WorldWideScience

Sample records for berliner-based bio pesticide

  1. Use of by-products rich in carbon and nitrogen as a nutrient source to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based bio pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicente, Fernando H. [EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: valicent@cnpms.embrapa.br; Mourao, Andre H.C. [Curso de Meio Ambiente, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    The amount and sources of carbon and nitrogen used to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based biopesticide may influence the quality of the fi nal product. The objective of this research was to test different levels of carbon and nitrogen: medium 1 - 1.5% maize glucose + 0.5% soy fl our, medium 2 - 3.0% maize glucose + 1.0% soy flour, medium 3 - 1.0% maize glucose + 3.0% soy fl our and medium 4 - Luria Bertani (LB) + salts (FeSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4}, MnSO{sub 4}, MgSO{sub 4}). The seed culture was produced in LB medium plus salt, under agitation (200 rpm) for 18h at 30 deg C. The strain 344 of Bt was used (B. thuringiensis var tolworthi - belonging to the EMBRAPA's Bt Bank). The pH was measured at regular intervals, and After culturing for 96h, the pH of the four tested media was basified (6.91 and 8.15), the number of spores yielded 4.39 x 10{sup 9} spores/ml in medium 3, where the amount of protein is high. The dry biomass weight accumulated in media 3 was 39.3 g/l. Mortality of 2-day-old larvae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) was 100% when using Bt produced in media 3 and 4. CL{sub 50} for medium 3 was 8.4 x 10{sup 6} spores/ml. All tested media were satisfactory to Bt growth, and medium 3 was the most promising to be used on a large scale Bt-based biopesticide production. (author)

  2. Use of by-products rich in carbon and nitrogen as a nutrient source to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based bio pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicente, Fernando H.; Mourao, Andre H.C.

    2008-01-01

    The amount and sources of carbon and nitrogen used to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based biopesticide may influence the quality of the fi nal product. The objective of this research was to test different levels of carbon and nitrogen: medium 1 - 1.5% maize glucose + 0.5% soy fl our, medium 2 - 3.0% maize glucose + 1.0% soy flour, medium 3 - 1.0% maize glucose + 3.0% soy fl our and medium 4 - Luria Bertani (LB) + salts (FeSO 4 , ZnSO 4 , MnSO 4 , MgSO 4 ). The seed culture was produced in LB medium plus salt, under agitation (200 rpm) for 18h at 30 deg C. The strain 344 of Bt was used (B. thuringiensis var tolworthi - belonging to the EMBRAPA's Bt Bank). The pH was measured at regular intervals, and After culturing for 96h, the pH of the four tested media was basified (6.91 and 8.15), the number of spores yielded 4.39 x 10 9 spores/ml in medium 3, where the amount of protein is high. The dry biomass weight accumulated in media 3 was 39.3 g/l. Mortality of 2-day-old larvae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) was 100% when using Bt produced in media 3 and 4. CL 50 for medium 3 was 8.4 x 10 6 spores/ml. All tested media were satisfactory to Bt growth, and medium 3 was the most promising to be used on a large scale Bt-based biopesticide production. (author)

  3. Nanotechnology Applied to Bio-Encapsulation of Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Renato; Abhilash, Purushothaman Chirakkuzhyil; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been made towards the application of nanotechnology in sustainable food production. In this context, the bio-encapsulation process has taken prominence in particular as an ecofriendly method for pest control while reducing the pesticide load in the environment considerably. By taking into consideration, here we are presenting an overview regarding the prospects for the development of nanoencapsulated pesticides in sustainable agriculture and highlight some challenges to be addressed in order to develop efficient nano-carrier systems that may arise as an alternative for conventional pesticide application. However, much research has to be done in this area in order to develop safe and promising pesticide delivery systems for increasing global food production by enhancing the selectivity, specificity and longevity of the encapsulated pesticides while reducing the negative environmental impacts to ecosystem and human beings.

  4. Efficacy of bio and synthetic pesticides against the American ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management for the bollworm complex in Uganda is largely synthetic chemical use with little or no biopesticide use which reduces natural enemies population and resistance development to continuous use of a single synthetic pesticide product. Therefore this study aimed at determining the efficacy of bio and synthetic ...

  5. Potentials of two bio-pesticides in the control of some field insect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the predominate order of insects associated with Bambara groundnut and to compare the efficacy of aqueous leaf extracts of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), used as bio-pesticides in controlling some field insect pests of Bambara ...

  6. Evaluation of Four Bio fertilizers for Bioremediation of Pesticide contaminated Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El- Kabbany, S.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to asses the ability of mixed populations of microorganisms which produced as a bio fertilizers by the General Organization of Agriculture Fund, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt (phosphoren, microbien, cerealin and azospirillum) to degrade five selected pesticides representing different classes including organophosphate, carbamate and chlorinated organic compounds. There were differences in rates of biotransformation, suggesting the selective induction of certain metabolic enzymes. Inoculation of soil incorporated with malathion, fenamiphos, carbaryl, aldicarb and dieldrin, resulted in ca. 80-90% removal of malathion and fenamiphos within 8 days, carbaryl and aldicarb within 11-15 days respectively. Dieldrin removal occurred slowly within 2 months. These data suggest that bioremediate may act as potential candidates for soil inoculation to bioremediate pesticide contaminated soil. The production of Co2 (soil respiration ) was stimulated by some pesticides. In samples with microbien, an about 2 times higher Co2 production was measured

  7. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture.

  8. Characterization of preservative and pesticide as potential of bio oil compound from pyrolisis of cocoa shell using gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashuni, Jahiding, M.; Kurniasih, I.; Zulkaidah

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa shell is one of the plant waste that has not been widely used. Cocoa shell is potential as a producer of bio oil because it contains lignocellulose. The bio oil of Liquid volatile matter (LVM) is the products of smoke condensation from the pyrolysis reactor. The bio oil of cocoa shell from pyrolysis process can be made as raw materials for the application of pesticide and preservative. The aims of this research were to produce bio oil from cocoa shell by pyrolysis and analyzing the content using Gas Chromatography (GC). Bio oil production was done by pyrolysis with variations of temperature, i.e. 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C. Pyrolysis reaction generates three products: gas, liquid and solid. The yield of bio oil with variations of pyrolisis temperature, i.e. 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C were obtained i.e. 46, 45, 44 and 40% (v/w), respectively. The chromatogram results showed the chemical components of bio oil from the cocoa shell were ammonia, hexane, alcohol, ketone, acid and phenolic compounds which can be used as material of preservative and pesticide.

  9. Acute toxicity assessment of Osthol content in bio-pesticides using two aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chae Yim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study focused on the assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol, a major component of environment-friendly biological pesticides, by using two aquatic organisms. Methods The assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol was conducted in Daphnia magna and by examining the morphological abnormalities in Danio rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration value of Osthol in D. magna 48 hours after inoculation was 19.3 μM. The median lethal concentration of D. rerio embryo at 96 hours was 30.6 μM. No observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration values of Osthol in D. magna and D. rerio were calculated as 5.4 and 0.19 μM, respectively. There was an increase in the morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryo due to Osthol over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation were observed in embryos at 24–48 hours. Symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects, and symptoms of collapse were observed in fertilized embryo tissue within 96 hours. Ocular defects and pigmentation were the additional symptoms observed in this study. Conclusions Because Osthol showed considerable toxicity levels continuous toxicity evaluation in agro-ecosystems is necessary when bio-pesticides containing Osthol are used.

  10. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few. Top of Page How do pesticides work? Pesticides are designed to interfere with some biological or chemical pathway critical to the survival of the pest to which it is targeted. When the pesticide interrupts these pathways, the target organism dies. Top ...

  11. [Effects of pesticides and plant bio-stimulants on the germination of chlamydospores and in vitro development of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceiro, Wilson G; Arévalo, Jersys; Hidalgo-Díaz, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pesticides and plant bio-stimulants used in protected vegetable production systems on the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia are unknown. The effectiveness of P. chlamydosporia against Meloidogyne spp. could be affected by products used in protected vegetable production systems. Two in vitro assays were carried out to evaluate any potential effect that pesticides and bio-stimulants often used in these systems could have on the fungus. The effect on chlamydospore germination was evaluated in a first assay, and mycelia growth and sporulation in a second. With these results, the compatibility of each product with the fungus was determined. Chlamydospores germination was over 50% with the control, FitoMas E, Biobras-16 and Amidor. Lower results were observed with other products, with some of them even inhibiting germination completely. Fungal growth was potentiated by Biobras-16 to 106.23%, promoted up to 50-100% by the control, FitoMas E and Cuproflow, and was below 50% with the rest of the products.Cipermetrina, Benomilo, Zineb, Mitigan, Karate, FitoMas E and Amidor promoted fungal sporulation, which was below 50% with Cuproflow and completely inhibited by the other products. Fifty-four percent of the products evaluated were compatible with P. chlamydosporia, while 8% were toxic and 38%, very toxic. Cipermetrina, Karate, Amidor, Benomilo, Zineb, Mitigan and FitoMas E were compatible with P. chlamydosporia. If it is necessary to use any of the other products for integrated pest management in protected vegetable production systems, it is recommended to avoid direct contact with P. chlamydosporia. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Degradation of non-biodegradable pesticides in water by coupling photo catalysis and bio treatment; Eliminacion de plaguicidas no biodegrabables en aguas mediante acoplamiento de fotocatalisis solar y oxidacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros Martin, M. M.; Sanchez Perez, J. A.; Malato Rodriguez, S.

    2008-07-01

    The influence of pesticide concentration, expressed as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), on combined solar photo-Fenton and biological oxidation treatment was studied using wastewater containing different pure and commercial pesticides (dimethoate, oxydemeton-methyl, carbaryl, oxamyl, methomyl, imidacloprid, dimethoate and pyrimethanil). Different initial concentrations were assayed. Variation in biodegradability with photo catalytic treatment intensity was tested using Pseudomonas putida. Biodegradation efficiencies after the photoreaction were found to be lower for the pesticide solution with the higher concentration, showing that to achieve sufficient biodegradability, the photo-Fenton treatment time must be increased with pesticide concentration. Bio treatment was carried out in different reactor including sequencing batch reactor (SBR) mode. As revealed by the biodegradation kinetics, intermediates generated at the higher pesticide concentration caused lower carbon removal rates in spite of the longer photo-Fenton treatment time applied. One strategy for treating water with high concentrations of pesticides and overcoming the low biodegradability of photo-Fenton intermediates is to mix it with a biodegradable carbon source (wastewater containing an easily biodegradable substrate, such as urban wastewater) before biological oxidation. This combination of photo-Fenton and acclimatized activated sludge in several SBR cycles led to complete biodegradation of a pesticide solutions up to of 500 mg/L of DOC. (Author)

  13. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  14. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    of a key species of farmland bird, caused to changes in production and landscape. The results from the agricultural sector model are also used in evaluation of pesticide usage and the leaching of pesticides to ground water. First we analyze the implication of three different scenarios in all of the above...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  15. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  16. Microbial pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Interest in the use of microbial pesticides has intensified because of public concern about the safety of chemical pesticides and their impact in the environment. Characteristics of the five groups of entomopathogens that have potential as microbial pesticides are briefly discussed and an update is provided on research and development activities underway to enhance the...

  17. Chemical composition and bio-pesticidal values of essential oil isolated from the seed of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fischer (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to analyse the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fischer and assess its lethal and sub-lethal effects against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Essential oil from hydro-distilled seeds of H. persicum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and hexyl butyrate (50.58%, octyl acetate (9.80% and hexyl hexanoate (8.75% were found as principal constituents. Repellent activity, contact and fumigant toxicity and antifeedant effects of this oil were assessed against the adults of T. castaneum. The essential oil strongly repelled T. castaneum adults even at the lowest concentration (0.035 μL cm-2. Complete repellency (100% occurred when the highest concentration (0.212 μL cm-2 was applied for 8 h. T. castaneum was very susceptible to H. persicum oil at both contact and fumigant bioassays. In the fumigant toxicity, essential oil killed the larvae, pupae and adults and significantly decreased larvae emerged from treated eggs. LC10 to LC40 values of fumigation adult’s bioassay as sub-lethal concentrations were used to evaluate the antifeedant effects. H. persicum essential oil has significant antifeedant effects on T. castaneum adults and decrease of feeding happened when oil concentrations increased. The results of the present study indicate that essential oil of H. persicum, with wide bio-effects on T. castaneum, is a source of biologically active agents which may potentially prove to be efficient insecticides.

  18. [The first stage of toxicology evaluation and analysis of 1502 pesticide samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Li, Xianjun; Xie, Jing; Ling, Jianan; Shi, Nian

    2014-07-01

    To analyze the results of the first-stage toxicological evaluation of 1 502 pesticide samples. The classification of the 1 502 pesticide samples was analyzed, and the experimental results of the samples in different years were compared. Most of the 1 502 pesticide samples were insecticides, accounting for 52.5% of all, followed by bactericides and herbicides. In the 5 years, the proportion of biogenic insecticides showed a significant rising trend (χ² = 11.426, P pesticides was 65.8%; mixed pesticides accounted for 32.7%; original pesticides accounted for only 1.5%. From 2008 to 2012, most pesticides had low toxicity, regardless of the exposure route (via the mouth, skin, or respiratory tract). Acute oral and dermal toxicity tests showed that pesticides with moderate toxicity declined year by year (oral exposure χ² = 18.036, P pesticides with high toxicity. We did not detect any pesticide with extreme toxicity. Acute skin irritation and eye irritation test showed an upward trend in proportion of non-irritating pesticides (χ² = 77.110, P pesticides decreased significantly (χ² = 18.941, P pesticides was insecticide. Most samples were single pesticides, and there was a certain proportion of mixed pesticides. Novel pesticides such as bio-pesticides are the development tendency. The tested pesticides were mainly low-toxicity pesticides, with a certain proportion of medium- and high-toxicity pesticides. Personal protection should be strengthened during production and use of pesticides.

  19. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Radivojević; Ljiljana Šantrić; Radmila Stanković-Kalezić

    2007-01-01

    Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and bio...

  20. Bio-energy and the environment: land of possible misunderstanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncada P C, Pietro; Grassi, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a point of view that bio-energy could assume sustainable environmental features for our future. The principal arguments of this paper are: bio-energy system and carbon emission -including confrontation of CO 2 emissions between electricity closed system and a coal-based electric generation system - soil erosion, fertilizer use, pesticide use, and biodiversity. (author)

  1. Pesticide Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the process for periodically evaluating registered pesticides to ensure they meet current science standards for risk assessment, as required by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.

  2. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be harboring disease organisms. Determining human and ecological risks from exposure to antimicrobial pesticides requires different ... Open Government Regulations.gov Subscribe USA.gov White House Ask. Contact Us Hotlines FOIA Requests Frequent Questions ...

  3. Pesticide Use Site Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  4. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  5. Nano-bio-sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This book examines state-of-the-art applications of nano-bio-sensing. It brings together researchers from nano-electronics and bio-technology, providing multidisciplinary content from nano-structures fabrication to bio-sensing applications.

  6. Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PESP is an EPA partnership program that works with the nation's pesticide-user community to promote IPM practices. Pesticide users can reduce the risks from pests and pesticides. Members include organizations and companies in the pesticide-user community.

  7. Environmental indicators and bio monitoring: Costa Rica experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Hidalgo, K.

    2012-01-01

    An experience carried out on rice, watermelon and melon crops were applied in Costa Rica. In sediment and water samples using bio monitoring techniques were found pesticides and pollution levels.The water bodies, sediments and ecological quality was determined by the BMWP- CR Index technique.

  8. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  9. The half-lives of biological activity of some pesticides in water

    OpenAIRE

    Kyaw Myint Oo,

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of analytical methods, the half-lives of biological activity of pesticides can be estimated by bioassays. To determine the half-lives of biological acivity of pesticides to fish, static bioassays were conducted in the laboratory with ten different formulations of pesticides using Labeo rohita as a bio-indicator. The half-lives of biological activity for ten different pesticides in soft water at pH 7.5 and 27░C, ranged from 4.6 days to 11.8 days. The half-life of biological acti...

  10. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  11. National Pesticide Standard Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Pesticide Standards Repository collects and maintains an inventory of analytical “standards” of registered pesticides in the United States, as well as some that are not currently registered for food and product testing and monitoring.

  12. Biosensor technology for pesticides--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2015-03-01

    Pesticides, due to their lucrative outcomes, are majorly implicated in agricultural fields for crop production enhancement. Due to their pest removal properties, pesticides of various classes have been designed to persist in the environment over a longer duration after their application to achieve maximum effectiveness. Apart from their recalcitrant structure and agricultural benefits, pesticides also impose acute toxicological effects onto the other various life forms. Their accumulation in the living system may prove to be detrimental if established in higher concentrations. Thus, their prompt and accurate analysis is a crucial matter of concern. Conventional techniques like chromatographic techniques (HPLC, GC, etc.) used for pesticides detection are associated with various limitations like stumpy sensitivity and efficiency, time consumption, laboriousity, requirement of expensive equipments and highly trained technicians, and many more. So there is a need to recruit the methods which can detect these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, rapidly, and easily in the field. Present work is a brief review of the pesticide effects, their current usage scenario, permissible limits in various food stuffs and 21st century advancements of biosensor technology for pesticide detection. Due to their exceptional performance capabilities, easiness in operation and on-site working, numerous biosensors have been developed for bio-monitoring of various environmental samples for pesticide evaluation immensely throughout the globe. Till date, based on sensing element (enzyme based, antibody based, etc.) and type of detection method used (Electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric, etc.), a number of biosensors have been developed for pesticide detection. In present communication, authors have summarized 21st century's approaches of biosensor technology for pesticide detection such as enzyme-based biosensors, immunosensors, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers, and

  13. Nephrotoxic Effects of Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Gönültaş, Tülin; Aytaç, Necdet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Pesticidesare used extensively throughout the world and, in recent years, their use hasincreased considerably. Pesticides are responsible for several adverse effectson human health, and they represent a potential risk to human. Liver and kidneyare firstly most harmed tissues by pesticides, because pesticides are removedfrom the body by being metabolized in the liver and kidney main road. A broad rangeof pesticides, including organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates,pyrethroids and triazi...

  14. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  15. Pesticides and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, Vincent F.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  16. Assessment of environmental exposures from agricultural pesticides in childhood leukaemia studies: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, B.; Rull, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticides are ubiquitous in environments of many rural communities due to drift from agricultural applications and home/garden use. Studies of childhood leukaemia predominantly relied on retrospective pesticide exposure assessment and parental recall of use or proximity to fields or pesticide applications. Sample size requirements mostly preclude the collection of individual-level exposure information, bio-markers or environmental measurements of pesticides prospectively in cohorts. Yet such measures can be used in nested case-control approaches or for validating exposure models that can be applied to large populations. Recently developed models incorporate geographic information system technology and environmental databases of pesticide and/or crop data to assess exposure. Models developed in California to estimate residential exposures are presented by linking addresses to agricultural pesticide application data and land-use maps. Results from exposure validation and simulation studies and exposure measurement error issues are discussed. (authors)

  17. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  19. Pesticides: evaluation of environmental pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathore, Hamir Singh; Nollet, Leo M. L

    2012-01-01

    ..., and more. It describes the degradation of pesticides in the atmosphere and in the environment. The text also covers the fate and transport of pesticides in the environment and the effects of pesticides on plants, animals, and humans...

  20. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  1. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  2. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  3. Toxicology of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Dubská, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    Toxykology of pesticides Pesticides are substances or mixtures substances as a natural so synthetic origin. By effect of pesticides is removing of pest and undesirable plants. However owing to their toxicity and unaware manipulation with these substances may go to a waste of another than target organism, plants, rivers and land. The target of this graduation theses has been draw up possibility hazards resulting of using these substances.

  4. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  5. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.

  6. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  7. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...

  8. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  9. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  10. Pesticider 2 i overfladevand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeland, B.; Kvamm, B. L.

    DMU har den 29. september 1999 afholdt en metodeafprøvning: Pesticider 2 i overfladevand. Der var tilmeldt 17 danske og udenlandske laboratorier i metodeafprøvningen. Prøvningen omfattede 32 pesticider i overfladevand fra en sjællandsk sø. Koncentrationsniveauet for hver komponent var på 0,025 - 0...

  11. Food and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  12. Pesticide Exposure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R.; Karr, Catherine J.

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children’s exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  13. Bio-fuel barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a year of doubt and decline the consumption of bio-fuel resumed a growth in 2014 in Europe: +6.1% compared to 2013, to reach 14 millions tep (Mtep) that is just below the 2012 peak. This increase was mainly due to bio-diesel. By taking into account the energy content and not the volume, the consumption of bio-diesel represented 79.7% of bio-fuel consumption in 2014, that of bio-ethanol only 19.1% and that of biogas 1%. The incorporating rate of bio-fuels in fuels used for transport were 4.6% in 2013 and 4.9% in 2014. The trend is good and the future of bio-fuel seems clearer as the European Union has set a not-so-bad limit of 7% for first generation bio-fuels in order to take into account the CASI effect. The CASI effect shows that an increase of the consumption of first generation bio-fuels (it means bio-fuels produced from food crops like rape, soy, cereals, sugar beet,...) implies in fact a global increase in greenhouse gas release that is due to a compensation phenomenon. More uncultivated lands (like forests, grasslands, bogs are turned into cultivated lands in order to compensate lands used for bio-fuel production. In most European countries the consumption of bio-diesel increased in 2014 while it was a bad year for the European industry of ethanol because ethanol prices dropped by 16 %. Oil companies are now among the most important producers of bio-diesel in Europe.

  14. Demonstrating an Approach for Including Pesticide Use in Life Cycle Assessment: Estimating Human and Ecosystem Toxicity of Pesticide Use in Midwest Corn Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose This study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Meth...

  15. Demonstrating an approach for including pesticide use in life-cycle assessment: Estimating human and ecosystem toxicity of pesticide use in Midwest corn farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    PurposeThis study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Metho...

  16. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the pro......The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... in the products comply with the labelled content. The tolerance of deviation from the labelled content of active ingredient is set by the Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. In addition to the examination of the content of active ingredients, all collected samples are examined for the content of octylphenol...... chloride and ethephon. Satisfactory results were found for all examined pesticide formulations. Thus, the analysed samples of these formulations complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None...

  17. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  18. Efficacy of bio and synthetic pesticides against the American ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    contrast biopesticide treatments had minimum side effects on the natural enemies populations. Key words: Cotton, Helicoverpa amigera. Introduction ... It is mainly grown as a fibre crop for the textile industry, but its seeds provides hulls, oil ... with a photoperiod of 16:8 (Light: Dark) hr. Third instar larvae of the American.

  19. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design....

  20. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  1. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pesticide label. Check with your local solid waste management authority, environmental agency or health department to find out whether your community has a household hazardous waste collection program or a similar program for ...

  2. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  3. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  4. Pesticide Registration Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  5. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if there is more information on a specific brand that you have questions about. When calling, have a copy of the label nearby so that you can list the ingredients. Will exposure to pesticides harm my pregnancy? Most animal studies ...

  6. Understanding bio-economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    New plants for production of bio-based fuels, chemicals or plastics are being set up at an accelerating pace. However, this transition towards bio-based fuels, feedstocks and chemicals has not come without consequences. Increased demand has pushed up prices of key agricultural products such as maize

  7. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    , fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin......, one of four samples containing terbuthylazine, one of eleven samples containing clopyralid, and one of four samples containing ioxynil did not comply with the accepted limits of content of active ingredient...

  8. Pesticide Pollution in Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    İlter, Hüseyin; Kurt, Burak; Ötegen, Volkan Recai; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Pesticidepollution affects both aquatic and soil ecosystems. Factors that promotepesticide pollution include drainage patterns, properties of the pesticide,rainfall, microbial activity, treatment surface and rate of application.Pesticides are able to move from one ecosystem to another through processessuch as transfer (mobility) and transformation (degradation). Transfer mayoccur through surface runoff, vapourization to atmosphere, sorption (adsorp‐tion/desorp-tion), plant uptakeor soil water...

  9. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  10. Formation and bio release of bound residues of [14 C]-lindane and [14 C]-parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M. de.

    1992-01-01

    This work studied the extractable and bound residues formation of 14 C-lindane and 14 C-parathion immediately after application and after 3 months of interaction of the pesticides with the soils. Metabolism, bio release, and the possible bioavailability of bound residues were studied by employing bio meter flasks which allowed a relative comparison of the behaviour of the two different 14 C-pesticides, by a balance of the applied or present radiocarbon in the soils after the bio tests. (author)

  11. Evaluation of nematicidal action of some bio-agents and botanicals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These biologically active factors exhibit the property to resist against M. incognita. Different concentrations for each treatments were used and analysis for the efficiency of bio pesticides was made effect of these concentrations were perceived on egg hatchability, gall formation, number of eggs, final nematode population, ...

  12. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  13. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  14. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  15. Pesticides and child neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2008-04-01

    This review summarizes the recent research on pesticide exposure and child neurobehavioral development with a focus on in-utero exposure to organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides. Recent studies on in-utero exposure to the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its breakdown product, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene, indicate that exposure is associated with poorer infant (6 months and older) and child neurodevelopment. Yet, the studies differ on the domain of development that is affected. Research on organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment is limited but suggests some negative association of exposure and neurodevelopment at certain ages. Two reports agree that increased levels of organophosphate exposure in utero result in greater numbers of abnormal reflexes in neonates and studies in older infants and young children also point to a negative association with development. In young children (2-3 years) two separate studies observed an increase in maternally reported pervasive developmental disorder with increased levels of organophosphate exposure. Given that the literature suggests a link between organochlorine and in-utero pesticide exposure and impaired child neurodevelopment, clinicians should educate parents about prevention of exposure, especially in populations living in agricultural areas or where household use is common.

  16. BioSentinel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems' (AES) BioSentinel project will develop, prototype, integrate, test, and prepare for the first spaceflight mission of a broadly...

  17. Bio-inspired networking

    CERN Document Server

    Câmara, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...

  18. BioHack*Kolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle

    Short Abstract BioHack*Kolding explores the potential of do-it-together biology to support community building in a town that lacks strong science representation, assisting participants to reflect on the bio-potential of their personal, social and political ecologies and to translate their ideas...... an important role in facilitating informed debate around the biological sciences. Yet they cannot reach everyone. BioHack*Kolding asks how community-focused biology initiatives can reach people in smaller towns that lack science representation, so that they too can join the debate and ensure that its...... and experiments inform emerging science to ensure that science is societally relevant? If so, how? Members of BioHack*Kolding gain knowledge through experience, discussion and practice in an evolving, responsive process. This approach is enabling us to gain deeper insights into what design can do to help...

  19. BioSystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature...

  20. BioProject

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The BioProject database provides an organizational framework to access information about research projects with links to data that have been or will be deposited...

  1. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Consumers Contact Us Share In Case of Pesticide Emergency If someone has swallowed or inhaled a pesticide or gotten it in the eye or on ... for help with first aid information. The National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) (1-800-858-7378) also ...

  2. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  3. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  4. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  5. The estimation of existed pesticides dumps contamination with pesticides residues

    OpenAIRE

    Taurozaitė, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Kristina Taurozaitė Buvusių pesticidų sandėlių teritorijų užterštumo pesticidų likučiais vertinimas Santrauka Didžiausia tarša pesticidais stebima dirvožemyje ir požeminiuose gruntiniuose vandenyse, pesticidų kapinynų aplinkvietėse ir buvusių pesticidų sandėlių gaisravietėse, o pagrindiniai taršos pesticidais židiniai yra pesticidų sandelio gaisrai ir pesticidų kapinynai. Pesticidų sukeltas neigiamas poveikis aplinkai yra negrįžtamas, o tai pasireiškia įvairiais išsigimimais, nukrypimais ir l...

  6. Pesticides and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Y Z A-Z Index Health & Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest ... our environment When pesticides are used on the food we eat The risk of health problems depends not only on how toxic the ingredients are ( ...

  7. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  8. Kombinationseffekter af pesticider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Andersen, Helle Raun; Cedergreen, Nina

    Resumé: Effekten af 101 tokomponentblandinger og 20 trekomponentblandinger bestående af 22 forskellige pesticider blev undersøgt i 7 forskellige testsystemer. Effekterne af blandingerne blev sammenholdt med pesticidernes virkningsmekanismer/virkemåder med henblik på at undersøge, om det med...

  9. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors based on nanowire field effect transistor (FET) have received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. The BioFET-SIM computer model permits the analysis and interpretation of experimental sensor...... signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...... single and multiple charges on the analyte. Afterwards the usage of the interface and its relative command line version is briefly shown. Finally, possible applications of the BioFET-SIM model are presented. Among the possible uses of the interface, the effects on the predicted signal of pH, buffer ionic...

  10. National serum bio bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, F.; Facchiano, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Italian Bio bank is hosted at 'Ospedale Maggiore. Policlinico' of Milan. This structure occupies an area of 300 sq meters and includes laboratories and a cryogenic area. This facility has been built a in compliance with the standards defined by the Foundation for Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) mostly related to adequacy of spaces, equipment and governmental and institutional policies for bio safety. The Cryogenic area follows written procedures in the event of an ambient disaster and for safety personnel and of the samples stored

  11. Toxicological assessment of pesticides with the help of hydrobionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Ісаєнко

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  Experiments of toxic influence of insecticide novoverm (product of bio-technical synthesis were held using the national stam of non-pathogenic fungi Streptomyces avermitilis and hexachloran on Daphnia magna. As a result of experimental data were calculated the main toxic characteristics: medial lethal concentrations LC50, non observed effective concentration LC0, and lethal concentration LC100 that allow determining the toxicity of pesticides in accordance with the International Eco-toxicological Classification Schemes of the World Health Organization. Insecticide novoverm is considered to be a “moderately toxic” substance; hexachloran is a “highly toxic” substance.

  12. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the provisions...

  13. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  14. Revised Certification Standards for Pesticide Applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized stronger standards for people who apply restricted use pesticides (RUPs). These revisions to the Certification of Pesticide Applicators rule will reduce the likelihood of harm from the misapplication of toxic pesticides.

  15. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  16. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  17. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  18. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors based on nanowire field effect transistor (FET) have received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. The BioFET-SIM computer model permits the analysis and interpretation of experimental sensor sign...... strength, analyte concentration, and analyte relative orientation on nanowire surface are illustrated. Wherever possible, a comparison to experimental data available in literature is given, displaying the potential of BioFETSIM for interpreting experimental results.......Biosensors based on nanowire field effect transistor (FET) have received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. The BioFET-SIM computer model permits the analysis and interpretation of experimental sensor...... signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...

  19. BioMEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Explosive growth in the field of Microsystem Technology has introduced a variety of promising products in major disciplines from microelectronics to life sciences. 'Biomes' is a discipline which focuses on microsystems for living systems. This work presents the exciting field of bio-microsystems.

  20. Using serious games and virtual worlds in pesticides transport teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payraudeau, Sylvain; Alvarez-Zaldivar, Pablo; van Dijk, Paul; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2017-04-01

    Teaching environmental scenarios, such as the availability and transport of pesticides in catchments, may fail with traditional lectures and tutorials due to the complex and synergic interplay of soil, landuse, compounds properties, hydroclimatic forcing and biogeochemical processes. To tackle and pedagogically enter into this complexity, virtual worlds (i.e. computer-based simulated environment) and serious games (i.e. applied games with added pedagogical value) can efficiently improve knowledge and know-how of the future water management stakeholders and scientists. We have developed an e-learning teaching unit using virtual catchments and serious games by gradually adapting the level of complexity depending of the targeted public. The first targeted group is farmers in continuing education centers. We developed a distributed pesticide transport tool in a virtual agricultural catchment to highlight the specific risks of off-site pesticide transport along crop growing season. Students of this first group can interactively define and combine climatic, land-use and soil type scenarios with different pesticides to experiment the components of worst-case situations and to propose best-management practices depending of the involved environmental compartments, i.e. atmosphere, soil, surface water or groundwater. For Master's degree students, we added a level of complexity by adding a specific module focusing on pesticide degradation using cutting-edge approaches. With the compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) module students are able to link the 13C/12C signature of pesticides to the ongoing dissipation processes within the catchment. By using and interpreting CSIA data, students can thus efficiently understand the difference between non-destructive (e.g. sorption) and destructive (e.g. bio and abiotic degradation) processes occurring in a catchment. This CSIA tool applied to a virtual agricultural catchment will also allow to distinguish the dilution effect from

  1. The geochemistry of pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth’s ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet’s ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth’s history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  2. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  3. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  4. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  5. 75 FR 10259 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... contact person listed is: Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide... A. Matthews, Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide...

  6. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of

  7. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee and Pesticide Regulatory Reform Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs will hold a public meeting of the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC) on Wednesday, May 3, from 9:00 a.m. to 4:45 p.m., and on Thursday, May 4, from 8:30 a.m. to noon.

  8. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... required to register pesticides. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... prevention, and in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration systems. All of these recommended...

  9. Tracer work in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Innumerable studies on the large number of pesticides being used throughout the world led to some adverse findings on the properties and behavior of these chemicals and their degradation products in revelation to potential toxicity and environmental pollution. However, it is also a fact (difficult to accept as it may) that the use of pesticides as an indirect means of increasing food production cannot yet be dispensed with despite the potential dangers attributed to it. What can be done is to insure its judicious application which means minimizing its effectiveness in controlling pest infestations. To be able to do this it is necessary to know not only what pesticide is to be used against a given pest but also the fate of pesticide after application to a particular environment under prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the distribution and persistence of the parent compounds under metabolites will also help either, to confirm or to dispel the alleged dangers posed by them. Radiotracer methodology is particularly effective for this type of work because it permits highly sensitive analysis with minimum clean-up and permits one to determine even the bound residues which defies ordinary extraction procedures. Some studies made are studies on fate of pesticides in plant after foliar application to plant needs, uptake and translocation of systemic pesticides, fate of pesticides in soil, bioaccumulation of pesticide by aquatic organisms, etc. This particular study is on distribution of pesticide among the components of a rice/fish ecosystem. This project aims to generate data from experiments conducted in a model ecosystem using radiolabelled lindane and carbo-furan. In both cases, results show a decline in extractable species from the recommended dosage of pesticide application although they tend to imbibe a considerable amount of pesticide. It is hoped that depuration in additional experiments will bring useful results. (Auth.)

  10. Behavior of pesticides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan A. Norris

    1974-01-01

    A number of chemicals of diverse characteristics have arbitrarily been classed together on the basis of their use and given the descriptive name "pesticides." An unfortunate aura of mystery has developed about these chemicals. However, there is nothing unique or mysterious about the chemicals we refer to as "pesticides." Like other chemicals, they...

  11. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco; Vischetti, Costantino

    2006-01-01

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested [it

  12. Factors affecting pesticide safety behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, Govinda; Atreya, Kishor; Yang, Xiaomei; Fan, Liangxin; Geissen, Violette

    2018-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides in vegetable farming is an emerging problem resulting in increasing health and environmental risks in developing countries including Nepal. As there are limited studies focusing on farmers’ and retailers’ knowledge related to pesticide use and associated risks as

  13. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    30% of the fossil fuel consumption, and including economic aspects it is much less. Moreover, an economic analysis shows that biomass will not be able compete in a liberal fuel market, i.e. we will need to subsidise it in one way or the other - and money is a limited resource as well. Therefore......, there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  14. Bio energy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  15. Quality control of pesticide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  16. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    containing hymexazol. 3) Insecticides and molluscicides containing imidacloprid and methiocarb. 4) Rodenticides containing coumatetralyl. All samples were examined for the content of the respective active ingredients and for the content of OPEO and NPEO. All samples but two out of three contained...... coumatetralyl and one out of four contained dicamba complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the examined samples contained OPEO, but one of the samples contained NPEO. On three products...

  17. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    . 3) Insecticides containing cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, methoprene and cyromazine. 4) Plant growth regulators containing 1-napthylacetic acid. All products were examined for the content of the respective active ingredients and for the content of OPEO and NPEO. All samples but one...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...

  18. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  19. Pesticide residues in passifloras crops in regions of high production in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Dario A. Bastidas; Jairo A. Guerrero; Kris Wyckhuys

    2013-01-01

    As one of the most bio-diverse countries in the world, Colombia boasts a wide diversity of highly palatable tropical fruits. Even though Colombian fruit production has primarily targeted the domestic market, several fruit species, such as passion fruit (PassifloraSpp), are steadily gaining ground in the broader international arena.  Production of these crops and respond to raising domestic and international demand, many Colombian small-scale farmers use pesticides for pest and disease control...

  20. Bio-activité des huiles essentielles de l'Armoise blanche Artemessia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notre travail révèle un effet insecticide de l'huile essentielle extraite de la plante aromatique Artemissia herba alba, sur la population d'insectes ravageurs des denrées stockées Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera). Le bio-pesticide agit avec un double mécanisme d'action. Administré chez les adultes, l'huile essentielle ...

  1. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Brand Names AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' PR Notices are issued...

  2. 75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice..., announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment period...

  3. Sprinkler irrigation-pesticide best management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.; Ehteshami, M.

    1992-01-01

    The relative reduction in potential groundwater contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices, and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate irrigation application depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with a one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of groundwater can be reduce...

  4. BIOS Security Analysis and a Kind of Trusted BIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenliu; Xu, Rongsheng

    The BIOS's security threats to computer system are analyzed and security requirements for firmware BIOS are summarized in this paper. Through discussion about TCG's trust transitivity, a new approach about CRTM implementation based on BIOS is developed. In this paper, we also put forward a new trusted BIOS architecture-UTBIOS which is built on Intel Framework for EFI/UEFI. The trustworthiness of UTBIOS is based on trusted hardware TPM. In UTBIOS, trust encapsulation and trust measurement are used to construct pre-OS trust chain. Performance of trust measurement is also analyzed in the end.

  5. Promising pesticide results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Virotec Global Solutions has announced what it believes is the first successful destruction of intractable organochlorine pesticide contamination in industrial wastewater. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, otherwise known as DDT, is one of the most intractable and persistent chemical compounds known to man. In February remediation specialist Virotec reported it had been successful in reducing DDT contaminant levels. In addition to destroying DDT in wastewater, Virotec showed its ViroFlow Technology can reduce levels of two DDT metabolites (or breakdown products), DDD and DDE, along with an organo-phosphate insecticide called chlorpyrifos. Virotec was commissioned by a large pesticide and fertiliser company to find a way of using its ViroFlow suite of products to reliably reduce high levels of pesticides and heavy metals from wastewater and stormwater at an industrial site. “Along with our strategic partner Green Shadows Commercial from Tasmania, we were able to successfully reduce DDT from 108 parts per billion to under two parts per billion in industrial wastewater using a combination of ozofractionation and ElectroBind reagent,” said business development manager Gisela Barros. “In addition, we were successful in demonstrating similar reductions in Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) from 15.2 parts per billion to under 0.5 parts per billion, and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) from one part per billion to under accurate to around 0.5 parts per billion.” The level of detection for pesticides was 0.5 parts per billion (ppb). In addition, ViroFlow reduced chlorpyrifos from 7,972 ppb to 6.4 ppb, arsenic (a key ingredient in pesticide composition) from 0.13 parts per million (ppm) to 0.002 ppm, and zinc from 0.35 ppm to less than 0.005 ppm. “The significance of these findings cannot be overstated,” Barros said. “DDT and its metabolites are among the most persistent and toxic contaminants to be found in soil and groundwater and

  6. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  7. Better ways of using pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    1992-01-01

    The primary role of agriculture is to produce a reliable supply of wholesome food to feed the world's population, safely and without adverse effects on the environment. Pesticides have a crucial part to play in reducing the loss of food during production and after harvesting, and this article discusses how the use of pesticides can be made more efficient. Two particular examples of safer and more effective pesticide delivery systems are described, relating to tsetse fly control in Africa and to the control of weeds in a rice paddy or rice-fish mixed ecosystem. 45 refs, 6 figs

  8. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Nandita

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  9. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pcabhilash@gmail.com [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Nandita, E-mail: nanditasingh8@yahoo.co.in [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  10. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  11. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-01-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  12. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  13. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  14. Bio-tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    It is now forty six years since the separate topics of friction, lubrication, wear and bearing design were integrated under the title 'Tribology' [Department of Education and Science, Lubrication (Tribology) Education and Research. A Report on the Present Position and Industry's Needs, HMSO, London, 1966]. Significant developments have been reported in many established and new aspects of tribology during this period. The subject has contributed to improved performance of much familiar equipment, such as reciprocating engines, where there have been vast improvements in engine reliability and efficiency. Nano-tribology has been central to remarkable advances in information processing and digital equipment. Shortly after widespread introduction of the term tribology, integration with biology and medicine prompted rapid and extensive interest in the fascinating sub-field now known as Bio-tribology [D. Dowson and V. Wright, Bio-tribology, in The Rheology of Lubricants, ed. T. C. Davenport, Applied Science Publishers, Barking, 1973, pp. 81-88]. An outline will be given of some of the developments in the latter field.

  15. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  16. Individual Pesticides in Registration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    You can used the Chemical Search database to search pesticides by chemical name and find their registration review dockets, along with Work Plans, risk assessments, interim and final decisions, tolerance rules, and cancellation actions.

  17. Data Requirements for Pesticide Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In evaluating a pesticide registration application, we assess a wide variety of potential human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Learn about these data requirements.

  18. Total factor productivity and Bio Economy effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a new measure of total factor productivity growth in agricultural Production which incorporates Bio Economic components effects.The new measure is called the Bio Economic-Oriented Total Factor Productivity (BTFP) index, and incorporates components of Bio Economic as liquid biofuels. BTFP measure changes in Bio Economic efficiency and can be decomposed into bio economy efficiency change (BEC), and Bio Economic technological change (BTC) components.An empirical analysis, inv...

  19. Canadian pesticide air sampling campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y.; Harner, T.; Blanchard, P.; Li, Y.F.; Aulagnier, F. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Tuduri, L. [Laboratoire de Physico Toxicochimie des Systemes Naturels, Talence (France). Equipe Perigourdine de Chimie Appliquee; Waite, D.; Belzer, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Conservation Branch; Murphy, C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Protection Service

    2005-07-01

    Although pesticides are widely used in Canada, little is known about the presence, distribution, and fate of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in the Canadian atmosphere. This paper provided details of a campaign conducted in 2003 to provide information on air and precipitation levels of CUPs. The objective of the campaign was to create pesticide emission inventories and to identify important pesticide issues related to environmental fate, exposure, and risk assessment in order to develop effective pesticide policies. A Canadian atmospheric network for currently used pesticides was established, which was then followed by an intensive field study in the Canadian prairies. Air samples were collected weekly using high volume PS-1 samplers with polyurethane foam (PUF) XAD sandwiches and glass fibre filters. Precipitation samples were collected each month using MIC samplers equipped with XAD columns. Passive air samplers were deployed at many of the sites for periods of 1 to 3 months. Results of the study showed relatively high concentrations of endosulfan at all sites. High levels of chloropyrifos, malathion, and carbofurans were also detected from air samples. High concentrations of lindane were also observed. Alachlor, metochlor, and trifluralin concentrations were detected in most Ontario and Quebec air and rainfall samples. Eleven target pesticides were detected from air samples during the prairie study. High concentrations of triallate were observed, and good correlations between air concentration trends and dry deposition trends were seen for triallate, 2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, and bromoxynil. Results of the campaign are now being modelled using a simplified gridded pesticide emission and residue model. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Identification and quantification of pesticide residues in water samples of Dhamrai Upazila, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Salam, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Being agricultural country, different types of pesticides are widely used in Bangladesh to prevent the crop losses due to pest attack which are ultimately drain to the water bodies. The present study was conducted to identify and quantify the organochlorine (DDT, DDE and DDD), organophosphorus (malathion, diazinon and chloropyrifos) and carbamate (carbaryl) residues in water samples of different sources from Dhamrai upazila of Bangladesh using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultra violate (UV) detector. Thirty water samples from fish pond, cultivated land and tube-well were collected in winter season to analyze the pesticide residues. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, malathion was present in seven water samples ranging from 42.58 to 922.8 μg/L, whereas diazinon was detected in water sample-8 (WS-8) and the concentration was 31.5 μg/L. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl or DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD). Except for a tube-well water sample, concentrations of the detected residues are above the acceptable limit for human body as assigned by different organizations. To avoid the possible health hazards, the indiscriminate application of pesticides should be restricted and various substitute products like bio-pesticide should be introduced in a broad scale as soon as possible.

  1. HSP as bio dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the more important passages for the field of the radiological protection, from the discovery, beginnings of the utilization of the radiations emitting, passing to the legislation proposals and the transformations that had been suffer to establish the international standards of radiological protection. The paradigms on the effects and chronologically the emanated discoveries of the cellular research and the measurement of cellular products in the species and the diverse alive beings making emphasis in evaluating the expression of the heat-shock proteins caused by low doses of gamma radiation, these are used as radiation bio monitors and of other agents that cause cellular stress and lastly a prospective of the future of the radiobiology. (Author)

  2. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing the...

  3. Influence of pesticide applications on degradation of the herbicide 14C - 2,4-D in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcondes, Marcilio Amaral

    2001-01-01

    Despite the importance of pesticide usage for the food production, its indiscriminate use may cause changes in the soil fertility, because pesticides influence soil microorganisms which are important for the biogeochemical cycles. The influence of applications of several pesticides, as recommended for cotton culture, was studied on the bioactivity of different soils (from Sao Paulo and Tatui, SP) by using radiometric techniques and a closed system for detection of bio mineralization of ''1 4 C-2,4-D ( 14 C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and production of 14 C-volatile compounds. The 14 C-2,4-D dissipation under influence of other pesticide applications was also studied by determination of 14 C-extractable residues, 14 C-bound residues and qualitative and quantitative analysis of the 14 C-extractable residues by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). 14 C-volatile compounds were never detected but increases and decreases of bio mineralization were detected in both soils after different treatments. The mixture of deltamethrin + methyl parathion increased significantly the bioactivity in both soils; nevertheless, monocrotophos did not have any influence. The applications of different pesticides have also influenced the 14 C-2,4-D dissipation, because the radiocarbon recovered as 14 C-extractable residues differed between the treated and untreated samples of both soils. On the other hand, the pesticide applications did not influence the production of 14 C-bound residues. This 14 C-residue was produced in larger amounts by the richest in organic matter soil (Sao Paulo). Although radiocarbon had been detected not only as 14 'C-2,4-D but also as a 14 C-metabolite, in both soils and treatments, results indicate that the ' 14 C-2,4-D dissipation varied in the two studied soils and was influenced by treatments with others pesticides. (author)

  4. Bio-fuels; Les biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources.

  5. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtler, J.L.; Femenias, A.; Blondy, J.

    2009-01-01

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  6. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for... ``Pesticide Registration (PR) Notice 2012-1: Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling.'' This PR..., and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), and the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS, also referred to as Safety Data...

  7. 75 FR 62323 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling... compliance date from December 16, 2010 to August 16, 2011. This change is being made to provide additional... titled ``Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment'' (71 FR...

  8. Linking pesticides and human health: a geographic information system (GIS) and Landsat remote sensing method to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure

    OpenAIRE

    VoPham, Trang; Wilson, John P.; Ruddell, Darren; Rashed, Tarek; Brooks, Maria M.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Weissfeld, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate pesticide exposure estimation is integral to epidemiologic studies elucidating the role of pesticides in human health. Humans can be exposed to pesticides via residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications (drift). We present an improved geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing method, the Landsat method, to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure through matching pesticide applications to crops classified from temporally concurrent Landsat satellite remo...

  9. Test Guidelines for Pesticides and Toxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents that specify methods EPA recommends to generate data submitted to EPA to support the registration of a pesticide, setting of a tolerance or tolerance exemption for pesticide residues, or the decision making process for an industrial chemical.

  10. Requirements for Access to Pesticide Labeling Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employers of pesticide handlers must make sure that the handlers are given information from the pesticide labeling and have access to the labeling itself, before they do any handling task. Learn about the information employers must provide.

  11. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  12. Improving Labels to Reduce Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    We encourage pesticide manufacturers to state on their product labels that applicators should use DRT-rated technologies in applying pesticide products. The page includes information on how to obtain approval to add these instructions.

  13. 75 FR 13282 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially... (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). This..., highbush blueberry, lowbush blueberry, buffalo currant, Chilean guava, black currant, red currant...

  14. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: 6th Edition manual gives healthcare providers a quick reference resource for the best toxicology and treatment information for patients with pesticide exposures.

  15. Cumulative Assessment of Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  16. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  17. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. [FR Doc. 2010-1582 Filed 1-26-10...

  18. How We Engage Our Pesticide Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's pesticide program is directly connected to our efforts to engage all stakeholders. In addition to meetings on pesticide-specific actions, we sponsor advisory committees that include diverse, independent stakeholders.

  19. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  20. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming…

  1. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  2. NIH NeuroBioBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIH NeuroBioBank (NBB), supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Eunice Kennedy...

  3. Pesticide use in Vietnamese vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, P.V.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, Peter; Brink, van den P.J.; Huong, P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam has had varying success over the past decade with its pesticides policy. Some of the most toxic pesticides have been banned from the market. But while many countries have successfully decreased agricultural pesticide use per hectare, this has not (yet) happened in Vietnam. Due to

  4. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  5. Pest and pesticide management on southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Ken L. McNabb; Brad Barber; Larry M. Bishop; Michael L. Thompson; John W. Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Federal law requires certification for all commercial pesticide applicators. The law also requires private applicator certification for the purchase or application of "restricted use" pesticides. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set minimum competency standards for certification of pesticide applicators. These standards include a practical...

  6. 75 FR 8939 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010- 0130; FRL-8812-8] Pesticide Products... received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal...

  7. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0097; FRL-8851-4] Pesticide Products... applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing previously registered active ingredients... on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory...

  8. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0357, FRL-8878-5] Pesticide Products... received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal...

  9. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0889; FRL-8856-8] Pesticide Products... received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal...

  10. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0101; FRL-9348-5] Pesticide Products... announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products containing new active ingredients not... Pollution Prevention Division (7511P) or the Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs...

  11. Modern pesticides and bobwhite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromborg, K.L.; Schitoskey, Frank=; Schitoskey, Elizabeth C.; Talent, Larry G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) are frequently used as test animals for wildlife tests of pesticides. The organophosphate and carbamate pesticides that have replaced the organochlorines have many desirable properties, but they span a wide range of acute toxicities and some of them affe,ct survival, reproduction, food consumption, behavior, and nervous system enzymes in laboratory tests. Applying these laboratory findings to the field requires assumptions about the severity of exposure in the field. Direct field measurements show that birds may be exposed to significant amounts of these pesticides or even more toxic degradation products under some conditions. Adverse population effects may also result from depression of insect populations during the seasons when bobwhites rely on insects for food.

  12. Environmental impact of pesticides after sewage treatment plants removal in four Spanish Mediterranean rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Masiá, Ana; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda; Andreu, Vicente

    2013-04-01

    The re-use of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents is currently one of the most employed strategies in several countries to deal with the water shortage problem. Some pesticides are bio-accumulative and due to their toxicity they can affect non-target organisms, especially in the aquatic ecosystems, threating their ecological status. Despite these facts, and to our knowledge, there are few peer-reviewed articles that report concentrations of pesticides in Spanish STPs. This work presents the results of an extensive survey that was carried out in October of 2010 in 15 of the STPs of Ebro, Guadalquivir, Jucar and Llobregat rivers in Spain. Forty-three currently used pesticides, belonging to anilide, neonicotinoid, thiocarbamate, acaricide, juvenile hormone mimic, insect growth regulator, urea, azole, carbamate, chloroacetanilide, triazine and organophosphorus, have been monitored. Integrated samples of influent and effluent, and dehydrated, lyophilized sludge from 15 STPs located along the rivers were analyzed for pesticide residues. With these data, removal efficiencies are also calculated. Extraction of water samples was performed through Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and sludge samples were extracted using the QuEchERS method. Pesticide determination was carried out using Liquid Chromatograph - tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Recoveries ranged from 48% to 70%, in water samples, and from 40 to 105 %, in sludge samples. The limits of quantification were 0.01-5 ng L-1 for the former, and 0.1-5.0 ng g-1 for the latter. In terms of frequency of detection, 31 analytes were detected in influent, 29 in effluent and 11 in sludge samples. Organophosphorus pesticides were the most frequently detected in all wastewater samples, but azole, urea, triazine, neonicotinoid and the insect growth regulator were also commonly found. Imazalil revealed the maximum concentration in wastewater samples from all rivers except the Guadalquivir, in which diuron presented the maximum

  13. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  14. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, C

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  15. The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Brüsch, Walter Michael; Juhler, Rene K.

    In 1998, the Danish Parliament initiated the Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP), an intensive monitoring programme aimed at evaluating the leaching risk of pesticides under field conditions. The objective of the PLAP is to improve the scientific foundation for decision......-making in the Danish regulation of pesticides. The specific aim is to analyse whether pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations leach to groundwater in unacceptable concentrations. The programme currently evaluates the leaching risk of 41 pesticides and 40 degradation products at five agricultural...... of the period 1999-2009 show that regarding: Yearly average concentration 1 m b.g.s. Of the 41 pesticides applied, 12 pesticides and/or their degradation product(-s) (clopyralid, chlormequat, desmedipham, fenpropimorph, florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, linuron, mancozeb, metsulfuron-methyl, phenmedipham...

  16. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  17. New insights into pesticide photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivella, Aurélien; Richard, Claire

    2014-04-01

    Photolysis may be a significant route of pesticide dissipation on crops, leading to an increase of pesticide use. Spraying strong absorbing compounds (photoprotector) along with pesticide is an attractive strategy to prevent the photodegradation phenomenon. The aim of this study is to get a better understanding of the parameters governing the photoprotection efficiency. Experiments were conducted using formulated sulcotrione as a pesticide and a grape wine extract as a photoprotector. These compounds were irradiated using simulated solar light as dried deposits on carnauba wax films or on disks of tobacco leaves and analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet (UV), spectroscopy, and microscopy. It is shown that photolysis is faster on leaves than on carnauba wax and that the photoprotection effect of grape wine extract is more efficient on leaves than on wax. Images recorded by microscopy bring evidence that deposits are very different on the two supports both in the absence and in the presence of the photoprotector. The grape wine extract plays a double role; it is antioxidant and UV screen. Photoprotection by the grape wine extract is a complex mixing of UV screen and antioxidant effects. The UV screen effect can be rationalized by considering the rate of light absorption by sulcotrione. Our results demonstrate that the rates of sulcotrione phototransformation are mainly governed by the repartition of the deposit on the solid support.

  18. Application of 1D and 2D MFR reactor technology for the isolation of insecticidal and anti-microbial properties from pyrolysis bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad M; Scott, Ian M; Berruti, Franco; Briens, Cedric

    2016-12-01

    Valuable chemicals can be separated from agricultural residues by chemical or thermochemical processes. The application of pyrolysis has already been demonstrated as an efficient means to produce a liquid with a high concentration of desired product. The objective of this study was to apply an insect and microorganism bioassay-guided approach to separate and isolate pesticidal compounds from bio-oil produced through biomass pyrolysis. Tobacco leaf (Nicotianata bacum), tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum), and spent coffee (Coffea arabica) grounds were pyrolyzed at 10°C/min from ambient to 565°C using the mechanically fluidized reactor (MFR). With one-dimensional (1D) MFR pyrolysis, the composition of the product vapors varied as the reactor temperature was raised allowing for the selection of the temperature range that corresponds to vapors with a high concentration of pesticidal properties. Further product separation was performed in a fractional condensation train, or 2D MFR pyrolysis, thus allowing for the separation of vapor components according to their condensation temperature. The 300-400°C tobacco and tomato bio-oil cuts from the 1D MFR showed the highest insecticidal and anti-microbial activity compared to the other bio-oil cuts. The 300-350 and 350-400°C bio-oil cuts produced by 2D MFR had the highest insecticidal activity when the bio-oil was collected from the 210°C condenser. The tobacco and tomato bio-oil had similar insecticidal activity (LC 50 of 2.1 and 2.2 mg/mL) when the bio-oil was collected in the 210°C condenser from the 300-350°C reactor temperature gases. The 2D MFR does concentrate the pesticidal products compared to the 1D MFR and thus can reduce the need for further separation steps such as solvent extraction.

  19. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. 158.2000 Section 158.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides...

  20. From marine bio-corrosion to new bio-processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergel, A.; Dasilva, S.; Basseguy, R. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Feron, D. [CEA Saclay (SCCME), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mollica, A. [CNR-ISMAR, Genova (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: From the middle of the last century it has been observed that the development of marine bio-films on the surface of stainless steels and different metallic materials induces the ennoblement of their free corrosion potential. A main step in deciphering the mechanisms of aerobic marine bio-corrosion has been achieved around 1976 with the demonstration that the potential ennoblement was due to the modification of the cathodic process. Since this date, the catalysis of oxygen reduction by marine bio-films has been the topic of numerous controversies, but it is now commonly agreed as a basic phenomena in aerobic corrosion. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the fine mechanisms of the bio-film-catalysed reduction of oxygen: intermediate formation of hydrogen peroxide, modification of the oxide layer on the stainless steel surface, involvement of manganese species and manganese oxidising bacteria, catalysis by proteins produced by the micro-organisms... Recent results may confirm the possible involvement of hemic enzymes or proteins. Whatever the mechanisms, very promising results have been obtained with the possible application of bio-film-catalysed oxygen reduction to conceive innovative biofuel cells with stainless steel electrodes. Actually, the catalysis of oxygen reduction is a key step that still drastically hinders the development of economically efficient hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells. The current technology requires high amounts of platinum or platinum-based materials to catalyze oxygen reduction on the cathode of these cells. The prohibitive cost of platinum is a main obstacle to the commercialization of low-cost fuel cells. Unpublished results recently showed that adapting the enzyme-catalysed reaction that was assumed for bio-corrosion on the cathode of hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells may lead to a significant decrease in the charge of platinum. Moreover, it was demonstrated on a laboratory-scale fuel cell pilot that

  1. From marine bio-corrosion to new bio-processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergel, A.; Dasilva, S.; Basseguy, R.; Feron, D.; Mollica, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: From the middle of the last century it has been observed that the development of marine bio-films on the surface of stainless steels and different metallic materials induces the ennoblement of their free corrosion potential. A main step in deciphering the mechanisms of aerobic marine bio-corrosion has been achieved around 1976 with the demonstration that the potential ennoblement was due to the modification of the cathodic process. Since this date, the catalysis of oxygen reduction by marine bio-films has been the topic of numerous controversies, but it is now commonly agreed as a basic phenomena in aerobic corrosion. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the fine mechanisms of the bio-film-catalysed reduction of oxygen: intermediate formation of hydrogen peroxide, modification of the oxide layer on the stainless steel surface, involvement of manganese species and manganese oxidising bacteria, catalysis by proteins produced by the micro-organisms... Recent results may confirm the possible involvement of hemic enzymes or proteins. Whatever the mechanisms, very promising results have been obtained with the possible application of bio-film-catalysed oxygen reduction to conceive innovative biofuel cells with stainless steel electrodes. Actually, the catalysis of oxygen reduction is a key step that still drastically hinders the development of economically efficient hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells. The current technology requires high amounts of platinum or platinum-based materials to catalyze oxygen reduction on the cathode of these cells. The prohibitive cost of platinum is a main obstacle to the commercialization of low-cost fuel cells. Unpublished results recently showed that adapting the enzyme-catalysed reaction that was assumed for bio-corrosion on the cathode of hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells may lead to a significant decrease in the charge of platinum. Moreover, it was demonstrated on a laboratory-scale fuel cell pilot that

  2. Essential oils from Algerian species of Mentha as new bio-control agents against phytopathogen strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benomari, Fatima Zahra; Andreu, Vanessa; Kotarba, Jules; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Bertrand, Cédric; Muselli, Alain; Costa, Jean; Djabou, Nassim

    2017-09-02

    Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Algerian Mentha species were studied. Chemical compositions of different Mentha species oils (Mentha rotundifolia, M. spicata, M. pulegium, and M. piperita) were investigated by capillary GC and GC/MS, and their antifungal activities were evaluated by means of paper disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. In total, 98 components from all Mentha species were identified. All oils were rich in monoterpene-oxygenated components. In addition, we reported fumigant antifungal activity of Algerian Mentha essential oils against four fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia laxa, and M. fructigena. All oils demonstrated very good inhibition especially against B. cinerea, M. laxa, and M. fructigena. Both Monilinia fungi were extremely sensitive to all Algerian Mentha oils, which suggests that Mentha essential oils have the potential to be used as bio-pesticides to protect fruit trees, such as apple and pear trees, and provides an alternative to chemical pesticides.

  3. Bio-nanopatterning of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Chun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBio-nanopatterning of surfaces is a very active interdisciplinary field of research at the interface between biotechnology and nanotechnology. Precise patterning of biomolecules on surfaces with nanometre resolution has great potential in many medical and biological applications ranging from molecular diagnostics to advanced platforms for fundamental studies of molecular and cell biology. Bio-nanopatterning technology has advanced at a rapid pace in the last few years with a variety of patterning methodologies being developed for immobilising biomolecules such as DNA, peptides, proteins and viruses at the nanoscale on a broad range of substrates. In this review, the status of research and development are described, with particular focus on the recent advances on the use of nanolithographic techniques as tools for biomolecule immobilisation at the nanoscale. Present strengths and weaknesses, as well future challenges on the different nanolithographic bio-nanopatterning approaches are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs

  5. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  6. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  7. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, Charlotte N.B.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  8. Bio politics - The bio-environment - bio-culture of the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlavianos-Arvanitis, A.

    1997-01-01

    The bio-environment has been the single most important correlation in human history and can successfully promote international co-operational co-operation and understanding. With the construction of a network for collaboration, the 'Danube Countries' can come together in celebration of their culture and heritage. As the Danube flows from the Black Forest to the Black Sea, it carries messages of peace, hope and co-operation. Applying these messages to every endeavour can improve our quality of life and lead to a brighter future. Since its inception in 1985, the Bio politics International Organization (B.I.O.) has been labouring to raise awareness of the urgent need to instate a new system of norms and principles, compatible with sound environmental management and with the most important task of ensuring global literacy on environmental issues. Along with critically re-assessing the concept of profit, the goal is to adopt a system of bio centric values, where respect for the bio-environment will govern our every action and thought

  9. 77 FR 63782 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on a Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... pesticide petition requesting the establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide...

  10. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  11. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Pesticide Re-Evaluation Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact the Pesticide Re-Evaluation Division (PRD) about registration review and reregistration follow up (including post-RED activities, product reregistration, and implementing certain tolerance reassessment decisions) for conventional pesticides.

  12. 75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... trade associations; environmental, consumer, and farmworker groups; pesticide users and growers; pest consultants; State, local, and Tribal governments; academia; public health organizations; food processors; and... associations; pesticide user, grower, and commodity groups; Federal and State/local/Tribal governments; the...

  13. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Catalán, Julia; Norppa, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessari...

  14. Effects of Pesticides on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworm: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmin, S.; Doris D'Souza, D.

    2010-01-01

    Scientific literature addressing the influence of pesticides on the growth and reproduction of earthworm is reviewed. Earthworms are considered as important bio indicators of chemical toxicity in the soil ecosystem. Studies on this aspect are important because earthworms are the common prey of many terrestrial vertebrate species such as birds and small mammals, and thus they play a key role in the bio magnification process of several soil pollutants. Majority of the studies have used mortality as an endpoint rather than subtler endpoints such as reproductive output. It is now emphasized that, whereas higher concentrations of a pollutant can easily be assessed with the acute (mortality) test, contaminated soils with lower (sublethal) pollutant concentrations require more sensitive test methods such as reproduction test in their risk assessment.

  15. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Neverth......Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure....... Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact...

  16. Policy Mitigating Acute Risk to Bees from Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide risk management must be based on sound science, consistent with the laws under which pesticides are regulated in the United States. EPA has been working aggressively to protect bees and other pollinators from pesticide exposures.

  17. How to Report a Pesticide Incident Involving Exposures to People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will facilitate such incident reporting.

  18. Overcoming grape growers’ pesticide lock-in

    OpenAIRE

    Adeline UGAGLIA (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB); Bernard DEL’HOMME (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB); Maryline FILIPPI (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB)

    2011-01-01

    An evolutionary framework is used here to study the issue of pesticide reduction in vineyards. After analyzing grape growers’ pesticide lock-in we show that, although Integrated Pest Management (IPM) could reduce pesticide use significantly, the lack of specific implementation know-how hampers its diffusion. Consequently, once the features of technological change for IPM have been scrutinized, we adopt a case analysis approach in which environmental regulation is envisaged as one possible way...

  19. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    OpenAIRE

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing p...

  20. Pesticide Risk Valuation in Empirical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Nijkamp; Chiara Maria Travisi; Gabriella Vindigni

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide use in agriculture poses several risks to both human health and non-target agro-ecosystems. Due to lack of information on the monetary value of reducing pesticide risks, it is difficult to perform an economic analysis that addresses social efficiency of policy and draws conclusions about the appropriate degree of regulation.The aim of the current paper is to present a critical overview of the empirical literature on pesticide risk valuation that provides disaggregate willingness-to-...

  1. Reduction of substituted benzonitrile pesticides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Fiedler, Jan; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Giannarelli, S.; Valášek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 622, č. 2 (2008), s. 211-218 ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400505; GA MŠk OC 140; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : benzonitrile pesticides * polarography * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.484, year: 2008

  2. Winterzwiebeln: Anbau IP oder Bio

    OpenAIRE

    Theiler, R.; Buser, Hp.; Ingold, U.; Schätti, P.; Hurni, M.; Koller, M.

    2003-01-01

    Bei der Sorte Radar führt das Stecken von «grossen» Steckzwiebeln zu einem höheren Ertrag in beiden Anbausystemen, IP und Bio. Auch wird der Anteil an grossen und Metzgerzwiebeln gesteigert, besonders ausgeprägt unter IP-Bedingungen. Dies ging einher mit einer leichten Zunahme (

  3. BioMagResBank.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, E.L.; Akutsu, H.; Doreleijers, J.; Harano, Y.; Ioannidis, Y.E.; Lin, J.; Livny, M.; Mading, S.; Maziuk, D.; Miller, Z.; Nakatani, E.; Schulte, C.F.; Tolmie, D.E.; Wenger, R.K.; Yao, H.; Markley, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The BioMagResBank (BMRB: www.bmrb.wisc.edu) is a repository for experimental and derived data gathered from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies of biological molecules. BMRB is a partner in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB). The BMRB archive consists of four main data

  4. Bio-actives and Drug

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bio-actives. have an effect on or elicit a response from living tissue. Refer to a substance that can be acted upon by a living organism or by an extract from a living organism. are constituents in foods or dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic nutritional needs, that are responsible for changes in health ...

  5. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K; ACT

    1994-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with

  6. 76 FR 41246 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement Workgroup; Notice of Public Meeting...) Process Improvement Work Group. EPA plans to meet its ESA consultation obligations through the pesticide... a pesticide during the registration review process. This meeting of the PRIA Process Improvement...

  7. 75 FR 33744 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Proposed Change to... is proposing to amend the pesticide container and containment regulations to provide a 1-year...-5805. Instructions: Direct your comments to docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP- 2005-0327. EPA's policy is...

  8. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Anette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products to the groun...

  9. 77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... workers and farmers; pesticide industry and trade associations; environmental, consumer, and farm worker groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal... associations; pesticide user, grower, and commodity groups; Federal and State/local/tribal governments; the...

  10. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  11. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  12. 77 FR 18710 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... member of the neonicotinoid class of pesticides which also includes thiamethoxam, clothianidin... preliminary evidence suggests that clothianidin operates by direct competitive inhibition, while thiamethoxam...

  13. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  14. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...... research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or prenatal exposure.......The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective...

  15. Pesticide degradation in a 'biobed' composting substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Paul; Boxall, Alistair B A; Walker, Allan; Jukes, Andrew A

    2003-05-01

    Pesticides play an important role in the success of modern farming and food production. However, the release of pesticides to the environment arising from non-approved use, poor practice, illegal operations or misuse is increasingly recognised as contributing to water contamination. Biobeds appear to offer a cost-effective method for treating pesticide-contaminated waste. This study was performed to determine whether biobeds can degrade relatively complex pesticide mixtures when applied repeatedly. A pesticide mixture containing isoproturon, pendimethalin, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, epoxiconazole and dimethoate was incubated in biomix and topsoil at concentrations to simulate pesticide disposal. Although the data suggest that interactions between pesticides are possible, the effects were of less significance in biomix than in topsoil. The same mixture was applied on three occasions at 30-day intervals. Degradation was significantly quicker in biomix than in topsoil. The rate of degradation, however, decreased with each additional treatment, possibly due to the toxicity of the pesticide mixture to the microbial community. Incubations with chlorothalonil and pendimethalin carried out in sterile and non-sterile biomix indicated that degradation, rather than irreversible adsorption to the matrix, was the main mechanism responsible for the reduction in recovered residues. Results from these experiments suggest that biobeds offer a viable means of treating pesticide waste.

  16. Groups of Pesticides in Registration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Review cases are in groups of related pesticides: organophosphates, N-methyl carbamates, pyrethroids pyrethrins and synergists, sulfonylureas, neonicotinoids, fumigants, triazines, imidazolinones, isothiazolinones, and pyridines.

  17. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  18. 76 FR 63298 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... each contact person is: Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs...: October 3, 2011. Keith A Matthews, Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  19. 75 FR 6656 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shanaz Bacchus, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention... protection, Pesticides and pests. Dated: January 29, 2010. Keith A. Matthews, Acting Director, Biopesticides...

  20. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  1. A Simple and Sensitive Flow Injection Optical Fibre Biosensor Based on Immobilised Enzyme for Monitoring of Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuswandi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive flow injection optical fibre biosensor based on immobilised enzyme for monitoring of pesticides has been developed. The optical fibre biosensor consists of immobilised acethylcholinesterase (AChE coupled with commercial pH indicator strip. The biosensing process involves the inhibition of AChE by pesticides, where the pH change has been monitored via a pH indicator strip as an optical transducer. The enzyme as a bio-recognition element has been immobilised onto solid-support material (i.e. covalently bond onto preactivated isothiocyanate glass, ICG and then packed in a thermostatic bioreactor connected to the flow-cell that contains pH indicator strip. In the presence of a constant AChE, a colour of the pH layer change and the measured reflected signal could be related to the pesticide concentration in the sample solution. The performance of the flow injection optical biosensor system has been optimized, including chemical and physical parameters. The calibration plot of the inhibition for the determination of organophosphate pesticides (dimethoate and carbamate pesticide (propoxur were in the range of 50 to 1000 µg/l for dimethoate and 10 to 100 µg/l for propoxur. The biosensor allows lower detection limits, calculated at I10%, for propoxur (4.9 µg/l than for dimethoate (24 µg/l, and produces highly reproducible response (RSD<1.5% and readily reversible in the case of carbamate pesticide. While in the case of organophosphate, the regeneration has been possible by treatment with hydroxylamine solution. The flow injection optical fibre biosensor system has been successfully applied for the determination of pesticides in the real water samples.

  2. 78 FR 59347 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... and associated tolerance petitions for pesticides that are termed ``conventional chemicals,'' excluding pesticides intended for antimicrobial uses. The term ``conventional chemical'' is a term of art...

  3. Effectiveness Of Pesticide Labels As A Communication Tool For Smallholder Farmers On Pesticides Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Kapeleka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in northern Tanzania to assess the effectiveness of pesticide labels in communicating useful information to horticultural farmers. A total of 200 respondents were obtained through simple random selection. Data were collected through personal and face-to-face interview using structured interview schedule observation and focus group discussion. Simple descriptive statistics and cross tabulation were used in the analysis. The study revealed that 79.6 of farmers interviewed had not learned anything from the labels. With regard to the main source of information on pesticides use 66.7 of the farmers get information from pesticides retailers. Misinterpretation of symbols and pictograms was realized among the farmers. It was revealed that 60 of the farmers cannot interpret correctly the warning symbols and pictograms. The study also revealed that 76.3 of the farmers are aware that pesticide labels contain useful information on safe use of pesticides and 76.1 of all farmers interviewed read pesticides labels before using pesticides. Even when farmers read instructions most do not understand the instructions provided on pesticide labels the main reasons reported include the use of foreign language 53.3 too technical language 51.7 unclear information 40 use of uncommon Swahili words 26.7 while 35.5 said following information on the label do not give good results. Other factors influencing the use of information on pesticide labels were found to be farmers perception on pesticide labels lacking sensitization on label use and reading habit. The study concluded that pesticide labels do not communicate fully the intended information on pesticide use. Pesticide labels need to be simplified and capacity building on symbols colour codes pictograms safety precautions health and environmental impacts of pesticides use is highly required to pesticide users.

  4. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self......-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed...... by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. RESULTS: Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5%) were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36). In 511 (76%) cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside...

  5. Bio-batteries and bio-fuel cells: leveraging on electronic charge transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, A M; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Filipek, S; Li, P; Audette, G F; Munukutla, L

    2009-03-01

    Bio-fuel cells are alternative energy devises based on bio-electrocatalysis of natural substrates by enzymes or microorganisms. Here we review bio-fuel cells and bio-batteries based on the recent literature. In general, the bio-fuel cells are classified based on the type of electron transfer; mediated electron transfer and direct electron transfer or electronic charge transfer (ECT). The ECT of the bio-fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications are considered. The technical challenges of the bio-fuel cells, like bioelectrocatalysis, immobilization of bioelectrocatalysts, protein denaturation etc. are highlighted and future research directions are discussed leveraging on the use of electron charge transfer proteins. In addition, the packaging aspects of the bio-fuel cells are also analyzed and the found that relatively little work has been done in the engineering development of bio-fuel cells.

  6. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David; Azher, Shifa; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5%) were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36). In 511 (76%) cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67) of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91) purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46%) or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%). Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment. PMID:19889236

  7. Evolution of a Structure-Searchable Database into a Prototype for a High-Fidelity SmartPhone App for 62 Common Pesticides Used in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J; Barile, Benjamin; Givens, Aaron F

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic pesticides are widely used in the modern world for human benefit. They are usually classified according to their intended pest target. In Delaware (DE), approximately 42 percent of the arable land is used for agriculture. In order to manage insectivorous and herbaceous pests (such as insects, weeds, nematodes, and rodents), pesticides are used profusely to biologically control the normal pest's life stage. In this undergraduate project, we first created a usable relational database containing 62 agricultural pesticides that are common in Delaware. Chemically pertinent quantitative and qualitative information was first stored in Bio-Rad's KnowItAll® Informatics System. Next, we extracted the data out of the KnowItAll® system and created additional sections on a Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet detailing pesticide use(s) and safety and handling information. Finally, in an effort to promote good agricultural practices, to increase efficiency in business decisions, and to make pesticide data globally accessible, we developed a mobile application for smartphones that displayed the pesticide database using Appery.io™; a cloud-based HyperText Markup Language (HTML5), jQuery Mobile and Hybrid Mobile app builder.

  8. Pesticide biotransformation and fate in heterogeneous environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects and relative impacts of environmental variables on the behaviour of pesticides, through the effect on pesticide-degrading microorganisms, was studied in a broad spectrum and covered the most relevant emission routes. It is shown that the effect of landscape geochemistry, which

  9. Atmospheric Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides may still be in use in the Eastern African region for agricultural purposes and for the control of mosquitoes. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides are expected to be higher in the tropics compared to temperate regions due to prevailing high temperatures. However, no study has ...

  10. EPA Regulation of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    All pesticides must be registered by EPA before being sold and used in the U.S., other than those that rely on a limited set of active ingredients (so-called minimum risk pesticides). EPA reviews for safety and effectiveness.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES IN WATER RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    AYDINALP, Cumhur; PORCA, M. Monica

    2004-01-01

    Environmental pollution is concerned problem all around world due to rapid increase of industrialization and urbanization. Especially, the intensive pesticide use has caused some environmental problems in many countries. The major problem occurred in water resources. Therefore, these resources need to be protected from the contamination of pesticides for future sustainable use.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES IN WATER RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUMHUR AYDINALP

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is concerned problem all around world due to rapid increase of industrialization and urbanization. Especially, the intensive pesticide use has caused some environmental problems in many countries. The major problem occurred in water resources. Therefore, these resources need to be protected from the contamination of pesticides for future sustainable use.

  13. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metayer, C.; Buffler, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ∼600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

  14. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method: Q...

  15. Residus de pesticides organochlores retrouves dans quelques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English Title: Organochlorine pesticide residues found in some fishes from Lake Togo and assessment of the potential risk to the consumer. English Abstract. Organochlorinated pesticides historically used in agriculture and in health program against sickness vectors in health public were investigated in 83 fishes including 9 ...

  16. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  17. QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrus, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

  18. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... control management personnel prior to advertisement of the contract and procurement of services. The...

  19. 77 FR 12295 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Agent, Ceres International LLC, on behalf of Consumo Em Verde S.A., Plant Biotechnology, Technology Park... potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide... 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing...

  20. Pesticides exposure in Pakistan: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Sultana, Nargis

    2007-11-01

    This is the first systematic review of studies done since 1960, and to give an integrated picture of pesticides exposure to humans, animals, plants, waters, soils/sediments, atmosphere etc. in Pakistan. Authors have extracted data from different departments, published literature in research journals and National reports. Although the wide-spread usage of pesticides in Pakistan has controlled the pests, but like other countries, it has started causing environmental problems in the area. In some areas of Punjab and Sindh groundwater has been found contaminated and is constantly being under the process of contamination due to pesticide use. There is considerable evidence that farmers have overused and misused pesticides especially in cotton-growing areas. It is evident from the biological monitoring studies that farmers are at higher risk for acute and chronic health effects associated with pesticides due to occupational exposure. Furthermore, the intensive use of pesticides (higher sprays more than the recommended dose) in cotton areas involves a special risk for the field workers, pickers, and of an unacceptable residue concentration in cottonseed oil and cakes. The authors have also discussed the merits and demerits of different studies. The review will set the future course of action of different studies on pesticide exposure in Pakistan. Data limitations are still the major obstacle towards establishing clear environmental trends in Pakistan. The authors suggest that a reliable monitoring, assessment and reporting procedures shall be implemented in accordance with appropriate environmental policies, laws and regulations in order to minimize the pesticides exposure.

  1. Pesticide residues in air and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breidenbach, A.W.

    1965-06-01

    Current work in pesticide surveillance in surface waters is described. The methods used for sampling are briefly described. The sensitivity and specificity of the analytical techniques employed are discussed. The sampling difficulties and protocols for evaluating levels of pesticides in air pollution are briefly discussed. 17 references.

  2. Factors influencing degradation of pesticides in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Beulke, Sabine; Brown, Colin D

    2007-05-30

    Degradation and sorption of six acidic pesticides (2,4-D, dicamba, fluroxypyr, fluazifop-P, metsulfuron-methyl, and flupyrsulfuron-methyl) and four basic pesticides (metribuzin, terbutryn, pirimicarb, and fenpropimorph) were determined in nine temperate soils. Results were submitted to statistical analyses against a wide range of soil and pesticide properties to (i) identify any commonalities in factors influencing rate of degradation and (ii) determine whether there was any link between sorption and degradation processes for the compounds and soils studied. There were some marked differences between the soils in their ability to degrade the different pesticides. The parameters selected to explain variations in degradation rates depended on the soil-pesticide combination. The lack of consistent behavior renders a global approach to prediction of degradation unrealistic. The soil organic carbon content generally had a positive influence on degradation. The relationship between pH and degradation rates depended on the dominant mode of degradation for each pesticide. There were positive relationships between sorption and rate of degradation for metsulfuron-methyl, pirimicarb, and all acidic pesticides considered together (all P pesticides.

  3. Pesticide related issues in forest tree nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    The FQPA was designed to protect infants, children, and females from pesticides, and was effective immediately on signing by the president. The act requires review of ALL tolerances, and introduced the “risk cup” concept as a method for evaluating lifetime exposures to pesticides.

  4. Modeling pesticide risk to California gnatcatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are used widely in US agriculture and may affect non-target organisms, including birds. Recently, USEPA has worked with other federal agencies, including USFWS and NMFS, to revise and strengthen methods for conducting pesticide risk assessments under section 7 of the U...

  5. Chlorinated pesticide residues in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    of pesticide in contaminated river water into the Bay of Bengal. Con centration ranges of all these pesticide residues detected were, aldrine: 0.02-0.53, gamma BHC: 0.01-0.21, dieldrine: 0.05-0.51, and total DDT: 0.02-0.78, all in mu g g sup(-1) (wet wt)....

  6. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to

  7. Agriculture and bio-technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki

    1987-09-01

    The Japanese agriculture is going to be influenced by bio-technology. New style of production will be introduced through the entrance of other type of enterprises causing considerable change in agricultural fields. Bio-technology is a technology which utmost utilizes the functions of the living organism. Its practical target is to manifestate a new function by deliberately endowing it to an organism. Major technique is gene manipulation, tissue culture and utilization of microorganism and cells as well as the utilization of the biomass resources and a production means in the vegetable plant using nutricious solution. This report especially describes the following matters. Recombinant DNA (Super mouse, etc). Cell fusion (Monoclonal antigen, etc). Nucleus transplantation. Chromosome manipulation (Creation of tripoloid, etc). tissue culture (Growing of virus-free seedling, etc). Production of useful substances. Biomass (Forestry, Ocean, Livestock). (2 figs, 3 tabs, 12 refs)

  8. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  9. Bio-Research: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Bio-Research · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1596-7409. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  10. Toxicity of pesticides on photosynthesis of diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoaib, N.; Siddiqui, P.J.A.; Ali, A.; Burrhan, Z.; Shafique, S.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiguous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organ phosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature. (author)

  11. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  12. Study of bio-oil and bio-char production from algae by slow pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiwong, K.; Kiatsiriroat, T.; Vorayos, N.; Thararax, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was used to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics and essential components of algae. It was found that the temperature for the maximum degradation, 322 °C, is lower than that of other biomass. With our fixed-bed reactor, 125 g of dried Spirulina Sp. algae was fed under a nitrogen atmosphere until the temperature reached a set temperature between 450 and 600 °C. It was found that the suitable temperature to obtain bio-char and bio-oil were at approximately 500 and 550 °C respectively. The bio-oil components were identified by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The saturated functional carbon of the bio-oil was in a range of heavy naphtha, kerosene and diesel oil. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) of bio-oil and bio-char was calculated, and the net energy output was positive. The ECR had an average value of 0.49. -- Highlights: •Bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. •Suitable temperature to obtained bio-oil and bio-char were at about 550 and 500 °C. •Saturated functional carbon of bio-oil was heavy naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil. •ECR had an average value of 0.49

  13. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  14. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 1: selecting pesticides and a community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Randy; Levine, Johanna; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) developed methods to select pesticides and a community to fulfill criteria for an ambient air monitoring study it conducted as part of the CA Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Justice Action Plan. Using a scoring system, CDPR evaluated 100 pesticides based on statewide-reported pesticide use, volatility, and priority in CDPR's risk assessment process (indicators of exposure and toxicity) to produce a list of pesticides to consider as candidates for monitoring. The CDPR also evaluated and scored 83 communities based on demographics and health factors, availability of cumulative impacts data, and reported pesticide use to create a list of community candidates. The scores provide relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones and to identify which pesticides might contribute most to potential adverse health effects. These methods use criteria that can be quantified, validated, and verified in order to provide a transparent and fair selection process. Based on public comments and highest scores, CDPR recommended 40 pesticides (including some of their degradation products) and one community for its yearlong monitoring study. The CDPR then further refined its list of pesticides by soliciting input from local and technical advisory groups. The CDPR plans to use these methods to select pesticides and communities in future monitoring activities.

  15. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  16. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides, as...

  17. Australian work exposures studies : occupational exposure to pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jomichen, Jasmine; El-Zaemey, Sonia; Heyworth, Jane S; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Glass, Deborah C; Driscoll, Tim; Peters, Susan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822930; Abramson, Michael; Fritschi, Lin

    BACKGROUND: Pesticides are widely used in some occupational settings. Some pesticides have been classified as carcinogens; however, data on the number of workers exposed to pesticides are not available in Australia. The main aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of pesticide

  18. Simulating Effects of Forest Management Practices on Pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Smith; W.G. Knisel; J.L. Michael; D.G. Neary

    1993-01-01

    The GLEAMS model pesticide component was modified to simulate up to 245 pesticides simultaneously, and the revised model was used to pesticide pesticide application windows for forest site preparation and pine release. Five herbicides were made for soils representing four hydrologic soil groups in four climatic regions of the southeastern United States. Five herbicides...

  19. 33 CFR 274.7 - Authorization of pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of pesticide use... of pesticide use. (a) Programs approved in § 274.6(b) must be those as described on the pesticide label. Pesticide uses which are different from the registered use, require amendment of the label...

  20. Enhanced biodegradation of lindane using oil-in-water bio-microemulsion stabilized by biosurfactant produced by a new yeast strain, Pseudozyma VITJzN01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Salam, Jaseetha; Das, Nilanjana

    2013-11-28

    Organochlorine pesticide residues continue to remain as a major environmental threat worldwide. Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide widely used as an acaricide in medicine and agriculture. In the present study, a new lindane-degrading yeast strain, Pseudozyma VITJzN01, was identified as a copious producer of glycolipid biosurfactant. The glycolipid structure and type were elucidated by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, and GC-MS analysis. The surface activity and stability of the glycolipid was analyzed. The glycolipids, characterized as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), exhibited excellent surface active properties and the surface tension of water was reduced to 29 mN/m. The glycolipid was stable over a wide range of pH, temperature, and salinity, showing a very low CMC of 25 mg/l. Bio-microemulsion of olive oil-in-water (O/W) was prepared using the purified biosurfactant without addition of any synthetic cosurfactants, for lindane solubilization and enhanced degradation assay in liquid and soil slurry. The O/W bio-microemulsions enhanced the solubility of lindane up to 40-folds. Degradation of lindane (700 mg/l) by VITJzN01 in liquid medium amended with bio-microemulsions was found to be enhanced by 36% in 2 days, compared with degradation in 12 days in the absence of bio-microemulsions. Lindane-spiked soil slurry incubated with bio-microemulsions also showed 20-40% enhanced degradation compared with the treatment with glycolipids or yeast alone. This is the first report on lindane degradation by Pseudozyma sp., and application of bio-microemulsions for enhanced lindane degradation. MEL-stabilized bio-microemulsions can serve as a potential tool for enhanced remediation of diverse lindanecontaminated environments.

  1. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botti, Jean; Combarnous, Michel; Jarry, Bruno; Monsan, Pierre; Burzynski, Jean-Pierre; Jeuland, Nicolas; Porot, Pierre; Demoment, Pascale; Gillmann, Marc; Marchand, Philippe; Kuentzmann, Paul; Kurtsoglou, Nicolas; Lombaert-Valot, Isabelle; Pelegrin, Marc; Renvier, Jacques; Rousseau, Julien; Stadler, Thierry; Tremeau, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  2. REVIEW ON THE EFFICACY OF INSECTICIDES AND BIO-INSECTICIDES (PATHOGEN AND IGR AGAINST VECTOR DISEASES EVALUATIONS CONDUCTED BY VRCRU (2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Tri Boewono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vector and Reservoir Control Research Unit (VRCRU Salatiga, as WHO Collaborating Center for Pesticide Evaluation, has evaluate the efficacy of several new insecticides for various purposes especially for the registration in Indonesia Pesticide Commission. This unit has evaluated insecticides inc ollaboration with pesticide companies and WHO. The aim of the studies were to provide the efficacy and residual effect of insecticides against vector disease. Such as malaria, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF, filariasis, plague, diarrhea, etc. The studied insecticides in the unit were belong to Organophosphate, Carbamate and Synthetic Phyrethroid compounds and also bio-insecticides (pathogen & Insect Grow Regulator/IGR. Various insecticide applications were performed against the adult, e.g. residual spraying (IRS, thermal fogging, Ultra Low Volume (ULV, bed nets impregnation. The study was also conducted to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides, bio-insecticides (pathogen and IGR against mosquito larvae as well as insecticides against fleas and cockroaches. This paper is an overall review of the related studies which were conducted on 2001-2002. Keywords: efficacy, bio-insecticides, vector disease

  3. Bio-leaching and bio-remediation; Biolixiviation et bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, D. [BRGM, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-09-01

    There are only a few bio-technological applications in ore beneficiation, but many in the environmental domain. Economical, technical and technological factors as well as respective contexts in project development explain this difference. In both cases however, the problem is to utilize processes coming from the observation of natural phenomena and to stimulate a beneficial biological activity in a mineral context; it results similar applications with similar limitations. In this paper, the characteristics of both domains are outlined, on the basis of present practices in extractive metallurgy and degradation of organic pollutants respectively, pointing out their similarities and their differences. (author)

  4. 78 FR 70906 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on or before... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System...

  5. 77 FR 59576 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... a pesticide petition requesting the establishment or modification of regulations for residues of...

  6. BioCreative V BioC track overview: collaborative biocurator assistant task for BioGRID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia; Matos, Sérgio; Santos, André; Campos, David; Oliveira, José Luís; Singh, Onkar; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Chang, Yung-Chun; Su, Yu-Chen; Chu, Chun-Han; Chen, Chien Chin; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K; Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kwon, Dongseop; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    BioC is a simple XML format for text, annotations and relations, and was developed to achieve interoperability for biomedical text processing. Following the success of BioC in BioCreative IV, the BioCreative V BioC track addressed a collaborative task to build an assistant system for BioGRID curation. In this paper, we describe the framework of the collaborative BioC task and discuss our findings based on the user survey. This track consisted of eight subtasks including gene/protein/organism named entity recognition, protein-protein/genetic interaction passage identification and annotation visualization. Using BioC as their data-sharing and communication medium, nine teams, world-wide, participated and contributed either new methods or improvements of existing tools to address different subtasks of the BioC track. Results from different teams were shared in BioC and made available to other teams as they addressed different subtasks of the track. In the end, all submitted runs were merged using a machine learning classifier to produce an optimized output. The biocurator assistant system was evaluated by four BioGRID curators in terms of practical usability. The curators' feedback was overall positive and highlighted the user-friendly design and the convenient gene/protein curation tool based on text mining.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-1-bioc/. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Pesticide degrading natural multidrug resistance bacterial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Kirubakaran; Athiappan, Murugan; Devarajan, Natarajan; Samykannu, Gopinath; Parray, Javid A; Aruljothi, K N; Shameem, Nowsheen; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A; Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are a growing threat to humans across the world. Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that has developed through continuous antibiotic use, combinatorial antibiotic use, pesticide-antibiotic cross-resistance, and horizontal gene transfer, as well as various other modes. Pesticide-antibiotic cross-resistance and the subsequent expansion of drug-resistant bacteria are critically documented in this review, the primary focus of which is to assess the impact of indiscriminate pesticide use on the development of microbial communities with parallel pesticide and multidrug resistance. The consumption of pesticide-contaminated food products and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics by humans and in livestock animals have favored the development of both antibiotic and pesticide-resistant bacterial flora via natural selection. Pesticide resistance mainly develops through defensive bacterial adaptations such as biofilm formation, induced mutations, and horizontal/vertical gene transfer through plasmids or transposons, as well as through the increased expression of certain hydrolytic enzymes. Pesticide resistance genes are always transferred as gene clusters, and they may also carry genes essential for antibiotic resistance. Moreover, for some induced mutations, the mutated active site of the affected enzyme may allow degradation of both pesticides and antibiotics, resulting in cross-resistance. A few studies have shown that the sub-lethal exposure of wild-type strains to herbicides induces antibiotic resistance. This review concludes that xenobiotic exposure leads to cross-resistance in wild microbial flora, which requires further study to develop therapeutic approaches to overcome the threats of MDR bacteria and superbugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bio-methane & Bio-hydrogen. Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Janssen, M.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eerst wordt het kader geschetst voor de potentiële rol van bio-methaan en bio-waterstof in de energiehuishouding en de invloeden daarop van de ontwikkeling van eindgebruikstechnologie en infrastructuur, en het energiebeleid. Daarna wordt uitvoerig ingegaan op de technieken voor bio-methaan en

  9. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  10. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  11. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In this study effects of pesticides on biological systems will be presented in genaral terms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000: 215-228

  12. Status of pesticides pollution in Tanzania - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elibariki, Raheli; Maguta, Mihayo Musabila

    2017-07-01

    Various studies have been conducted in Tanzania to assess the magnitude of pesticides pollution associated with pesticides application, storage, disposal as well as knowledge of farmers on pesticides handling. The studies analysed samples from different matrices covering vegetation, biota, water, sediments and soil. The objective of this review was to summarise the results of pesticides residues reported in different components of the environment to give a clear picture of pesticides pollution status in the country for law enforcement as well as for taking precaution measures. Gaps which need to be filled in order to establish a comprehensive understanding on pesticides pollution in the country have also been highlighted. Reviewed studies revealed that, most of the samples contained pesticides below permissible limits (WHO, FAO, US-EPA) except for few samples such as water from Kikavu river, Kilimanjaro region and Kilolo district, Iringa region which were detected with some Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) above WHO permissible limits. Some soil samples from the former storage sites also contained pesticides above FAO permissible limits. Pesticides and their metabolites were also detected both in vegetation, food and biota samples. The prevalent pesticides in the reviewed studies were the organochlorines such as Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan and Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Surveys to assess farmer's knowledge on pesticides handling observed poor understanding of farmers on pesticides storage, application and disposal. Decontamination of former storage areas, continuous monitoring of pesticide applications and training of farmers on proper handling of pesticides are highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pesticide Use and IPM Adoption: Does IPM Reduce Pesticide Use in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Maupin, Jason; Norton, George W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the United States General Accounting Office issued a report entitled “Management Improvements Needed to Further Promote Integrated Pest Management.” This report documents that overall agricultural pesticide usage increased from 1992 to 2000 while the use of the most toxic levels of pesticides have decreased. The USDA suggests that these changes in pesticide use could have been caused by integrated pest management (IPM) adoption. However, the GAO maintains that there is not enough evi...

  14. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, A.W.; Mumford, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

  15. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, A.W. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.w.leach@imperial.ac.uk; Mumford, J.D. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.mumford@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-01-15

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient.

  16. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePrevost, Catherine E.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Cope, W. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This study describes the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory with an important target audience: pesticide educators in a southeastern U.S. state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.780 and to be a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators’ beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and in guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the agricultural labor force, and the general public. PMID:21776210

  17. Public attitude toward pesticides. A random survey of pesticide use in Allegheny County, Pa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, S S

    1975-01-01

    Pesticide use was examined by means of a random survey in Allegheny County, Pa., in October and November 1973. The objectives included gaining insight into the need for a new community pesticide program and estimating its public acceptance. The 110 survey sites were grouped as single-family dwellings, commercial and recreational lawns, institutions, farms, rights-of-way, and wasteland. In the single-family dwellings, most householders (85 percent) used a pesticide in the previous 12 months, usually an aerosol insecticide (76 percent) or herbicide (55 percent). Their pesticide selections were most often based on advertisements of availabel products. A high percentage lacked either the interest or the knowledge of the information on the pesticide's label. No observation in this or any other study supports the need for a new special program in pesticides or indicates that a substantial segment of the public would use its services. The main users of "hard" pesticides were the golf courses, rights-of-way, and one farm-nursery. The rights-of-way used chemicals only for vegetation control. Utilities and railroads contracted with pesticide companies for this work. Municipal users applied pesticides recommended by dealers. The golf courses and a farm-nursery used a broad range of fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides, which they selected because of information received from the Pennsylvania Extension Service and professional organizations. PMID:803693

  18. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About NIEHS Home Page Office of the Director Organizational Structure 2018-2023 Strategic Plan Advisory Boards & Councils Community ... Home Page About NIEHS Office of the Director Organizational Structure 2018-2023 Strategic Plan Advisory Boards & Councils Community ...

  19. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pets and their bedding regularly and see your veterinarian for treatment options. People who handle or are ... Gausche-Hill M, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  20. Bio-pesticidal and Antimicrobial Coumarins from Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The air-dried aerial parts of Croton campestris, C. chaetocalyx, C. eriocladus, and C. glandulosus, with occurrence in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon, yielded essential oils, and their volatile constituents were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Sesquiterpenes, both hydrocarbons and oxygenated, were the most highly represented classes in the oils: the former ranging from 55.3% to 85.1%, and the latter varying from 7.2% to 33.2%. The oils were separated into two groups using hierarchical cluster analysis whose main constituents were β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, γ-elemene, β-elemene, α-humulene and δ-elemene (Group A, C. campestris and C. eriocladus; and spathulenol, bicyclogermacrene, δ-elemene, germacrene D, β-caryophyllene and δ-cadinene (Group B, C. chaetocalyx and C. glandulosus. Percentage of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons was higher in Group A (83-85% than in Group B (55-63%. However, regarding the oxygenated sesquiterpenes, it was reversed, being bigger in Group B (28-33% than in Group A (7-8%. Percentage of similarity in Group A was 92% and in Group B it was 86%. These chemotaxonomic results showed a significant contribution for the better botanical knowledge of these four Croton species occurring in North Brazil.

  1. potenti ls of two bio-pesticides in the control of some field insect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-05-24

    May 24, 2017 ... recommended by BNARDA (2003). 400 grams each of matured fresh leaves of Jatropha and lemon grass were weighed, thoroughly washed and pulverized in a mortar and pestle for 30 minutes. These plant materials were each placed in separate 15 litre plastic container. 8 litres of water was added to it.

  2. Bio-pesticidal and anti-microbial coumarins from Angelica dahurica (Fisch. Ex Hoffm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelica dahurica is an important traditional Chinese herb which is widely used in curing acne, ulcers, carbuncles, rheumatism, headaches and toothaches. A systematic antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract from A. dahurica led to the isolation of six coumarins, namely...

  3. Bio-Pesticides: New Tool for the Control of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Culicidae: Diptera in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of plant extracts as mosquito control strategy was practiced from centuries. These are easily available, non-toxic, biodegradable and exhibit broad-spectrum target specific activities against larval stages of mosquitoes.Method: Different potential parts of locally grown plants, seeds of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans, peel of musambi (Citrus sinensis, leaves of babuna (Matricaria chamomilla, mint (Mentha spicata and ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale selected and evaluated for their larvicidal properties against Aedes (Stegomyis albopictus. Oils were ex­tracted through steam distillation process and extracts were evaluated as per WHO 2005 guidelines for testing of insecticides against larvae of mosquitoes.Result: Among the five plant extracts, C. sinensis had the lowest LC50 (400.81ppm while M. fragrans had the high­est LC50 value (710.30ppm respectively after 24h of exposure. In terms of % age mortality, a series of con­centra­tions (300–800ppm gave high % mortality in case of C. sinensis while M. fragrans gave low % age mortality.Conclusion: All the five plant species have larvicidal effects to certain extant and C. sinensis had great potential. Further small-scale field trials with the extracts of the most promising one (C. sinensis shall be conducted to deter­mine operational feasibility.    

  4. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical equilibria in bio sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Ballester, A.; Blazquez, M. L.; Munoz, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study of bio sorption was carried out using six different kinds of algae and five different heavy metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc). Experimental data fitted very well to langmuir's model and this allowed to predict the behaviour of the biomass under specific working conditions. Using the equations of the model under different initial assumptions, a series of mathematical calculations were done for mono metallic, bimetallic and tri metallic systems. the most complicated calculation is that in which, knowing the initial metal concentration (C 0 ), it is necessary to calculate the conditions reached at the equilibrium, this is, q e and C e . This assumption is of great interest from the point of view of the actual applicability of the process. However, in this case, it is necessary to solve very complex mathematical equations which, for multi metallic systems, are of degree n+1, where n is the number of ions present in solution. The excellent correlation between experimental and theoretical data demonstrates that the bio sorption process can be modelling. (Author) 18 refs

  6. Quantitative Identification of Biogenic Nonextractable Pesticide Residues in Soil by (14)C-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poßberg, Claudia; Schmidt, Burkhard; Nowak, Karolina; Telscher, Markus; Lagojda, Andreas; Schaeffer, Andreas

    2016-06-21

    Quantification of nonextractable residues (NER) of pesticides in soil is feasible by use of radioactively labeled compounds, but structural information on these long-term stabilized residues is usually lacking. Microorganisms incorporate parts of the radiolabeled ((14)C-) carbon from contaminants into microbial biomass, which after cell death enters soil organic matter, thus forming biogenic nonextractable residues (bioNER). The formation of bioNER is not yet determinable in environmental fate studies due to a lack of methodology. This paper focuses on the development of a feasible analytical method to quantify proteinaceous carbon, since proteins make up the largest mass portion of bacterial cells. The test substance (14)C-bromoxynil after 56 days forms more than 70% of NER in soil. For further characterization of NER the amino acids were extracted, purified, and separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Visualization of the (14)C-amino acids was performed by bioimaging, unambiguous identification by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. Our analysis revealed that after 56 days of incubation about 14.5% of the (14)C-label of bromoxynil was incorporated in amino acids. Extrapolating this content based on the amount of proteins in the biomass (55%), in total about 26% of the NER is accounted for by bioNER and thus is not environmentally relevant.

  7. Neonatal outcome following exposure to organophosphorous pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the neonatal outcome in mothers and children exposed to organophosphorous pesticides (OP. We found that 22.4% pregnant women were exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. OP pesticide concentration was higher in breast milk, newborn sera than maternal sera. Newborn parameters such as birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar score and presence of meconium, as well as gestational age of delivery, showed no significant difference between the two groups. However, postpartum weight loss, hospitalization duration, levels of newborn bilirubin and glycaemia differed significantly between the two groups. Morbidity and presence of CNS disorders were six times and more than twelve times higher, respectively, in the OP-exposed than in the OP pesticide non-exposed group.

  8. Chiral Pesticide Pharmacokinetics: A Range of Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 30% of pesticides are chiral and used as mixtures of two or more stereoisomers. In biological systems, these stereoisomers can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). In spite of these differences, th...

  9. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...

  10. Pesticides in Wyoming Groundwater, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Taylor, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 296 wells during 1995-2006 as part of a baseline study of pesticides in Wyoming groundwater. In 2009, a previous report summarized the results of the baseline sampling and the statistical evaluation of the occurrence of pesticides in relation to selected natural and anthropogenic (human-related) characteristics. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, resampled a subset (52) of the 296 wells sampled during 1995-2006 baseline study in order to compare detected compounds and respective concentrations between the two sampling periods and to evaluate the detections of new compounds. The 52 wells were distributed similarly to sites used in the 1995-2006 baseline study with respect to geographic area and land use within the geographic area of interest. Because of the use of different types of reporting levels and variability in reporting-level values during both the 1995-2006 baseline study and the 2008-10 resampling study, analytical results received from the laboratory were recensored. Two levels of recensoring were used to compare pesticides—a compound-specific assessment level (CSAL) that differed by compound and a common assessment level (CAL) of 0.07 microgram per liter. The recensoring techniques and values used for both studies, with the exception of the pesticide 2,4-D methyl ester, were the same. Twenty-eight different pesticides were detected in samples from the 52 wells during the 2008-10 resampling study. Pesticide concentrations were compared with several U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories for finished (treated) water established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. All detected pesticides were measured at concentrations smaller than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories where applicable (many pesticides did not have standards or advisories). One or more pesticides

  11. Phototransformation of pesticides in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meallier, P. [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. de Photochimie Industrielle

    1999-06-01

    The role of the light on the transformation of pesticides in water depends on many parameters. Transformations are categorized as being direct or indirect photodegradation. We investigated the influence of the spectroscopic properties of pesticides and their effects on the nature of the photochemical reactions with the oxygen species, adjuvants of formulation, humic acids, and water. Chemical reactions, especially elimination, substitution and hydrolysis, are generally accelerated by light, while other specific reactions such as photo-Fries rearrangement are initiated by it. With organo-halogenated pesticides singlet or triplet states are involved in the scission of the carbon-chlorine bond, while the triplet state is often the first step for the reaction of the other pesticides. In this paper some reactions are presented to illustrate these two types of mechanisms. (orig.)

  12. A review: radiolabeled synthesis of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Juying; Han Ailiang; Wang Haiyan; Wang Wei; Ye Qingfu

    2010-01-01

    Isotope tracer technique has been widely applied in studies of metabolism, mode action, fate and environmental behavior of pesticides. In such studies, the key point is to obtain suitable radiolabelled compounds. However, the radiotracers, especially the labelled pesticides which are novel compounds with complex structures and longer synthesis routes, are usually unavailable from domestic and /or foreign markets. Therefore, it is essential to explore the synthesis methods of radiolabelled pesticides, which are quite different from the conventional nonradiosynthesis, and are requested to obtain higher yield. This article is a review on current status of choosing the available radionuclide and labelled position, the main synthesis methods and problems in the process of preparing radiolabelled pesticides. (authors)

  13. A survey of warning colours of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierauf, Annette; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Auwärter, Volker; Vennemann, Benedikt; Bohnert, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Pesticides are used to protect plants all over the world. Their increasing specificity has been due to utilization of differences in biochemical processes, and has been accompanied by lower human toxicity. Nevertheless cases of poisoning are still observed. While certain toxic substances are provided with characteristic dyes or pigments to facilitate easy identification, no overview of pesticide colors exists. The lack of available product information prompted us to explore the colors and dyes of pesticides registered in Germany, most of which are commercially available worldwide. A compilation of the colors and odors of 207 pesticide products is presented. While some of the substances can be identified by their physical characteristics, in other cases, the range of possibilities can be narrowed by their nature and color.

  14. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and

  15. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  16. Anticholinesterase pesticides: metabolism, neurotoxicity, and epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satoh, Tetsuo, Ph. D; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2010-01-01

    ...; and epidemiology of poisonings and fatalities in people from short- and long- term exposures to these pesticides in different occupational settings on a individual country basis as well as on a global basis...

  17. Pesticide Applicator Certification in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website provides information about the EPA Plan for the Federal Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides within Indian Country, including plan requirements, how to become certified, how to register for training, and who is certified.

  18. 78 FR 78740 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... weight gain in females; increased incidences of hepatocellular hypertrophy, pigment in centrilobular...

  19. Policy on Existing Stocks of Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This statement establishes general principles the Agency generally will apply in determining whether and under what conditions to allow the sale and use of existing stocks of pesticides for which the registration has been amended, canceled, or suspended.

  20. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks.

  1. 76 FR 5805 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... File symbol Susanne Cerrelli (703) 308-8077 Biopesticides and 70051-RNT, 70051-RNI. cerrelli.susanne..., Biopesticides Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. [FR Doc. 2011-2156 Filed 2-1-11; 8:45...

  2. 76 FR 17644 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... telephone number is (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gina Casciano, Biopesticides and... Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated: March 18, 2011. Keith A. Matthews, Director, Biopesticides...

  3. Anticholinesterase pesticides: metabolism, neurotoxicity, and epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satoh, Tetsuo, Ph. D; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2010-01-01

    .... The early portion of the book deals with metabolism, mechanisms and biomonitoring of anticholinesterase pesticides, while the later part deals with epidemiological studies, regulatory issues, and therapeutic intervention"--Provided by publisher.

  4. Pesticide leaching in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Bonde

    There is a widespread consensus among scientists that the climate will change in the future, and that this change has already begun. These climatic changes will undoubtedly challenge the use of pesticides, which has been proposed to increase in the future. Accordingly, the primary aim of this Ph......D-project was to contribute to the knowledge of how climate change will effect pesticide leaching in the future, which was done by use of mathematical modelling. The agro-ecological model Daisy, was used in all simulations, as well as the 2 model soils: a coarse sand and a subsurface drained sandy loam containing......, resulting in 3000-year long weather series of statistically stationary climate. Effects of pesticide properties (sorption and degradation), pesticide application dates, and soil properties were included. The synthetic weather series produced in relation to objective (II) were used to simulate future changes...

  5. Endangered Species Litigation and Associated Pesticide Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has been subject to several citizen suits. As a result we have conducted scientific assessments and made effects determinations for various pesticide products as related to specific species of concern.

  6. Israel Marine Bio-geographic Database (ISRAMAR-BIO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greengrass, Eyal; Krivenko, Yevgeniya; Ozer, Tal; Ben Yosef, Dafna; Tom, Moshe; Gertman, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the space/time variations of species is the basis for any ecological investigations. While historical observations containing integral concentrations of biological parameters (chlorophyll, abundance, biomass…) are organized partly in ISRAMAR Cast Database, the taxon-specific data collected in Israel has not been sufficiently organized. This has been hindered by the lack of standards, variability of methods and complexity of biological data formalization. The ISRAMAR-BIO DB was developed to store various types of historical and future available information related to marine species observations and related metadata. Currently the DB allows to store biological data acquired by the following sampling devices such as: van veer grab, box corer, sampling bottles, nets (plankton, trawls and fish), quadrates, and cameras. The DB's logical unit is information regarding a specimen (taxa name, barcode, image), related attributes (abundance, size, age, contaminants…), habitat description, sampling device and method, time and space of sampling, responsible organization and scientist, source of information (cruise, project and publication). The following standardization of specimen and attributes naming were implemented: Taxonomy according to World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS: http://www.marinespecies.org). Habitat description according to Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standards (CMECS: http://www.cmecscatalog.org) Parameter name; Unit; Device name; Developmental stage; Institution name; Country name; Marine region according to SeaDataNet Vocabularies (http://www.seadatanet.org/Standards-Software/Common-Vocabularies). This system supports two types of data submission procedures, which support the above stated data structure. The first is a downloadable excel file with drop-down fields based on the ISRAMAR-BIO vocabularies. The file is filled and uploaded online by the data contributor. Alternatively, the same dataset can be assembled by

  7. Scientometric analysis of Colombian research on bio-inoculants for agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Corina Zambrano-Moreno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The excessive use of synthetic chemical inputs in agricultural production has led to the disruption of biogeochemical cycles. One of the alternatives that arose within the systems of sustainable agriculture was the partial or total replacement of chemicals by biological substances. The analysis of relevant scientific literature has become a tool for assessing the quality of knowledge generation and its impact on the environment. A scientometric analysis was conducted of Colombian research on bio-inoculants from 2009 through 2014 in journals added to the Web of SciencesTM in order to identify the characteristics of the main target crops, the microorganisms used, and the beneficial effects on agriculture. In this work, 34 articles were identified: 24 (71 % were research on bio-fertilizer development and 10 (29 % on bio-pesticides. Articles mainly focused on the study of Gram-negative bacilli affecting the area (77 %, while others focused on issues and topics surrounding vegetables (30 %.The analysis of co-occurrence of keywords identified: i several genera of microorganisms (e.g. Azotobacter sp., Bradyrhizobium sp. and sustainable agriculture as issues that have a leading role in this scientific field, ii plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR as an emerging issue, iii biological nitrogen fixation (BNF as a subject which has risen in a complementary manner and iv endophytic bacteria and biodiversity as issues in growth. This study showed that research in Colombia could be targeted on issues such as endophytic bacteria, diversity and productivity.

  8. Risk Factors for Non-communicable Diseases in Vietnam: A Focus on Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang V. Dang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agent Orange, which was used in southern Vietnam, is confirmed the main source of dioxin exposure in Vietnam. Since early 1990s, agriculture of Vietnam has attained advances under intensive cultivation. Both production and yields per crop have increased significantly at the farm level, but the quantity of pesticides used in agriculture also increased in the absence of regulations and good practices. Illegal business of pesticides with false labels, as well as marketing of expired or poor quality products in stores without license are popular in Vietnam. Misuse and improper use in agriculture in Vietnam has led to a variety of problems, such as environmental pollution (including food producing animals and adverse health impact on animals and humans. Open dumpsites worsen the general scenario. Similar to the environmental exposure, human exposure to DDT in Vietnam was ranked among the highest worldwide, with recognized effects. Exposed communities have to face birth defects, health disorders and non-communicable diseases (NCDs, from metabolic syndrome, asthma, infertility and other reproductive disorders through to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. A common feature of many chronic disorders and NCDs is metabolic disruption: environmental chemical factors disturb cellular homeostasis, thus affecting the ability of the body to restore a functional internal environment. Among these, endocrine disrupting pesticides can interfere with the action of hormones including metabolic hormones, and are likely to represent the main concern for developmentally-induced NCDs. Since pesticides are often persistent and bio-accumulate in the food chain through the living environment of food-producing organisms, this paper discusses relevant aspects of risk assessment, risk communication and risk management.

  9. BIO PROSPECTING IN NIGERIA: EVALUATING THE ADEQUACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    produce biodegradable plastics.11. Genetic resources are unequally spread amongst nations of the world. No country is self-sufficient in terms of biological endowment. As a result, nations seek for bio-resources needs from other parts of the world.12 These bio resources comprise of staple foods and high value cash crops ...

  10. Bio-Conjugates for Nanoscale Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus

    Bio-conjugates for Nanoscale Applications is the title of this thesis, which covers three different projects in chemical bio-conjugation research, namely synthesis and applications of: Lipidated fluorescent peptides, carbohydrate oxime-azide linkers and N-aryl O-R2 oxyamine derivatives. Lipidated...

  11. Biosecurity--The Bio-Link Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elaine A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Bio-Link, the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Center for Biotechnology established with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Reports that Bio-Link, headquartered at City College of San Francisco, has created a national network and resource base for community colleges, industry, and others interested in biotechnology…

  12. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging from India in this important and fascinating interdisci-.

  13. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurentiu, F.; Silvian, F.; Dumitru, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  14. Photostability and photodegradation pathways of distinctive pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Attila; Virág, Diána

    2009-01-01

    Transformation of pesticides in the environment is a highly complex process affected by different factors. Biological and physical-chemical factors may play a role in the degradation to variable extent. Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most crucial factors affecting the fate of pesticides. Therefore, our study focused on revealing specific details of the photolytic degradation of pesticides. The toxicity of the examined pesticides is well known; however, little information is available regarding their natural degradation processes. More detailed examinations are required to reveal the exact mechanism of the pesticide decomposition and the biological impacts of the degradates. Significance of this study is enhanced by the fact that decomposition of pesticides may result in the formation of toxic degradation products. The photolytic degradation of frequently applied pesticides (e.g., acetochlor, simazine, chlorpyrifos, and carbendazim) with different chemical structures was investigated. An immersible ultraviolet light source was applied to induce photodegradation. The degradation processes were followed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. Electron ionization mass spectrometry was used to identify the degradation species. Detailed mechanisms of photolytic transformation were established by identification of each degradate. The photolytic degradation of pesticides of distinctive chemical character exhibited markedly different photodecomposition mechanisms. At least four degradation species were detected and identified in each case. Loss of alkyl, chloro, and hydroxyl groups as well as cleavage of alkyloxy, amide, amino-alkyl, and ester bonds might be regarded as typical decomposition patterns. Deamination and ring opening might be observed at the last stages of decomposition.

  15. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ergul Belge Kurutas; Metin Kilinc

    2003-01-01

    The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In ...

  16. Effects of Pesticides on Occupationally Exposed Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Kontogianni, Konstantina; Piperakis, Michael M.; Marcos, Ricardo; Tsilimigaki, Smaragdi

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides are known to contain numerous genotoxic compounds; however, genotoxicity biomonitoring studies of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides have produced variable results. In this study, we employed the Comet assay to examine DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from 64 greenhouse workers from Almería in south-eastern Spain in comparison to PBLs from 50 men from the same area but not engaged in any agricultural work. The results indicated that there were no differen...

  17. Types of pesticides and determination of their residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The pesticide is any material or component used to protect from pests. Its toxic effect is related to the chemical structure, which can be divided into 3 types : 1- Metal pesticides : Sulphur, cupper, zinc, mercury; 2- Vegetal pesticides : advanced and less toxic to the general health; 3- Synthetic organo pesticides : organo chlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroids. Pesticides in the soil undergo biological dissociation according to their concentration and chemical structure. High concentration of the pesticides in the soil may lead to fertility decrease due to destruction of micro-organisms by the pesticides. Many methods are used to analyze the residues of pesticides in plant or soil : 1- Chromatographic methods : Gas chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography; 2- Spectroscopy methods : spectrophotometer and mass spectrometer; 3- Isotopic methods : based on tracers technique which is the most sensitive and accurate method and can estimate minor amounts of the pesticides. (author)

  18. Pesticide modelling for a small catchment using SWAT-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Narayanan; White, Sue M; Worrall, Fred; Whelan, Mick J

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides in stream flow from the 142 ha Colworth catchment in Bedfordshire, UK were monitored from October 1999 to December 2000. About 47% of the catchment is tile-drained and different pesticides and cropping patterns have recently been evaluated in terms of their effect on nutrient and pesticide losses to the stream. The data from Colworth were used to test soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) 2000 predictions of pesticide concentrations at the catchment outlet. A sound model set-up to carry out pesticide modelling was created by means of hydrological modelling with proper simulation of crop growth and evapotranspiration. The pesticides terbuthylazine, terbutryn, cyanazine and bentazone were modelled. There was close agreement between SWAT-predicted pesticide concentration values and observations. Scenario trials were conducted to explore management options for reducing pesticide loads arriving at the catchment outlet. The results obtained indicate that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behavior at the catchment scale.

  19. Increased Frequency of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Allergic Rhinitis among Pesticide Sprayers and Associations with Pesticide Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koureas, Michalis; Rachiotis, George; Tsakalof, Andreas; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-08-01

    Objective : The aim of this study was to identify diseases linked with the pesticide sprayer occupation and explore possible associations with exposure history data. Methods : Α cross sectional study was conducted among pesticide sprayers ( n = 80) and the general population ( n = 90) in Thessaly (Greece). Medical history, demographic characteristics and detailed exposure history were recorded by conducting personal interviews. Lifetime exposure indicators were calculated for several pesticide chemical subclasses. Moreover, organophosphate metabolite levels were quantified in urine samples of all participants by using gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Multinomial analysis was used to determine associations between occupational pesticide exposure and diseases or disorders. Results : In the pesticide sprayers group, significantly higher frequencies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and allergic rhinitis were observed compared with the control group ( p = 0.002 and p = 0.024 respectively). Within the pesticide sprayers group, high lifetime pesticide exposure was associated with increased risk for reporting RA (OR: 43.07 95% CI: 3.09-600.67) and allergic rhinitis (OR: 9.72 95% CI: 2.31-40.89), compared with low pesticide exposure. Exposure to organophsphate, guanidine and quinone pesticides were associated with RA while organophosphates, pyrethroids and paraquat were associated with allergic rhinitis. Despite the higher levels of certain pesticide metabolites observed among participants with rheumatoid arthritis, the differences were not statistically significant. One metabolite (diethylthiophosphate) was found to be significantly increased in allergic rhinitis cases ( p = 0.037). Conclusion s : The results from the current study suggest a possible association of occupational pesticide exposure with RA and allergic rhinitis that should be further investigated.

  20. Increased Frequency of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Allergic Rhinitis among Pesticide Sprayers and Associations with Pesticide Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Koureas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify diseases linked with the pesticide sprayer occupation and explore possible associations with exposure history data. Methods: Α cross sectional study was conducted among pesticide sprayers (n = 80 and the general population (n = 90 in Thessaly (Greece. Medical history, demographic characteristics and detailed exposure history were recorded by conducting personal interviews. Lifetime exposure indicators were calculated for several pesticide chemical subclasses. Moreover, organophosphate metabolite levels were quantified in urine samples of all participants by using gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Multinomial analysis was used to determine associations between occupational pesticide exposure and diseases or disorders. Results: In the pesticide sprayers group, significantly higher frequencies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA and allergic rhinitis were observed compared with the control group (p = 0.002 and p = 0.024 respectively. Within the pesticide sprayers group, high lifetime pesticide exposure was associated with increased risk for reporting RA (OR: 43.07 95% CI: 3.09–600.67 and allergic rhinitis (OR: 9.72 95% CI: 2.31–40.89, compared with low pesticide exposure. Exposure to organophsphate, guanidine and quinone pesticides were associated with RA while organophosphates, pyrethroids and paraquat were associated with allergic rhinitis. Despite the higher levels of certain pesticide metabolites observed among participants with rheumatoid arthritis, the differences were not statistically significant. One metabolite (diethylthiophosphate was found to be significantly increased in allergic rhinitis cases (p = 0.037. Conclusions: The results from the current study suggest a possible association of occupational pesticide exposure with RA and allergic rhinitis that should be further investigated.

  1. Bio-Matematik ved Roskilde Universitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2010-01-01

    Ved Institut for Natur, Systemer og Modeller ved Roskilde Universitet finder man en velkonsolideret gruppe af forskere, BioMath-gruppen, der beskæftiger sig med Bio-Matematik og Bio-Medicinsk Modellering. Faktisk startede BioMath-gruppen på det tidligere Institut for Studiet af Matematik og Fysik...... findes i monografierne "Applied Mathematical Models in Human Physiology", "Mathematical Modeling in Medicine", og i "The Biomedical Engineering Handbook".   Arbejdet med at udvikle anæstesisimulatorerne satte gang i en mængde "sundhedsmatematik" på instituttet og i dag huser instituttet desuden phd......-programmet "Mathematical modeling and its mathematical prerequisites" ledet af undertegnet. Programmet er associeret med den nationale phd-skole "Research School for Mathematics and Applications".   BioMath-gruppens fokusområder er bl.a. 1) Kardiovaskulær fysiologi og dets kontrolmekanismer; 2) Fluiddynamik og klapløse...

  2. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  3. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  4. Effect of pesticides on soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Chu

    2010-07-01

    According to guidelines for the approval of pesticides, information about effects of pesticides on soil microorganisms and soil fertility are required, but the relationships of different structures of pesticides on the growth of various groups of soil microorganisms are not easily predicted. Some pesticides stimulate the growth of microorganisms, but other pesticides have depressive effects or no effects on microorganisms. For examples, carbofuran stimulated the population of Azospirillum and other anaerobic nitrogen fixers in flooded and non-flooded soil, but butachlor reduced the population of Azospirillum and aerobic nitrogen fixers in non-flooded soil. Diuron and chlorotoluron showed no difference between treated and nontreated soil, and linuron showed a strong difference. Phosphorus(P)-contains herbicides glyphosate and insecticide methamidophos stimulated soil microbial growth, but other P-containing insecticide fenamiphos was detrimental to nitrification bacteria. Therefore, the following review presents some data of research carried out during the last 20 years. The effects of twenty-one pesticides on the soil microorganisms associated with nutrient and cycling processes are presented in section 1, and the applications of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for studying microbial diversity are discussed in section 2.

  5. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  6. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, Juan L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: jlacero@unex.es; Benitez, F. Javier; Real, Francisco J.; Gonzalez, Manuel [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-05-01

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 {sup o}C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M{sup -1} s{sup -1} for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L{sup -1} was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

  7. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  8. Pesticides and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahm, S H; Blair, A

    1992-10-01

    The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has increased over 50% in the last 15 years. This paper reviews the possible role of pesticides in this increase. While small increases in risk of NHL among farmers have been observed in general occupational surveys, recent studies focusing on specific pesticides have observed much larger risks. Frequent use of phenoxyacetic acid herbicides, in particular, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, has been associated with 2- to 8-fold increases of NHL in studies conducted in Sweden, Kansas, Nebraska, Canada, and elsewhere. Canine malignant lymphoma has also been associated with dog owner use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and commercial lawn pesticide treatments. There are much fewer data linking NHL to other types of pesticides, but triazine herbicides, organophosphate insecticides, fungicides, and fumigants have also been associated with increased risk of NHL. Pesticide exposures are not limited to agricultural populations but are widespread in the general population through use on lawns, golf courses, rights-of-way, and elsewhere. Since the use of pesticides, particularly phenoxy herbicides, has increased dramatically preceding and during the time period in which the incidence of NHL has increased, they could have contributed to the rising incidence of NHL.

  9. Improved RNA extraction method using the BioMasher and BioMasher power-plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takuji; Nakashima, Kentaro; Maruta, Yukio; Kiriyama, Tomomi; Sasaki, Michi; Sugiyama, Shunpei; Suzuki, Kana; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Sasaki, Jun; Kaku-Ushiki, Yuko; Tanida, Masatoshi; Irie, Shinkichi; Hattori, Shunji

    2012-12-01

    The BioMasher is a disposable homogenizer that was developed to homogenize bovine brain tissue for bovine spongiform encephalopathy diagnosis. Capable of preventing the biohazard risk from infectious samples, it also prevents cross-contamination among samples. The BioMasher is thus widely used in biochemical research, especially for RNA extraction. Here, we tested a novel BioMasher application for RNA extraction from animal and plant tissues. We also developed a grinding machine specific for the BioMasher, named the BioMasher Power-Plus. We developed RNA extraction protocols using the BioMasher combined with the BioMasher Power-Plus. We compared RNA extraction efficiency of the BioMasher with that of the FastPrep and the glass homogenizer. Though the RNA extraction efficiency by the BioMasher was nearly equivalent to that of the FastPrep and the glass homogenizer, sample preparation time was shorter for the BioMasher. The utility of RNA extraction by the BioMasher was examined in mouse, rat, and tomato tissue samples. In the rodent tissues, the highest extraction efficiency of total RNA was from liver, with lowest efficiency from fibrous tissues such as muscle. The quality of extracted total RNA was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis which produced highly visible clear bands of 18S and 28S rRNAs. Reproducibility among different operators in RNA extraction from tomato roots was improved by using the BioMasher Power-Plus. The BioMasher and BioMasher Power-Plus provide an effective and easy homogenization method for total RNA extraction from some rodent and plant tissues.

  10. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Richard N.

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  11. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  12. A new crop of concerns: Congress investigates pesticide safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D A

    2000-09-01

    A March 2000 report by the General Accounting Office, Pesticides: Improvements Needed to Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children, states that much remains unknown about the risks faced by children in agriculture, and that enforcement of pesticide protection standards for farmworkers is patchy and unsystematic. Many cases of farmworkers' pesticide-related illnesses go unreported, leaving health workers with an inadequate basis for tracking patterns and fine-tuning pesticide standards, says the report. In addition, children are known to be more vulnerable to the effects of pesticides, but there is a lack of data regarding children's exposures and the precise effects of pesticides on children's health.

  13. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80...

  14. Increasing pesticide-resistant ectoparasitic infections may increase pesticide poisoning risks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Head louse and scabies mite infestations are common among pre-school and school-age children, and topical pesticides are frequently prescribed to treat such conditions. Ectoparasite resistance to the safest and most commonly prescribed pyrethrin/pyrethroid pesticides for ectoparasitic infections has, however, been increasing since the 1980s. The increasing resistance of these arthropods to the safest pesticides may lead to greater use of more toxic, alternative pesticides to control infestations and to prevent institutional outbreaks. MEDLINE and Cochrane searches, 1966-2008, were conducted to assess the impact of increasing pesticide resistance on prescribing practices for ectoparasitic infections and to describe the evolving global epidemiology of pediatric poisonings by more toxic pediculicides and miticides, including carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates. Pharmacists, physicians, and poison control personnel should be fully informed about increasing pesticide resistance among the most commonly encountered ectoparasites of children and the institutionalized and be prepared to prevent and to treat accidental home and institutional pesticide poisonings with more toxic pesticides.

  15. Reducing pesticide use and pesticide impact by productivity growth: the case of dutch arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs a dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to measure the composition of productivity growth of pesticides and the environmental impacts of pesticides. The application focuses on panel data of Dutch arable farms over the period 2003–07. A bootstrap regression model is used to

  16. 75 FR 33705 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling Compliance Date AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is amending the pesticide container and containment regulations to... work to update the pesticide labels to comply with the label requirements in the container and...

  17. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... of the Residential Exposure Joint Venture, L.L.C. This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-1) issued by the... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint Venture AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing...

  18. Spatial and temporal analysis of pesticides concentrations in surface water: Pesticides atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Zelfde, van 't M.; Tamis, W.L.M.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch water boards have a well-established program for monitoring pesticide contamination of surface waters. These monitoring data have been processed into a graphic format accessible online and designed to provide insight into pesticide presence in Dutch surface waters and trends over time: the

  19. Use of labelled pesticides in pesticide research studies and problems in the interpretation of the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sree Ramulu, U.S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.K.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of labelled pesticides has helped to solve number of problems connected with the formation and degradation of pesticides, factors influencing the above, location of the metabolites in the plants etc. However in most of the studies, the active ingredient has been labelled and diluted and applied at the recommended doses. But the efficacy of the pesticide is modified by the method of formulation, nature of fillers, emulsifiers, solvents, size of droplets etc. Hence the utility as well as the limitations in the use of labelled pesticides in the formulations are discussed. Also due to the variations in the half life of the radioisotopes used for labelling, the use of labelled pesticides for long as well as short duration crops has also been indicated. Autoradiography has become an useful tool in studying the movement of pesticide in the plant, and insects and also locating the regions of high concentration of pesticides and their residues. Though useful, the production of artefacts caused by exudation of cell sap, and other exudates, thickness of samples, increasing time of contact in the case of low energy radioisotope labelled compounds etc. have prevented the use of this technique on a wide scale. The problems in the preparation of autoradiographs of the plant specimens treated with labelled pesticides are also discussed. (author)

  20. Estrogenic and esterase-inhibiting potency in rainwater in relation to pesticide concentrations, sampling season and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamers, T.; Brink, P.J. van den; Mos, L.; Linden, S.C. van der; Legler, J.; Koeman, J.H.; Murk, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Estrogenic potency of rainwater correlated well with organochlorine concentrations, but could not be attributed to specific pesticides. - In a year-round monitoring program (1998), pesticide composition and toxic potency of the mix of pollutants present in rainwater were measured. The goal of the study was to relate atmospheric deposition of toxic potency and pesticide composition to each other and to sampling period and local agricultural activity. Rainwater was collected in 26 consecutive periods of 14 days in a background location (BACK) and in two locations representative for different agricultural practices, i.e. intensive greenhouse horticulture (HORT) and flower bulb culture (BULB). Samples were chemically analyzed for carbamate (CARB), organophosphate (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and metabolites. Esterase inhibiting potency of rainwater extracts was measured in a specially developed bio-assay with honeybee esterases and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of the model inhibitor dichlorvos. Estrogenic potency of the extracts was measured in the ER-CALUX reporter gene assay and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of estradiol. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) techniques proved to be valuable tools to analyze the numerous pesticide concentrations in relation to toxic potency, sampling location, and sampling season. Pesticide composition in rainwater depended much more on sampling season than on sampling location, but differences between SPRING and SUMMER were mainly attributed to local differences in agricultural practice. On average, the esterase inhibiting potency exceeded the maximum permissible concentration set for dichlorvos in The Netherlands, and was significantly higher in HORT than in BACK and BULB. Esterase inhibition correlated significantly with OP and CARB concentrations, as expected given the working mechanism of these insecticides. The estrogenic potency incidentally exceeded NOEC levels reported for

  1. The formate bio-economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yishai, Oren; Lindner, Steffen N; Gonzalez de la Cruz, Jorge; Tenenboim, Hezi; Bar-Even, Arren

    2016-12-01

    In this review we discuss the concept of the formate bio-economy: formate can be produced efficiently from various available resources and can be consumed by microbes as the sole carbon source for the production of value-added chemicals, directly addressing major challenges in energy storage and chemical production. We show that the formate assimilation pathways utilized by natural formatotrophs are either inefficient or are constrained to organisms that are difficult to cultivate and engineer. Instead, adapting model industrial organisms to formatotrophic growth using synthetic, specially tailored formate-assimilation routes could prove an advantageous strategy. Several studies have started to tackle this challenge, but a fully active synthetic pathway has yet to be established, leaving room for future undertakings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  3. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170 Experimental use permit data requirements—microbial pesticides. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1) The...

  4. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models for predicting stream concentrations of multiple pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  5. The fairy tale of bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverloo, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Agricultural products can be converted into bio-ethanol. Proponents of the bio-ethanol production however use inaccurate arguments with regard to the comparison of the prices per liter for bio-ethanol and petrol instead of using the net heating value of the fuels. Also their basic assumptions concerning the energy efficiency or the energy balances or the carbon dioxide emissions are incorrect. The production of biomass for energy does not serve any other societal interest than subsidized employment for agricultural farmers. 4 tabs., 9 refs

  6. BioBlend.objects: metacomputing with Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Simone; Pireddu, Luca; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Lianas, Luca; Soranzo, Nicola; Afgan, Enis; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2014-10-01

    BioBlend.objects is a new component of the BioBlend package, adding an object-oriented interface for the Galaxy REST-based application programming interface. It improves support for metacomputing on Galaxy entities by providing higher-level functionality and allowing users to more easily create programs to explore, query and create Galaxy datasets and workflows. BioBlend.objects is available online at https://github.com/afgane/bioblend. The new object-oriented API is implemented by the galaxy/objects subpackage. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. The 3rd DBCLS BioHackathon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katayama, Toshiaki; Wilkinson, Mark D; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: BioHackathon 2010 was the third in a series of meetings hosted by the Database Center for Life Sciences (DBCLS) in Tokyo, Japan. The overall goal of the BioHackathon series is to improve the quality and accessibility of life science research data on the Web by bringing...... for analysis and visualization. CONCLUSION: We provide a meeting report from BioHackathon 2010, in which we describe the discussions, decisions, and breakthroughs made as we moved towards compliance with Semantic Web technologies - from source provider, through middleware, to the end-consumer....

  8. 3D Bio-Printing Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianbin

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to replace pathological or necrotic body tissue or organ by artificial tissue or organ and tissue engineering is a very promising research field. 3D bio-printing is a kind of emerging technologies and a branch of tissue engineering. It has made significant progress in the past decade. 3D bio-printing can realize tissue and organ construction in vitro and has wide application in basic research and pharmacy. This paper is to make an analysis and review on 3D bio-printing from the perspectives of bioink, printing technology and technology application.

  9. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  10. Ammonia separation in novel bio filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hahne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently used bio filters are suited for odor reduction in livestock keeping but not for ammonia separation. Therefore it was the objective to develop a novel bio filter system which was able to ensure a high and long-lasting ammonia separation. This novel bio filter, which is equipped with a pH control in a water swamp beneath the filter layer and a conductivity control for water discharge, was investigated in terms of ammonia separation and nitrogen disposition over several months under practical conditions. The results show a stable ammonia separation of more than 88 % if certain consecutively described operating conditions are kept.

  11. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  12. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  13. (DDT) and hexachlorohexane (HCH) pesticide residues in foodstuffs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT) and hexachlorohexane (HCH) pesticide residues in foodstuffs from markets in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Keywords: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, hexachlorocyclohexane, pesticide, residue, cowpea grain, yam chip.

  14. TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

  15. 77 FR 30526 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... CONTACT: Jolene Trujillo, Pesticide Re- evaluation Division (7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs...) 347-0103; fax number: (703) 308-8005; email address: trujillo.jolene@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  16. PRN 94-2: Recycling Empty Aerosol Pesticide Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice offers registrants use of an optional label statement permitting recycling as an alternative to instructions to dispose of aerosol pesticide containers. Registrants may add a label reference to recycling the empty aerosol pesticide container.

  17. 76 FR 54230 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    .... Johnson & Son Inc., 1525 Howe St., Racine, WI 53403. 7364 GLB Pool & Spa (An Arch Chemicals, Inc. Business.... Peter Caulkins, Acting Director, Pesticide Re-evaluation Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. [FR Doc...

  18. PRN 97-4: Consumer Access Numbers on Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice describes EPA policy on including telephone numbers and other access numbers or internet addresses, on pesticide product labeling. It also explains how the telephone number of the National Pesticide Information Center hotline may be used.

  19. Avoid Counterfeit Pesticide Products for Dogs and Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is aware of counterfeit pet pesticides designed to look like legitimately registered pesticide products. The information on this page is intended to help consumers avoid unregistered pet products.

  20. New EPA Guidance for Testing Pesticides Will Reduce Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing guidance for requesting waivers of acute dermal toxicity testing requirements for pesticide formulations, which will lead to fewer animal tests for acute dermal toxicity for pesticides.

  1. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet

  2. Cognitive bio-radar: The natural evolution of bio-signals measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Daniel; Oliveira, Beatriz; Ferreira, Pedro; Varum, Tiago; Vieira, José; Tomé, Ana

    2016-10-01

    In this article we discuss a novel approach to Bio-Radar, contactless measurement of bio-signals, called Cognitive Bio-Radar. This new approach implements the Bio-Radar in a Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform in order to obtain awareness of the environment where it operates. Due to this, the Cognitive Bio-Radar can adapt to its surroundings in order to have an intelligent usage of the radio frequency spectrum to improve its performance. In order to study the feasibility of such implementation, a SDR based Bio-Radar testbench was developed and evaluated. The prototype is shown to be able to acquire the heartbeat activity and the respiratory effort. The acquired data is compared with the acquisitions from a Biopac research data acquisition system, showing coherent results for both heartbeat and breathing rate.

  3. Sustainable development and bioeconomic prosperity in Africa: Bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... guidelines concerning significant issues like bio-risks, bio-safety, and bio-security that impinge on daily human existence and welfare. High–cost fossil fuel prices and national security concerns have sparked interest in bio-fuels in continental Africa. In brief, Africa is taking the lead in creating its own.

  4. Risk assessment of pesticide runoff from turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Douglas A; Rossi, Frank S

    2003-01-01

    The TurfPQ model was used to simulate the runoff of 15 pesticides commonly applied to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) fairways and greens on golf courses in the northeastern USA. Simulations produced 100-yr daily records of water runoff, pesticide runoff, and pesticide concentration in runoff for three locations: Boston, MA, Philadelphia, PA, and Rochester, NY. Results were summarized as annual and monthly means and annual maximum daily loads (AMDLs) corresponding to 10- and 20-yr return periods. Mean annual pesticide runoff loads did not exceed 3% of annual applications for any pesticide or site, and most losses were substantially less than 1% of application. However, annual or monthly mean concentrations of chlorothalonil, iprodione, and PCNB in fairway runoff often exceeded concentrations that result in 50% mortality of the affected species (LC50) for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of azoxystrobin, bensulide, cyfluthrin, and trichlorfon in extreme (1 in 10 yr or 1 in 20 yr) events often approached or exceeded LC50 levels. Concentrations of halofenozide, mancozeb, MCPP, oxadiazon, propiconazole, thiophanate-methyl, triadimefon, and trinexapac-ethyl were well below LC50 levels, and turf runoff of these chemicals does not appear to be hazardous to aquatic life in surface waters.

  5. Prediction of pesticide toxicity in Midwest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Megan E.; Stone, Wesley W.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pesticide mixtures is common in stream waters of the United States, and the impact of multiple compounds on aquatic organisms is not well understood. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models were developed to predict Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) values in unmonitored streams in the Midwest and are referred to as WARP-PTI models. The PTI is a tool for assessing the relative toxicity of pesticide mixtures to fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera in stream water. One hundred stream sites in the Midwest were sampled weekly in May through August 2013, and the highest calculated PTI for each site was used as the WARP-PTI model response variable. Watershed characteristics that represent pesticide sources and transport were used as the WARP-PTI model explanatory variables. Three WARP-PTI models—fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera—were developed that include watershed characteristics describing toxicity-weighted agricultural use intensity, land use, agricultural management practices, soil properties, precipitation, and hydrologic properties. The models explained between 41 and 48% of the variability in the measured PTI values. WARP-PTI model evaluation with independent data showed reasonable performance with no clear bias. The models were applied to streams in the Midwest to demonstrate extrapolation for a regional assessment to indicate vulnerable streams and to guide more intensive monitoring.

  6. Importance and toxicological effects of organophosphorus pesticides: A comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kazemi; A. M. Tahmasbi; R. Valizadeh; A. A. Naserian; M. M. Moheghi; A. Soni

    2012-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment is an estimate of the likelihood or probability of an adverse impact on the environment resulting from human activities such as applying of pesticides against of target pests (insects, plant pathogens, weeds, nematodes, microbes, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish and so on) in the agriculture. Since the Withdrawal of organochlorine pesticides from use, organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) have become the most widely used pesticides available today in the entire world e...

  7. Bio-politics Reflexes” or something about what happens with Bio-politics today

    OpenAIRE

    Viorella Manolache

    2013-01-01

    Under the pressure dictated by Western modernity movements, life finally enters within strategic (long term) relationships circuit. The present study establishes that, bio-politics and bio-power denounces the paradigm of politicization of the biological life. Foucaults late writings confirm the subordination of bio-politics to the technologies of power, which integrate / reduce life to biological continuity of the species, to the objectification of individual body or investigation of self-tec...

  8. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Preface for special issue on bio-based materials (2016)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yunxuan

    2016-06-25

    Bio-based materials are new materials or chemicals with renewable biomass as raw materials such as grain, legume, straw, bamboo and wood powder. This class of materials includes bio-based polymer, biobased fiber, glycotechnology products, biobased rubber and plastics produced by biomass thermoplastic processing and basic biobased chemicals, for instance, bio-alcohols, organic acids, alkanes, and alkenes, obtained by bio-synthesis, bio-processing and bio-refinery. Owing to its environmental friendly and resource conservation, bio-based materials are becoming a new dominant industry taking the lead in the world scientific and technological innovation and economic development. An overview of bio-based materials development is reported in this special issue, and the industrial status and research progress of the following aspects, including biobased fiber, polyhydroxyalkanoates, biodegradable mulching film, bio-based polyamide, protein based biomedical materials, bio-based polyurethane, and modification and processing of poly(lactic acid), are introduced.

  10. SCR at bio fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Christer; Odenbrand, I.; Andersson, L.H.

    1998-10-01

    In this project the cause for and the extent of catalyst deactivation has been investigated when using 100 % wood as fuel. The trend of deactivation has been studied as a function of the flue gas temperature, the type of catalyst and the type of combustion technique used. The field tests have been performed in the CFB boiler in Norrkoeping, firing forest residues, and in the boiler in Jordbro, firing pulverized wood (PC). Samples of four different commercial catalyst types have been exposed to flue gas in a test rig connected to the convection section of the boiler. The samples have been analysed at even time intervals. The results after 2 100 hours show a large difference in deactivation trend between the two plants; when using a conventional honeycomb catalyst 80 % of the original activity remains in the CFB boiler but only 20 % remains in the PC boiler. The deactivation in the CFB boiler is about 3 - 4 times faster than what is expected for a conservative design for a coal fired boiler. The results show that the general deactivation trend is similar for the plate and the honeycomb catalyst types. With a catalyst optimised for bio fuels the deactivation rate was about 2/3 compared with a conventional catalyst. At an operating temperature of 315 deg C the deactivation was not as rapid as at 370 deg C. The amount of easily dissolved potassium increases on the surface of the catalyst, especially in the PC boiler, and this is probably the reason for the deactivation. The total amount of potassium in the flue gas is about 5 times higher in the CFB boiler compared with the PC boiler. This indicates that only a certain form of potassium attacks the catalyst and that the total alkali content of the fuel is not a good indicator of the deactivation tendency. The potassium on the catalyst dissolves easily in both water and sulphuric acid. A wash of deactivated catalyst samples with water resulted in higher activity than for the fresh samples if the washing was supplemented

  11. Wireless MEMs BioSensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crossfield is proposing to develop a low cost, single chip plant bio-monitor using an embedded MEMs based infrared (IR) spectroscopy gas sensor for carbon dioxide...

  12. 2nd generation biogas. BioSNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwart, R.W.R.

    2008-11-01

    The substitution of natural gas by a renewable equivalent is an interesting option to reduce the use of fossil fuels and the accompanying greenhouse gas emissions, as well as from the point of view of security of supply. The renewable alternative for natural gas is green natural gas, i.e. gaseous energy carriers produced from biomass comprising both biogas and Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG). Via this route can be benefited from all the advantages of natural gas, like the existing dense infrastructure, trade and supply network, and natural gas applications. In this presentation attention is paid to the differences between first generation biogas and second generation bioSNG; the market for bioSNG: grid injection vs. transportation fuel; latest update on the lab- and pilot-scale bioSNG development at ECN; and an overview is given of ongoing bioSNG activities worldwide

  13. Catalytic steam reforming of bio-oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane, R.; Dahl, S.; Skjøth-Rasmussen, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen and synthesis gas can be produced in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way through steam reforming (SR) of bio-oil and this review presents the state-of-the-art of SR of bio-oil and model compounds hereof. The possible reactions, which can occur in the SR process and the influe......Hydrogen and synthesis gas can be produced in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way through steam reforming (SR) of bio-oil and this review presents the state-of-the-art of SR of bio-oil and model compounds hereof. The possible reactions, which can occur in the SR process...... and the influence of operating conditions will be presented along with the catalysts and processes investigated in the literature.Several catalytic systems with Ni, Ru, or Rh can achieve good performance with respect to initial conversion and yield of hydrogen, but the main problem is that the catalysts...

  14. BioSampling Data from LHP Cruises

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes separate bioSampling logs from each LHP Bottomfishing cruise both within and outside of the Main Hawaiian Islands, as well as a master file...

  15. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  16. Wireless MEMs BioSensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crossfield is proposing to develop a low cost, single chip plant bio-monitor using an embedded MEMs based infrared (IR) spectroscopy gas sensor for carbon dioxide...

  17. Generator Inspection Report: Bio - Lab, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains report from Georgia Department of Natural Resources of July 21, 1999 inspection of the Bio - Lab Incorporated Plant 4 in Conyers, Rockdale County, Georgia, reporting that no violations were observed.

  18. Bio-fuels of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    After having briefly recalled the objective of use of renewable energies and the role bio-fuels may play, this publication briefly presents various bio-fuels: bio-diesel (from colza, soybean or sunflower oil), and ethanol (from beet, sugar cane, wheat or corn). Some key data regarding bio-fuel production and use in France are briefly commented. The publication outlines strengths (a positive energy assessment, a decreased dependency on imported fossil fuels and a higher supply safety, a diversification of agriculture revenues and prospects, a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and weaknesses (uncertainty regarding the evolution of soil use, an environmental impact related to farming methods) of this sector. Actions undertaken by the ADEME in collaboration with other agencies and institutions are briefly overviewed

  19. Bio-methane. Challenges and technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaisonneau, Laurent; Carlu, Elieta; Feuillette, Vincent

    2012-06-01

    Among the new energy sectors in development, biogas has many benefits: several valorization possibilities (bio-methane, electricity and heat), continuous production, easy storage. In Europe, and particularly in France, the bio-methane market will be in the next years a driver for the improvement of the economic, environmental and social performance of the actors of the value chain of biogas. ENEA releases a report on the current state of the bio-methane market in Europe. This publication mainly describes: An outlook of the market evolution and the corresponding stakes for the actors of this sector, the technical and economic characteristics, maturity level and specificities of each biogas upgrading process, An analysis of the French regulatory framework for bio-methane injection into the grid

  20. Bio/Nano Electronic Devices and Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, W. K

    2008-01-01

    ... based on capillary cooling.(3) CNT-based Bio-nano Sensor single walled CNT structures with FIB generated nanogaps have been used to probe single DNA strands, using DNA strands from known pathogens (4...

  1. 75 FR 60113 - Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... science paper ``Use of the Pesticide Data Program (PDP) in Acute Risk Assessment.'' B. EPA's Use of a... announces the withdrawal of the pesticide science policy document ``Use of the Pesticide Data Program (PDP... of data and different models. This science policy document was developed to explain a particular...

  2. Pesticide exposures in a malarious and predominantly farming area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asayah

    Though misuse of these pesticides can lead to widespread potential dangers, the debilitating effects are usually ... of pesticide usage among rural communities in the Kintampo area of Ghana, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among ... Pesticides contain known substances that are used to destroy, repel or control ...

  3. America's Growing Dilemma: Pesticides in Food and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Valerie; Sullivan, Monica, Ed.

    Public concern about the safety of continued reliance on pesticides in agricultural production is widespread and growing. The lack of understanding of how food is grown, the role of pesticides in food production, the risk assessment and regulatory processes and alternatives to pesticide use limits citizen participation in food safety debates and…

  4. Evaluation of pesticide safety measures adopted by potato farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to increase productivity and quality, farmers use pesticides and other agrochemicals. These pesticides if improperly handled impact negatively on the health of the users. The objective of the study was to evaluate the pesticide safety measures adopted by potato farmers in Chebiemit Division of Elgeyo/Marakwet ...

  5. Pesticide-related safety risks among vegetable farmers: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common was organophosphate (45.2%). Twelve of the identified pesticide brands were insecticides while the remaining two were fungicides. Twenty-three practiced cocktailing of pesticides (60.5%), mostly to save time. The most common PPE used while spraying pesticides were gas masks, gloves and boots.

  6. Evaluation of Some Pesticide Residues in Stored Beans in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humans utilize pesticides through agricultural practice to protect crops against destructive pests but pesticide use has been associated with human and environmental toxic effects. Its presence in food is disturbing considering the increasing number of toxicity it causes. Pesticide residues are lipophylic in nature and ...

  7. Trends and advances in pesticide residue analysis | Yeboah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature, origin and the economic significance of pesticide residues are reviewed to underscore the need for countries to develop the ability and capacity to monitor pesticide residues. An overview of pesticide residues analytical procedures is also presented with emphasis on thin layer chromatography (TLC) as an ...

  8. The influence of farmer perception on pesticide usage for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insect pest complex infesting cowpea has made farmers in Uganda to increasingly use pesticides as the major means of pest control. A case study conducted in eastern Uganda revealed that: (a) pesticide usage depended on farmer production goal, (b) change from one pesticide to another depended on perceived ...

  9. Determination of pesticide residues in blood samples of villagers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Twenty seven villagers (including three controls), ranging from 16 to 50 years of age and one to nine years of pesticide application ... promoted toxicological studies in spraying communities and as a result, the common .... pesticides by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Pang et al., 2006). Number. Pesticide.

  10. Pesticide residues in four rivers running through an intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticide residues in four rivers running through an intensive agricultural area, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. ... pesticide contamination as the rivers are important sources of domestic water in the area. Water samples were extracted ... JASEM. Keywords: Pesticide residues, Surface water, Sediment, Environmental contamination ...

  11. Pesticides in South African fresh waters | Ansara-Ross | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public concern has recently escalated over pesticide contamination of South African aquatic ecosystems. This review of published literature on the occurrence of pesticides within South African freshwater systems indicates that fewer than 50 studies of selected pesticides have been undertaken, with emphasis being on ...

  12. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Donald P.

    This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

  13. Exposition et intoxication aux pesticides chez des producteurs de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Dans la perspective d'une meilleure gestion des risques liés aux pesticides, il est nécessaire que tous les acteurs du secteur cotonnier oeuvrent pour le renforcement des mesures préventives. Mots-clés: Exposition, intoxication, pesticides, coton, Togo. English Title: Pesticides exposure and intoxication among ...

  14. Assessment of Pesticide Residue Levels in Vegetables sold in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. kelechi

    (1996) defined a pesticide as any product that kills or control various types of pest (plant or animal that is harmful ... pesticides that get into the plant tissues may be transformed (metabolised) or sequestered in the tissues to .... pesticide was detected in the tissue of the vegetables from Oyingbo with those in the tissues of the ...

  15. State governance of pesticide use and trade in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van Hoi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing serious challenges with respect to the amount and toxicity of the pesticides used. With hardly any domestic pesticides production, Vietnam experienced an exponential growth of both the quantity and the value of imported pesticides in recent years. And the increasing import of newly

  16. Sensitivity analyses for simulating pesticide impacts on honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis techniques to describe the population dynamics of pesticide exposure to a honey bee colony using the VarroaPop+Pesticide model. Simulations are performed of hive population trajectories with and without pesticide exposure to determine the eff...

  17. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... has tried to control the use of pesticides with its code ... This is a useful tool, especially for developing countries, for elimination of. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of ... toxicity, and the majority did not use appropriate PPE nor good hygiene when handling pesticides.

  18. Pesticides Use among Grain Merchants in Mubi Grain Markets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is, therefore, recommended that farmers, retailers, distributors and all the pesticide workers should undergo regular training/workshop on the use and safety measures of pesticides. Also multimedia awareness activities in local language should be massively conducted. Key words: Pesticides, food security, grain merchants ...

  19. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and

  20. Development of pesticide use maps for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, James M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available . Exposure to pesticides can lead to serious human health and environmental effects. It is therefore important to identify critical areas where specific pesticides may result in a high risk of exposure to humans or the environment. Crop specific pesticide use...

  1. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in fish sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the organochlorine pesticide residues in fish sold in markets and fishing sites in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Pesticides are not only used in agriculture but also in public health for the prevention of malaria. However, pesticide residues may be found in foodstuffs. Contamination of foods by ...

  2. Preliminary risk assessment of common-use pesticides using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pesticide risk in agriculture in developing countries has not been adequately studied due to the extent and fate of pesticides in the environment often being unknown. South Africa is a country that has significant pressure on its freshwater and agricultural resources, which increases the possibility of pesticide effects. Thus ...

  3. 40 CFR 158.100 - Pesticide use patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide use patterns. 158.100... DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.100 Pesticide use patterns. (a) General use patterns. There are six broad use categories used in the data tables. The six broad categories...

  4. Evolved pesticide tolerance in amphibians: Predicting mechanisms based on pesticide novelty and mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K.; Mattes, Brian M.; Cothran, Rickey D.; Relyea, Rick A.; Hoverman, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined 10 wood frog populations distributed along an agricultural gradient for their tolerance to six pesticides (carbaryl, malathion, cypermethrin, permethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) that differed in date of first registration (pesticide novelty) and mode-of-action (MOA). Our goals were to assess whether: 1) tolerance was correlated with distance to agriculture for each pesticide, 2) pesticide novelty predicted the likelihood of evolved tolerance, and 3) populations display cross-tolerance between pesticides that share and differ in MOA. Wood frog populations located close to agriculture were more tolerant to carbaryl and malathion than populations far from agriculture. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between distance to agriculture and tolerance was stronger for older pesticides compared to newer pesticides. Finally, we found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion (two pesticides that share MOA). This study provides one of the most comprehensive approaches for understanding patterns of evolved tolerance in non-pest species. - Highlights: • We explored patterns of tolerance to six insecticides across 10 wood frog populations. • We found evidence that wood frogs have evolved tolerance to carbaryl and malathion. • The likelihood of evolved tolerance was stronger for older compared to newer pesticides. • We found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion. • This is one of the most comprehensive approaches studying evolved tolerance in a non-pest species. - Using 10 wood frog populations, we detected evidence for evolved tolerance, found that the evolved tolerance depends on insecticide novelty, and found evidence for cross-tolerance.

  5. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Raheel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST, and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event

  6. Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials.......We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials....

  7. Exploring Artificial Intelligence Utilizing BioArt

    OpenAIRE

    Simou , Panagiota; Tiligadis , Konstantinos; Alexiou , Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Part 15: First Workshop on Ethics and Philosophy in Artificial Intelligence (EPAI 2013); International audience; While artificial intelligence combined with Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology offers a variety of improvements and a technological and healthcare revolution, Bioartists attempt to replace the traditional artistic medium with biological materials, bio-imaging techniques, bioreactors and several times to treat their own body as an alive canvas. BioArt seems to play the role of a new ...

  8. A Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Tauro, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials.......We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials....

  9. Metabolism of pesticides in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahdi, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The chemistry of organo phosphate compounds was developed extensively by Michaelis, (1903) in Germany. During the second world war, when german authorities were searching for substances suitable for chemical warfare as nerve gases, the interest in organophosphorus compounds as pesticides had been initiated. organophosphorus pesticides including insecticides fungicides and herbicides have great medical and economic importance through their control of diseases and increase of production by the control of agricultural pests. - The organo chlorine pesticides involve the chlorinated ethane derivatives of which ddt is the best Known example. Such compounds have the disadvantage of being very persistent in the environment and tend to accumulate in the biological as well as non biological media (Goodman et al., 1980). They have a greater potential for chronic toxicity

  10. Pesticides and Capital of Intervention in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Adeliane Fernandes Magni Dunck

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the chemical industry and the intensification of the capitalist type of industrial development imposed in Brazil, the submission from agriculture to industry , creating a new model of agricultural production, with massive use of pesticides. The process of pesticide consumer agricultural modernization came with the promise of a significant increase in food production and eradicating hunger. However, the (ab use of these substances generate risks of pollution and contamination . The developmental culture does not see the limits of the planet, and this can prove extremely threatening to the man and his environment. There is no ethics regarding the use of pesticides. There is only the ethic of unlimited progress , economic growth.

  11. Biodegradation kinetics for pesticide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolt, J D; Nelson, H P; Cleveland, C B; van Wesenbeeck, I J

    2001-01-01

    Understanding pesticide risks requires characterizing pesticide exposure within the environment in a manner that can be broadly generalized across widely varied conditions of use. The coupled processes of sorption and soil degradation are especially important for understanding the potential environmental exposure of pesticides. The data obtained from degradation studies are inherently variable and, when limited in extent, lend uncertainty to exposure characterization and risk assessment. Pesticide decline in soils reflects dynamically coupled processes of sorption and degradation that add complexity to the treatment of soil biodegradation data from a kinetic perspective. Additional complexity arises from study design limitations that may not fully account for the decline in microbial activity of test systems, or that may be inadequate for considerations of all potential dissipation routes for a given pesticide. Accordingly, kinetic treatment of data must accommodate a variety of differing approaches starting with very simple assumptions as to reaction dynamics and extending to more involved treatments if warranted by the available experimental data. Selection of the appropriate kinetic model to describe pesticide degradation should rely on statistical evaluation of the data fit to ensure that the models used are not overparameterized. Recognizing the effects of experimental conditions and methods for kinetic treatment of degradation data is critical for making appropriate comparisons among pesticide biodegradation data sets. Assessment of variability in soil half-life among soils is uncertain because for many pesticides the data on soil degradation rate are limited to one or two soils. Reasonable upper-bound estimates of soil half-life are necessary in risk assessment so that estimated environmental concentrations can be developed from exposure models. Thus, an understanding of the variable and uncertain distribution of soil half-lives in the environment is

  12. [Development and perspective of bio-based chemical fiber industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengjun

    2016-06-25

    Bio-based fiber is environment friendly, reproducible, easily biodegradable. Therefore, rapid development of bio-based fiber industry is an obvious in progress to replace petrochemical resources, develop sustainable economy, build resource saving and environment friendly society. This article describes the current development of bio-based fiber industry, analyzes existing problems, indicates the trends and objectives of bio-based fiber materials technology innovation and recommends developing bio-based fibers industry of our country.

  13. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick

    2002-01-01

    In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced...... to do specific tasks within an integrated pest management system. Use of safer pesticides should result in fewer deaths, just as the change from barbiturates to benzodiazepines has reduced the number of deaths from pharmaceutical self-poisoning....

  14. Revealing Pesticide Residues Under High Pesticide Stress in Taiwan's Agricultural Environment Probed by Fresh Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Yu-Shin; Chen, Tsui-Yao; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Ting; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Yue-Wen

    2017-10-01

    Significant pesticide residues are among the most serious problems for sustainable agriculture. In the beekeeping environment, pesticides not only impact a honey bee's survival, but they also contaminate bee products. Taiwan's agricultural environment has suffered from pesticide stress that was higher than that found in Europe and America. This study deciphered problems of pesticide residues in fresh honey bee pollen samples collected from 14 monitoring apiaries in Taiwan, which reflected significant contaminations within the honey bee population. In total, 155 pollen samples were screened for 232 pesticides, and 56 pesticides were detected. Among the residues, fluvalinate and chlorpyrifos showed the highest concentrations, followed by carbendazim, carbaryl, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, ethion, and flufenoxuron. The average frequency of pesticide residues detected in pollen samples was ca. 74.8%. The amounts and types of pesticides were higher in winter and in southwestern Taiwan. Moreover, five of these pollen samples were contaminated with 11-15 pesticides, with average levels between 1,560 and 6,390 μg/kg. Compared with the literature, this study emphasized that pollen gathered by honey bee was highly contaminated with more pesticides in Taiwan than in the America, France, and Spain. The ubiquity of pesticides in the pollen samples was likely due to the field applications of common pesticides. Recently, the Taiwanese government began to improve the pesticide policy. According to the resurvey data in 2016, there were reductions in several pesticide contamination parameters in pollen samples from west to southwest Taiwan. A long-term investigation of pollen pesticide residues should be conducted to inspect pesticides usage in Taiwan's agriculture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Nanomaterials in electrochemical biosensors for pesticide detection: advances and challenges in food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Cinti, Stefano; Scognamiglio, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    This overview (with 114 refs.) covers the progress made between 2010 and 2015 in the field of nanomaterial based electrochemical biosensors for pesticides in food. Its main focus is on strategies to analyze real samples. The review first gives a short introduction into the most often used bio recognition elements. These include (a) enzymes (resulting in inhibition-based and direct catalytic biosensors), (b) antibodies (resulting in immunosensors), and (c) aptamers (resulting in aptasensors). The next main section covers the various kinds of nanomaterials for use in biosensors and includes carbonaceous species (carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black and others), and non-carbonaceous species in the form of nanoparticles, rods, or porous materials. Aspects of sample treatment and real sample analysis are treated next before discussing vanguard technologies in tailor-made food analysis. (author)

  16. Round table on bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministers of agriculture and of industry have organized a meeting with the main French actors of agriculture, petroleum industry, car making and accessories industry and with professionals of agriculture machines to encourage the development of bio-fuels in France. This meeting took place in Paris in November 21, 2005. Its aim was to favor the partnerships between the different actors and the public authorities in order to reach the ambitious goals of the government of 5.75% of bio-fuels in fossil fuels by 2008, 7% by 2010 and 10% by 2015. The main points discussed by the participants were: the compatibility of automotive fuel standards with the objectives of bio-fuel incorporation, the development of direct incorporation of methanol in gasoline, the ethanol-ETBE partnership, the question of the lower calorific value of ETBE (ethyl tertio butyl ether), the development of new bio-fuels, the development of bio-diesel and the specific case of pure vegetal oils, and the fiscal framework of bio-fuels. This meeting has permitted to reach important improvements with 15 concrete agreements undertaken by the participants. (J.S.)

  17. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Julia; Norppa, Hannu

    2017-12-01

    Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessarily true. Here, we provide a short overview on health and environmental aspects associated with bio-based nanomaterials, and on the relevant regulatory requirements. We also discuss testing strategies that may be used for screening purposes at pre-commercial stages. Although the tests presently used to reveal hazards are still evolving, regarding modifi-cations required for nanomaterials, their application is needed before the upscaling or commercialization of bio-based nanomaterials, to ensure the market potential of the nanomaterials is not delayed by uncertainties about safety issues.

  18. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Julia; Norppa, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessarily true. Here, we provide a short overview on health and environmental aspects associated with bio-based nanomaterials, and on the relevant regulatory requirements. We also discuss testing strategies that may be used for screening purposes at pre-commercial stages. Although the tests presently used to reveal hazards are still evolving, regarding modifi­cations required for nanomaterials, their application is needed before the upscaling or commercialization of bio-based nanomaterials, to ensure the market potential of the nanomaterials is not delayed by uncertainties about safety issues. PMID:29194367

  19. Bio-fuels barometer; Barometre biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    European Union bio-fuel use for transport reached 12 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009. The slowdown in the growth of European consumption deepened again. Bio-fuel used in transport only grew by 18.7% between 2008 and 2009, as against 30.3% between 2007 and 2008 and 41.8% between 2006 and 2007. The bio-fuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the E.U. is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009. We can note that: -) the proportion of bio-fuel in the German fuels market has plummeted since 2007: from 7.3% in 2007 to 5.5% in 2009; -) France stays on course with an incorporation rate of 6.25% in 2009; -) In Spain the incorporation rate reached 3.4% in 2009 while it was 1.9% in 2008. The European bio-diesel industry has had another tough year. European production only rose by 16.6% in 2009 or by about 9 million tonnes which is well below the previous year-on-year growth rate recorded (35.7%). France is leading the production of bio-ethanol fuels in Europe with an output of 1250 million liters in 2009 while the total European production reached 3700 million litters and the world production 74000 million liters. (A.C.)

  20. Bio diesel, v. 15(59)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicheva, Ljubitsa

    2007-01-01

    The history of bio-fuels/bio-diesel is more political and economical than it is technological. The technology of the production is the same as it was 200 years ago. The economy closed the usage of bio-fuels in the middies of the 20 Th century and put it back on the agenda of the world economy at the beginning of the 21 st century. With price of more then 70 US$ per barrel of grudge oil, production and usage of bio-fuels becomes more economical category rather than political and ecological. If we, additionally, add secondary, yet nowadays very important factors, as ecological protection, recycling the emission of poisonous gasses, exploitation of agro sector, then the reincarnation of bio-fuels is very interesting, and for Macedonia a potentially strategic category. The basics of the biography is to follow in the article paying special attention on the characteristics, standards, production, processing and usage of the bio-diesel fuel as well as the blended B20 and B5. (Author)

  1. Bio diesel, v. 15(58)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicheva, Ljubitsa

    2007-01-01

    The history of bio-fuels/bio-diesel is more political and economical than it is technological. The technology of the production is the same as it was 200 years ago. The economy closed the usage of bio-fuels in the middies of the 20 Th century and put it back on the agenda of the world economy at the beginning of the 21 st century. With price of more then 70 US$ per barrel of grudge oil, production and usage of bio-fuels becomes more economical category rather than political and ecological. If we, additionally, add secondary, yet nowadays very important factors, as ecological protection, recycling the emission of poisonous gasses, exploitation of agro sector, then the reincarnation of bio-fuels is very interesting, and for Macedonia a potentially strategic category. The basics of the biography is to follow in the article paying special attention on the characteristics, standards, production, processing and usage of the bio-diesel fuel as well as the blended B20 and B5. (Author)

  2. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Catalán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessarily true. Here, we provide a short overview on health and environmental aspects associated with bio-based nanomaterials, and on the relevant regulatory requirements. We also discuss testing strategies that may be used for screening purposes at pre-commercial stages. Although the tests presently used to reveal hazards are still evolving, regarding modifi­cations required for nanomaterials, their application is needed before the upscaling or commercialization of bio-based nanomaterials, to ensure the market potential of the nanomaterials is not delayed by uncertainties about safety issues.

  3. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xiao-yun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pesticide; different portions of the fruit, crop varieties and so on. The way of applying pesticide had great impact on pesticide residue, pesticide application after bagging could largely reduce the pesticide residue, and pesticide application before bagging could increase pesticide residues; The four factors including pesticide appliacation dosage, the type of pesticides and fruit portion and fruit varieties on the effects of pesticide residues, had interaction each other. The pesticide applying several times, bagging could significantly reduce pesticide residues and control within the security level. Different bagging materials could reduce pesticide residues, but the impact on pesticide residues had no significant difference. More bagging layers caused less pesticide residues.

  4. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields – Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbom, Annette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K.; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. - Highlights: • Field-results reveal shortcomings in the EU authorization procedure for pesticides. • The plough layer can be bypassed via preferential transport in e.g. wormholes. • Pesticides properties are decisive for leaching pattern on the sandy fields. • The hydrogeological settings control the leaching patterns on the loamy fields. • Pesticide detection frequency seems to be independent of the month of the year. - Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveals shortcomings in the European Union authorization procedure for pesticides

  5. Nanosensing of Pesticides by Zinc Oxide Quantum Dot: An Optical and Electrochemical Approach for the Detection of Pesticides in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Dibakar; Mandal, Abhishek; Mitra, Tapas; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Bardhan, Munmun; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar

    2018-01-17

    Present study reveals the low concentrations (∼4 ppm) of pesticide sensing vis-à-vis degradation of pesticides with the help of nontoxic zinc oxide quantum dots (QD). In our study, we have taken four different pesticides viz., aldrin, tetradifon, glyphosate, and atrazine, which are widely used in agriculture and have structural dissimilarities/diversity. By using optical sensing techniques such as steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, we have analyzed the detailed exciton dynamics of QD in the presence of different pesticides. It has been found that the pesticide containing good leaving groups (-Cl) can interact with QD promptly and has high binding affinity (∼10 7 M -1 ). The different binding signatures of QD with different pesticides enable us to differentiate between the pesticides. Time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy provides significant variance (∼150-300 ns) for different pesticides. Furthermore, a large variation (10 5 Ω to 7 × 10 4 Ω) in the resistance of QD in the presence of different pesticides was revealed by electrochemical sensing technique. Moreover, during the interaction with pesticides, QD can also act as a photocatalyst to degrade pesticides. Present investigation explored the fact that the rate of degradation is positively affected by the binding affinity, i.e., the greater the binding, the greater is the degradation. What is more, both optical and electrochemical measurements of QD, in tandem, as described in our study could be utilized as the pattern recognition sensor for detection of several pesticides.

  6. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose. 152.10 Section 152.10 Protection of Environment... pesticidal purpose. A product that is not intended to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate a pest, or to...

  7. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases ...

  8. Assessing the Economic Impacts of Pesticide Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe A. Schneider

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic impacts of pesticide regulations are assessed using five alternative methodologies. The regulations include crop supply-enhancing eradication programs and crop supply-decreasing pesticide bans. Alternative assessment methodologies differ regarding assumptions about market price and crop acreage adjustments. Results show that market and producer adjustments substantially impact conclusions about winners and losers from regulations, and estimated welfare effects can differ widely between the different methodologies. For small technological changes such as the hypothetical pendimethalin regulation, farm budgeting and sector modeling yield similar estimates. For more severe technological changes—like the boll weevil eradication program—simple budgeting approaches lead to a substantial bias.

  9. Estrogenic and esterase-inhibiting potency in rainwater in relation to pesticide concentrations, sampling season and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Timo; van den Brink, Paul J; Mos, Lizzy; van der Linden, Sander C; Legler, Juliette; Koeman, Jan H; Murk, Albertinka J

    2003-01-01

    In a year-round monitoring program (1998), pesticide composition and toxic potency of the mix of pollutants present in rainwater were measured. The goal of the study was to relate atmospheric deposition of toxic potency and pesticide composition to each other and to sampling period and local agricultural activity. Rainwater was collected in 26 consecutive periods of 14 days in a background location (BACK) and in two locations representative for different agricultural practices, i.e. intensive greenhouse horticulture (HORT) and flower bulb culture (BULB). Samples were chemically analyzed for carbamate (CARB), organophosphate (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and metabolites. Esterase inhibiting potency of rainwater extracts was measured in a specially developed bio-assay with honeybee esterases and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of the model inhibitor dichlorvos. Estrogenic potency of the extracts was measured in the ER-CALUX reporter gene assay and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of estradiol. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) techniques proved to be valuable tools to analyze the numerous pesticide concentrations in relation to toxic potency, sampling location, and sampling season. Pesticide composition in rainwater depended much more on sampling season than on sampling location, but differences between and were mainly attributed to local differences in agricultural practice. On average, the esterase inhibiting potency exceeded the maximum permissible concentration set for dichlorvos in The Netherlands, and was significantly higher in than in and . Esterase inhibition correlated significantly with OP and CARB concentrations, as expected given the working mechanism of these insecticides. The estrogenic potency incidentally exceeded NOEC levels reported for aquatic organisms and was highest in . Although estrogenic potency of rainwater correlated with OC concentrations, the ER-CALUX responses could not be attributed to

  10. An integrated (nano-bio) technique for degradation of γ-HCH contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ritu [Ecotoxicology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India); Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India); Manickam, Natesan [Environmental Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India); Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy [Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India); Murthy, Ramesh Chandra, E-mail: murthyrc729@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India); Misra, Virendra, E-mail: virendra_misra2001@yahoo.co.in [Ecotoxicology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • An integrated (nano-bio) technique is employed to degrade γ-HCH in soil. • Degradation efficiency of γ-HCH in integrated and individual systems is compared. • Synergistic effect was noticed on γ-HCH degradation in integrated system. • Integrated system was found 1.7–2.1 times more efficient than individual methods. • This technique could be exploited for other chlorinated pesticides as well. -- Abstract: We have evaluated the effect of an integrated (nano-bio) technique involving the use of stabilized Pd/Fe{sup 0} bimetallic nanoparticles (CMC-Pd/nFe{sup 0}) and a Sphingomonas sp. strain NM05, on the degradation of γ-HCH in soil. Factors affecting degradation such as pH, incubation temperature and γ-HCH initial concentration were also studied. The results revealed that γ-HCH degradation efficiency is ∼ 1.7–2.1 times greater in integrated system as compared to system containing either NM05 or CMC-Pd/nFe{sup 0} alone. The integration showed synergistic effect on γ-HCH degradation. Further, cell growth studies indicated that NM05 gets well acclimatized to nanoparticles, showing potential growth in the presence of CMC-Pd/nFe{sup 0} with respect to control system. This study signifies the potential efficacy of integrated technique to become an effective alternative remedial tool for γ-HCH contaminated soil. Further research in this direction could lead to the development of effective remediation strategies for other isomers of HCH and other chlorinated pesticides as well.

  11. Utilization of Boxes for Pesticide Storage in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Abeywickrama, Tharaka

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning is now considered one of the two most common methods of suicide worldwide. Encouraging safe storage of pesticides is one particular approach aimed at reducing pesticide self-poisoning. CropLife Sri Lanka (the local association of pesticide manufacturers), with the aid...... of the Department of Agriculture, distributed lockable in-house pesticide storage boxes free of charge to a farming community in a rural district of Sri Lanka. Padlocks were not provided with the boxes. These storage boxes were distributed to the farmers without prior education. The authors carried out a cross...

  12. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  13. "Causes" of pesticide safety behavior change in Latino farmworker families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Talton, Jennifer W; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Trejo, Grisel; Mirabelli, Maria C; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-07-01

    To identify the source of behavior change resulting from a health education intervention focused on pesticide safety. Data were from the La Familia Sana demonstration project, a promotora-delivered pesticide safety education intervention conducted with immigrant Latinos (N = 610). The La Familia Sana program produced changes in 3 sets of pesticide safety behaviors. Changes in the conceptual targets of the intervention and promotora attributes explained 0.45-6% and 0.5-3% of the changes in pesticide-related behavior, respectively. The conceptual targets of the La Familia Sana program explained the greatest amount of change in pesticide-related behavior. Promotora attributes also contributed to intervention success.

  14. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  15. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Xiao-yun; XIE De-fang

    2018-01-01

    At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pestici...

  16. Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

    2003-01-01

    Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be

  17. Pesticide-exposure Matrix helps identify active ingredients in pesticides used in past years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide-exposure Matrix was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years

  18. Pesticide loadings of select organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in urban public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the magnitude and distribution of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticide loadings within public housing dwellings in Boston, Massachusetts and compared the results using various sampling methods. We collected dust matrices from living room and kitchen in 42 apar...

  19. Notice to Workers About Pesticide Applications and Pesticide-Treated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about requirements for employers must notify workers about areas where pesticide applications are taking place or where restricted-entry intervals (REIs) are in effect. Notifications include oral and written information. Exceptions exist.

  20. Effectiveness of household lockable pesticide storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Melissa; Metcalfe, Chris; Jayamanne, Shaluka

    2017-01-01

    Background: Agricultural pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural Asia. The use of safer household pesticide storage has been promoted to prevent deaths, but there is no evidence of effectiveness. We aimed to test the effectiveness of lockable household containers...... for prevention of pesticide self-poisoning. Methods: We did a community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial in a rural area of North Central Province, Sri Lanka. Clusters of households were randomly assigned (1:1), with a sequence computer-generated by a minimisation process, to intervention or usual...... practice (control) groups. Intervention households that had farmed or had used or stored pesticide in the preceding agricultural season were given a lockable storage container. Further promotion of use of the containers was restricted to community posters and 6-monthly reminders during routine community...

  1. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80......% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...

  2. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2015-11-01

    Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N=31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993-1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure-response pattern for husband's cumulative use of these pesticides. ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N = 31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. Methods AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993–1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. Results We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure–response pattern for husband’s cumulative use of these pesticides. Conclusions ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. PMID:26505650

  4. The Problem of Bio-Concepts: Biopolitics, Bio-Economy and the Political Economy of Nothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Kean

    2017-01-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies--and no doubt other fields--have increasingly drawn on Michel Foucault's concept of biopolitics to theorize a variety of new "bio-concepts." While there might be some theoretical value in such exercises, many of these bio-concepts have simply replaced more rigorous--and therefore…

  5. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…

  6. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  7. Effectiveness of cleaning practices in removing pesticides from home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Linda A; Travers, Rachelle; Lasarev, Michael; Muniz, Juan; Nailon, Regina

    2006-01-01

    The deposition of agricultural pesticides in the homes of agricultural workers and residents of agricultural communities is a major environmental health concern. The effectiveness of home cleaning activities in removing pesticides from home surfaces has not been tested. An intervention study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of cleaning windowsills, floors and carpets in a sample of 10 farmworker homes. Baseline measures of organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues were obtained, a standardized cleaning intervention was applied and follow-up measures of pesticide residues were obtained within 24-48 hours after the cleaning and 12 months later. House dust was analyzed for six OP pesticides. All homes had detectable baseline levels of OP pesticides on floors and windowsills. Cleaning of linoleum floors was ineffective in removing total pesticide residues and cleaning effectiveness varied among the pesticides. The cleaning of total OP pesticides on the windowsills was effective (median decrease was 0.0029 microg/cm(2), 1-sided p-value = 0.01). Steam cleaning carpets essentially reduced the amounts to non-detectable levels. In 12 months the levels in carpets had accumulated to one-third of the baseline levels. These results provide evidence that cleaning practices can reduce the amount of pesticides in agricultural homes; however the type of surface being cleaned and the pesticides present in the home may influence results.

  8. Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannwarth, M.A.; Sangchan, W.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Lamers, M.; Ingwersen, J.; Ziegler, A.D.; Streck, T.

    2014-01-01

    The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92–0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61–0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. - Highlights: • We performed a global LH-sensitivity analysis of all pesticide related parameters. • Key physical parameters are associated to percolation, degradation and sorption. • We simulated the measured loads of three different pesticides. • We performed an uncertainty analysis of all pesticide simulations. • All Pesticides differed considerably in their sensitivity and simulation behavior. - Pesticide load simulations of three pesticides were modeled by SWAT, providing clues on how to handle pesticides in future SWAT studies

  9. Community Air Monitoring for Pesticide Drift Using Pesticide Action Network's (PAN) Drift Catcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, E.

    2016-12-01

    Community air monitoring projects for pesticides in the air have been conducted by PAN in collaboration with community members and locally based groups engaged around pesticide issues. PAN is part of an international network working to promote a just, thriving food system and replace the use of hazardous pesticides with ecologically sound alternatives. The Drift Catcher is an air-monitoring device with a design based on the California Air Resource Board's air monitoring equipment, and has been used in community-based projects in 11 states. Observations of pesticide drift made by community members cannot always be confirmed by regulatory agencies—if an inspection is made hours or days after a drift incident, the evidence may no longer be present. The Drift Catcher makes it possible to collect scientific evidence of pesticide drift in areas where people live, work, and play. One of the most recent Drift Catcher projects was done in California, in partnership with the Safe Strawberry Coalition and led by the statewide coalition Californians for Pesticide Reform. The data were used to support a call for stronger mitigation rules for the fumigant chloropicrin and to support a campaign asking for stronger pesticide rules to protect children attending school in close proximity to agricultural fields. The Drift Catcher data are used by organizers and community members to engage policymakers with the intention of making policy change on a local and/or statewide level. On the national level, PAN's Drift Catcher data has helped win regulatory recognition of volatilization drift for pesticides other than fumigants. Lessons learned from conducting community-based research projects will also be discussed. PAN is also currently assessing other community-based monitoring tools, such as community surveys and drift questionnaires that may allow communities to collect data that can also support the campaign work.

  10. Studying of specific disintegrative characteristic for pesticide residues that used in green vegetables in the environment of Dalat city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tat Mua; Nguyen Tien Dat; Nguyen Van Minh; Ta Thi Tuyet Nhung; Truong Van Tai; Nguyen Ngoc Tuan; Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2004-01-01

    After pesticides are used, the disintegration occurs due to light, temperature, alkaline materials and bio-microorganism in soil and water. The disintegration rate depends on chemical properties of each pesticide and environmental conditions. In this work, use of the method enable plant material to be extracted and cleaned up for gas chromatographic determination of residues of 4 compounds of the organophosphorus and pyrethroid groups as dimethoat, clopyrifos, methidathion and cypermethrin compounds by one or the same procedure. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation are determined in range of 5-10 ng and 0.01-0.05 ppm. Recovery is in range 80-98%. The transformation and disintegration rate in vegetables such as: Nozawana, Perilla and Spinach depends on the stability of pesticides used, the activities of enzyme in soil and water and weather conditions. Their process occurs fast when vegetables are in the interval of growth and in the condition of high temperature, moisture and light intensity. The disintegration rate of 4 compounds of the organophosphorus and pyrethroid groups in vegetables occurs faster in dry season than rainy season (author)

  11. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 178-182

  12. Life cycle human health impacts of 875 pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    human exposure to residues for a wide range of pesticide-crop combinations with latest findings of pesticide dissipation kinetics in crops and post-harvest food processing. Outcome is a set of intake fractions and characterization factors for 875 organic pesticides and six major food crops along...... and crop. Intake fractions are typically highest for lettuce and tomato and lowest for potato due to differences in application times before crop harvest and soil as additional barrier for uptake into potato tubers. Uncertainty in intake fractions is mainly associated with dissipation dynamics in crops...... pesticide-crop combination-specific characterization factors normalized to pesticide mass applied and provide default data for application times and loss due to post-harvest food processing. When using our data, we emphasize the need to consult current pesticide regulation, since each pesticide...

  13. PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The aim of the presented work is to develop a model for distribution of pesticides into the environment following application to the field. Based on input of required substance characteristics and applied quantities for the pesticides, the model will estimate the emissions to the air, water, soil...... and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of human exposure...... in LCA Following the review of existing methods, a number of modifications and new modules are developed and integrated into the existing method for pesticide distribution modelling to arrive at PESTLCI. Finally, PESTLCI is tested on three pesticide applications and the results compared to the results...

  14. Pesticide contamination of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Michael; Spranghers, Thomas; De Clercq, Patrick; Cooreman-Algoed, Margot; Couchement, Tasmien; De Clercq, Griet; Verbeke, Sarah; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-06-15

    The use of pesticides contributes to the productivity and the quality of the cultivated crop. A large portion of the agricultural produce is not consumed as it is not an edible part or the quality of the product is too low. This waste of agricultural produce can be valorised as a substrate for the production of certain insects for human consumption. However, pesticides applied on the plants might accumulate during the life cycle of the insects fed on the waste materials and may cause a health risk to humans consuming the insects. Pesticide residues in larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, were investigated. We monitored the accumulation of pesticides in the larvae upon consumption of contaminated fresh produce. An increased uptake rate by the insects was found for pesticides with higher Kow-values. Excretion of pesticides by the insect was inversely related to the log(Kow) values of the pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. tmBioC: improving interoperability of text-mining tools with BioC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ritu; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Mao, Yuqing; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The lack of interoperability among biomedical text-mining tools is a major bottleneck in creating more complex applications. Despite the availability of numerous methods and techniques for various text-mining tasks, combining different tools requires substantial efforts and time owing to heterogeneity and variety in data formats. In response, BioC is a recent proposal that offers a minimalistic approach to tool interoperability by stipulating minimal changes to existing tools and applications. BioC is a family of XML formats that define how to present text documents and annotations, and also provides easy-to-use functions to read/write documents in the BioC format. In this study, we introduce our text-mining toolkit, which is designed to perform several challenging and significant tasks in the biomedical domain, and repackage the toolkit into BioC to enhance its interoperability. Our toolkit consists of six state-of-the-art tools for named-entity recognition, normalization and annotation (PubTator) of genes (GenNorm), diseases (DNorm), mutations (tmVar), species (SR4GN) and chemicals (tmChem). Although developed within the same group, each tool is designed to process input articles and output annotations in a different format. We modify these tools and enable them to read/write data in the proposed BioC format. We find that, using the BioC family of formats and functions, only minimal changes were required to build the newer versions of the tools. The resulting BioC wrapped toolkit, which we have named tmBioC, consists of our tools in BioC, an annotated full-text corpus in BioC, and a format detection and conversion tool. Furthermore, through participation in the 2013 BioCreative IV Interoperability Track, we empirically demonstrate that the tools in tmBioC can be more efficiently integrated with each other as well as with external tools: Our experimental results show that using BioC reduces >60% in lines of code for text-mining tool integration. The tmBioC toolkit

  16. The problem of bio-concepts: biopolitics, bio-economy and the political economy of nothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Kean

    2017-12-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies—and no doubt other fields—have increasingly drawn on Michel Foucault's concept of biopolitics to theorize a variety of new `bio-concepts'. While there might be some theoretical value in such exercises, many of these bio-concepts have simply replaced more rigorous—and therefore time-consuming—analytical work. This article provides a (sympathetic) critique of these various bio-concepts, especially as they are applied to the emerging `bio-economy'. In so doing, the article seeks to show that the analysis of the bio-economy could be better framed as a political economy of nothing. This has several implications for science education, which are raised in the article.

  17. The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed......: selling pesticides only to farmers bearing identity cards or customers bearing pesticide 'prescriptions'. Vendors reported refusing to sell pesticides to people thought to be at risk of self-poisoning, but acknowledged the difficulty of distinguishing them from legitimate customers; vendors also stated...

  18. Pesticides and pesticide degradation products in stormwater runoff: Sacramento River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.

    1996-01-01

    Pesticides in stormwater runoff, within the Sacramento River Basin, California, were assessed during a storm that occurred in January 1994. Two organophosphate insecticides (diazinon and methidathion), two carbamate pesticides (molinate and carbofuran), and one triazine herbicide (simazine) were detected. Organophosphate pesticide concentrations increased with the rising stage of the hydrographs; peak concentrations were measured near peak discharge. Diazinon oxon, a toxic degradation product of diazinon, made up approximately 1 to 3 percent of the diazinon load. The Feather River was the principal source of organophosphate pesticides to the Sacramento River during this storm. The concentrations of molinate and carbofuran, pesticides applied to rice fields during May and June, were relatively constant during and after the storm. Their presence in surface water was attributed to the flooding and subsequent drainage, as a management practice to degrade rice stubble prior to the next planting. A photodegradation product of molinate, 4-keto molinate, was in all samples where molinate was detected and made up approximately 50 percent of the total molinate load. Simazine, a herbicide used in orchards and to control weeds along the roadways, was detected in the storm runoff, but it was not possible to differentiate the two sources of that pesticide to the Sacramento River.

  19. Degradation of pesticides in biobeds: the effect of concentration and pesticide mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Paul; Boxall, Alistair B A; Walker, Allan

    2003-08-27

    Biobeds aim to create an environment whereby any pesticide spills are retained and then degraded, thus reducing the potential for surface or groundwater contamination. Biobeds may receive high concentrations of relatively complex mixtures of pesticides. The effects of concentration and pesticide interaction on degradation rate were therefore investigated. At concentrations up to 20 times the maximum recommended application rate for isoproturon and chlorothalonil, the rate of degradation in topsoil and biomix decreased with increasing concentration. With the exception of isoproturon at concentrations above 11 mg kg(-1), degradation was quicker in biomix (a composted mixture of topsoil, compost, and wheat straw) than in topsoil. One possible explanation for faster isoproturon degradation in topsoil as compared to biomix may be that previous treatments of isoproturon applied to the field soil as part of normal agricultural practices had resulted in proliferation of microbial communities specifically adapted to use isoproturon as an energy source. Such microbial adaptation could enhance the performance of a biobed. Studies with a mixture of isoproturon and chlorothalonil showed that interactions between pesticides are possible. In biomix, the degradation of either isoproturon or chlorothalonil was unaffected by the presence of the other pesticide, whereas in topsoil, isoproturon DT(50) values increased from 18.5 to 71.5 days in the presence of chlorothalonil. These studies suggest that biobeds appear capable of treating high concentrations of more than one pesticide.

  20. [The reporting system of acute pesticides poisoning and general situation of pesticides poisoning in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-yang; Wang, Hong-fei; Yin, Yu

    2005-10-01

    To introduce the reporting system of acute pesticides poisoning and analyze epidemiologic characteristics of pesticides poisoning from reported cases in China. Case reports in the data base of reporting system for occupational diseases were computed by Excel for windows and statistical significance by SAS 6.12. A total of 108 372 cases were reported from 1997 to 2003. Among them, the incidence of occupational poisoning, and non-occupational poisoning accounted for 25.39%, and 74.61% respectively. The fatality rate was 6.86%. The average age was 36.83 years for all pesticides poisoning patients, and 15-59 years old patients accounted for 84.11%. Among 0-14 years old non-occupational poisoning patients, 0-4 years children accounted for 33.51%. Male patients were in the majority in occupational pesticides poisoning, female in non-occupational. Insecticides especially organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos, parathion, and omethoate comprised a higher proportion, accounting for 86.02% of the pesticides poisoning. More attention should be paid to pesticides poisoning by the government and medical workers engaged in public health.

  1. A pesticide runoff model for simulating runoff losses of pesticides from agricultural lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y R; Huang, G H; Li, Y F; Struger, J; Fischer, J D

    2003-01-01

    An integrated modeling system was developed to predict runoff losses of pesticides from agricultural lands. The system is an integration of a mathematical model, a database system, and a geographic information system. Information on soil type, land use, land slope, watershed boundaries, precipitation, pesticide usage, as well as physical and chemical properties of pesticides have been input to a GIS, managed through a database, and used for further modeling studies. The modeling outputs were in turn put into the database, such that runoff patterns along with pesticides losses could be further simulated by using a database management system. The final results could then be visualized through GIS. The developed modeling system was applied to the Kintore Creek Watershed, Ontario, Canada, for simulating losses of atrazine from agricultural lands. A water quality monitoring project was carried out from 1988 to 1992 in the watershed to detect conditions of surface water pollution due to the use of pesticides. The modeling outputs were verified through the monitoring data, demonstrating reasonable prediction accuracy. The result indicated that the model provides an effective means for forecasting pesticide runoff from agriculture lands.

  2. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s...

  3. 77 FR 12207 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... drinking water models used in pesticide exposure assessment can be found at http://www.epa.gov/oppefed1... drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. Section 408(b)(2)(C... the prerequisite for subsequent hyperplasia and neoplasia. In other words, urinary bladder tumors do...

  4. A greenhouse without pesticides : fact or fantasy ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Crop protection in European greenhouses became strongly chemically oriented shortly after the Second World War in the 1950s. But an excellent climate for fast reproduction of pests and diseases demanded high spray frequencies and, thus, resulted in quick development of resistance against pesticides.

  5. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C. L.; Mori, M. N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M. H. O.

    2007-11-01

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry—GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

  6. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01


    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect

  7. 75 FR 17579 - Aminopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; and corn, field, stover. Dow AgroSciences requested... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...

  8. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  9. 75 FR 75389 - Metrafenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer.... FQPA SF = Food Quality Protection Act Safety Factor. LOC = level of concern. C. Exposure Assessment 1... the choice of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. There is no evidence of...

  10. 75 FR 17566 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... issues arising from pesticide application to rice paddies, EPA used the FARM rather than GENEEC or PRZM... adequate enforcement methodology, (Method AU/95R/04), a common moiety Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry... flutolanil. The commenter criticized EPA's reliance on toxicology testing on animals. The Agency has received...

  11. 77 FR 25904 - Acequinocyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... tasks associated with the use of acequinocyl including mixing and loading (if needed), and application... 870.6200) for pesticide registration. The toxicology database for acequinocyl does not show any... Morse Methods (Meth-135 and Meth-133, revision 3), two high-performance liquid chromatography methods...

  12. 75 FR 60327 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... screening level estimates. Estimates are thought to be conservative, even when measures of central tendency... ``there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is...

  13. 76 FR 38036 - Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This regulation amends the propylene oxide tolerance on ``nut, tree, group...), announcing the Agency's proposal to amend the propylene oxide tolerance (40 CFR 180.491) on ``nut, tree...

  14. Minimum Risk Pesticide: Definition and Product Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimum risk pesticides pose little to no risk to human health or the environment and therefore are not subject to regulation under FIFRA. EPA does not do any pre-market review for such products or labels, but violative products are subject to enforcement.

  15. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, C.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

  16. Occurrence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Chicken eggs are important sources of nutrients to the human body. ... agricultural sources. A study by Mahugija et al. (2017) found high levels of pesticide residues in maize grains, which are among the sources of poultry feeds in Tanzania. This suggested ... through boiling the eggs with distilled water for 15 minutes, and ...

  17. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... Objectives: The present study reports the concentration levels and distribution patterns of the organochlorine pesticide and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues in the surface sediments of the Grand-Lahou lagoon. (Côte d'Ivoire). Methodology and Results: Sediment samples were collected during ...

  18. Pesticide mitigation capacities of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew T. Moore; Charles M. Cooper; Sammie Smith; John H. Rodgers

    2000-01-01

    This research focused on using constructed wetlands along field perimeters to buffer receiving water against potential effects of pesticides associated with storm runoff. The current study incorporated wetland mesocosm sampling following simulated runoff events using chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and metolachlor. Through this data collection and simple model analysis,...

  19. Pesticides released from burning treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; H.B. Clements; P.B. Bush; D.G. Neary; J.W. Taylor

    1985-01-01

    Abstract. Demands for firewood are high and rising, and pesticide-treated trees are often an obvious source. Wood treated with five herbicides (2,4-D, picloram, hexazinone, dicamba, and dichloroprop) and two insecticides (lindane and chlorpyrifos) were burned under controlled combustion conditions in a horizontal tube furnace to simulate the wide...

  20. 76 FR 61592 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... and body weight gain in females; increased incidences of hepatocellular hypertrophy, pigment in...

  1. 78 FR 76987 - Mandipropamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... determine whether this document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... transferase, as well as periportal hypertrophy in rats; increased liver enzymes, increased pigment in...

  2. Personal Insect Repellents and Minimum Risk Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    An exempt pesticide product may not bear claims to control rodent, insect or microbial pests in a way that links the pests with specific disease. We are considering a proposal to remove personal mosquito and tick repellents from the minimum risk exemption.

  3. Screening of pesticides for environmental partitioning tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Di Guardo, Antonio

    2002-06-01

    The partitioning tendency of chemicals, in this study pesticides in particular, into different environmental compartments depends mainly on the concurrent relevance of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical itself. To rank the pesticides according to their distribution tendencies in the different environmental compartments we propose a multivariate approach: the combination, by principal component analysis, of those physico-chemical properties like organic carbon partition coefficient (Koc), n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), water solubility (Sw), vapour pressure and Henry's law constant (H) that are more relevant to the determination of environmental partitioning. The resultant macrovariables, the PC1 and PC2 scores here named leaching index (LIN) and volatality index (VIN), are proposed as preliminary environmental partitioning indexes in different media. These two indexes are modeled by theoretical molecular descriptors with satisfactory predictive power. Such an approach allows a rapid pre-determination and screening of the environmental distribution of pesticides starting only from the molecular structure of the pesticide, without any a priori knowledge of the physico-chemical properties.

  4. 77 FR 27130 - Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only... the USA, Australia, and Canada and import tolerance establishment in the European Union (EU) for... Pesticide Management Regulatory Agency of Canada (PMRA), and the EU. Although much effort was made to...

  5. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  6. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  7. Environmental variables, pesticide pollution and meiofaunal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the much smaller catchment of the Rooiels Estuary, many environmental variables were significantly different (p< 0.001) from the variables in the Lourens Estuary, e.g. salinity, temperature, pH, total suspended solids, nitrate and depth. No pesticide concentrations were expected in the Rooiels Estuary due

  8. 75 FR 29441 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... findings: i. The toxicity database for novaluron is complete except for immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Guideline 870.7800) required for pesticide... target the immune system and the Agency does not believe that conducting a functional immunotoxicity...

  9. 75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... for trifloxystrobin is complete except for neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40 CFR part 158 make neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity testing required for pesticide registration... immunotoxicity studies are needed to complete the database, there are no concerns for immunotoxicity or...

  10. 75 FR 29908 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... for prothioconazole is considered complete, with the exception of required functional immunotoxicity testing. The Agency began requiring functional immunotoxicity testing of all food and non-food use pesticides on December 26, 2007. Although an immunotoxicity study in the mouse is part of the existing...

  11. 75 FR 69005 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... complete except for immunotoxicity, acute neurotoxicity, and sub-chronic neurotoxicity testing. Recent...), and immunotoxicity testing (OPPTS Test Guideline 870.7800) required for pesticide registration... effects are not considered to be the result of potential immunotoxicity. Thus, EPA has concluded that...

  12. 78 FR 40017 - Ethalfluralin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... immunotoxicity testing and acute and subchronic neurotoxicity testing for pesticide registration. In 2012, EPA..., the immunotoxicity study remains a data requirement at this time. Although an immunotoxicity study has... immunotoxicity in the toxicology database; it does not appear that ethalfluralin directly targets the immune...

  13. Relationship between environmental exposure to pesticides and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intake of phyto-oestrogens, which are endocrine disruptors, or the use of endocrine-disrupting pesticides at home, could have confounded the results. Most participating boys were exposed to these substances and the bivariate association with health outcomes was not strong enough for inclusion in multivariate modelling.

  14. 78 FR 78738 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure... risk from residues of pendimethalin on almond hulls, which are an animal feed item. Based on that...

  15. 78 FR 20461 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... U.S.C. 346a(d)(3), announcing the filing of a pesticide petition (PP 2E7982) by IR-4, 500 College... derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed based on a careful analysis of the... (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the Agency assumes that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree...

  16. 78 FR 19130 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... pesticide petitions ((PP) 1E7923 and 2F8008) by IR-4, IR-4 Headquarters, 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W... toxicological POD is used as the basis for derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are... amount of exposure will lead to some degree of risk. Thus, the Agency estimates risk in terms of the...

  17. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought.

  18. 75 FR 5522 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... decreased cholesterol, triglycerides), and spleen effects (atrophy, decreased spleen cell count, and... the metabolism studies to create a tolerance-equivalent value for the parent spiromesifen and the BSN... solubility of 40 to 50 [micro]g/L. The pesticide degrades primarily through aerobic soil metabolism and...

  19. Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides.

  20. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulia, Danae S., E-mail: ntoulia@mail.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Anagnos, Efstathios K. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Liapis, Konstantinos S. [Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 7 Ekalis Str., Kiphissia, Athens GR-14561 (Greece); Klimentzos, Demetrios A. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.