannot be understood as a simple thermodynamic response to aerosol induced reductions in shortwave radiation. Dynamical changes

  6. 77 FR 50470 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Recreational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., West Atlantic sailfish, or North Atlantic swordfish in states (and the United States Virgin Islands and... Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Recreational Landings Reports AGENCY: National... provides important data used to monitor catches of Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS) and supplements...

  7. KAPEX RAFOS float data report 1997 - 1999. Pt. A. The Agulhas- and South Atlantic current components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boebel, O.; Anderson-Fontana, S.; Lazarevich, P.; Prater, M.; Rossby, T. [Rhode Island Univ., Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Schmid, C.; Zenk, W. [Institut fuer Meereskunde an der Univ. Kiel (Germany); Ansorge, I.; Lutjeharms, J. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Oceanography

    2000-10-01

    This data report presents trajectories and corresponding in-situ data for all acoustically tracked RAFOS floats that were deployed within the Agulhas and the South Atlantic Current components of KAPEX. KAPEX stands for Cape of Good Hope Experiment, Kaap die Goeie Hoop Eksperimente or Kap der Guten Hoffnung Experiment in the three languages of the participating authors. The objective of the program was to study the interocean exchange of subsurface waters south of Africa between the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans. A total of 92 floats were deployed during four cruises at depths between 100 - 1200 m during March 1997 and June 1998. It is the first time that eddy-resolving floats are used to measure ocean flow patterns at intermediate and thermocline levels off southern Africa. (orig.)

  8. Helminth parasites of Galictis cuja (Carnivora, Mustelidae, from localities in the Atlantic forest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract The current study aimed to investigate the helminth parasites of a population of Galictis cuja (Carnivora, Mustelidae that occur in Atlantic Forest in the Southeastern region of Brazil. We necropsied 18 specimens of G. cuja, collected between January 2009 and May 2014, ran over victims on BR-040 highway, between the municipalities of Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro and Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais, localities inserted in Atlantic rainforest Biome. A total of six species of helminths were identified: Dioctophyme renale, Molineus elegans, Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Platynosomum illiciens, and Pachysentis gethi. Molineus elegans, Physaloptera sp. and P. illiciens were recorded for the first time in this host. Data provided in the current study when compared to the previous reports of parasitism by helminths in G. cuja in Brazil demonstrate that this study is the most representative with this host species.

  9. Pre-hospital ticagrelor in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the French ATLANTIC population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayla, Guillaume; Lapostolle, Frederic; Ecollan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ATLANTIC was a randomized study comparing pre- and in-hospital treatment with a ticagrelor loading dose (LD) in ongoing ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to compare patient characteristics and clinical outcomes in France with other countries participating...... in ATLANTIC. METHODS: The population comprised 1862 patients, 660 (35.4%) from France and 1202 from 12 other countries. The main endpoints were reperfusion (≥70% ST-segment elevation resolution) and TIMI flow grade 3 before (co-primary endpoints) and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Other...... endpoints included a composite ischaemic endpoint (death/myocardial infarction/stroke/urgent revascularization/definite stent thrombosis) and bleeding events at 30days. RESULTS: In France, median times from first LD to angiography and between first and second LDs were 49 and 35min, respectively, and were...

  10. Thermal niche of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua: limits, tolerance and optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Righton, David A.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Neat, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in the marine environment have suggested that the limited phenotypic plasticity of cold-adapted species such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. will cause distributions to shift toward the poles in response to rising sea temperatures. Some cod stocks are predicted to collapse, but thi......Recent studies in the marine environment have suggested that the limited phenotypic plasticity of cold-adapted species such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. will cause distributions to shift toward the poles in response to rising sea temperatures. Some cod stocks are predicted to collapse...... niche of approximately 12°C, but latitudinal differences in water temperature meant that cod in the warmer, southern regions experienced 3 times the degree days (DD; ~4000 DD yr–1) than individuals from northern regions (~1200 DD yr–1). Growth rates increased with temperature, reaching a maximum...

  11. Ascension and Port Stanley geomagnetic observatories and monitoring the South Atlantic Anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macmillan, S.; Turbitt, C.; Thomson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Our 15-year experience of operating two remote observatories, Ascension and Port Stanley, in the south Atlantic is described. These observatories help monitor the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), a region of weak magnetic field which causes considerable problems for spacecraft operators. One-minute and one-second values from these observatories, and other observatories both inside and outside the SAA, are analysed. We investigate whether the SAA, and its growth over time, are having any tangible effect on the observed external field variations. Whilst only able to illustrate the long-term characteristics of the irregular external field related to the solar cycle and not due to any long-term changes in the internal field, we do isolate micro pulsation signals at sites inside the SAA which contain more power than at sites outside.

  12. Differential recolonization of Atlantic intertidal habitats after disturbance reveals potential bottom-up community regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Willy; Scrosati, Ricardo A

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, abundant sea ice that drifted out of the Gulf of St. Lawrence caused extensive disturbance in rocky intertidal habitats on the northern Atlantic coast of mainland Nova Scotia, Canada. To monitor recovery of intertidal communities, we surveyed two wave-exposed locations in the early summer of 2014. Barnacle recruitment and the abundance of predatory dogwhelks were low at one location (Tor Bay Provincial Park) but more than 20 times higher at the other location (Whitehead). Satellite data indicated that the abundance of coastal phytoplankton (the main food source for barnacle larvae) was consistently higher at Whitehead just before the barnacle recruitment season, when barnacle larvae were in the water column. These observations suggest bottom-up forcing of intertidal communities. The underlying mechanisms and their intensity along the NW Atlantic coast could be investigated through studies done at local and regional scales.

  13. Characterizing synoptic and cloud variability in the northern atlantic using self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Carly

    Low-level clouds have a significant influence on the Earth's radiation budget and it is thus imperative to understand their behavior within the marine boundary layer (MBL). The cloud properties in the Northeast Atlantic region are highly variable in space and time and are a research focus for many atmospheric scientists. Characterizing the synoptic patterns in the region through the implementation of self-organizing maps (SOMs) enables a climatological grasp of cloud and atmospheric fields. ERA -- Interim and MODIS provide the platform to explore the variability in the Northeast Atlantic for over 30 years of data. Station data comes from CAP -- MBL on Graciosa Island in the Azores, which lies in a strong gradient of cloud and other atmospheric fields, offer an opportunity to incorporate an observational aspect for the years of 2009 and 2010.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in the Cod Fisheries of the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua has been subject to commercial exploitation since the thirteenth century. An analysis of cod fisheries over space and time reveals a pattern of serial depletion that reflects the cross-scale interaction of fish population structure, economic incentives, developments in fishing technology, and government efforts to limit access to fishing areas. Three case studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, the larger Northwest Atlantic, and the Gulf of Maine illustrate a pattern of fish population depletion followed by expansion of fishing activity that repeats at a range of scales. The meta-population structure of cod populations allows overharvesting, even when strict but broadscale controls are in place. The results argue for the reform of fisheries management to incorporate governance that more closely reflects the scale of the local components of metapopulations.

  15. North Atlantic variability and its links to European climate over the last 3000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffa-Sánchez, Paola; Hall, Ian R

    2017-11-23

    The subpolar North Atlantic is a key location for the Earth's climate system. In the Labrador Sea, intense winter air-sea heat exchange drives the formation of deep waters and the surface circulation of warm waters around the subpolar gyre. This process therefore has the ability to modulate the oceanic northward heat transport. Recent studies reveal decadal variability in the formation of Labrador Sea Water. Yet, crucially, its longer-term history and links with European climate remain limited. Here we present new decadally resolved marine proxy reconstructions, which suggest weakened Labrador Sea Water formation and gyre strength with similar timing to the centennial cold periods recorded in terrestrial climate archives and historical records over the last 3000 years. These new data support that subpolar North Atlantic circulation changes, likely forced by increased southward flow of Arctic waters, contributed to modulating the climate of Europe with important societal impacts as revealed in European history.

  16. Revisiting tropical instability wave variability in the Atlantic ocean using SODA reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Decco, Hatsue Takanaca; Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi; Landau, Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of energy exchange in Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs) in the Atlantic Ocean were investigated. A spectral analysis was used to filter the 5-day mean results from Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis spanning from 1958 to 2008. TIWs were filtered over periods of 15 to 60 days and between wavelengths of 4 and 20 longitude degrees. The main approach of this study was the use of bidirectionally filtered TIW time series as the perturbation fields, and the difference in these time series from the SODA total results was considered to be the basic state for energetics analysis. The main result was that the annual cycle (period of 360 days) was the main source of variability of the waves, and the semi-annual cycle (period of 180 days) was a secondary variation, which indicated that TIWs occurred throughout the year but with intensity that varies seasonally. In SODA, barotropic instability acts as the mechanism that feeds and extracts energy to/from TIWs at equatorial Atlantic. Baroclinic instability is the main mechanism that extracts energy from TIWs to the equatorial circulation north of the Equator. All TIW patterns of variability were observed western of 10° W. The present study reveals new evidences regarding TIW variability and suggests that future investigations should include a detailed description of TIW dynamics as part of Atlantic Ocean equatorial circulation.

  17. Astronomically paced middle Eocene deepwater circulation in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pälike, Heiko; Zachos, James C.

    2017-04-01

    The role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as a key player for abrupt climatic changes (e.g. Heinrich Stadials) during the Pleistocene is relatively well constrained. However, the timing of the onset of a „modern" North Atlantic Deepwater (NADW) formation are still debated: Recent estimates range from the middle Miocene to the Early Eocene [Davies et al., 2001, Stoker et al., 2005, Hohbein et al., 2012] and are mainly based on the seismic interpretation contourite drifts. Another understudied aspect of the AMOC is its behavior during climatic variations on orbital time scales and under different climatic boundary conditions (icehouse vs hothouse). IODP Expedition 342 drilled carbonate-rich sequences from sediment drifts offshore Newfoundland that cover the middle Eocene with high sedimentation rates ( 3 cm/ kyr). We present a 2 Myr long stable carbon and oxygen isotope record of benthic foraminifera nuttalides truempyi spanning magnetochron C20r in unprecedented resolution (Petroleum Geology, v. 22, no. 9, p. 977-1005. Hohbein, M. W., Sexton, P. F., and Cartwright, J. A., 2012, Onset of North Atlantic Deep Water production coincident with inception of the Cenozoic global cooling trend: Geology, v. 40, no. 3, p. 255-258.

  18. Topographic asymmetry of the South Atlantic from global models of mantle flow and lithospheric stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Nicolas; Gurnis, Michael; Williams, Simon; Seton, Maria; Skogseid, Jakob; Heine, Christian; Müller, Dietmar

    2014-05-01

    The relief of the South Atlantic is characterized by elevated passive continental margins along southern Africa and eastern Brazil, and by the bathymetric asymmetry of the southern oceanic basin where the western flank is much deeper than the eastern flank. We investigate the origin of these topographic features in the present and over time since the Jurassic with a model of global mantle flow and lithospheric deformation. The model progressively assimilates plate kinematics, plate boundaries and lithospheric age derived from global tectonic reconstructions with deforming plates, and predicts the evolution of mantle temperature, continental crustal thickness, long-wavelength dynamic topography, and isostatic topography. Mantle viscosity and the kinematics of the opening of the South Atlantic are adjustable parameters in multiple model cases. Model predictions are compared to observables both for the present-day and in the past. Present-day predictions are compared to topography, mantle tomography, and an estimate of residual topography. Predictions for the past are compared to tectonic subsidence from backstripped borehole data along the South American passive margin, and to dynamic uplift as constrained by thermochronology in southern Africa. Comparison between model predictions and observations suggests that the first-order features of the topography of the South Atlantic are due to long-wavelength dynamic topography, rather than to asthenospheric processes. We find the uplift of southern Africa to be best reproduced with a lower mantle that is at least 40 times more viscous than the upper mantle.

  19. Reduced Anxiety in Forensic Inpatients after a Long-Term Intervention with Atlantic Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Atlantic salmon consumption on underlying biological mechanisms associated with anxiety such as heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate (HR as well as a measure of self-reported anxiety. Moreover, these biological and self-reported outcome measures were investigated in relation to specific nutrients; vitamin D status, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Ninety-five male forensic inpatients were randomly assigned into a Fish (Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February or a Control group (alternative meal, e.g., chicken, pork, or beef three times per week during the same period. HRV measured as the root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD, HR, state- and trait-anxiety (STAI, were assessed before (pre-test and at the end of the 23 weeks dietary intervention period (post-test. The Fish group showed significant improvements in both rMSSD and HR. The Fish group also showed significant decreases in state-anxiety. Finally, there was a positive relationship between rMSSD and vitamin D status. The findings suggest that Atlantic salmon consumption may have an impact on mental health related variables such as underlying mechanisms playing a key role in emotion-regulation and state-anxiety.

  20. Model under-representation of decadal Pacific trade wind trends and its link to tropical Atlantic bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajtar, Jules B.; Santoso, Agus; McGregor, Shayne; England, Matthew H.; Baillie, Zak

    2018-02-01

    The strengthening of the Pacific trade winds in recent decades has been unmatched in the observational record stretching back to the early twentieth century. This wind strengthening has been connected with numerous climate-related phenomena, including accelerated sea-level rise in the western Pacific, alterations to Indo-Pacific ocean currents, increased ocean heat uptake, and a slow-down in the rate of global-mean surface warming. Here we show that models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 underestimate the observed range of decadal trends in the Pacific trade winds, despite capturing the range in decadal sea surface temperature (SST) variability. Analysis of observational data suggests that tropical Atlantic SST contributes considerably to the Pacific trade wind trends, whereas the Atlantic feedback in coupled models is muted. Atmosphere-only simulations forced by observed SST are capable of recovering the time-variation and the magnitude of the trade wind trends. Hence, we explore whether it is the biases in the mean or in the anomalous SST patterns that are responsible for the under-representation in fully coupled models. Over interannual time-scales, we find that model biases in the patterns of Atlantic SST anomalies are the strongest source of error in the precipitation and atmospheric circulation response. In contrast, on decadal time-scales, the magnitude of the model biases in Atlantic mean SST are directly linked with the trade wind variability response.